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Alfred Stern

Alfred Stern


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Alfred Stern was born into a wealthy family on 29th November, 1897, in Fargo, North Dakota. His father was a successful banker. Stern was educated at Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard University. After leaving university he went into the banking.

According to John Lewis Carver: "He added to the family fortune through investments in real estate, public housing becoming his philanthropic hobby. Stern’s business interests had an enormous range, as had his philanthropies. The former extended from housing developments in Chicago via the General American Tank Corporation to Modern Age Books, Inc., a left-wing publishing firm; while the latter ranged from the Citizens’ Housing and Planning Council to the Institute of Psychoanalysis."

In 1921 Stern married Marion Rosenwald, daughter of one of the richest men in America, Julius Rosenwald. They had two children, but the marriage ended in divorce. Stern retired from business and as a supporter of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal became chairman of the Illinois Housing Commission. Carver points out: "He was dabbling in practical politics, too and, although he was a registered Democrat, he gradually drifted to the outskirts of American Communism. It was a strange sideline for a businessman with a lavish country estate in Lewisboro, New York, a big town house in New York City, offices in Rockefeller Center — and literally millions in the bank."

Stern eventually started a relationship with Martha Dodd. She was the daughter of the historian and diplomat, William Edward Dodd. Martha held left-wing views and she encouraged him to donate large sums of money to the American Communist Party. Dodd was also an Soviet agent. She had been recruited while she was living in Berlin, with her father, the American ambassador. A NKVD report stated: "Martha Dodd... checks Ambassador Dodd's reports to Roosevelt in the archive and communicates to us short summaries of the contents, whose numbers we gave to her. She continues providing us with materials from the American Embassy, trying mainly to get data about Germany, Japan, and Poland." Her controller reported giving her "200 American dollars, 10 rubles, and gifts bought for 500 rubles."

Dodd's controller, Iskhak Akhmerov, reported that Martha Dodd had started a relationship with Stern while involved with another Soviet agent, Boris Vinogradov. "At present she has a fiance.... If Vinogradov reiterates his promise she will wait for him and reject the other man. Her fiance is Alfred Stern, 40 years old, Jew, a man with an independent material status who stayed in Germany a couple of years ago and helped the Communist Party financially.... She doesn't think her marriage would prevent her from working with us, though she doesn't understand completely what she should do."

Alfred Stern married Martha Dodd on 16th June, 1938. She wrote to Boris Vinogradov with the news: "You haven't had time yet to know that I really got married. On June 16, I married an American whom I love very much. I wanted to tell you a lot, but I will wait until our meeting. We are supposed to be in the USSR in late August or early September this year. I hope you'll be there or will let me know where I can meet you. You know, honey, that for me, you meant more in my life than anybody else. You also know that, if I am needed, I will be ready to come when called. Let me know your plan if you get another post. I look into the future and see you in Russia again. Your Martha." Dodd was unaware that Vinogradov had already been arrested and executed as a "traitor to the motherland".

Iskhak Akhmerov reported on 1st December, 1938: "Since Liza (Martha Dodd) became the wife of a millionaire, her everyday life has changed considerably. She lives in a rich apartment on 57th Street, has two servants, a driver, and a personal secretary. She is very keen on her plan to go to Moscow as the wife of the American Ambassador." He pointed out that Stein was willing to contribute $50,000 to the Democratic Party in order to get the post but he considered "his chances are still very weak."

Martha Dodd suggested that her husband should be recruited as a Soviet agent. "In regard to my husband I think it would be a great mistake if he were not obtained for our work". In December 1941, Vassily Zarubin arranged for Stein and Boris Morros to form a music publishing house in the United States. Stern agreed to invest $130,000 in the venture and Boris Morros agreed to put $62,000 in the Boris Morros Music Company. According to Allen Weinstein, the author of The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999): "Using funds provided by the NKGB, Morros would establish a music publishing house in the United States - a business that could also serve as a cover for Soviet illegals... Soviet intelligence's adventure in the American commercial music industry was launched at a September 1944 meeting of Morros and Stern brokered by Zarubin.

The NKVD ordered Martha Dodd to use her influence with important figures such as Eleanor Roosevelt. One report of Martha Dodd claimed: "A gifted, clever and educated woman, she requires constant control over her behavior.... Let (Dodd) move in the circles interesting to us rather than in circles close to the Trust... It is necessary to continue activating her activities as a successful journalist. She should also be guided to approach and deepen her relationship with the President's wife, Eleanor, through different social organizations, committees, and societies. Here, the special interest of the Roosevelts in China and everything connected with it must be used. Dodd can play on this factor. Let her approach Eleanor through the committee on help to China."

Another agent was rather disapproving of Dodd's behaviour: "She considers herself a Communist and claims to accept the party's program. In reality, Liza is a typical representative of American bohemia, a sexually decayed woman ready to sleep with any handsome man." Zalmond Franklin asked her to control her sexual behaviour. Martha replied: "Why? What's wrong with it?" Franklin explained: "It may be demoralizing. The work may suffer. Relations suffer because they become too intimate. Lovers chatter too much, especially in bed."

Franklin went on to say: "Bluntly but frankly, I asked Martha if her sexual relations with her husband were satisfactory. She, of course, asked why. I explained that I was interested because she had twice remarked that she would divorce her husband if she stood in... the way of his political development. I suggested that one does not talk of divorce quite so casually unless one wanted a divorce. Martha explained: She loved her husband very much. Their relationship was quite satisfactory in every way. She loved him, not the wild love she felt for Boris Vinogradov, but still a satisfactory love. Having once started, Martha, as in the past, talked quite freely... Martha's life in Berlin can be summed up in one word - sleep. Seemingly, she spent most of her time in bed. In addition to the Russian or Russians, she had slept with a full-blown fascist-General Ernest Udet, second in command (after Goering) of the German air force; Louis Ferdinand, grandson of the Kaiser; and some guy at the French Embassy in Berlin. (A real internationalist!)"

Allen Weinstein, the author of The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999), has pointed out that Dodd was not a very important spy during the Second World War. "Beyond Martha Dodd's occasional help as a spotter, identifying potential agents from among her circles of radical friends, and Alfred Stern's cheerful willingness to invest and lose personal funds in an NKCB cover business, Moscow now found little of value in Stern (known as "the Red millionaire") and his socially active spouse." Dodd did publish My Years in Germany (1939) which "focused mainly on Germany but was also filled with euphoric commentary on the Soviet Union, observations made during her trip around the country with Boris Vinogradov (though discreetly omitting any mention of him)."

In 1944 Jack Soble became Stern's new NKVD handler. It was suggested that Soble should be a co-owner of Boris Morros Music Company but the idea was rejected as he was still a Soviet citizen. Soble complained about Boris Morros: "Boris, having fallen for music, almost forgot about the main idea, i.e., that... music is only a means of fulfilling our central goal, that is penetration by providing cover identities to Soviet operatives into a number of countries neighboring the U.S. Publishing music would require an insignificant financial investment, and we could open branches wherever we need."

Soble reported to Moscow on 18th August 1947: "One has to be an iron man to tolerate Alfred Stern in a commercial affair, especially in America, where risk, broad scope, and timeliness are the basic elements in any commercial enterprise.... But certainly, Boris Morros is a talented, energetic, and enterprising man. Undoubtedly, he can keep a secret and wants and is ready to do business with us. But his problem is... living in a Hollywood environment in conditions of luxury and abundance... He is an honest man and obeys our decisions."

The FBI became suspicious of Boris Morros and in 1947 he was arrested. He agreed to become a double agent and provided information on the Soviet spy network. Jack Soble was eventually arrested and convicted on espionage charges and sentenced to seven years in prison. Fearing that they will be called before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) Stern and Dodd fled to Mexico City where they joined several left-wing activists, including Ian McLellan Hunter, Ring Lardner Jr., Dalton Trumbo, Hugo Butler, Jean Rouverol and Albert Maltz. On Saturday mornings this group and their children used to have picnic lunches and play baseball together. The FBI were spying on them in Mexico and according to declassified reports, the agents believed that these picnics were cover for "Communist meetings."

Julian Zimet was another left-wing writer who moved to Mexico: "In the early fifties the refugees in Mexico were Americans. Schoolteachers, doctors, writers, journalists, businessmen, college professors, and government employees dismissed for political reasons, and Communist Party members and functionaries, were members of the community that I was about to join. Some of them were well-known, such as Frederick Vanderbilt Field, who went to prison in 1951 for refusing to reveal to a federal judge the names of contributors to a bail fund for eleven Communist leaders convicted under the Smith Act, and Martha Dodd, daughter of Ambassador William E. Dodd, Roosevelt's man in Berlin from 1933 through 1937. The Hollywood contingent included Albert Maltz, Dalton Trumbo, Gordon Kahn, Hugo and Jean Butler, and John Bright, a group whose screen writing credits covered many of the best and most important films that came out of Hollywood both before and after the blacklist."

In July 1956 Stern and Martha Dodd moved to Prague. They tried to gain entry into the Soviet Union but this was initially refused. However, On 12th August 1957, Boris Morros appeared before the House of Un-American Activities Committee and named Stern and Dodd as being members of a Soviet spy ring in the United States. As Allen Weinstein, the author of The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) has pointed out: "Within days, on August 28, the KGB recommended to the Central Committee of the Communist Party that Martha and Alfred Stern be allowed to settle in the USSR. The Sterns arrived in Moscow the following month, at the same time an American court found them guilty in absentia of espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union."

Stern and Dodd were refused permission to meet with Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean, the British agents who had fled for sanctuary to Moscow years earlier. Unhappy in the Soviet Union the couple returned to Czechoslovakia in January 1958 where Stern worked in the export-import field and Dodd edited English-language books.

In February, 1958, John Lewis Carver published an article, The Spy Queen was a Nympho, in Top Secret Magazine. Carver highlights the spying career of Stern and Dodd based on the testimony of Boris Morros: "By the time Morros pointed the accusing finger at the woman who betrayed him, Miss Dodd and her tycoon husband were safely beyond the reach of the FBI. They had a timely warning! Last January, the Bureau arrested one of Morros’ associates, a bristle salesman named Jack Soble, and unmasked him as second-in-command in the Morros ring. With Soble’s arrest, the ring was compromised and Morros’ double-edged association with it had to be revealed. That was the last-minute tip-off for Miss Dodd and her husband. They quickly picked up a few hundred thousand random dollars of the Stern millions and took a run-out powder, on the eve of their scheduled appearance before a grand jury. They first crossed the unguarded border to Mexico, then sneaked surreptitiously to safety behind the Iron Curtain."

In 1963 the couple moved to Cuba but returned to Czechoslovakia seven years later. Allen Weinstein, the author of The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) has argued: "Apparently, even Havana, the newest of New Jerusalems for a couple perpetually suffused with Communist idealism, did not measure up to their hopes. During the 1970s, monitored by the KGB, American lawyers for Martha and Alfred began negotiating with the FBI for their return to America with out prosecution or imprisonment for espionage." The KGB did not object to their departure, according to a 14th October, 1975, memo: "Data that the Sterns have about the activities of Soviet intelligence are obsolete and mainly known to the adversary from the traitor (Boris Morros's) testimonies." However, the negotiations proved unsuccessful.

Alfred Stern died in Prague in June, 1986.

Boris, dear! Finally I got your letter. You work in the press office, don't you? Are you happy? Did you find a girl you can love instead of me?

Did you hear that my mother died in late May totally unexpectedly? You can imagine how tragic it was for me. Surely, you know better than anybody else how we loved each other and how close we were in everything.

The three of us spent time together perfectly, and I remember how sweet she was to both of us when you were in Berlin.

Mother knew very well how deep our love was and understood all the meaning that you had and will have in my life. She knew that I loved nobody before and thought that I would never love again but hoped that I would be happy anyway.

You haven't had time yet to know that I really got married. I hope you'll be there or will let me know where I can meet you.

You know, honey, that for me, you meant more in my life than anybody else. You also know that, if I am needed, I will be ready to come when called.

Let me know your plan if you get another post. Your Martha.'-"

Bluntly but frankly, I asked Martha if her sexual relations with her husband were satisfactory. She, of course, asked "Why"... She loved him, not the wild love she felt for Boris Vinogradov, but still a satisfactory love.

Having once started, Martha, as in the past, talked quite freely... Martha's life in Berlin can be summed up in one word-"sleep." Seemingly, she spent most of her time in bed. (A real internationalist!)"

Since Martha and Alfred had already received several subpoenas to testify in cases involving alleged espionage then underway in the United States, the couple was in no position to resume active work as agents. At a June 18, 1956, meeting, the Sterns told "Ostap," the Mexico City KGB station chief, that they wanted to live in the Soviet Union but, if that was not possible, in Czechoslovakia, China, or the German Democratic Republic. They claimed to have a million dollars in a Mexican bank that they were transferring to Switzerland. (Their lawyer, Paul O'Dwyer, had informed them that Jack Soble, a government witness and former Soviet agent, had told the FBI about the publishing firm Stern had developed with Boris Morros to assist Soviet "illegals." On July 20, 1956, naturalized with Paraguayan citizenship
and passports in exchange for a $10,000 bribe to an Paraguayan Embassy official in Mexico (the American government having canceled their U.S. passports), the couple left for Amsterdam. There, a Czech official met them and handed over airline tickets to Prague.

The Sterns learned in 1957 that they had been fined in the U.S. courts for refusing to testify before a congressional investigating committee, which had heard their old colleague and friend Boris Morros state flatly that Martha and Alfred were Soviet agents. They tried one final time to gain Soviet citizenship, offering their Mexican home and several paintings to the USSR. The Soviets, however, preferred that the Sterns remain in Czechoslovakia, though the KGB did dispatch a Colonel Korneev to Prague to discuss their application for Soviet citizenship, which was turned down.

There the matter remained until August 12, 1957, when Boris Morros, the Sterns' vocal nemesis, testified that he had served for the past twelve years as a double agent under FBI as well as Soviet instruction. Within days, on August 28, the KGB recommended to the Central Committee of the Communist Party that Martha and Alfred Stern be allowed to settle in the USSR. The Sterns arrived in Moscow the following month, at the same time an American court found them guilty in absentia of espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union.

Some weeks later SISS was vying with HUAC for names available from the show-business eccentric Boris Morros, who helped identify spies for a generously headlined melodrama. One of these, described as a Russian colonel, was named by a Finnish accomplice who testified, inter alia, that he (the accomplice) was a thief, a bigamist, a drunkard and a liar. The Russians had given him $5,000 to give to Sobell's wife, he said, but as he was unable to locate her he had buried it, then dug it up and spent it. The colonel was convicted and the Finn's testimony opportunely coincided with Sobell's latest plea for a new trial. The colonel, the Finn, and Morros all lived up to the established image of the kind of people Moscow employed as agents.

Morros introduced himself to spy aficionados as a piano and cello prodigy who had conducted the Tsar's imperial orchestra at 16 and, at 22, come to America as musical director of Balieff's Chauve-Souris for which he composed The Parade of the Wooden Soldiers. On a return visit to the old country in 1945, the Russians had asked him to spy for them and he had reported this to Hoover; in 1950 Hoover had sent him back as a counterspy and a Russian secret-police general had "wined and dined me for ten hours straight." The Roman-candle headlines for Morros flickered out after Balieff's widow said he had neither been Chauve-Souris's musical director nor composed the Wooden Soldiers. He confessed to the media that he was broke but had "signed up all the Nobel Prize winners in Europe" for TV and had "fabulous offers." His best spy names were wealthy Alfred Stern, a notorious angel for heretical causes now living in Mexico, and his wife, novelist Martha Dodd. Fined $25,000 each for contempt in absentia, the Sterns passed out of reach in the first plane leaving for Prague. They saw no chance of living in peace anywhere in the free world, but were only able to leave it by hastily acquiring Paraguayan passports.

I arrived in Mexico City in a yellow Ford convertible on October 12, 1951, having driven from New York and made leisurely stops to visit friends in Washington, Nashville, and Louisiana. The anti-Communist crusade was gathering momentum in the United States, and I was anxious to avoid being summoned to appear before the House Un-American Activities Committee and risk going to prison, along with the Hollywood Ten. Of the Ten - who had already served prison sentences for "contempt of Congress," punishment for refusing to name the people with whom they had been associated in political activity-several had moved to Mexico, along with others escaping persecution for their political activities.

In those years and earlier, Mexico was a place of refuge for political exiles. Refugees from Franco, Hitler, and Stalin were welcomed, and many stayed on after it became possible for them to return to Europe. Trotsky had made his home in San Angel, a suburb of Mexico City, and had directed a worldwide anti-Stalin campaign from there until his death at the hands of an assassin in 1940.

In the early fifties the refugees in Mexico were Americans. The Hollywood contingent included Albert Maltz, Dalton Trumbo, Gordon Kahn, Hugo and Jean Butler, and John Bright, a group whose screen writing credits covered many of the best and most important films that came out of Hollywood both before and after the blacklist.

By the time Morros pointed the accusing finger at the woman who betrayed him, Miss Dodd and her tycoon husband were safely beyond the reach of the FBI. With Soble’s arrest, the ring was compromised and Morros’ double-edged association with it had to be revealed.

That was the last-minute tip-off for Miss Dodd and her husband. They first crossed the unguarded border to Mexico, then sneaked surreptitiously to safety behind the Iron Curtain....

The disclosure of Martha Dodd’s crime comes as a shock, but not as a surprise, to her intimates. She was long known as a diehard partisan of the Soviet Union. She was a member of a dozen Communist front organizations and a celebrity among American subversives, widely known as eloquent propagandist of the “cause.”

But it was not known that Martha was a producing spy, a busy bee in the Soviet espionage network. There was this fateful gap in our knowledge of Miss Dodd’s interesting biography. Top Secret Magazine can now fill this authentic and exclusive story of Martha Dodd’s insidious double-life.

It is possible, on the basis of the Martha Dodd file in the possession of Top Secret Magazine, even to pinpoint the origin of her treachery, which came about in the strangest of ways.

A native Virginian, Martha lived in Chicago where her father, Dr. Dodd, was a senior history professor at the University, specializing in George Washington and Woodrow Wilson. In her parents’ house, she was brought up in the liberal tradition of her father’s historic idols and on the Bible which Professor Dodd used to read each day at the dinner table.

Martha was a vivacious, flirtatious, fair-skinned sexy girl, far more interested in amorous escapades than in those serious matters. But she, too, had her serious side. She wrote short stories and poetry, and made up her mind to become a writer.

As a typical flapper of the Roaring Twenties, she was somewhat naive in her politics but that did not prevent her from taking sides. Unlike her democratic father, Martha flirted with the fashionable totalitarian ideas of those days, had at least an interest in Fascism and Nazism, and a touch of anti-Semitism. When after her graduation from the University of Chicago, it was time for her to go to work, she accepted a job with the right-wing bitterly anti-Roosevelt, Chicago Tribune as associate literary editor.

It was while working for that conservative newspaper, the most powerful mouthpiece of isolationism in the States, that she suddenly contracted the Bolshevik germ.

She was given a book to review and it turned out to be a violently pro-Soviet work by Ella Winter, a noted fellow-traveller and ex-wife of Lincoln Steffens. It was called, Red Virtue.

Nazism meant good-looking, tall, blond men to her and she liked what she saw. She was painting the Nazi capital red, but in a social way. She went out on the town every night, flirting, drinking and dancing, mostly with young men who happened to be Nazis She gained a dual reputation. Insiders described her as a nymphomaniac in her sex life and a Nazi sympathizer in her politics.

This reputation gained confirmation when she started an affair with a sinisterly handsome Nazi official, Rolf Diels by name. He was then chief of the Nazi secret service. His curriculum included spying on Martha’s own father and the American Embassy in Berlin.

It was from Diels that Miss Dodd first learned the intricate science and art of totalitarian espionage, the manner in which agents are planted on suspects, telephones tapped, correspondence rifled. Recalling her affair with Diels, Martha later said: “I was intrigued and fascinated by this human monster of sensitive” face and cruel, broken beauty. We went out quite a lot, dancing and driving. I went to his office once and saw dictaphones on the desk in an unpretentious, large and somewhat bare room. He gave me the first indication of how spying was done.”

She added: “There began to appear before my romantic eyes a vast and complicated network of espionage from which no one, official or private, could escape.”

In her yen for adventure, and in her naivety, Miss Dodd overlooked Diel’s true purpose in courting her. The American Embassy was a high priority target on the Nazi espionage list. Rolf Diels made love to the Ambassador’s pretty, petite, vivacious daughter in the hope that he could gain information; his purpose was to turn Martha Dodd into a Nazi spy - and he almost succeeded Then, unexpectedly, something happened that soured Martha on the whole Nazi shebang. Her friend Rolf Diels was unceremoniously sacked overnight and had to flee Nazi Germany. If she had ever flirted with the idea of doing Diels’ bidding, she no longer wanted to accommodate the Nazis, now that her mentor and lover was in disgrace.

In the meantime, others tried to cuddle up to Martha, in both a political and an amorous sense. The place of Diels in her heart was taken by a tall, blond, good-looking young Reichswehr officer who turned out to be the exact political opposite of Rolf - a violent anti-Nazi. It soon became known to Martha that her new friend was a secret Communist, actually doing yeoman duty for the Soviet secret service.

Again under the influence of a boy friend, the love-thirsty Miss Dodd revived her dormant interest in Russia and Communism. While previously she had frequented the gatherings of young pro-Nazi men and women, she now drifted into the clandestine circles of pro-Russian Germans. Before long, she had a contact inside the Soviet Embassy on Unter den Linden - the Russian Ambassador, Jacob Surich himself.

Comrade Surich urged her to visit the Soviet Union. Martha Dodd was started off on her fateful journey, with treason lurking at the end of her road.

In July 1934, Miss Dodd was ready for the trip which she undertook over her ambassador-father’s violent objections. By then, in Moscow, she was put down as a promising espionage candidate, so naturally she was given the appropriate reception. She travelled as an ordinary tourist, but that was not how the Russians regarded her. Instead of assigning to Miss Dodd a bona fide Intourist guide, they planted on her brilliant young agent of the secret service, a comely woman who was as flirtations and vivacious as Martha herself. Her job was to size up Miss Dodd.

The trip lasted a couple of months and Miss Dodd was given the run of Russia. She could go where she pleased. But was always accompanied by her pretty and smart chaperone. This was the beginning of another love affair in Martha’s life - her love affair with the Soviet Union.

When she emerged, she was a full-fledged propagandist for the Communists, frankly saying in Berlin: “Russia is a genuine democracy in spirit and in plans,” and praising the Red Army as an organization that had none of the “arrogance of militarism.” Although she wasn’t yet working as an actual espionage operative, Martha Dodd was already firmly in the claws of the Soviet secret service.

She returned to the United States and plunged headlong into pro-Soviet activities. She joined one crypto-Communist organization after another. Among the subversive groups in which she held membership were the American Committee on Democracy and Intellectual Freedom; the American Committee for the Protection of Foreign Born; the American Council for a Democratic Greece; the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy; the International Labor Defense; the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee; the League of American Writers; the United American Spanish Aid Committee.

The word “democratic” recurred in the name of several organizations to which Martha Dodd belonged but, in fact, in the misleading language of the Bolsheviks, it stood for “Communist.” All of these groups were Moscow-sponsored, subversive organizations. Several were cover groups for Soviet espionage.

Martha also undertook miscellaneous activities on behalf of the Communist Party and the Young Communist League, and signed several manifestos defending Communist causes.

If she wasn’t yet a producing espionage agent, she was not too far from becoming one. She was already feeding invaluable information, that was gathered through her unsuspecting contacts, to various Communist middlemen and a certain amount of it even to Soviet spies working out of the Embassy.

All of the time, as she moved boldly on the lunatic fringe of Communism, she was slowly being sucked into the international Soviet conspiracy and its espionage branch inside the United States.

On her wanderings in the Red labyrinth, in 1937-38, Martha met a debonair North Dakotan who enthusiastically shared her ideas and aspirations. He was, aside from that, also struck by her pixyish pink beauty. He was a native of Fargo, a millionaire several times over, Alfred Kaufman Stern by name. It was love at first sight, a collision of sex and politics.

Born in 1897, a graduate of Exeter and Harvard, Alfred Stern inherited most of his money from his highly respected banker father in the Middlewest. He himself started out by following in his father’s footsteps and from Harvard went into the banking business in his home town. He added to the family fortune through investments in real estate, public housing becoming his philanthropic hobby.

Stern’s business interests had an enormous range, as had his philanthropies. The former extended from housing developments in Chicago via the General American Tank Corporation to Modern Age Books, Inc., a left-wing publishing firm; while the latter ranged from the Citizens’ Housing and Planning Council to the Institute of Psychoanalysis.

In 1921, he married one of America’s fabulous heiresses - Miss Marion Rosenwald, daughter of the owner of Sears Roebuck & Company of Chicago. They had two children, but the marriage failed to work out. After their divorce, Mrs. Stern married Dr. Max Ascoli, publisher of The Reporter magazine.

Early in the Thirties, when still a young man, Alfred Stern thought he had enough money for the rest of his life, retired from business, and decided to go into public service. He became chairman of the Illinois Housing Commission - but already he was far too radical for his New Deal friends.

He was dabbling in practical politics, too and, although he was a registered Democrat, he gradually drifted to the outskirts of American Communism. It was a strange sideline for a businessman with a lavish country estate in Lewisboro, New York, a big town house in New York City, offices in Rockefeller Center - and literally millions in the bank.

When Alfred Stern bumped into Martha Dodd, she was also on the rebound from a brief and unhappy first marriage. The two hit it off extremely well. On September 4, 1938, they married, thus embarking on a joint trip that was to lead them eventually behind the Iron Curtain.

Under Martha’s energetic influence, Alfred Stern sank ever deeper into the morass of Communism. He, too, joined those front organizations of which his pretty second wife was a charter member. His house became a breeding ground for Communist propaganda. He became treasurer of the notorious American Labor Party which was itself a front organization of the Soviet Union, headed by Congressman Marcantonio.

But while Alfred Stern confined his activities to such political skullduggeries, Martha Dodd became a spy. By early 1940, Soviet agents in the United States saw no reason to doubt her sincerity and loyalty to the cause. They no longer merely hinted at the work she could do for her beloved Russia. They invited her in so many words to perform certain important espionage functions for the U.S.S.R.

In 1940, several spymasters stationed in the Washington Embassy of the Soviets established direct contact with Martha Dodd Stern and met with her, strangely enough, in two sets of contradictory places. Once in a while they invited her into the inner sanctum of the Embassy; on other occasions they made arrangements for circumspect meetings, in out of the way restaurants and al fresco.

Much of her contact work was done at her husband’s estate in Lewisboro where Martha plotted and conspired against her native country with secret emissaries of the Soviet spy network - Soble, Morros, Zubilin, and others - until she herself became a top-ranking member of the ring.

She had plenty of material at her fingertips to supply, thanks to her husband’s immense wealth, her father’s prestige, and her own standing in society, especially her intimate friendship with powerful and influential people in Washington whose indiscretion is proverbial. She picked up whatever she could from them and relayed it to her couriers and go-betweens, until she came to be regarded inside that secret world as one of the most valuable agents the Soviet’ had in this country.

She even returned to the Soviet Union, allegedly on a harmless visit, but in fact to formalize her association with the Russian spy organizations. She no longer dealt with peripheral persons like the pretty secret agent posing as an Intourist guide. She now conducted her business on the top echelon of the Soviet secret service. Her zeal and sincerity was never doubted, and her ability to acquire important strategic information was admired.

The daughter of an American history professor and New Deal ambassador renounced her country in all but name. Today, both Martha Dodd and Alfred Stern enjoy the protection of a Soviet satellite government. The chances are they are feted by her Communist bosses who regard them as “American” friends they can really trust, not like Boris Morros, “the slick double-agent,” who worked against the Soviet Union despite the fact that he was born in Russia.

Retribution for Martha Dodd’s hideous crime may be far off. It may never even come. But already today, she is a woman without a country. Some years ago, she wrote: “Before 1933 my life was rooted in America, in her earth and cities, people and attitudes.”

Written some twenty years ago, these words assume a strange meaning today when that “prodigal and black child” of a celebrated American is scorched before God and country - as a traitor to her native land.

Upon her return from the Soviet Union the following year, when she attached herself body and soul to the aims of Communism, she described herself in a melancholy sentence. She painted a vivid picture of her reception by her parents, at the ramshackle old Silesian railroad station in Berlin, as she stepped from the train. She was a thoroughly changed woman even in appearance. She was wearing a colorful Caucasian cap and tried to look as much as she could like one of those drab, healthy Soviet women she had come to admire so much.

Alfred K. Stern, a former Illinois housing administrator who was charged in 1957 with spying for the Soviet Union, died of cancer today in his Prague exile, his wife said. He was 88 years old.

Mr. Stern and his wife, Martha Dodd Stern, left the United States in 1953 after being accused of subversive anti-American activities. They were indicted in absentia on espionage charges on Sept. 9, 1957.

The indictment charged them with conspiring to act as Soviet agents, receiving American military, commercial and industrial information and transmitting it to the Soviet Union.

The indictment charged that they used their house in Ridgefield, Conn., for meetings with Soviet agents. The charges were dropped 22 years later, in March 1979, when the Justice Department said witnesses considered essential to the case had died.

In testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1957, the two were named as members of a Soviet spy ring in the United States. The charge was made by Boris Morros, a Hollywood musician and producer, who said he was a United States agent in the Communist movement for 12 years.

After the couple moved to Prague, Mr. Stern said the charges were ''fantastic'' and ''extraordinary.'' Born in North Dakota

Mr. Stern was born Nov. 29, 1897, in Fargo, N.D., into a wealthy family. In 1938, he married Martha Dodd, daughter of William E. Dodd, a historian who was the United States Ambassador to Germany in the days before the start of World War II.

Mr. Stern served as chairman of the Illinois State Housing Commission and later as vice president of the National Association of Housing Officials and director and chairman of the Citizens Housing and Planning Council in New York. He also founded the Institute for Psychoanalysis in Chicago.

In the early 1950's, the Sterns became early and persistent targets of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and his anti-Communist investigations.

The Sterns went to Mexico in 1953, then visited Prague in 1957 and, after staying in the Soviet Union for about a year, settled in Prague in 1958.

In 1963, the Sterns went to Cuba and lived there until 1970 before returning to Prague.

In Prague, Mr. Stern worked as a consultant to the Construction Ministry, using his expertise in housing and construction technology.

He is survived by his wife and son, Robert D. Stern.

Alfred K. Stern, a multimillionaire businessman who was charged in 1957 with spying for the Soviet Union, died of cancer Monday in exile here, the Czechoslovak News Agency Ceteka reported. He was 88.

Stern and his wife, Martha Dodd Stern, daughter of the last U.S. ambassador to Berlin before World War II, left the United States in 1957 after being accused of subversive activities.

They had been accused before the House Committee on Un-American Activities of spying.

Their accuser was Boris Morros, a film producer and U.S. undercover agent, and the subsequent federal grand jury indictment charged them with conspiring to act as Soviet agents, receiving American military, commercial and industrial information and transmitting it to the Soviet Union.

They were alleged to have used their house at Ridgefield, Conn., for meetings with Soviet agents. The charges, consistently denied by the Sterns, were dropped 22 years later, in 1979, when the Department of Justice said witnesses considered essential to the case had died.

Stern was born in Fargo, N.D, into a wealthy family.

He served as chairman of the Illinois State Housing Commission and later as vice president of the National Assn. of Housing Officials and director and chairman of the Citizens Housing and Planning Council in New York.

After the indictment, the Sterns went to Mexico, visited Prague in 1957 and after staying in the Soviet Union for about a year settled in Prague in 1958.

Stern lived for a time in Cuba, acting as a personal adviser to Fidel Castro. He and his wife were also friendly with other Communist leaders, including Yugoslavia's Marshal Tito and China's Chairman Mao-Tse-tung.

In Prague, Stern worked as a consultant to the ministry of construction, using his expertise in housing and construction technology.

He is survived by his wife and a son.


STERN, ALFRED

STERN, ALFRED (1846–1936), historian. Born in Goettingen, Stern immigrated to Switzerland where he was professor of history first at the University of Bern (1874–87) and thereafter (until 1928) at the Polytechnikum, renamed in 1911 Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule of Zurich. His books involved the origins and development of European liberalism. Among them were a study of the Peasants' Revolt of 1525 (1869) a work on Milton (Milton und seine Zeit, 2 vols., 1877–79), which was followed by a history of England's mid-17 th century revolution (Geschichte der Revolution in England, 1881). His major work was a ten-volume history of 19 th -century Europe, Geschichte Europas seit den Vertraegen von 1815 bis zum Frankfurter Frieden von 1871 (1894–1924), a politically oriented, fully documented, and dispassionate account in the tradition of Leopold von Ranke. Other works included a biography of Mirabeau (Das Leben Mirabeaus, 2 vols., 1889 Viede Mirabeau, 2 vols., 1895) and books on Swiss and Prussian history. Stern aided the Jewish community of Bern in a lawsuit involving the Protocols of the *Elders of Zion, and financially assisted numerous young Jewish scholars. He also treated Jewish historical topics such as the state of the Jews in Prussia. He contributed to the German Encyclopaedia Judaica.


Early Research

The first seeds of forensic psychology were planted in 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt, often called the father of psychology, founded his first lab in Germany.   Since Wundt, the field of forensic psychology has blossomed, with contributions by lots of other experts.

James McKeen Cattell, for example, conducted some of the earliest research on the psychology of testimony.   He posed a series of questions to students at Columbia University, asking them to provide a response and rate their degree of confidence in their answer.

He found a surprising degree of inaccuracy, inspiring other psychologists to conduct their own experiments in eyewitness testimony. With even eyewitnesses being unsure of themselves, this raised serious issues about the validity of their usefulness in court.

Inspired by Cattell's work, Alfred Binet replicated Cattell’s research and studied the results of other psychology experiments that applied to law and criminal justice. His work in intelligence testing was also important to the development of forensic psychology, as many future assessment tools were based on his work.  

Psychologist William Stern also studied witnesses' ability to recall information. In one of his experiments, he asked students to summarize a dispute they witnessed between two classmates.   Stern discovered errors were common among witnesses and concluded that a person's emotions could affect how accurately he remembered things. Stern continued to study issues related to court testimony and later established the first academic journal devoted to applied psychology.


At the Crossroads of Bildung: Moritz Stern – Alfred Stern – Anne Frank

At the end of October 1942 Otto Frank, so his daughter reported in the revised version of her diaries, took ‘Goethe’s and Schiller’s dramas out of the large bookcase.’ Her father’s idea was, as Anne put it, ‘to read something from them out loud to me every evening. We’ve already started on Don Carlos.’ So just about four months after taking his family into hiding in the annex to his office on the Prinsengracht in Amsterdam, Otto Frank decided that it was time to read out one of the major plays of Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), written between 1784 and 1787, to his youngest daughter. For Anne this was part of her German lessons. For her father it was much more. Schiller was one of the great figures of the ideals of Bildung the family of Otto Frank’s mother, Alice Stern, exemplified the early German Jewish embrace of these ideals.

The family’s most celebrated luminary was Moritz Stern (1807-1894), who, in 1827, decided to move to one of Germany’s great Enlightenment universities, Göttingen, to study mathematics with one of the finest scholars of the period, Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855). Eventually, in Göttingen in 1859, Moritz Stern became the first full Professor (Ordinarius) at a German university who had publicly maintained his adherence to Judaism – he did not, like many others, convert to Christianity.

Stern was widely praised as an excellent teacher of mathematics. Above all, as his son Alfred Stern (1846-1936) insisted in his Family History, published in 1906, Moritz Stern stood in the great tradition of Enlightenment scholarship, having broad interests in ‘oriental studies’, the comparative study of languages, history, especially Jewish history, astronomy and philosophy. Religion was problematic. During the 1840s, Moritz Stern was the most prominent member of a group of Frankfurt Jews, named the Reform Friends, that pleaded for a radical reform of the religious practices of the Judaic faith. Stern’s own beliefs were deeply influenced by his reading of the works of Baruch de Spinoza (1632-1677), one of Amsterdam’s great free thinkers. As his son reported, Moritz Stern regarded Spinoza as his ‘guiding star’. As a Spinozist, Stern was wary of all faith and religious dogma. But, in the words of his son, ‘piety’s pure sense of duty’ drove him to fight for ‘the interests of the Jews’, both in the realm of the political and the ethical. Politically Moritz Stern believed in the democratic republic and in equal civil rights for all. With the long wait for his chair in Göttingen and the appointment in 1859 as first Jew to a full professorship, he had, as son Alfred Stern represented his view, ‘broken down the wall’. Eighteen years later Moritz Stern had the great honour to give the memorial speech of Gauss’s centenary on 30 April 1877.

By that time Alfred Stern was on his way to become a successful historian. Born and raised in Göttingen, Alfred’s battles differed from those of his father. As a historian Alfred Stern developed a wide range of interests, moving well beyond the confines of the national focus that came to dominate the German writing of history, especially after the establishment of the Kaiserreich in 1871, when the Prussian king Wilhelm was proclaimed emperor. When in 1879 the Berlin historian and parliamentarian Heinrich von Treitschke (1834-1896) unleashed the ‘Berlin Antisemitism Debate’ with, at its heart, his declaration that ‘the Jews are our misfortune’, and sought to frame a strongly nationalist narrative in his multi-volume German History, Alfred Stern responded with his massive, ten volume History of Europe, published over a period of 30 years, between 1894 and 1924. The difference couldn’t be bigger. Stern’s narrative was far from national. He presented Europe as a ‘community’ of many cultures and peoples, for Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans and of course also for Jews. Alfred Stern strongly disapproved of the course the Kaiserreich was taking he did so, as he put it in 1882, ‘as German, as lover of freedom and as Jew.’

Not all members of the Stern family were academic luminaries. Alice Stern’s grandfather, Emanuel Stern (1799-1841) had taken, as Alfred Stern put it, ‘highly adventurous roads’, ending up as a musician and soldier in Brazil and then running away from the harshness and misery of the slave plantations. Barely, just barely Emanuel made it back to Germany, to his brother Moritz in Göttingen. For Alice herself, the household of Clara and Alfred Stern was, as she put it in a long letter to her children in 1935, looking back on her life, where she learnt what Bildung meant. Another family friend, the physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955), fondly remembered the Stern household as ‘a seat of harmony’. Between 1912 and 1914 Einstein regularly visited the family to make music with Stern’s daughters, especially with Emma, a pianist, and Antonia, a fellow violinist, who enchanted Einstein. As he put it in 1952, the Stern household incorporated ‘on a small scale, the ideal of human community.’

When, in October 1942, Otto Frank started to read Schiller’s Don Carlos to his daughter, Anne was deep into reading a Dutch novel, Eva’s Youth, which tells the story of Eva, a daring and creative young girl. Anne was an intense and voracious reader. She engaged with some of the great Dutch bestsellers of the 1920s and 1930s, but also with the more distinctly literary work of Carry van Bruggen, the daughter of a rabbi (in a small Dutch village) who became one of Holland’s most innovative and feminist writers. As Anne read and wrote in order to find her own way, her ‘inner self’, she favoured reading novels about female teenagers and young women who were on a similar trajectory.

In many ways Anne’s search for her ‘inner self’ in her diaries goes beyond the German ideals of Bildung which her father cherished so deeply. For father and daughter Schiller’s Don Carlos may still have been a fertile meeting ground. After all the play tells the story of the Dutch Revolt and its fight against tyranny through the eyes of the son, Don Carlos, of the tyrant, Philip II, the King of Spain. The trials and tribulations of Don Carlos are set in the context of a struggle for freedom and independence—not only at the political level, which is why the Nazis forbade the play, but also at a more personal level. For Anne Frank, living in hiding, both aspects of the play may have resonated, aligning itself with her favourite novels. Nico van Suchtelen’s Eva’s Youth, Ina Boudier-Bakker’s The Knock at the Door and, earlier, Cissy van Marxveldt’s Joop-ter-Heul books were amongst the Dutch novels that accompanied Anne in her attempt to constitute, not so much a Humboldtian ‘self’, but her true ‘inner self’ and her ‘complete independence’ as a young woman. Reading Schiller together was an attempt to build bridges between the German cultural legacy of the father, Otto Frank, and the new Amsterdam ideals of his daughter, Anne.


Delusional de Blasio somehow manages to reach new low on way out the door

“The Howard Stern Show,” long in decline, is dead.

In March 2020, when New York City officially went into lockdown, Stern fled to his basement in the Hamptons. Over one year later and now vaccinated, as he first admitted on-air Monday — back from yet another vacation — Stern still has no intention of ever returning to his Midtown studio, his luxury Upper West Side apartment, or any semblance of pre-pandemic life.

The Howard Stern who stayed on air as planes flew into the World Trade Center is unrecognizable.

“Things will never get back to normal,” he declared just two weeks ago. “I do not believe the pandemic will ever be over.”

For a once-constant listener like me, this is heretical, especially here in New York City, where every single neighborhood is struggling to survive. Also, Howard: This pandemic will end, even though you, a germophobic recluse, clearly wish it would not.

But such sentiments have defined Stern’s show and attitude this past year: pessimism, anger, and a worldview that shrinks ever inward, limited in size and scope to The Basement — the literal and metaphorical dwelling place of this once-great show.

Stern, 67, renewed his contract with SiriusXM last December, signing for five years at a reported $120 million per. This is incredible, considering he works three days a week, Monday through Wednesday, broadcasting maybe three hours per day, about 112 shows per year with 253 days off.

That’s a salary of over $1 million per show.

Once upon a time, you could argue that would be fair compensation after all, one could never predict what Stern would do or say. As memorialized by an analyst in Stern’s 1997 biopic “Private Parts”:

“The average radio listener listens for 18 minutes. The average Howard Stern fan listens for, are you ready for this, an hour and 20 minutes . . . Answer most commonly given? ‘I want to see what he’ll say next.’”

Howard Stern recently signed a five-year deal to remain at SiriusXM. Mario Tama/Getty Images

As for those who loathed Stern: “The average Stern hater listens for two and a half hours a day . . . Most common answer? ‘I want to see what he’ll say next.’”

Today, it’s all too easy to predict what Stern will say next. Don’t just take my word for it — endless Reddit threads and Facebook groups are devoted to carbon dating the show’s death, parsing over its comedic breadcrumbs and wondering why Stern even bothers anymore.

Howard Stern, seen here with Robin Quivers in 1992, used to be able to tout massive ratings success. Ron Galella Collection via Getty

Indeed, Stern sounds like a guy who should have retired years ago, one begging to be fired, an attempt to end his own misery.

Howard: Your listeners are right there with you. Put us all out of your misery.

Consider a typical show, consisting — on a daily, “Groundhog Day”-like basis — of such content as imitations of his nonagenarian parents and their hearing loss (“What?! What did you say?!”) — as enjoyable as talking to one’s own hard-of-hearing relatives — while revisiting slights and traumas from his childhood yet insisting that decades of three-to-four-day-a-week therapy have made him less angry and more evolved.

We usually segue into graphic, sex-obsessed talks with Ronnie the Limo Driver, a 71-year-old Stern show mainstay who has now become its lead character, eating up airtime and surpassing Stern himself. (Hope Ronnie got a raise for all this heavy lifting, unlistenable though he may be.)

Ronnie the Limo Driver may get more on-air time than Stern these days. FilmMagic

If it’s Monday, we may get a recap of Howard’s weekend, which typically involves how many Peloton classes he took, updates on his lifelong disordered eating, current blood levels, and rants on why the one-percenters who live near him in the Hamptons, post-vaccine, won’t wear masks all the time.

If his much younger model wife, Beth, comes up, it’s to discuss how efficiently she cleans (now that the maids are gone), her eating habits and blood levels, and the hundreds of rescue cats that cycle in and out of their house.

If “The Bachelor” or “The Bachelorette” happens to be airing, we can count on a mind-numbing, 45-minute soliloquy.

Howard and Beth Stern at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction ceremony in 2018. FilmMagic

Next, we’ll probably take some calls from the mentally impaired characters known as “The Wack Pack,” or be subjected to prank phone calls that Stern insists are real but are clearly fake and scripted.

In lieu of picking on society’s weakest, Stern will turn his rage on most any staffer in his sights. It says something that even the most picked-upon loyalist — say, his producer of 37 years — doesn’t even bother to really fight back anymore.]


Notes

Alfred's son, Gunter, changed his last name from Stern to Stirling. His original WikiTree profile was Stirling-68. After the entire gedcom that created Alfred's and Gunter's profiles was orphaned, Alfred and Gunter were "adopted" and Gunter's last name at birth was changed, making his profile Stern-318. A photo was added but his profile was still devoid of any other information or sources when it was deleted for privacy reasons when the profile manager was found unresponsive following a request to be added to Gunter's trusted list. The purpose of the request was to be able to honor Gunter as a Holocaust survivor and provide him a proper profile with sourced information resulting from research. If Gunter is still alive (which is not known) he would be about 95 years old. As a result of his profile deletion, in a few years when he would be assumed dead even if no other information were available, there will be no profile here to open and his photo, probably irreplaceable, has now been lost. What is now known about Gunter is:


Kara Mind

Austrocel Wiki : Borealis Ceo Alfred Stern Wird Zum Omv Vorstandsmitglied Berufen / Its purpose is to share basic knowledge and.. Cell's large range, aggressively angled beam and quick speed allow him to quickly catch and mount pressure on the opponent. Comment on the talk pages or write your own. Cell is a perfect and handsome android who can do pretty much anything you ask him to, as long as you put him on point. 17 apr 2018 equation display issues fixed. Blackwood chapter preview — april 15, 2021.

Servicio técnico de celulares y vende de accesorios y equipos de comunicación. Das ehemalige unternehmen schweighofer fiber gmbh wurde im jahr 2017 an die investorengruppe towerbrook capital partners verkauft. Interested in learning more about the upcoming elder scrolls online chapter: Перейти к навигации перейти к поиску. 17 apr 2018 equation display issues fixed.

Der Salzschreiber Archiv Aktuelles from www.der-salzschreiber.at 05 mar 2018 there are currently problems with parsing/displaying. The guides here can be edited by. The oestrous cycle or estrous cycle is the set of recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females. Results are posted to the osmf wiki. Its purpose is to share basic knowledge and. The company is based in hallein near salzburg and produces environmentally beneficial and high purity cellulose for the international. Comment on the talk pages or write your own. The coastal wiki is a public information site containing a large number of articles dealing with scientific, technological and management aspects of coastal zones.

57 likes · 1 talking about this.

Descubre los lugares más bonitos del. Последние твиты от wikipedia (@wikipedia). Essays written by individual users covering a wide range of subjects. On wikipedia, over a hundred people have come together to document this incident. Comment on the talk pages or write your own. Cell is a perfect and handsome android who can do pretty much anything you ask him to, as long as you put him on point. The coastal wiki is a public information site containing a large number of articles dealing with scientific, technological and management aspects of coastal zones. Encuentra las mejores rutas al aire libre para excursiones de senderismo en la montaña, itinerarios de tours en bici, vueltas en mtb y hasta 70 tipos de actividades. Nearly every page from the old wiki is available to read, from the trollpasta classics to. Uesp was given access to explore a. Das ehemalige unternehmen schweighofer fiber gmbh wurde im jahr 2017 an die investorengruppe towerbrook capital partners verkauft. The company is based in hallein near salzburg and produces environmentally beneficial and high purity cellulose for the international. Those who fondly remembered trollpasta wiki can once again relive the nostalgic joy of browsing the site for pastas.

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Bio Ethanol Anlage Austrocel Brandschutzkonzept from www.hoyer-brandschutz.at Cell's large range, aggressively angled beam and quick speed allow him to quickly catch and mount pressure on the opponent. Those who fondly remembered trollpasta wiki can once again relive the nostalgic joy of browsing the site for pastas. Der zellstoffproduzent austrocel hallein ist einer der größten industriebetriebe und wichtiger arbeitgeber, mit 250 arbeitsplätzen, im tennengau. Entropiawiki is in no way connected to mindark and is fully maintained by the eu community. Austrocel hallein is one of the most traditional companies in austria. Das ehemalige unternehmen schweighofer fiber gmbh wurde im jahr 2017 an die investorengruppe towerbrook capital partners verkauft. Encuentra las mejores rutas al aire libre para excursiones de senderismo en la montaña, itinerarios de tours en bici, vueltas en mtb y hasta 70 tipos de actividades. 17 apr 2018 equation display issues fixed.

Entropiawiki is in no way connected to mindark and is fully maintained by the eu community.

Openstreetmap foundation 2021 survey has ended. On wikipedia, over a hundred people have come together to document this incident. Austrocel hallein is one of the most traditional companies in austria. The guides here can be edited by. Nearly every page from the old wiki is available to read, from the trollpasta classics to. Cell's large range, aggressively angled beam and quick speed allow him to quickly catch and mount pressure on the opponent. Der zellstoffproduzent austrocel hallein ist einer der größten industriebetriebe und wichtiger arbeitgeber, mit 250 arbeitsplätzen, im tennengau. Blackwood chapter preview — april 15, 2021. Uesp was given access to explore a. Seit 125 jahren sind wir am standort hallein für unsere qualitativ hochwertigen produkte aus zellulose bekannt. Descubre los lugares más bonitos del. Those who fondly remembered trollpasta wiki can once again relive the nostalgic joy of browsing the site for pastas. Servicio técnico de celulares y vende de accesorios y equipos de comunicación.

Servicio técnico de celulares y vende de accesorios y equipos de comunicación. The guides here can be edited by. Essays written by individual users covering a wide range of subjects. Blackwood chapter preview — april 15, 2021. Comment on the talk pages or write your own.

Verstehen Schafft Verstandnis So Geht Anrainerkommunikation Ikp from www.ikp.at Blackwood chapter preview — april 15, 2021. Comment on the talk pages or write your own. Welcome to the wiki for mindark's entropia universe that anyone can edit. 57 likes · 1 talking about this. Последние твиты от wikipedia (@wikipedia). The oestrous cycle or estrous cycle is the set of recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females. Essays written by individual users covering a wide range of subjects. Eine person verlor dabei ihr leben.

The coastal wiki is a public information site containing a large number of articles dealing with scientific, technological and management aspects of coastal zones.

Openstreetmap foundation 2021 survey has ended. The company is based in hallein near salzburg and produces environmentally beneficial and high purity cellulose for the international. Nearly every page from the old wiki is available to read, from the trollpasta classics to. 17 apr 2018 equation display issues fixed. Blackwood chapter preview — april 15, 2021. Welcome to the wiki for mindark's entropia universe that anyone can edit. Das ehemalige unternehmen schweighofer fiber gmbh wurde im jahr 2017 an die investorengruppe towerbrook capital partners verkauft. Eine person verlor dabei ihr leben. Der zellstoffproduzent austrocel hallein ist einer der größten industriebetriebe und wichtiger arbeitgeber, mit 250 arbeitsplätzen, im tennengau. Interested in learning more about the upcoming elder scrolls online chapter: Cell is a perfect and handsome android who can do pretty much anything you ask him to, as long as you put him on point. Перейти к навигации перейти к поиску. The coastal wiki is a public information site containing a large number of articles dealing with scientific, technological and management aspects of coastal zones.

On wikipedia, over a hundred people have come together to document this incident. Descubre los lugares más bonitos del. Comment on the talk pages or write your own. Последние твиты от wikipedia (@wikipedia). Interested in learning more about the upcoming elder scrolls online chapter:

Source: www.hoyer-brandschutz.at

Results are posted to the osmf wiki. On wikipedia, over a hundred people have come together to document this incident. Interested in learning more about the upcoming elder scrolls online chapter: Essays written by individual users covering a wide range of subjects. Nearly every page from the old wiki is available to read, from the trollpasta classics to.

Entropiawiki is in no way connected to mindark and is fully maintained by the eu community. Results are posted to the osmf wiki. Essays written by individual users covering a wide range of subjects. Последние твиты от wikipedia (@wikipedia). Cell's large range, aggressively angled beam and quick speed allow him to quickly catch and mount pressure on the opponent.

The guides here can be edited by. 57 likes · 1 talking about this. Encuentra las mejores rutas al aire libre para excursiones de senderismo en la montaña, itinerarios de tours en bici, vueltas en mtb y hasta 70 tipos de actividades. 05 mar 2018 there are currently problems with parsing/displaying. On wikipedia, over a hundred people have come together to document this incident.

The coastal wiki is a public information site containing a large number of articles dealing with scientific, technological and management aspects of coastal zones. Openstreetmap foundation 2021 survey has ended. Those who fondly remembered trollpasta wiki can once again relive the nostalgic joy of browsing the site for pastas. The guides here can be edited by. 17 apr 2018 equation display issues fixed.

The company is based in hallein near salzburg and produces environmentally beneficial and high purity cellulose for the international. Der zellstoffproduzent austrocel hallein ist einer der größten industriebetriebe und wichtiger arbeitgeber, mit 250 arbeitsplätzen, im tennengau. 57 likes · 1 talking about this. Blackwood chapter preview — april 15, 2021. Descubre los lugares más bonitos del.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

Uesp was given access to explore a. 05 mar 2018 there are currently problems with parsing/displaying. Entropiawiki is in no way connected to mindark and is fully maintained by the eu community. Cell's large range, aggressively angled beam and quick speed allow him to quickly catch and mount pressure on the opponent. Последние твиты от wikipedia (@wikipedia).

Source: www.der-salzschreiber.at

Essays written by individual users covering a wide range of subjects. 17 apr 2018 equation display issues fixed. Cell's large range, aggressively angled beam and quick speed allow him to quickly catch and mount pressure on the opponent. Austrocel hallein is one of the most traditional companies in austria. On wikipedia, over a hundred people have come together to document this incident.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

Eine person verlor dabei ihr leben. Das ehemalige unternehmen schweighofer fiber gmbh wurde im jahr 2017 an die investorengruppe towerbrook capital partners verkauft. Последние твиты от wikipedia (@wikipedia). Blackwood chapter preview — april 15, 2021. 17 apr 2018 equation display issues fixed.

Source: scontent-yyz1-1.cdninstagram.com

17 apr 2018 equation display issues fixed.

The company is based in hallein near salzburg and produces environmentally beneficial and high purity cellulose for the international.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

Comment on the talk pages or write your own.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

Seit 125 jahren sind wir am standort hallein für unsere qualitativ hochwertigen produkte aus zellulose bekannt.

Cell is a perfect and handsome android who can do pretty much anything you ask him to, as long as you put him on point.

Source: www.hoyer-brandschutz.at

Seit 125 jahren sind wir am standort hallein für unsere qualitativ hochwertigen produkte aus zellulose bekannt.

Eine person verlor dabei ihr leben.

Welcome to the wiki for mindark's entropia universe that anyone can edit.

Interested in learning more about the upcoming elder scrolls online chapter:

Welcome to the wiki for mindark's entropia universe that anyone can edit.

Its purpose is to share basic knowledge and.

Openstreetmap foundation 2021 survey has ended.

Source: www.hoyer-brandschutz.at

Encuentra las mejores rutas al aire libre para excursiones de senderismo en la montaña, itinerarios de tours en bici, vueltas en mtb y hasta 70 tipos de actividades.

Source: www.hoyer-brandschutz.at

Essays written by individual users covering a wide range of subjects.

On wikipedia, over a hundred people have come together to document this incident.

Source: referenzen.mgm-tp.com

Der zellstoffproduzent austrocel hallein ist einer der größten industriebetriebe und wichtiger arbeitgeber, mit 250 arbeitsplätzen, im tennengau.

Der zellstoffproduzent austrocel hallein ist einer der größten industriebetriebe und wichtiger arbeitgeber, mit 250 arbeitsplätzen, im tennengau.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

Austrocel hallein is one of the most traditional companies in austria.

Source: www.der-salzschreiber.at

Seit 125 jahren sind wir am standort hallein für unsere qualitativ hochwertigen produkte aus zellulose bekannt.

17 apr 2018 equation display issues fixed.

Encuentra las mejores rutas al aire libre para excursiones de senderismo en la montaña, itinerarios de tours en bici, vueltas en mtb y hasta 70 tipos de actividades.

The company is based in hallein near salzburg and produces environmentally beneficial and high purity cellulose for the international.

Source: upload.wikimedia.org

Uesp was given access to explore a.

Source: www.chemie-zeitschrift.at

Interested in learning more about the upcoming elder scrolls online chapter:

The oestrous cycle or estrous cycle is the set of recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.


Alfred Stern : CEO of Borealis AG: "Plastics are too valuable to be . - Reached the age of 56 years.

Alfred Stern : CEO of Borealis AG: "Plastics are too valuable to be . - Reached the age of 56 years.. By alfred stern first published in 1894 2 editions — 1 previewable. Самые новые твиты от alfred stern. His birthday, age, zodiac sign, his family, and more. Lesmodules herdenk met je klas. Alfred georg stern was born on month day 1910, at birth place, to theodor david stern and פלורה stern (born philippsohn).

Alfred stern is currently chief executive officer and vice chairman of the supervisory board at borealis ag. Inventar erstellt von der arbeitsstelle schweiz des rism. No, he died on 03/24/1936, 85 years ago. Alfred stern was born into a wealthy family on 29th november, 1897, in fargo, north dakota. Самые новые твиты от alfred stern.

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Theodor was born on may 29 1873, in frankfurt/main, hesse, germany. By alfred stern first published in 1894 2 editions — 1 previewable. Stern was the son of marion rosenwald and alfred stern sr. Изучайте релизы alfred stern на discogs. Avanzada digital duarte‏ @duarte_cambio 9 мар. His father was a successful banker. Alfred stern is currently chief executive officer and vice chairman of the supervisory board at borealis ag. Alfred stern (ca) storico tedesco (it) Let's show nintendo how much we want alfred stern. His birthday, age, zodiac sign, his family, and more. 122 people named alfred stern living in the us. Inventar erstellt von der arbeitsstelle schweiz des rism. He was 89 years old when he died.

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Reached the age of 56 years.

Alfred stern is currently chief executive officer and vice chairman of the supervisory board at borealis ag. 122 people named alfred stern living in the us. No, he died on 03/24/1936, 85 years ago. Alfred stern was born into a wealthy family on 29th november, 1897, in fargo, north dakota. He was 89 years old when he died. Lesmodules herdenk met je klas. Is alfred stern still alive? Alfred georg stern was born on month day 1910, at birth place, to theodor david stern and פלורה stern (born philippsohn). His father was a successful banker. How much of alfred stern's work have you seen? Theodor was born on may 29 1873, in frankfurt/main, hesse, germany. At borealis ag, alfred stern has 16 colleagues including suhail al mazrouei. Join facebook to connect with alfred stern and others you may know.

Alfred stern has accepted the appointment. Stern was the son of marion rosenwald and alfred stern sr. Alfred stern , ceo , borealis ag spoke to eithne treanor at adipec 2018. Alfred georg stern was born on month day 1910, at birth place, to theodor david stern and פלורה stern (born philippsohn). Lesmodules herdenk met je klas.

„Kunststoffe sind oft die nachhaltigere Alternative" - K . from www.k-zeitung.de Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the. Alfred georg stern was born on month day 1910, at birth place, to theodor david stern and פלורה stern (born philippsohn). Join facebook to connect with alfred stern and others you may know. Get alfred stern's contact information, age, background check, white pages, bankruptcies, property records, liens, civil records & marriage history. At borealis ag, alfred stern has 16 colleagues including suhail al mazrouei. Самые новые твиты от alfred stern. Stern received a doctorate and a graduate degree from montanuniversität leoben. Let's show nintendo how much we want alfred stern.

Alfred stern was born into a wealthy family on 29th november, 1897, in fargo, north dakota.

He was 89 years old when he died. Alfred georg stern was born on month day 1910, at birth place, to theodor david stern and פלורה stern (born philippsohn). How much of alfred stern's work have you seen? 122 people named alfred stern living in the us. Let's show nintendo how much we want alfred stern. Get alfred stern's contact information, age, background check, white pages, bankruptcies, property records, liens, civil records & marriage history. No, he died on 03/24/1936, 85 years ago. Er war der sohn des mathematikers moritz abraham stern. Is alfred stern still alive? Stern studierte in heidelberg, göttingen und berlin. See what alfred stern (alfredstern91) has discovered on pinterest, the world's biggest collection of ideas. Stern was the son of marion rosenwald and alfred stern sr. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the.

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Alfred stern is on facebook. Alfred stern (ca) storico tedesco (it) Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the. No, he died on 03/24/1936, 85 years ago. His birthday, age, zodiac sign, his family, and more.

Source: www.britishplastics.co.uk

Alfred stern occupies the position of chief executive officer of borealis ag. At borealis ag, alfred stern has 16 colleagues including suhail al mazrouei. By alfred stern first published in 1894 2 editions — 1 previewable. Reached the age of 56 years. Get alfred stern's contact information, age, background check, white pages, bankruptcies, property records, liens, civil records & marriage history.

Source: www.borealisgroup.com

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Source: www.kunststoffweb.de

Avanzada digital duarte‏ @duarte_cambio 9 мар. Самые новые твиты от alfred stern. At borealis ag, alfred stern has 16 colleagues including suhail al mazrouei. Er war der sohn des mathematikers moritz abraham stern. Alfred stern has accepted the appointment.

Самые новые твиты от alfred stern. Er war der sohn des mathematikers moritz abraham stern. Stern was the son of marion rosenwald and alfred stern sr. Alfred stern is currently chief executive officer and vice chairman of the supervisory board at borealis ag. How much of alfred stern's work have you seen?

Source: www.borealisgroup.com

122 people named alfred stern living in the us. Alfred stern has accepted the appointment. Reached the age of 56 years. Let's show nintendo how much we want alfred stern. Von rintelen's survey of contemporary german philosophy.

Самые новые твиты от alfred stern. Stern was educated at phillips exeter academy and harvard. Let's show nintendo how much we want alfred stern. How much of alfred stern's work have you seen? Alfred stern occupies the position of chief executive officer of borealis ag.

Source: www.worldofchemicals.com

Let's show nintendo how much we want alfred stern. Alfred georg stern was born on month day 1910, at birth place, to theodor david stern and פלורה stern (born philippsohn). Lesmodules herdenk met je klas. Изучайте релизы alfred stern на discogs. Alfred stern occupies the position of chief executive officer of borealis ag.

Alfred stern (ca) storico tedesco (it) Get alfred stern's contact information, age, background check, white pages, bankruptcies, property records, liens, civil records & marriage history. Stern received a doctorate and a graduate degree from montanuniversität leoben. Stern was educated at phillips exeter academy and harvard. See what alfred stern (alfredstern91) has discovered on pinterest, the world's biggest collection of ideas.

Alfred georg stern was born on month day 1910, at birth place, to theodor david stern and פלורה stern (born philippsohn).

Source: collectionimages.npg.org.uk

At borealis ag, alfred stern has 16 colleagues including suhail al mazrouei.

/> Source: www.wienerzeitung.at

Alfred stern (ca) storico tedesco (it)

His birthday, age, zodiac sign, his family, and more.

Inventar erstellt von der arbeitsstelle schweiz des rism.

Source: collectionimages.npg.org.uk

Von rintelen's survey of contemporary german philosophy.

Source: plasticsinpackaging.com

Let's show nintendo how much we want alfred stern.

Source: www.kunststoffweb.de

122 people named alfred stern living in the us.

No, he died on 03/24/1936, 85 years ago.

Reached the age of 56 years.

Er war der sohn des mathematikers moritz abraham stern.

Source: collectionimages.npg.org.uk

Изучайте релизы alfred stern на discogs.

Source: www.austriainnovativ.at

Get alfred stern's contact information, age, background check, white pages, bankruptcies, property records, liens, civil records & marriage history.

Er war der sohn des mathematikers moritz abraham stern.

Source: media.kleinezeitung.at

Изучайте релизы alfred stern на discogs.

Source: www.britishplastics.co.uk

By alfred stern first published in 1894 2 editions — 1 previewable.

Source: www.plastverarbeiter.de

Stern was educated at phillips exeter academy and harvard.

Source: plasticsinpackaging.com

Alfred stern , ceo , borealis ag spoke to eithne treanor at adipec 2018.

Source: collectionimages.npg.org.uk

Join facebook to connect with alfred stern and others you may know.

Source: plasticsinpackaging.com

How much of alfred stern's work have you seen?

Alfred stern (ca) storico tedesco (it)

Source: www.borealisgroup.com

Is alfred stern still alive?

Source: www.borealisgroup.com

Alfred georg stern was born on month day 1910, at birth place, to theodor david stern and פלורה stern (born philippsohn).

Source: img.networthpost.org

Let's show nintendo how much we want alfred stern.

Source: collectionimages.npg.org.uk

Alfred georg stern was born on month day 1910, at birth place, to theodor david stern and פלורה stern (born philippsohn).


‘Be yourself. Everyone else is already taken.’ This popular quip, often misattributed to Oscar Wilde, appears without any apparent irony in self-help books and blog posts celebrating authenticity. Understandably, they take the dictum to ‘be oneself’ as a worthy, nearly unassailable goal. Our culture is saturated with authenticity: we’re forever ‘finding ourselves’, ‘self-actualising’, ‘doing you’, ‘being real’, ‘going off the beaten path’, ‘breaking free of the crowd’. We spend our youth trying to figure out who we are our later years trying to stay true to ourselves and the time in-between in crisis about whether we are who we thought we were.

But ‘Wilde’s’ quote, inauthentic though it might be, suggests something foolish at the heart of authenticity. All this introspection can seem gratuitous. Why expend so much effort trying to be something we can’t help but be? ‘In the end,’ as the author David Foster Wallace put it, ‘you end up becoming yourself.’

And there’s a deeper absurdity to authenticity, too. Everyone else might be taken, but the effort to be ourselves is the surest path to being just like everyone else, especially in the context of a highly commodified and surveilled culture where we always seem to be on stage. If some person or organisation claims to be concerned with authenticity, you can be almost certain that they’re conformist posers. As Wilde actually did write: ‘Most people are other people. Their thoughts are someone else’s opinions, their lives a mimicry, their passions a quotation.’ (Or misquotation.)

Where did all these dead-ends and paradoxes of self-creation come from?

Despite its ubiquity, there’s nothing necessary about authenticity. First of all, it’s a luxury: only those comfortable enough to take the necessities of life for granted can turn their attention to authenticity. Secondly, authenticity has a history. Other cultures and times haven’t given the self nearly so much weight, nor have they frowned so much upon conformity. Self-actualisation is often subordinated, if not completely subsumed, by service to the family, to tradition, or to God. Thinking about the history and contingency of authenticity – as with any concept – can help us understand how best to approach it.

Authenticity seems, at least initially, to have had a religious component. Indeed, Western authenticity can’t be understood without reference to that peculiar Christian God who decided to become a man. One way to understand authenticity is as the inheritance we’re left with after God passes away. In personalising God, Christianity foregrounded the inward struggle of the believer. In the form of Jesus Christ, whom Wilde called ‘the first individualist in history’, God wasn’t just a lord to serve, but ‘one of us’, a human being with a personal narrative that holds lessons for his humble servants. Jesus’ struggle with temptation, his rejection of hypocritical dogma, and his willing self-sacrifice parallels every Christian’s own struggle: ‘What would Jesus do?’

To see what’s new here, consider the difference between Moses’ 40 years in the desert and Jesus’ 40 days . Moses’s struggle is external: to subordinate himself to God, follow his (quite demanding) instructions, and lead his chosen people to the Promised Land. By contrast, Jesus’ struggle is internal and psychological: left alone by God, he must resist temptation through an inner strength that becomes an example to his followers. Jesus isn’t just man and God in one. He endows human life in general with a touch of the divine. His story puts in stark relief a whole inner world, dramatises it, and elevates it to a realm of utmost spiritual importance. A long history of tortured self-scrutiny follows.

P erhaps the most important early tortured soul was that of St Augustine, a philosopher and priest in 4th-century Roman North Africa who is often credited with originating the modern sense of inwardness. The hedonist son of a pious mother, Augustine searched for meaning in sex, heretical Manichaeism, and the Classics before his come-to-Jesus moment, a drawn-out period of personal crisis and conversion that serves as the pivot for his autobiographical Confessions. In the Confessions, one finds the searching, longing introspection and even the self-centred and ironic detachment that characterise modern authenticity. ‘ O Lord , help me to be chaste,’ Augustine writes in the voice of his younger self – ‘but not yet.’

Augustine’s aim is not so much to celebrate, actualise or find a self as to narrate the process of transcending it. He’s trying to go, as the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor puts it, ‘inward and upward’ – or, to put it another way, upward by way of inward. Augustine’s conversion involves a great deal of discipline and self-abnegation. Taylor, who chronicles the emergence of the modern self in his book Sources of the Self (1992), writes that Augustine ‘makes the step toward inwardness … because it is a step towards God’.

To be properly anxious in Kierkegaard’s sense is to see clearly the pure possibility of human life

Similarly, centuries later and after the Reformation further foregrounded the Christian’s personal struggle with conscience, the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard also identified inwardness as a primary path to God. Kierkegaard shared with Augustine a sense that somewhere in the confusing depths of inner life – the problem we have all become to ourselves, to use Augustine’s language – was the road to God. What’s more, Kierkegaard recognised the enemy of authenticity in the pressures of conformity in a newly ‘massifying’ society. Not unlike some ambivalently Twitter-addicted writers today, he was drawn into controversies on the pages of 19th-century Copenhagen newspapers and deeply aware of the pressure and distortion that the dawning mass media could apply. Kierkegaard saw in the social world – ‘the city of man’ as Augustine called it – a challenge to Christian awakening and his own authorship, both of his books and his life, so much so that he broke off an engagement to a woman he loved.

For Kierkegaard, the characteristic mode of self-exploration, and the alternating forays into the city of man and back into the city of God within, was anxiety. Not merely worry about this or that event, Kierkegaardian anxiety is an awareness of the terrifying groundlessness of all human action. To be properly anxious in Kierkegaard’s sense is to see clearly the pure possibility of human life and face down the ordeal thereby imposed on us. Embracing, rather than evading, this anxiety through a kind of ‘leap of faith’ was for Kierkegaard, as for the existentialist philosophers who followed him, the essence of authenticity.

One such existentialist was the French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre who, writing at the end of Vichy France, understood very well that the inauthentic evasion of this responsibility to ourselves was the norm. Sartre called this indulgence in the pretence that we’re not free ‘bad faith’. Bad faith is comprised of the stories we tell ourselves in order to live, to co-opt a phrase from Joan Didion. At its worst, it’s Vichy officials telling themselves that they have no choice, but most of us indulge in bad faith to some degree, even if we’re usually able to steer clear of Nazi collaboration. We take the easy way out by turning a blind eye to the minor corruptions of the bureaucracies in which we are enmeshed, letting hypocrisy and vice pass when opposing them could be costly, or pretending to be victims of circumstances beyond our control. Authenticity, for the existentialists, became the essential component of ethics. It’s the opposite of ‘bad faith’. It’s accepting the burden of freedom and circumstance, looking inward to determine how best to act, and then doing so.

B ut bravely making baseless decisions can’t be all there is to authenticity. Paradoxically, one of the primary vehicles of bad faith in our own time has become the ‘jargon of authenticity’ itself. That phrase is the title of the German philosopher and social critic Theodor Adorno’s mid-20th-century book criticising existentialism. Adorno, whose work has been marshalled to help understand our current crises, saw in existential philosophy a fetishisation and atomisation of the self that could drive consumer culture, on the one hand, and provide perfect subjects for irrational mass movements such as fascism, on the other.

Adorno’s book questioned a central premise of existentialism: that of a completely free subject responsible to no one but itself. To Adorno, existentialism was simply replacing one absent, mystical abstraction – God – with another: the authentic subject. ‘Religion has shifted into the subject,’ he wrote. In this process, ‘the living subject is robbed of all definition, in the same way as it loses its attributes in reality.’ Instead of going ‘inward and upward’, the existentialists reached ever further inward, seeking a self so withdrawn and occluded it hardly had any contours at all. Kierkegaard’s existential ‘leap of faith’ is completely emptied out, according to Adorno, and becomes no more than an attempt to escape all the ways our sphere of action is determined and mediated by our individual conditions, history and other people.

This emptied-out existential subject does, however, make for a good shopper. Today, one of the primary ways we deal with the anxiety of being ourselves is to construct fantasy versions of ourselves through acquisition. This includes not just the acquisition of stuff, but also of personal style, worldviews, sociopolitical identities. The self, as the American social critic Christopher Lasch wrote in his book The Culture of Narcissism (1979), becomes an end in itself whose impulses are to be trusted above all else. A therapeutic ‘cult of authenticity’ (a term that Lasch borrows from Adorno) emerges and leads to the contemporary self-help industry. All external constraints are viewed with suspicion, and everyday life, including politics, becomes a theatre for the individual’s self-creative performance. Bad faith and posturing – the objectification of the self – become a way of life, and a slew of products, treatments and self-defeating political movements rise up to fill the apparently bottomless market for self-creation and self-care.

This vision of ‘authenticity’ is taken advantage of by the corporations that profit off our innermost desires

Social media has become an avenue for and intensifier of this narcissism, the likes of which Lasch could scarcely have imagined. The result is not the philosophical anxiety of Kierkegaard that tries to stand firm before the abyss, but a clinical anxiety constantly measuring the self against virtual avatars and adjusting it to their tacit or explicit feedback by way of the marketplace. Instead of trying to come to terms with our radical freedom, ‘authenticity’ drives us toward a rebel conformity constantly searching for the exercise routine, clothing brand or political posture that’s really ‘me’.

Alone in front of a computer screen, the social-media user, despite pretensions toward self-creation, is fundamentally spectatorial and passive. This is a posture not of authenticity but narcissism. The narcissist, Lasch writes, alternates between fantasies of utter omnipotence and spasms of utter helplessness. This means, as Lasch makes clear, that narcissism is very different from selfishness. It’s a more basic confusion and insecurity about the boundaries between oneself and the world.

We can see this confusion in a political sphere that, irrespective of ideology, prizes personal narrative and expression above solidarity. And we can also see it in the almost complete breakdown of the value of privacy – the very idea that there are aspects of one’s life that one might not want to ‘share’ with the public at large. Meanwhile, this vision of ‘authenticity’ is taken advantage of cynically by the corporations that profit off our innermost desires, while they use the rhetoric of individual freedom, identity and ‘entrepreneurship’ to atomise, surveille and exploit their workers.

H ow can one avoid the pitfalls of this phoney authenticity? More historical awareness of where our ideals of authenticity and freedom come from can help. As the American political philosopher Matthew B Crawford details in his book The World Beyond Your Head (2015), the narcissist has a mistaken idea of freedom. Crawford follows Adorno and Lasch, agreeing that the groundlessness of human action doesn’t imply that human beings are or should be completely autonomous. We’re born into a particular place and time, with particular psychological and physical attributions, and with particular people and traditions available to us that we can draw on or reject. These constraints are debilitating only if we see them as such, if we consider them as fetters from which the self should ideally be free. In reality, many rules and constraints are enabling: they are the conditions of freedom, not the barriers to it. They are the friction that allow us to move forward.

By contrast, Crawford writes, the ‘frictionless’ world on offer online and in our other overdesigned and overmanaged virtual and physical environments puts us at the centre of our own little ‘me-world’ that caters to our every whim. But somehow, all this evident control makes us feel only more impotent and unhappy, according to Crawford – and also, not accidentally, more likely to consume.

Genuine authenticity under these conditions requires, first of all, resistance to self-absorption and fantasy and, secondly, acknowledgement of our dependency on others and of the historical contingency that inhabits every corner of our lives.

This is difficult since almost everything in the culture encourages us to fall back on to ourselves and promises that we can escape history and eliminate chance and misfortune from our lives. One simple thing Crawford suggests is learning how to do stuff. Learning a craft – like how to play a musical instrument, finetune a motorcycle (Crawford’s pick), hang drywall or write a sonnet – immediately puts us within particular limits and at the feet of those who have already mastered it. It requires humility, but, at the same time, builds genuine competence. It can help remediate narcissism by rebalancing our relationship to ourselves. In the process of submitting to discipline and focusing our attention on a craft, we find ourselves neither omnipotent nor helpless, but somewhere in between. We’re dependent beings with feeble bodies and minds, prone to flailing about and to failure, but also each with unique sets of resources and abilities that can be cultivated with surprising rapidity under the right conditions, and that can help us to regularly overcome quite serious obstacles. We are, in a word, crafty. It’s how we get by, as the archetype of ancient Greek trickster heroes such as Odysseus and Prometheus suggests.

Learning a craft can teach us a lot about what exactly it is to actualise a self. The word ‘authenticity’ comes from the Greek authentes for ‘master’ or ‘one acting on his own authority’ (aut = self and hentes = making or working on/crafting). Importantly, it doesn’t mean ‘self-maker’ in the reflexive sense of one who makes himself, but one who makes or acts according to his own will – making from out of the self. And in crafting of our accord, we do actually actualise ourselves. We transform inner feelings into something real.

Going inward is a good idea only if we have a plan for getting back out

This idea of humankind finding fulfilment in some kind of practical activity goes back to Aristotle, if not earlier. He declared the best life to be ‘autarkic’, or self-governed, and aimed at the fulfilment of activities most characteristic of human beings: namely, the use of the socially oriented rationality that separates us from other beings.

Understood historically, the seemingly irresistible pull of authenticity might lose some of its sheen. As the internalisation and commoditisation of a religious ideal, the search for the self can go awry and get bogged down in acquisitiveness and narcissism. That’s not to say, of course, that the project of authentic self-creation is wholly without merit, but simply that our reflections on our innermost feelings and desires can’t be an end in themselves. Even if we’re not going ‘inward and upward’ as Augustine did, these reflections have value only if they help us, ultimately, leave ourselves behind in creative absorption in the outward world. Going inward, in other words, is a good idea only if we have a plan for getting back out.

If we’re lucky, then, we’ll be able to see ourselves reflected in meaningful work, in what we produce, but what about higher meaning? Should we completely give up on going ‘upward’ like Augustine? To many of us, belief in God is something simply unavailable, even absurd. Kierkegaard, in fact, understood our relationship to God in terms of the absurd. He writes: ‘The absurd is a category, the negative criterion … of the relationship to the divine.’ It’s the state of feeling one’s powers of reason run out before the choices we face as human beings. Here, the religious might take a leap of faith. As Kierkegaard said: ‘When the believer has faith, the absurd is not the absurd.’

Similarly, Sartre’s fellow existentialist author Albert Camus wrote: ‘The absurd is born out of this confrontation between the human need and the unreasonable silence of the world.’ For existentialists such as Sartre and Camus, it wasn’t faith but simply human decision and action itself that conquered the absurd. As we’ve seen, this focus on atomised action can devolve into solipsism.

So how exactly should we think about our absent God? Kierkegaard’s understanding of the absurd was influenced by the late-18th-century German Romantics. This group of artists, philosophers and critics offer, I think, a better way of understanding the relationship between ourselves and the ‘unreasonable silence of the world’ – or what they called the absolute.

Romantic thinkers were attempting to get a handle on the technological, socioeconomic, political and aesthetic changes coming to Europe, which ‘disenchanted’ the world. They reacted against both what they viewed as an overly rationalistic Enlightenment philosophy and against an overly rationalising society. They feared not just becoming like their bourgeois parents, but what Adorno would later call a ‘totally administered society’. They inaugurated the set of dynamics I’ve been discussing: between the crowd and the individual, the corrupted city and untamed nature, the workaday meaninglessness and the thrill of creative life.

They didn’t take the mismatch between human striving and the evident lack of meaning from on high to be so much absurd as ironic. Today, we often think of the ironic individual as detached and self-protective, dismissive and sarcastic, afraid of taking anything too seriously – a species of narcissist. But for Romantics such as Schlegel, irony was primarily an objective feature of the human relationship to the world, and only secondarily a subjective attitude. Our situation is ironic because the absolute – the basis or reason for our existence – is forever unavailable to us, and yet we can’t help but strive for wholeness, especially in art.

This absolute can’t even be properly represented, much less reached yet, in our expressive and created acts, we strive to grasp the absolute, to fully understand and articulate our place in the world, our reason for being here. What we end up producing falls short of full understanding, but it’s a fragment that bears some relationship, however limited, to the ungraspable whole.

The Romantic ironist doesn’t regard this situation as absurd, but appropriate. If we’re to be authentic, we should ironically and humbly acknowledge the limitations of our individual perspective and effort, without despairing at our limitations. We should embrace the necessarily fragmentary nature of our endeavours, and we should enrich our efforts by trying to inhabit those of others, including those who came before us. In this way, we do take some steps toward the absolute.

This ironic attitude allows us, like Socrates, to truly know that we don’t know, to be comfortable with our ignorance while pushing against its boundaries, and to temper our desire for wholeness with an authentic understanding of our limitations. From this perspective, the silence of the world doesn’t sound unreasonable at all.

To read more about authenticity and the self, visit Psyche, a digital magazine from Aeon that illuminates the human condition through psychology, philosophical understanding and the arts.

is a writer whose work has appeared in The New York Times, The Chronicle of Higher Education and the LA Review of Books, among others. He is the author of The Fall of Language: Benjamin and Wittgenstein on Meaning (2019).


Interview with Borealis CEO Alfred Stern and CFO Mark Tonkens

AS The year 2018 was an eventful one, with excellent business results, yet full of changes. I personally embrace the idea of change because it is invigorating and keeps things interesting. For me, of course, the biggest change was the opportunity to succeed Mark Garrett as Borealis CEO. For someone who has spent his entire career in the petrochemicals industry, it is a privilege to be able to lead this great company, and I thank the Board for their confidence in me.

Under Mark Garrett’s leadership over the past eleven years, we have had an incredible period of growth, and excellent improvements in business results. Having been along for part of the ride during Mark’s tenure, I’m looking forward to building on these achievements. The important global growth projects we kicked off in 2018 will take Borealis to the next level.

In 2018, we made good progress in regard to process safety, with our Goal Zero journey showing positive effects. I am particularly proud of our people, who consistently put forth creative ideas on how we can make our operations even safer. For example, the first Borealis Safety Day dedicated to raising awareness across the entire organisation took place in November. And we have now been able to reduce the number of high and medium severity process safety incidents. Yet despite our intense focus on personal safety, the total TRI frequency of 1.3 in 2018 falls short of our target, and fails to reach the 1.1 charted in 2017. While it is a top quartile performance within the industry, it is still not good enough for Borealis. We owe it to our employees and their families to do better, and we intend to.

And for you, Mark Tonkens, Borealis CFO, what stood out in 2018?

MT First and foremost, the fact that we achieved very solid financial results for the fourth year in a row, with a net profit of EUR 906 million. In terms of contribution to the bottom line, Borouge has gone from strength to strength and posted an absolute record year in 2018. While the industry environment for polyolefins in Europe has normalised, we are still facing challenges in Fertilizers.

How is Borealis proceeding with its phase of growth and global outreach?

AS In the past decade, our focus has been on expanding Borouge, and optimising our European footprint and performance. A change of CEO often brings about new impulses, and in 2018 this was indeed the case. We are now moving into the next phase of growth with several sizeable projects, and we are fortunate to have the strong backing of our Board in these endeavours.

A first significant project is our Bayport Polymers joint venture with NOVA Chemicals and TOTAL. In 2018, we took the final investment decision to jointly build a one million tonnes/year ethane cracker, and a new 625,000 tonnes/year polyethylene (PE) unit in Texas. This more than doubles the site’s existing PE capacity. We are capitalising on each JV partner’s strengths: NOVA’s strong presence in the US market, TOTAL’s on the Gulf Coast, and our superior technology. The Bayport plant is a genuine milestone and a giant leap for Borealis. It will enable us to bring third generation Borstar® to North America for the first time.

In Europe, we took a second major investment decision to build a new, world-scale propane dehydrogenation (PDH) plant at our existing production site in Kallo, Belgium, after the FEED (front end, engineering and design) phase concluded in June. This plant will have a production capacity of 750,000 tonnes/year, making it one of the world’s largest and most efficient.

MT Borouge, which continues to provide an outstanding contribution to our overall financial performance, is also undergoing another expansion. The pre-FEED study for Borouge 4 is currently underway. In 2018 we also approved the so-called PP5 plant in order to drive growth in Borouge 1, 2, and 3. We welcome the opportunity to step up collaboration with our partner ADNOC in order to seize growth opportunities in the Middle East and Asia.

We should also mention the Joint Development Agreement with United Chemical Company LLP to develop a world-scale PE project with an integrated ethane cracker and two Borstar PE plants in the Republic of Kazakhstan. This particularly promising project is currently in the feasibility study phase, but we expect to proceed to FEED phase in the course of 2019.

What is the strategic rationale behind these major projects?

AS What all of these growth projects have in common is that they will enable us to better support the global growth efforts of our customers. We will have greater global capability to supply differentiated, high-performing Borstar grades thanks to world-scale Borealis, Borouge, and Bayport facilities. For instance, by enlarging our presence in Kallo with the Borealis PDH plant, we are responding to European market demand for propylene, which is growing due to a confluence of factors involving changes to product mixes in refineries, and feedstock mixes in crackers. In recent years, Europe has in fact turned from a net exporting into a net importing, polypropylene (PP) region. It is part of the Borealis mission to be a reliable, high-quality supplier with local production capabilities. We can react quickly to global market fluctuations and varying economic conditions, and also drive innovation together with our customers in a nimble way.

How have acquisitions in 2018 driven the business growth of Borealis, particularly in the circular economy sphere?

MT We always strive to achieve a balance between organic growth, and growth through acquisitions. While acquisitions create value right from the start, organic investments demand more patience. We have a very solid track record with organic growth in the United Arab Emirates. This now gives us full confidence to do the same in other regions. That said, it is already clear that our intention to acquire a controlling stake in South Korean DYM Solution Co. Ltd. in 2018 will be a good move in light of our efforts to expand our global footprint in the Wire & Cable industry. The agreement and transaction are still subject to all required regulatory approvals. Gaining access to an Asian manufacturing base helps facilitate organic growth whilst enabling us to better serve our Wire & Cable customers, in particular.

AS Another key move made in 2018 was our acquisition of Ecoplast, the Austrian plastics recycler. We predict substantial growth in the recycled polyolefins market in the years to come, and have made mechanical recycling a key element within our overall Polyolefins strategy. Following on the heels of a EUR 15 million investment in our 2016 acquisition, mtm plastics, to increase our recycling capacity by nearly 50%, this newest acquisition further boosts our mechanical recycling capabilities. It also consolidates our position as a technology leader within the industry.

But taking the larger view, it is also a significant step in implementing the principles of a circular economy of plastics. We created our Circular Economy Solutions unit to find new growth opportunities in both mechanical recycling and design for recyclability. Because, while it is essential to take active measures to collect plastic waste, it is just as important to create as little waste as possible in the first place. At the same time, we are collaborating with our customers and partners to design products that are more easily recyclable, produce more high-quality recyclates, and also find novel applications for this recyclates. A key enabler for this will be the EverMinds™ platform we launched in December.

What other concrete measures is Borealis taking to create value through innovation?

AS Innovation is of course the lifeblood of Borealis. Our excellent technology portfolio is often decisive in securing partners for global projects, as was the case in Kazakhstan, but also in Texas, where we will build the first plant to use third-generation Borstar technology. Our Value Creation through Innovation strategy consistently pays off: not only for us, but for our customers as well. Working together to develop new applications and products, or to improve existing ones, is the most cost-competitive way to implement innovation. For example, in a core segment like Energy we are a key enabler of the "Energiewende" – the change to a greener energy landscape – thanks to our solar and photovoltaic solutions based on Quentys™. Likewise in Automotive: be it with lightweight material solutions based on Fibremod™ Carbon and Daploy™, or Daplen™ PP compound grades composed of post-consumer recycled and virgin content, we will continue to invest in our proprietary technologies in order to remain an innovation leader.

MT We are harnessing the power of digital solutions to offer more value to our customers. Our Digitalisation Programme has really gained momentum in the past 18 months. It is much more than a programme – it is an entirely new way of working. Digitalisation is the accelerator for initiatives throughout the whole company. We have made great progress thanks to the successful 2018 launches of the NutriGuide within Fertilizers, and the MyBorealis customer platform in Polyolefins. Our new Brussels-based Digital Studio can produce innovative and value-creating products within a very short time frame. This enhances our visibility among our customers. What is more, we can use the process to come up with solutions that our customers truly need, and not with solutions we think they should need.

How did the year 2018 shape up in terms of excellence?

MT The charm and the challenge of excellence is that it is something you can never fully achieve. By the time you have realised your immediate goals, the bar has already been raised. So achieving excellence, whether operationally or commercially, requires a lot of creativity. I am very pleased that in 2018 we were able to achieve production records in quite a number of sites, some of which have been operating for thirty or forty years – and all while heeding “safety first.”

In a similar way, improving commercial excellence is not the sole task of marketing or sales, but rather one for the entire organisation. In 2018 we made great strides in serving our Wire & Cable customers, for example, by ensuring that everyone involved – including those working the factory shifts – understands why cleanliness is so essential. Our people are that much more engaged and passionate when they understand and experience first-hand how the final product is actually used, whether in Energy, Automotive, or Healthcare.

AS Excellence is at the core of our values. For example, Nimblicity™ is really about doing away with waste. It is about eliminating anything in our processes that isn’t necessary in order to deliver a solution that helps the customer. It also dovetails perfectly with our efforts to act in a more sustainable way, because no one wants to produce waste with no value.

Mark Tonkens, looking to 2019 and beyond, which areas make up your strategic focus?

MT Striving for excellence in safety and operations remains paramount. Deeper integration of digitalisation in our operations will also be an important focus. Taking meaningful steps to achieve greater circularity in plastics is another key area.

One important change that will affect our figures starting in 2019 is the realignment of our Fertilizer business. At the end of 2018 we took the decision to create a fully-fledged Fertilizer and Melamine unit which stands apart from our Polyolefins and Hydrocarbons businesses. After analysing the market environment in detail, we determined that a dedicated structure would make our Fertilizer, Technical Nitrogen Products (TEN) & Melamine businesses more agile. Rainer Höfling and his team have managed a very strong start. Empowering a team and encouraging them to find new ways of doing things always builds positive momentum.

Alfred Stern, in 2019 and beyond, which strategic focus areas are most important from the CEO’s perspective?

AS While we have a large number of important focus areas, I’d like to address five main points. First, Polyolefins and Hydrocarbons: we will cement our position as partner of choice for our customers by remaining a reliable global supplier with local operations, and by offering the highest quality. Second, we will drive operational and commercial excellence in our new Fertilizer, Technical Nitrogen Products (TEN) & Melamine business unit. This may include seeking new business partners who can play a role in expanding our global footprint. Third, the ongoing expansion of the Borouge complex, as mentioned previously. The fourth priority also involves global growth projects on the Gulf Coast in Texas, and in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The fifth and final area entails continuing our pioneering efforts in circular economy solutions and digitalisation. Both of these areas are potential industry disruptors. Because we at Borealis are creative and innovative by nature, it is in our blood to embrace disruption. We are confident that we can be an industry leader in both of these areas.

Very last word: what will the year 2019 bring?

MT It will be another exciting year, yet with more uncertainty in both the global economy and the industry. As always, we must continue to focus on the areas we can influence, manage our assets as efficiently as possible, serve our customers in the best possible way, and maintain the ideal framework we have already implemented in order to drive global growth.

AS We live in an era of accelerated change. If we as an organisation are willing to embrace change, we can seize many business opportunities. I believe that our Borealis team can offer solutions to many problems and achieve incredible things if we empower them to do so. Miracles don’t happen when you just think about great ideas, but when you actually make them happen. What distinguishes Borealis is our ability to execute innovation successfully.

A shorter version of this interview was published in our Combined Annual Report 2018.


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