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Paul Iribe

Paul Iribe


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Paul Iribe, the son of a Basque engineer, was born in Angoulême on 18th June, 1883. He was educated in Paris and studied art at the École des Beaux-Arts. He later served his apprenticeship with Le Temps and in 1901 began work as an illustrator with the satirical newspaper, Le Rire.

During the First World War he moved to Hollywood and managed to obtain a part in Great Men Among Us (1915). He failed to make it as an actor but was art director of A Prodigal Knight (1921), Paying the Piper (1921) and The Ten Commandments (1923). He then directed three films: Changing Husbands (1924), Forty Winks (1925) and The Night Club (1925).

Iribe married Maybelle Hogan, an American heiress, in 1928. He returned to Paris where his drawings were published in Le Sourire, Le Cri de Paris and Le Joyrnal de Paris. He also provided material for the anarchist newspaper, L'Assiette au Beurre.

Iribe separated from his wife and became romantically involved with Coco Chanel. They mixed with a group that included Misia Sert, José-Maria Sert, Jean Cocteau, Jean Marais and Serge Lifar. During this period Iribe became addicted to drugs.

Paul Iribe died of a heart-attack while playing tennis on 21st September 1935.


Les Robes de Paul Poiret racontéés par Paul Iribe

Three years after the store opened at 5 rue Auber, many artists contributed to the definition of Paul Poiret’s aesthetic and spirit through their designs. One of them was certainly Paul Iribe, a French illustrator who worked with many Parisian journals and daily papers, including Le temps and Le rire.

Poiret was attracted by the illustrations Iribe made for the magazine Le témoin, and decided to contact him for a collaboration.

“I confided to Iribe my intention to make a very nice publication, intended for the elite of good society, that is, a volume of his designs of my clothes, printed on beautiful Arches paper or Holland paper, which would be sent as a tribute to all the great ladies of the world. As it happens, Iribe needed money. I paid him the price of his first drawings and he disappeared. (…) I seem to remember that I had to threaten him quite seriously to force him to finish the volume. Eventually he sent me the latest originals and we went to press. Today this work is well known and can be found in the library of any artist or art lover. It is a stu-pen-dous thing, which then constituted unprecedented documentation. The volume had been conceived in such a spirit that it was just a little out of date today. I titled Les robes de Paul Poiret racontéés par Paul Iribe. A copy was sent to each sovereign of Europe, with a personalized dedication, placed after the endpapers and printed in refined characters. All copies were well received and appreciated, except for that of S.M. the Queen of England, [her copy] was sent back to me with a letter from a court lady in which I was asked to refrain from sending such items in the future. I never understood the reason for the misunderstanding. “

This publication anticipated a revival of fashion plates in a modern style to reflect a newer and slimmer silhouette. It was also one of the first examples of attempts that Poiret made to cement the relationship between art and fashion, later expressed in collaborations with Erté and Raoul Dufy, among others.

The album was made with the stencil technique known as pochoir, with bright and saturated areas of color. This approach not only reflects the novelty of Poiret’s designs, but also its unique palette. In fact, even if the garments depicted in the pochoirs refer to Neoclassicism, their acid colors and exotic accessories, in particular the turbans wrapped à la Madame de Staël, gave more the impression of an eastern style in design. The illustrations presented Poiret’s work in a flattened and highly decorative modern language that communicated the escapist spirit of the clothes in a way that was far more convincing than traditional flat fashion with its fetishization of detail.


Rosa Genoni: Fashion of Pure Italian Art

At the beginning of the twentieth century a notable obstacle prevented Italian fashion from taking off: the impossibility of establishing itself internationally was in fact due to the hegemony of the Parisian Haute Couture. In order to be able to create a scenario with International credit, Italy had first of all to become aware of its own potential and to acquire an independence towards the cultural hegemony of Paris. The first signs of change can be identified towards the end of the nineteenth century, when the energies of the country began to be turned towards a re-evaluation of Italian creativity.

The key figure of this change was Rosa Genoni, a skilled seamstress with good knowledge of French couture, a great expert of the history of Italian art, as well as a leading figure in the movement for female emancipation. Genoni stood out in the Italian panorama for the idea of ​​promoting a national style. In 1906, Genoni presented at the Milan International Exposition a series of models that were inspired by the style of some great masters of Italian Renaissance art, such as Pisanello and Botticelli.
The pavilion where Genoni’s models were exposed won the Grand Prix of the Jury. The success achieved and her tireless promotion led to the creation of a committee for a “Fashion of pure Italian art” chaired by a nobleman, Giuseppe Visconti di Modrone.

The elements that characterised this pioneering initiative by Genoni were, on the one hand, the attempt to give new impetus to Italian sartorial creativity, freeing her from submission to the Haute Couture, with the aim of individuation its own original features on the other hand, the connection with Renaissance art, a combination capable of ennobling this operation – and fashion – from a cultural point of view, also attributing it to a label of sure international appeal.


Paul Iribe

Paul Iribe was born in Angouleme in 1813 as Paul Iribarnegaray – a name that he quite understandably contracted to Iribe. He was trained as a commercial artist and became famous as a caricaturist for a range of famous Parisian journals.

Iribe was recognized as the precursor of the “pure” Art Deco style – Ruhlmann, Süe et Mare, and Groult all readily acknowledged his influence. Sadly, Iribe’s creativity was confined largely to four short years, from 1910-1914. His fame appears, in retrospect, to match that of Colonna: a brief, meteoric burst of brilliance followed by years of obscurity.

At some stage in the early 1900s, Iribe developed the related skills of interior decorating, no doubt with the encouragement of famed couturier Paul Poiret, for whom he designed a range of jewelry, fabrics, wallpapers, and furniture. It was another couturier, however, who sealed his fame as a furniture designer: Jacques Doucet.

Doucet decided in, 1912, to offer his collection of eighteenth-century furniture at auction, and commissioned Iribe to furnish his new apartment at 46 avenue du Bois (now the avenue Foch). With his young assistant Pierre Legrain, soon to become quite famous in his own right, Iribe designed a marvelous range of modern furniture. Three pieces – two bergères and a commode – were donated subsequently to the Musee des Arts Decoartifs in Paris. Another pair of bergères, bearing the broad, circular, snail-like, spiraled armrests which characterized his most spectacular work, were included in the highly important sale of Doucet’s collection at the Hôtel Drouot in 1972.

Iribe’s style provided elegance in a quite unprecedented manner. Whereas a Louis XV flamboyance is evident in the fluid design, the discipline is distinctly 1800. There is also a pleasing touch of femininity and comfort. Preferred woods were zebra wood, with its distinctive grain, macassar ebony, and mahogany. A favorite stylized motif was the rose, later to become the celebrated “rose Iribe”, a symbol of high Art Deco, despite its prewar conception.

In the winter of 1914, perhaps spurred by the outbreak of war, Iribe set sail for the United States for what became a sixteen-year sojourn. He settled in Hollywood, designing giant stage sets for Cecil B. de Mille. In 1930, at the age of forty-seven, he returned to France, where he took a studio at 4 avenue Rodin. He designed jewelry for Coco Chanel until his death in 1935.

Alastair Duncan Rinehart and Winston: 1984),101., “Paul Iribe” Art Deco Furniture: The French Designers (New York: Holt,

Paul Iribe was born in Angouleme in 1813 as Paul Iribarnegaray – a name that he quite understandably contracted to Iribe. He was trained as a commercial artist and became famous as a caricaturist for a range of famous Parisian journals.

Iribe was recognized as the precursor of the “pure” Art Deco style – Ruhlmann, Süe et Mare, and Groult all readily acknowledged his influence. Sadly, Iribe’s creativity was confined largely to four short years, from 1910-1914. His fame appears, in retrospect, to match that of Colonna: a brief, meteoric burst of brilliance followed by years of obscurity.

At some stage in the early 1900s, Iribe developed the related skills of interior decorating, no doubt with the encouragement of famed couturier Paul Poiret, for whom he designed a range of jewelry, fabrics, wallpapers, and furniture. It was another couturier, however, who sealed his fame as a furniture designer: Jacques Doucet.

Doucet decided in, 1912, to offer his collection of eighteenth-century furniture at auction, and commissioned Iribe to furnish his new apartment at 46 avenue du Bois (now the avenue Foch). With his young assistant Pierre Legrain, soon to become quite famous in his own right, Iribe designed a marvelous range of modern furniture. Three pieces – two bergères and a commode – were donated subsequently to the Musee des Arts Decoartifs in Paris. Another pair of bergères, bearing the broad, circular, snail-like, spiraled armrests which characterized his most spectacular work, were included in the highly important sale of Doucet’s collection at the Hôtel Drouot in 1972.

Iribe’s style provided elegance in a quite unprecedented manner. Whereas a Louis XV flamboyance is evident in the fluid design, the discipline is distinctly 1800. There is also a pleasing touch of femininity and comfort. Preferred woods were zebra wood, with its distinctive grain, macassar ebony, and mahogany. A favorite stylized motif was the rose, later to become the celebrated “rose Iribe”, a symbol of high Art Deco, despite its prewar conception.

In the winter of 1914, perhaps spurred by the outbreak of war, Iribe set sail for the United States for what became a sixteen-year sojourn. He settled in Hollywood, designing giant stage sets for Cecil B. de Mille. In 1930, at the age of forty-seven, he returned to France, where he took a studio at 4 avenue Rodin. He designed jewelry for Coco Chanel until his death in 1935.

Alastair Duncan Rinehart and Winston: 1984),101., “Paul Iribe” Art Deco Furniture: The French Designers (New York: Holt,


Perfumes By Lanvin

Fragrance Perfumer Bottle
Niv Nal (existed by 1925) Masdame Zed
Irise (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
Kara Djenoun (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
Le Sillon (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
Le Chypre (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
Comme-ci, Comme-ca (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
Lajea (existed by 1925) Masdame Zed
J'en Raffole (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
La Dogaresse (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
Ou Fleurit L'Oranger (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
Geranium d'Espagne (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
Apres Sport (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
Jeanne Lanvin (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
Cross-Country (existed by 1925) Madame Zed
My Sin (1925) Madame Zed
Arpege (1927) André Fraysse and Paul Vacher Albert Armand Rateau featuring trademark based on Paul Iribe sketch.
L'Ame Perdue (Lost Soul) (1928) André Fraysse
Petales Froisses (1928) André Fraysse
Scandal (1933) André Fraysse
Eau de Lanvin (1933) André Fraysse
Eau de Cologne (1934) André Fraysse
Rumeur (1934) André Fraysse
Pretext (1934) André Fraysse
Creschendo (1960)
Monsieur Lanvin (1964)
Vetyver Lanvin (1966)
Via Lanvin (1971)
(relaunch) Rumeur (1979)
Lanvin for Men (1979)
Cardamome (for the Middle East market - 1979)
Clair de Jour (1983)
eau de parfum Arpege (1987)
(relaunch) Arpege (1992)
Lanvin L'Homme (1997)
Oxygene (2000)
Oxygene Homme (2001)
Eclat d'Arpege (2002)
Lanvin Vetyver (2003)
Arpege pour Homme

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Marie-Louise Iribe Pioneered French Cinema but Is Largely Forgotten Today

If you search Marie-Louise Iribe’s name on Google, the results don’t yield much information. She was an actress and director of early French cinema, founded her own production company, and lived in Paris for her entire life. But the available details about her life are thin and sometimes contradictory. Despite being a pioneer of French cinema who even successfully made the transition from silent to sound film, she is not very well remembered.

Iribe was born in Paris on November 29, 1894. Her birth name was Pauline Marie-Louise Lavoisot, but when she became an actress she took Marie-Louise Iribe as her stage name. Iribe was the last name of her uncle, the illustrator and designer Paul Iribe who would later work on her most well-remembered film with her. She studied drama at the Conservatoire de Paris and pursued her dream of becoming an actress. She married André Roanne in 1921, but the pair soon divorced. In 1925, he married her second husband, Pierre Renoir, a fellow actor and the son of the Impressionist painter, Pierre-August Renoir. The couple separated in 1930, but their divorce was not finalized until 1933.

Iribe began her acting career on stage and in silent film. In the 1910s and 1920s, she acted in almost twenty films and did both features and short films. She was part of projects from directors like René Le Somptier, Gaston Ravel, and Henri Fescourt. She was in two films by prominent director Louis Feuillade in 1914: Her Guilty Secret and At the Hour of Dawn .

Alongside her husband Renoir, Iribe co-founded Les Artistes Réunis. This production company made several films in the late 1920s. Notably, in 1927, Renoir directed Marquitta which starred Iribe as the leading lady, a street singer who falls in love with a prince. Iribe went on to co-direct and star in Hara-Kiri in 1928. Like Marquitta, the film’s script was by Renoir’s friend Pierre Lestringuez. Hara-Kiri was a bold film, showing an affair between a married French woman and a Japanese nobleman. The film challenged ideas of the time about class, race, and relationships. It was originally set to be directed by Henri Debain, but when he had to leave the project, Iribe took over.

Iribe’s only film that she directed completely by herself was The Erl King in 1931. Based on the short ballad by Goethe, it tells the story of a father trying to save his son’s life and the lurking demon or fairy king. Known as Le roi des aulnes in France, it’s a folktale with impressive special effects and sound design for the time. The film was Iribe’s only sound film and while modern viewers can tell it was clearly made during the period of transitioning away from the style of acting and design of silent movies, it was an effective effort. The haunting film also features a screenplay co-written by Iribe and impressive costumes by Iribe’s uncle.

Where Iribe’s career might have gone if she had not died at a young age is impossible to know. But The Erl King certainly suggests that she could have enjoyed more success as a writer and director. She died on April 12, 1934, in Paris at the age of just 39 years old. Her short but impressive career has unfortunately been largely overlooked particularly as the quality of recordings of her existing work leaves something to be desired.

Iribe is just one example of the significant number of women who were at the top of the film industry in its early days. As sound films took over from silent movies, the industry became more structured and opportunities for women began to disappear in areas other than acting. Women like Mary Pickford, Alice Guy-Blaché, and Iribe were important to the development of film techniques and the industry itself, but have often been forgotten over time. Every year, when the Academy Awards release their nominations, a debate rises about their lack of nominations for female directors. The Erl King is definitely worth watching, if for no other reason than to remember that women have been directing films as long as the Academy Awards have existed.

Top Photo: Jean Angelo, Henri Debain, and Marie-Louise Iribe in Marquitta


Early Twentieth Century

Throughout the 20th century, particularly all high fashion originated in Paris and to much lesser extend from London. Fashion magazines sent editors from around the world to Paris fashion shows. Department stores sent buyers to Paris fashion shows to purchase garments for copying and openly stole the style lines and trim details of others. Both made-to-measure salons and ready-to-wear department stores featured the latest Paris trends, adapted to the stores assumptions about the lifestyles and pocket books of their targeted customers. In the early 20th century the division between Haute Couture and ready-to-wear styles was not as sharp as it is today. The two separate modes of production were still far from being competitors and they often co-existed in houses where the seamstresses moved freely between made-to-measure and ready-made.

At the start of the 20th century fashion magazines began to include photographs and became even more influential than in the coming future. In cities around the world these magazines were greatly sought-after by the fashionable people seeking the latest fashion trends and had a profound effect on public taste and what people were going to wear. Talented illustrators – among them the most famous Paul Iribe, Georges Lepape, Erté, and George Barbier – drew exquisite fashion illustrations for these publications, which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton, which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925.


The Philosophy Of Paul Poiret – Principles Of Correct Dress

P aul Poiret was one of the most influential designers during the early 20th Century and he played a major role in shaping haute couture and the fashion industry as we know it today. Most notably, Poiret helped ensure the demise of the corset, and especially it’s most recent incarnation in the form of the s-bend corset, and introduced new designs that moved fashion away from highly structured silhouettes to more loose ones based on draping rather than tailoring. Also, Poiret was noted for the development of the hobble skirt and the “lampshade dress” as well as incorporating oriental elements in his designs.

Here we see just one example of the “lampshade” dress style from 1912:

However, lost in all of Poiret’s achievements is consideration of his ideas, or “philosophy” were about dress itself. One charge that is often laid on haute couture and their designers is that wealth automatically equates to good or “correct” dress. To Poiret:

This art has little in common with money. The woman whose resources are limited has no more cause for being dowdily dressed than the woman who is rich has reason to believe that she is beautifully gowned. Except in so far as money can procure the services of a good dressmaker, of an artist who can judge his customer’s style and garb her accordingly, the wealthy woman stands no better chance of being correctly dressed than the woman who must turn every penny before spending it. [1]

While the above is almost a truism when it comes to fashion, at least today, it’s still revealing coming from the man who had crowned himself the “King of Fashion.” Poiret further expands on this theme, stating that dressing is:

…not an easy art to acquire. It demands a certain amount of intelligence, certain gifts, some of them among the rarest, perhaps—it requires a real appreciation of harmony, of colors, ingenious ideas, absolute tact, and, above all, a love of the beautiful and clear perception of values. It may be resumed in two words, good taste. [2]

So, what is “good taste” to Poiret?

Taste is by no means developed by riches on the contrary, the increasing demands of luxury are killing the art of dressing. Luxury and good taste are in inverse proportion to each other. The one will kill the other as machinery is crowding out handwork. In fact, it has come so far that many persons confuse the two terms. Because a material is expensive they find it beautiful because it is cheap they think it must be ugly. [3]

The above is as true today as it was back then and we see it in the fashion nearly every day. Naturally, “good taste” can be somewhat subjective, depending on time and place but it still gets to the idea that one cannot simply buy their way into good taste, or by extension, good fashion.

Here we see a sample of the fashion illustrations that Poiret commissioned by various avant garde artists such as Paul Iribe. Here we see a definite revival of the simple vertical lines of the empire dress style:


Fashion Illustration from the 16th Century to Now

The majority of fashion illustrations were created to be seen on a page at close range, allowing for the personal experience associated with books and letters. Therefore, fashion illustrations possess a unique feeling of intimacy, with the image held in the viewer&rsquos hand, as well as an urgency, the need to stop us in our tracks before we turn the page.

Fashion illustration requires the unique ability to use pen or brush in such a way that it not only captures nuance through gesture but is also able to transform the graphic representation of a garment, accessory, or cosmetic into an object of desire. The job of the fashion artist is to &lsquotell the story of the dress.&rsquo

Fig. 2. Charles Dana Gibson, The Gibson Book, Volume II, 1907

THE BEGINNING OF FASHION ILLUSTRATION

Fashion illustration began in the sixteenth century when global exploration and discovery led to a fascination with the dress and costume of people in many nations around the world. Books illustrating the appropriate dress of different social classes and cultures were printed to help eliminate the fear of change and social unrest these discoveries created.

Between 1520 and 1610 more than two-hundred collections of such engravings, etchings, or woodcuts were published, containing plates of figures wearing clothes particular to their nationality or rank. These were the first dedicated illustrations of dress and the prototype for modern fashion illustration. The illustrations likely found their way to dressmakers, tailors, and their clients, serving to inspire new designs.

Fig. 3. Abraham Bosse, Un homme se dirigeant à droite monte un degré, 1629

Seventeenth-century artists Jacques Callot (1592-1635) and Abraham Bosse (1602-1676) both used modern engraving techniques to produce realistic details of the clothes and costumes of their times.

The journals, which began to be published in France and England from the 1670s onward, are considered the first fashion magazines, among them Le Mecure Gallant, The Lady's Magazine, La Gallerie des Modes, Le Cabinet des Modes, and Le Journal des Dames et des Modes. The increase in the number of periodicals and journals produced during this time was in response to an increasingly well-informed female readership eager for the latest news of fashion. Illustrations of current male styles became equally as important as those for women by the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Fig. 4. Jacques Callot, Etching from La Noblesse, ca.1620

THE FASHION PLATE IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

The fashion plate came into its own in the late eighteenth century, flourishing in Paris with publications such as Horace Venet's Incroyables et Merveilleuses. This series of watercolor fashion drawings under Napoleon I was engraved by Georges-Jacques Gatine (1773-1824) as a series of fashion plates. France's position as the arbiter of fashion ensured that there was a constant demand, at home and abroad, for fashion illustration. This interest in, and growing access to, fashionable dress resulted in the introduction of more than one hundred and fifty fashion periodicals during the nineteenth century, all of which included fashion plates. These highly detailed fashion illustrations captured trend-driven information and provided general dressmaking instruction. These illustrations were created by such talented artists as the Colin sisters and Florensa de Closménil.

Fig. 5. Georges-Jacques Gatine, Le Goût du Jour, No. 21: Les Modernes Incroyables, from Caricatures Parisiennes, ca.1815

Couture fashion emerged in the 1860s. Fashion houses hired illustrators who would work directly with the couturier to sketch the new designs as the maestro draped the fabric onto a live model. They also drew illustrations of each design in the finished collection which could then be sent to clients. By the end of the nineteenth century, hand-colored prints were replaced by full-color printing. Fashion plates began to feature two figures, one of which is seen from the back or the side so that the costume could be seen from more angles, making it easier to copy. The focus of nineteenth-century illustrators was on accuracy and details. They conformed to static, iconographic conventions in order to provide information and instruction to their viewers.

Fig. 6. Florensa de Closménil, La Mode, 25 septembre 1846: Chapeaux de Mme Penet, 1846

Fashion illustration by the turn of the twentieth century became highly graphic and based more on the artist's individual style. For example, Charles Dana Gibson's (1867-1944) scratchy renderings of the modern American woman, with upswept hair and shirt-waist, defined a type as well as provided a humorous, sometimes satirical, commentary on contemporary American life.

FASHION MAGAZINES AND ILLUSTRATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

The early decades of the twentieth century saw the first flowering of fashion illustration in its modern sense. The business of drawing became a vocation as the circulation of the latest styles became an increasingly lucrative business. Fashion, formerly the work of individual artists, was becoming an industry, producing new merchandise in unprecedented quantities to fill department stores. These stores were inventing the culture of shopping, a new national pastime.

In Paris, couturier Paul Poiret was commissioning limited edition albums by artists such as Paul Iribe (1883-1935). In 1908, Iribe introduced figures printed using the pochoir method, based on Japanese techniques which involved creating a stencil for each layer of color which was then applied by hand. Known for his jeweled-tone palette and clean graphic line, Poirot now aligned his new uncorseted and exotic silhouettes with the elite and exclusive world of art.

Fig. 7. Paul Iribe, Les Robes de Paul Poiret Racontée, 1908

Published from 1912 to 1925, the luxury French magazine Gazette du bon ton brought together a group of young artists who were given unprecedented freedom in their interpretation of fashion. Each edition contained up to ten color pochoir plates and several croquis design sketches. Iribe was one several fashion illustrators who contributed to the celebrated publication that also included work by such greats as Charles Martin (1848-1934), Eduardo Garcia Benito (1892-1953) George Barbier (1882-1932) Georges Lepape (1887-1971) and Umberto Brunelleschi (1879-1949). The plates they produced for the Gazette show the influence of Japanese wood-block prints as well as the new sleek geometry of Art Deco styling.

Fig. 8. George Barbier, Artémis - Manteau, de Worth, plate 29 from Gazette du Bon Ton, No. 4, 1924-1925

In the United States, mass-market fashion magazines Vogue and Harper&rsquos Bazaar covered the social scene as well as contemporary clothing trends and beauty. Harper&rsquos Bazaar signed an exclusive contract with Erte which lasted from 1915 to 1938&mdashone of the longest contracts in publishing history. From 1910 until the outbreak of World War II, the cover of Vogue always featured an illustration. Vogue&rsquos early covers displayed artwork created by American illustrators Helen Dryden (1882-1972), George Wolf Plank (1883-1965), Georges Lepape (1887-1971), and F.X. Leyendecker (1876-1924). Following the First World War, they were joined by European artists including Eduardo Benito (1891-1981), Charles Martin (1884-1934), Pierre Brissaud (1884-1964), and Andre Marty (1882-1974).

Fig. 9. F.X. Leyendecker, Cover of Vogue, March 1, 1911

THE GOLDEN AGE OF FASHION ILLUSTRATION

The 1920s and &lsquo30s represent the &ldquogolden age&rdquo of fashion illustration. Every commercial artist was considered a fashion artist&mdashall were consummate draughtsmen. Many were able to represent the texture, sheen, and even weight of the fabric with authority and conviction.

New technological developments in photography and printing began to allow for the reproduction of photos to be placed directly onto the pages of magazines, meaning the fashion plate was no longer a representation of modern life. By the beginning of the 1930s, photographs began to be preferred in magazines, with Vogue reporting in 1936 that photographic covers sold better. Illustration began to be relegated to the inside pages.

Fig. 10. Rene Bouché, Red Suit, 1950

With the economic recession that followed the Stock Market Crash of 1929, the United States fashion industry grew less dependent on Paris for fashion. American garment manufacturing made great strides during the interwar years, improving large-scale production methods and standardizing sizing. Middle-class women relied on skillful dressmakers to interpret the latest couture designs at more affordable prices, while the patterns published by magazines such as Vogue and Women&rsquos Journal were invaluable for the home dressmaker. With the outbreak of World War II, these skills assumed a new importance as women struggled to maintain some level of fashionability in the face of severe supply shortages and restrictions.

The prime objective of Vogue was to show fashion to the reader in as much informative detail as possible. Photography had freed illustrators from the need to make an exact record of the clothing in favor of more interpretive renditions of fashionable dress. The magazine publishers were said to complain that &lsquothe artists were chiefly interested in achieving amusing drawings and decorative effects. they were bored to death by anything resembling an obligation to report the spirit of contemporary fashion faithfully.&rdquo Vogue and Harper's Bazaar kept the art of fashion illustration alive, featuring the work of fashion illustrators like Christian Berard (1902-1949), Eric [Carl Erickson] (1891-1958), Erté [Romain de Tirtoff] (1892-1990), Marcel Vértes (1895-1961), Rene Bouché (1906-1963), and René Gruau (1908-2004).

Dior&rsquos &ldquoNew Look&rdquo in the late 1940s provided the inspiration for the fashion revival after the war. In many ways it was a retrograde style, harking back to the past rather than anticipating the future, yet it also symbolized a return to more cheerful, optimistic times.

Fig. 11. Erté, Symphony in Black, 1983

THE DEMISE AND REVIVAL OF FASHION ILLUSTRATION

By the 1950s, fashion editors were investing more of their budgets for editorial spreads of photography. The subsequent promotion of the fashion photographer to celebrity meant that illustrators had to be content with working on articles for lingerie and accessories, or in advertising campaigns.

The 1960s saw the continuing demise of fashion illustration in magazine publishing, which was featured in the new category of youth-oriented teen magazines, a number of which launched in the 1960s and all of which used illustration as a cheaper alternative to photography. Their role was to inspire and suggest, rather than dictate. Illustrated covers were occasionally featured, and editorial illustration was included by artists such as Rene Bouché, Alfredo Bouret (1928-2018), Tod Draz (1943-1987), and Tom Keogh (1922-1980).

Fig. 12. Alfredo Bouret, Illustration for Vogue Paris, 1960

Antonio Lopez (1943-1987) was the only artist regularly featured in the pages of Vogue during this time, having started his career at Women&rsquos Wear Daily.

During the second half of the twentieth century, fashion illustration struggled to survive, until it underwent a renaissance in the 1980s. A new generation of artists was given an outlet in magazines such as La Mode en peinture (1982), Conde Nast&rsquos Vanity (1981), and Visionaire (1991). Credit for this revival is attributed to advertising campaigns, notably Barney&rsquos New York&rsquos 1993-1996 advertising campaign with witty illustrations by Jean-Philippe Delhomme (b.1959).

Fig. 13. Jean-Philippe Delhomme, Advertisement for Barneys New York, 1993-1996

FASHION ILLUSTRATION TODAY

Falling between fine and commercial art, fashion illustration has only recently been reevaluated as a significant genre in its own right. Since beauty and grace are now outmoded both in fashion and in art, fashion drawing seems at times like a throwback to an earlier era. With photography so much more adept at documenting a garment&rsquos details, the illustrators&rsquo focus was no longer on the accurate rendition of the garment, instead interpreting the clothing and the person who might wear it. This developed a wide range of unique artistic styles in the late twentieth and early twenty first centuries, bolstered by digital tools and social media platforms. The 1990s saw the rise of computer-based drawing by such pioneers as Ed Tsuwaki (b.1966), Graham Rounthwaite (b.1970), Jason Brooks (b.1969), and Kristian Russell.

Fig. 14. Jason Brooks, Illustration for Revlon, 2013

This period, which saw the emergence of computer design programs Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator, also witnessed a revitalization of traditional art-based forms of fashion illustration. New York&rsquos Parsons School of Design and FIT began offering illustration as a dedicated element of their fashion curriculum. &ldquoTraditional&rdquo hand-worked illustration has continued to enjoy a revival, with fashion illustrators often looking back to the masters of the past for stylistic inspiration. Fashion illustration that is grounded in classic methods has managed to survive alongside those created by more modern processes.

Most recently, illustration has come into vogue through collaborations between fashion designers and illustrators. With the use of social media, fashion illustrators are beginning to make their way to the spotlight. Bursting with vibrant colors, intricate patterns, and endless personality, fashion illustrations never fail to impress.

Sarah Goethe-Jones

Sarah Goethe-Jones is a costume designer and fashion historian. She has a diverse background in theatre, film, styling, and museums.

She holds a degree from Parsons New School of Design in New York City, and is currently a student at University of Massachusetts in Amherst, Massachusetts. In 2018, Sarah served as a research fellow of fashion illustration at Norman Rockwell Museum's Center for American Visual Studies.


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