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HMS Derwent, Hunt Class Type 3 destroyer

HMS Derwent, Hunt Class Type 3 destroyer

HMS Derwent, Hunt Class Type 3 destroyer

A view of the Hunt class type 3 destroyer HMS Derwent, see from the aircraft carrier Illustrious in the Far East.


On commissioning Belvoir was deployed to Scapa Flow for service with the Home Fleet. She was subsequently allocated to the 2nd Destroyer Squadron and escorted convoys to South Africa, then transferred to the Mediterranean, including service escorting Malta Convoys. In 1943 she took part in escort duties as part of Operation Husky, the allied landings in Sicily and subsequently the landings at Salerno.

In 1944 she was prepared for service as part of the Allied landings in the south of France and subsequently in the Adriatic. In June 1945 she returned to the UK for paying off.

In 1946 she was reduced to reserve status and laid up at Portsmouth. She was placed on the disposal list in 1957 and sold. She was scrapped by McLennan, arriving at their yard at Bo'Ness on 21 October 1957. ΐ]


Publications [ edit ]


  • Colledge, J. J. Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969]. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN𧓒-1-86176-281-8. OCLC�.  

  • English, John (1987). The Hunts: a history of the design, development and careers of the 86 destroyers of this class built for the Royal and Allied Navies during World War II. England: World Ship Society. ISBNـ-905617-44-4.
  • Atherstone
  • Berkeley
  • Blencathra
  • Brocklesby
  • Cattistock
  • Cleveland
  • Cotswold
  • Cottesmore
  • Eglinton

  • Exmoor (L61)
  • Fernie
  • Garth
  • Hambledon
  • Holderness
  • Liddesdale
  • Mendip
  • Meynell
  • Pytchley
  • Quantock
  • Quorn
  • Southdown
  • Tynedale
  • Whaddon

  • Presidente Alfaro (ex-Quantock)

  • Presidente Velasco Ibarra (ex-Meynell)

  • Mohamed Ali el-Kebir (1949) / Ibrahim el-Awal (1951) (ex-Mendip)

  • Ibrahim el-Awal (1950) / Mohamed Ali el-Kebir (1951) / Port Said (ex-Cottesmore)
  • Avon Vale
  • Badsworth
  • Beaufort
  • Bedale
  • Bicester
  • Blackmore
  • Blankney
  • Bramham

  • Burton / Exmoor (L08)

  • Calpe
  • Chiddingfold
  • Cowdray
  • Croome
  • Dulverton
  • Eridge
  • Farndale
  • Grove
  • Heythrop
  • Hursley
  • Hurworth
  • Lamerton
  • Lauderdale
  • Ledbury
  • Middleton

  • Oakley (L72)
  • Puckeridge
  • Southwold
  • Silverton
  • Tetcott

  • Tickham / Oakley (L98)

  • Wheatland
  • Wilton
  • Zetland

  • Esbern Snare (ex-Blackmore)

  • Rolf Krake (ex-Calpe)

  • Valdemar Sejr (ex-Exmoor (L08))

  • Aigaion (ex-Lauderdale)

  • Astings (L52) (ex-Cowdray)

  • Themistoklis (ex-Bramham)

  • Kriti (ex-Hursley)

  • Godavari (ex-Bedale)

  • Gomati (ex-Lamerton)

  • Ganga (ex-Chiddingfold)

  • Arendal (ex-Badsworth)

  • Haugesund (ex-Beaufort)

  • Tromsø (ex-Zetland)

  • Krakowiak (ex-Silverton)

  • Kujawiak (ex-Oakley (L72))

  • Ślązak (ex-Bedale)
  • Airedale
  • Albrighton
  • Aldenham
  • Belvoir
  • Blean
  • Bleasdale
  • Bolebroke
  • Border
  • Catterick
  • Derwent
  • Easton
  • Eggesford
  • Eskdale
  • Glaisdale
  • Goathland
  • Haldon
  • Hatherleigh
  • Haydon
  • Holcombe
  • Limbourne
  • Melbreak
  • Modbury
  • Penylan
  • Rockwood
  • Stevenstone
  • Talybont
  • Tanatside
  • Wensleydale

  • Adrias (L67) (ex-Border)

  • Adrias (D06) (ex-Tanatside)

  • Astings (L81) (ex-Catterick)

  • Kanaris (ex-Hatherleigh)

  • Miaoulis (ex-Modbury)

  • Pindos (ex-Bolebroke)
  • 1 Dec: HMAS Armidale
  • 2 Dec: Lupo, HMS Quentin
  • 3 Dec: Empire Dabchick, HMS Penylan
  • 4 Dec: Muzio Attendolo, HMS Traveller
  • 6 Dec: USS Grebe
  • 7 Dec: Ceramic
  • 8 Dec: U-254, U-611
  • 9 Dec: HMS Marigold
  • 11 Dec: HMS Blean
  • 12 Dec: HMS P222, Teruzuki
  • 14 Dec: Canberra Maru
  • 15 Dec: U-626
  • 17 Dec: HMS Firedrake
  • 18 Dec: HMS Partridge, Tenryū
  • 25 Dec: HMS P48
  • 26 Dec: U-357
  • 27 Dec: U-336
  • 28 Dec: Choyo Maru
  • 29 Dec: USS Wasmuth
  • 30 Dec: HMS Fidelity
  • 31 Dec: HMS Achates, HMS Bramble, Friedrich Eckoldt, USS Rescuer
  • Unknown date: HMS P311
  • 9 Dec: HMS Porcupine
  • 12 Dec: Empire Centaur, Tannenfels
  • 14 Dec: HMS Argonaut

1941 1942 1943
November 1942 January 1943
  • Hunt-class destroyers of the Royal Navy
  • Ships built on the River Clyde
  • 1942 ships
  • World War II destroyers of the United Kingdom
  • Ships sunk by German submarines in World War II
  • World War II shipwrecks in the Mediterranean
  • Maritime incidents in December 1942
  • Use dmy dates from March 2018
  • Use British English from March 2018
  • Coordinates not on Wikidata

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Hunt Class Destroyers

A school trip by Hordle House School on board HMS Brocklesby 1955. Invited by her Captain, Captain Duckworth.HMS Brocklesby was a Type I "Hunt" Class destroy.

Jcsmarinenews

HMS BROCKLESBY – http://ift.tt/1JBGcuc

HMS Brocklesby (L 42) 12 Dec 1942 The British destroyers HMS Whitshed, HMS Worcester and HMS Vesper, the British escort destroyers HMS Brocklesby and HMS Albrighton, and the Norwegian escort destroyer Eskdale attacked German shipping in the English Channel. Eskdale torpedoed and sank Sperrbrecher 144/Beijerland (387 BRT) west of Le Treport, France in position 50°05'N, 01°09ɾ and Whitshed torpedoed and sank Sperrbecher 178/Gauss (1236 BRT) north-east of Dieppe, France in position 50°04'N…

HMS BROCKLESBY Hunt class Destroyer Royal Navy Real Photo 1963 | eBay

Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for HMS BROCKLESBY Hunt class Destroyer Royal Navy Real Photo 1963 at the best online prices at eBay! Free delivery for many products!


HMS Derwent, Hunt Class Type 3 destroyer - History

BRITISH SHIPS.

DESTROYERS (In Action)

DESTROYERS (Failed to intercept)

HMS Garth (Sheerness, Dad’s ship)

MOTOR TORPEDO BOATS (In Action)

MOTOR TORPEDO BOATS (Failed to intercept)

MOTOR GUN BOATS

SHEERNESS DESTROYERS ATTACK GERMAN BATTLE SHIPS.
The Channel Dash, (Operation Cerberus) 11th to 13th February 1942

In an epic David and Goliath battle, Destroyers from Sheerness attacked
a “Giant” German Battle Fleet.

With the sinking of the German Cruiser Admiral Graf Spee on 18 December 1939 and the Battleship Bismarck on the 27th May 1941 the Germans knew that the British Navy would not rest until every one of their capital ship had been destroyed. This kept the large German Ships bottled up in ports for long periods during World War Two.

The German Pocket Battle ships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen had taken refuge in the French Port of Breast, then under German control. Although protected by large numbers of anti-aircraft guns the Royal Air Force repeatedly bombed the docks at Breast. On the night of the 6th February 1942 sixty Royal Air Force bombers attacked the Scharnhorst, Gneisenau and Prinz Eugen causing minor damage to the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. These frequent air attacks caused Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of Germany, to ordered these war ships to move to their home bases in Germany.

The Royal Air Force and Royal Navy were on standby for this eventuality. But circumstances were to go against the British.

1, The mistaken belief by the British that the German fleet would break through the Straights of Dover, where they would be in range of shore batteries, under cover of darkness.
2, The British submarine keeping watch on Breast being forced to leave its station to recharge its batteries.
3, The jamming of the British radar by the Germans
4, Communications failures and faulty radar equipment.
5, And the weather, cloud cover down to 700 feet, snow and poor visibility.

All this conspired against the British and allowed the German fleet to sail for over three hundred miles up the English Channel, towards the Straights of Dover, undetected.

British Coastal Artillery.

The coastal battery’s around Dover were the first British units to attack the German fleet.

Visibility was less than five miles. The 9.2 inch guns of the South Foreland Battery, with a range of 31,000 yards (17.61 miles) were the only ones with radar and opened fire at the German Fleet. Unable to detect fall of shot to adjust their range, all 33 shells, missed their target. The remaining guns without radar, three 6 inch guns (range 25,000 yards, over 14 miles) at Fan Bay Battery and the two 15 inch guns (range of 42,000 yards, almost 24 miles) at Wanstone Battery were unable to fire. ​

GERMAN SHIPS

BATTLE SHIPS

BATTLE CRUISERS

MOTOR TORPEDO BOATS

SCHNELLBOOT (Fast Boats, Motor Torpedo Boats)
S 29, S 39, S 53, S 70, S 103, S 104, S 105, S 108, S 111, Second Schnell based at Ijmuiden.

S 48, S 49, S 50, S 51, S 52, S 64, S 107, S 109, S 110, Forth Schnellboot Flotilla based at Boulogne.

S 18, S 19, S 20, S 22, S 24, S 69, S 71, S 101, s

Sixth Schnellboot Flotilla

MINESWEEPERS

1st Minesweeping Flotilla

2nd Minesweeping Flotilla

4th Minesweeping Flotilla

5th Minesweeping Flotilla

12th Minesweeping Flotilla

Motor torpedo boats

It was planned, that should the German Fleet attempt to break through the English Channel, 32 Motor Torpedo Boats, with support from other Royal Navy vessels and RAF fighters and bombers would attack the German fleet.

When the German fleet did break through the channel most of these Motor Torpedo Boats were deployed on other assignments and only six based at Dover and four at Ramsgate were able to take part.

The four based at Ramsgate having been in action the previous night and stood down, were unable to catch up to the German Fleet.

Of the six based at Dover one had mechanical problems and was left behind, the remaining five raced out to attack the German Battle ships.

These five tiny boats, only 60 feet (18 m) in length and made of plywood raced across the sea to attack German Battle Ships 771 Feet (235 metres) in length and with 14 inch armour plate.

The visibility was poor with blustering clouds, snow squalls and gusting winds blowing at force six (25 miles per hour) the sea was rough and choppy with six foot waves increasing in height and completely unsuitable for Motor Torpedo Boats.

But this was the least of the problems for the Motor Torpedo Boats. German E-boats and Destroyers were positioned between them and the German Battle Ships and the sky was full of German planes.

One of the five Motor Torpedo Boats had engine problems and fired its torpedoes at maximum range. The four remaining Motor Torpedo Boats, under attack from the air and surface vessels manoeuvred closer to launch their torpedoes at the Battle Ships. But in the atrocious conditions, none struck their targets.

Two motor gun boats based at Dover arrived just in time to provide support for the Motor Torpedo Boats against German Narvik-class Destroyers.

Fairey Swordfish Torpedo Biplanes

Expecting to be forewarned the RAF and the Fleet Air Arm were taken unawares and their bombers were unprepared and unarmed. The only aircraft immediately able to attack the German fleet were six Navy Fairey Swordfish Torpedo Biplanes based at Manston.

These outdated, slow, planes were to attack the German Battle Fleet against impossible odds. To penetrate the firestorm of anti-aircraft fire and the onslaught of the escorting fighter planes, would give little or no chance of returning. Nevertheless, the order given was “The navy will attack the enemy whenever and wherever he is to be found".

The route taken by the German Battle Fleet.

HMS Worcester hit by shell from German Battle fleet.

Fortunately for the V & W class destroyers, the German Battle Fleet was more interested in gaining home waters and avoiding the British Bombers and did not stop to finish off the Worcester or pursue the British Destroyers.

Unbelievably, the British Destroyers were again mistaken for German ships by British Beaufort Torpedo Bombers, from 42 Squadron, and were attacked.

Both HMS Campbell and HMS Vivacious narrowly escaped being torpedoes as they manoeuvred to rescue men in the sea and to pick up the wounded from HMS Worcester. All five British Destroyers were targeted by the RAF Beaufort’s, but mercifully no British ships were damaged or their crews hurt.

Meanwhile, The Hunt class Destroyers from Sheerness and Harwich lost the German fleet in the poor weather and darkness of night and were ordered to returned to port.

While the V & W Class destroyers rushed back to Harwich carrying the wounded from HMS Worcester, the remaining crew on the Worcester, having put out the fires and using sea water instead of fresh water in the engines, limped to Harwich under its own steam.

From snow bound airfields around the South East of England bombers lumbered into the skies to rendezvous with their fighter escorts. Their common goal, “Sink the Scharnhorst, sink the Gneisenau, sink the Prinz Eugen.”

The Royal Air Force pursued the German battle fleet and its escort of fighter planes relentlessly, but with little success. The weather was atrocious with the cloud ceiling as low as 700 feet, gusting winds, intermittent heavy rain and visibility at sea level poor.

With short winter days and night closing in, many of the bomber failed to find the enemy fleet. Of the 242 bombers involved only 39 dropped their bombs and the German armada sped on, unscathed.

The RAF lost 42 planes while the German losses were a mere 17 fighters planes and eleven pilots. ​

Fairey Swordfish Torpedo Biplanes, piloted and manned by hero's.

Six Fairey Swordfish took off to attack. Without doubt their crews were the bravest of the brave.

They circled over Ramsgate waiting for their fighter aircraft escort. It was planned that five squadrons (more than 60 planes) would escort the Fairey Swordfish Torpedo Biplanes. Of these only 10 Spitfires of No. 72 Squadron arrived.

The German fleet had continuous air cover of up to 280 fighter planes with maximum air cover as it passed through the Straights of Dover.

Totally out gunned and outnumbered the British aircraft went in to attack. The German fighter planes, Messerschmitt 109 had a speed of 385 mph. The Fairey Swordfish, when carrying a torpedo, had a speed of only 142 mph.

While the outnumbered Spitfires beat off enemy aircraft, the Fairey Swordfish attacked at low level.

Every single anti-aircraft gun from the escorting Destroyers and the capital ships opened up on the approaching Swordfish. Messerschmitt 109's fired their cannon at the Swordfish from above. There wasn’t a single Swordfish which wasn’t hit by anti-aircraft fire or by fighter planes. The German battle ships now opened up with their large guns. With damaged aircraft, rear gunners dead and pilots wounded the Swordfish pressed home their attack.

One of the Swordfish although being blown to bits from a direct hit managed, moments before, to release its torpedo.

The second swordfish release its torpedo before taking several more hits which mortally wounded the gunner. It swerved around the stern of the Gneisenau to come down in the sea close to the Prinz Eugen.

The third Swordfish, its gunner having shot down a German fighter, with pilot and gunners wounded and fuselage shot to ribbons also managed to release its torpedo at the Prinz Eugen, from only 2,000 yards.

The last three Swordfish flew into the hellish wall of fire never to be seen again.

Of these 18 brave young men only five survived and only one of these was not wounded.

For a more detailed account of the swordfish attack go to http://www.channeldash.org/index.html

Now it was the turn of the Sheerness and Harwich Destroyers, completely out-classed and out -gunned, by the titanic German Battle Fleet, too attack.

Anticipating that the German Fleet would attempt to break through the English Channel the 21st Destroyer Flotilla, based at Sheerness and the 16th Destroyer flotilla, based at Harwich where combined to form two temporary flotillas.

The first of these consisted six V & W class destroyers. V & W-class Destroyer were built during World War One. They were outdated, but were armed with torpedoes and had a top speed of 32 knots. These were,

HMS VIVACIOUS (D 36) V & W-class Destroyer and launched on 3rd November 1916,
based at Sheerness.
HMS CAMPBELL, (D 60) Scott-class Flotilla Leader. launched on 21st September 1918, based at Sheerness.
HMS WORCESTER, (D 96) V & W-class Destroyer. launched on 24th October 1919, based at Harwich.
HMS WHITSHED, (D 77) V & W-class Destroyer. launched on 31st January 1919, based at Harwich.
HMS MACKAY, (D 70) Scott-class Flotilla Leader. launched on 21st December 1918, based at Harwich.
HMS WALPOLE, (D 41) V & W-class Destroyer. launched on 12th February 1918, based at Harwich.

Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyers were to support the V & W-class Destroyers.

Hunt-class Escort Destroyer built from 1939 onwards, were named after British Fox Hunts and were slower than the V & W class Destroyers with a top speed of 27 knots. They did not carry torpedoes and their four inch guns would be useless against the armour plate and eleven inch guns of the German Battle Ships.

They would, however, be invaluable giving anti-aircraft support and by keeping the German Destroyers, and Schnellboots away from the V & W class destroyers as they made their torpedo runs at the German Pocket Battle ships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen.

Hunt Class Destroyers on standby in Thames Estuary,

HMS BERKLEY (L 17) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer, launched on 29th January 1940, based at Sheerness
HMS FERNIE (L 11) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer, launched on 9th January 1940, based at Sheerness
HMS GARTH, (L 20) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer. launched on 14th February 1940
based at Sheerness
HMS EGLINTON (L 87) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer, launched on 28th December 1939, based at Harwich.
HMS HAMBLEDON, (L 37) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer launched on 12th December 1939, based at Harwich.
HMS QUORN (L 66) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer, launched on 27th March 1940, based at Harwich.
HMS SOUTHDOWN (L 25) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer, launched on 5th July 1940, based at Harwich.

Hunt Class Destroyers in port not on standby,

HMS MEYNELL, (L 82) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer. launched on 7th June 1940, based at Sheerness
HMS CATTISTOCK, (L 35) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer. launched 22 February 1940. based at Sheerness
HMS COTTESMORE, (L 78) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer. launched on 5th September 1940. based at Sheerness
HMS HOLDERNESS (L 48) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer. launched on 8th February 1940. based at Sheerness
HMS PYTCHLEY (L 92) Type I, Hunt-class Escort Destroyer, 13th February 1940. based at Sheerness.

With the expectation that the German fleet would force their way through the English Channel, the 21st Destroyer Flotilla and the 16th Destroyer flotilla, were placed on four hours’ notice in the Thames Estuary.

British minesweepers swept two additional gaps through their own mine field giving easier access for Royal Navy Ships to attack any German ships trying to force their way through the Straights of Dover.

In the mistaken belief that the Germans would pass through the Straights of Dover at night and with the expectation of 12 hours’ notice the V & W-class Destroyer were practising torpedo attacks off Orfordness (Suffolk) and most of the Hunt-class Escort Destroyer were in port at Sheerness and Harwich with their engines idle. Only a handful of the “Hunts” were on standby

Captain Mark Pizey was in command of the reconfigured 21st Flotilla from Sheerness which consisted of the V & W Destroyers HMS Campbell (Sheerness), HMS Vivacious (Sheerness), HMS Mackay (Harwich), HMS Worcester (Harwich), HMS Whitshed (Harwich), and HMS Walpole (Harwich) and the seven Hunt class destroyers on standby.

At 11.45 Captain Pizley received the order to intercept and attack the German Battle fleet. He formed his small fleet into two battle groups. Campbell, Vivacious and Worcester, would form the first group and was led by himself. Whitshed, Mackay and Walpole would form the second group and would be led by Captain Wright.

The Hunt Class Destroyers on standby, HMS Berkley (Sheerness), HMS Fernie (Sheerness) HMS Garth (Sheerness, Dad’s ship) and HMS Eglinton (Harwich), HMS Hambledon (Harwich), HMS Quorn (Harwich) and HMS Southdown (Harwich) were also ordered to intercept and attack the German Battle Fleet. They were at first sent towards Buoy 51 and the Naze (south of Harwich).

Following behind, having first to raise steam, were HMS Meynell (Sheerness), HMS Cattistock (Sheerness), HMS Cottesmore (Sheerness), HMS Holderness (Sheerness) and HMS Pytchley (Sheerness).

At first the V & W class destroyers raced towards the most southerly gap in the minefield which had been swept for just this occasion. But on receiving updated intelligence that the German Battle fleet had increased speed, Captain Pizey altered his course to pass through the northern gap.

The slower Hunt Class Destroyers followed on with little chance of catching up.

Incredibly, the RAF had not been informed that British Destroyers were operating in the North Sea and were expecting to find German Battle ships and German Destroyers in this area.

Having passed through the British minefields the V & W class Destroyers were attacked by RAF Hampdens. Bombs exploded dangerously close to HMS Mackay and HMS Worcester. Demonstrating great restraint, the Destroyers did not fire as the RAF planes came in on their bombing runs.

The high speed was too much for the World War One Destroyer HMS Walpole. She began to experience severe engine difficulties and was ordered to return to port.

At 15.45 on 12th February 1942, with the wind having risen to Force 7, (near to Gale Force with very rough seas) the small group of British Destroyers sighted and attacked the German Battle Fleet. The Scharnhorst, having hit a British mine, had fallen behind the main German Battle Group and was not present.

As the British Destroyers fanned out into attack formation they came under attack from German Junkers Ju 88 Schnell bombers and Stuka dive bombers. Mainly directed at HMS Mackay.

In true Royal Navy tradition, Battle Ensigns were hoisted and unhesitatingly the British Destroyers attacked the more powerful and larger German Fleet.

The Pocket Battleship Gneisenau and Heavy Cruiser Prinz Eugen, together with their escort of Destroyers, Schnellboats (E-boats) and accompanying Fighter and Bomber aircraft fired on the British destroyers with every gun they had. In this murderous barrage the British Destroyers closed to within 3,000 and 2,500 yards before launching their torpedoes. At that point, miraculously none of the British Destroyers had been hit. As they turned, their luck run out. The Worcester was hit by three eleven inch shells from the Pocket Battleship Gneisenau and by five eight inch shells from the Heavy Cruiser Prinz Eugen. The Worcester stopped dead in the water with 26 of her crew killed and 45 injured.

Holed below the waterline and with number two boiler room flooded she was listing 23 degrees to starboard. The midship ammunition locker had exploded. The lower bridge, radio room, ward room, funnel and mast destroyed. In the carnage, the order “Stand by to abandon ship” was misinterpreted by some of the crew as “Abandon ship”.


Зміст

29 липня 1942 року есмінець «Деруент» разом з іншими ескортними міноносцями типу «Хант» вийшов з Клайда до Гібралтару, де включений до складу ескорту надскладного і стратегічно важливого конвою WS 21S з Гібралтару на Мальту.

На початку серпня 1942 року есмінець активно діяв у супроводі сумнозвісного конвою WS 21S, який йшов з Гібралтару до обложеної Мальти. До складу ескортної групи конвою під командуванням віцеадмірала Едварда Сіфрета входили 2 лінкори, 4 ескадрених авіаносці, 7 крейсерів і 32 есмінці [Прим. 3] . Ескортне з'єднання вважалося найпотужнішим за всю війну, що виділялося на супровід конвою. Британське адміралтейство повністю усвідомлювало, що доля острова залежить від того, скільки транспортів добереться до острова. Особливо важливим був американський танкер «Огайо», зафрахтований міністерством військових перевезень і укомплектований британською командою.

Під час проведення конвою WS 21S під постійними атаками німецьких та італійських кораблів, підводних човнів, торпедоносців та бомбардувальників конвой втратив один авіаносець, 2 легких крейсери, ескадрений міноносець та дев'ять торговельних суден з чотирнадцяти. Ще 1 авіаносець і 2 легких крейсери були пошкоджені внаслідок безперервних нападів.


Зміст

29 липня 1942 року есмінець «Деруент» разом з іншими ескортними міноносцями типу «Хант» вийшов з Клайда до Гібралтару, де включений до складу ескорту надскладного і стратегічно важливого конвою WS 21S з Гібралтару на Мальту.

На початку серпня 1942 року есмінець активно діяв у супроводі сумнозвісного конвою WS 21S, який йшов з Гібралтару до обложеної Мальти. До складу ескортної групи конвою під командуванням віцеадмірала Едварда Сіфрета входили 2 лінкори, 4 ескадрених авіаносці, 7 крейсерів і 32 есмінці [Прим. 3] . Ескортне з'єднання вважалося найпотужнішим за всю війну, що виділялося на супровід конвою. Британське адміралтейство повністю усвідомлювало, що доля острова залежить від того, скільки транспортів добереться до острова. Особливо важливим був американський танкер «Огайо», зафрахтований міністерством військових перевезень і укомплектований британською командою.

Під час проведення конвою WS 21S під постійними атаками німецьких та італійських кораблів, підводних човнів, торпедоносців та бомбардувальників конвой втратив один авіаносець, 2 легких крейсери, ескадрений міноносець та дев'ять торговельних суден з чотирнадцяти. Ще 1 авіаносець і 2 легких крейсери були пошкоджені внаслідок безперервних нападів.


Mục lục

Derwent được đặt hàng vào ngày 4 tháng 7, 1940 cho hãng Vickers-Armstrong tại Barrow-in-Furness trong Chương trình Khẩn cấp Chiến tranh 1940 và được đặt lườn vào ngày 29 tháng 12, 1940. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 22 tháng 8, 1941 và nhập biên chế vào ngày 24 tháng 4, 1942. Tên nó được đặt theo một rừng săn cáo tại Yorkshire, và là chiếc tàu chiến thứ ba của Hải quân Anh được đặt cái tên này. Con tàu được cộng đồng dân cư Easthampstead thuộc hạt Berkshire đỡ đầu trong khuôn khổ cuộc vận động gây quỹ Tuần lễ Tàu chiến năm 1942. [3]

1942 Sửa đổi

Derwent đi đến Scapa Flow vào tháng 5, nơi nó gia nhập Hạm đội Nhà và tiếp tục được hoàn thiện trước khi được bố trí tại Khu vực tiếp cận phía Tây, làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống các đoàn tàu vận tải vượt Đại Tây Dương. Sau đó nó được đề cử gia nhập Chi hạm đội Khu trục 5 đặt căn cứ tại Alexandria, Ai Cập, nên đến ngày 1 tháng 6, nó cùng thiết giáp hạm Nelson (28) và tàu khu trục chị em Blackmore (L43) tham gia Đoàn tàu WS19P đi từ Clyde đến Freetown, Sierra Leone. Đoàn tàu còn bao gồm Argus (I49), nhưng chiếc tàu sân bay tách ra vào ngày 5 tháng 6 để chuyển hướng sang Địa Trung Hải. Derwent tách khỏi Đoàn tàu WS19P sau khi đi đến Freetown vào ngày 15 tháng 6, rồi lại khởi hành vào ngày 19 tháng 6 cùng các thiết giáp hạm NelsonRodney (29), các tàu khu trục Penn (G77), Pathfinder (G10) và Quentin (G78) để đi Capetown, Nam Phi. Tuy nhiên kế hoạch điều động sang Alexandria bị thay đổi, nên con tàu rời Capetown vào ngày 1 tháng 7 để quay trở về vùng biển nhà. [3]

Sang tháng 8, Derwent tham gia hộ tống cho Đoàn tàu WS21S cùng các tàu chị em Bramham (L51), Bicester (L34), Ledbury (L90) và Wilton (L128) đi từ Clyde đến Gibraltar, nhằm chuẩn bị cho Chiến dịch Pedestal. Đến ngày 10 tháng 8, đoàn tàu được tăng cường bảo vệ bởi Lực lượng X, bao gồm các tàu tuần dương hạng nhẹ Nigeria (60), Kenya (14), Manchester (15) và Cairo (D87) cùng các tàu khu trục Ashanti (F51), Intrepid (D10), Icarus (D03), Foresight (H68), Fury (H76), Pathfinder (G10) và Penn (G77). Tuy nhiên đến ngày 13 tháng 8, nó cùng BicesterWilton được cho tách ra để hộ tống cho Nigeria quay trở lại Gibraltar, sau khi chiếc tàu tuần dương bị hư hại do trúng ngư lôi phóng từ tàu ngầm Ý Axum một ngày trước đó. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Về đến Gibraltar vào ngày 15 tháng 8, Derwent được điều động đi sang khu vực Nam Đại Tây Dương và Ấn Độ Dương. Vì vậy, nó gia nhập Đoàn tàu WS22 hướng sang Viễn Đông vào ngày 13 tháng 9, ghé qua Freetown và Simonstown, Nam Phi, rồi cùng tàu khu trục Hy Lạp Pindos (L65) tách khỏi Đoàn tàu WS22 vào ngày 18 tháng 9, ghé ngang qua Durban trước khi đi đến cảng Kilindini, Mombasa, Kenya. Con tàu hoạt động hộ tống vận tải trong khu vực Ấn Độ Dương từ căn cứ Kilindini. [3] [6]

1943 Sửa đổi

Vào tháng 1, 1943, Derwent cùng các tàu khu trục Pakenham (G06), Petard (G56), Isis (D87), Hero (H99) và tàu khu trục Hy Lạp Vasilissa Olga (D 15) được bố trí đến Hồng Hải để hộ tống cho một đoàn tàu vận tải, bao gồm các tàu chở quân Queen Mary, Ile de France, Niuew AmsterdamAquitania vận chuyển Sư đoàn 9 của Australia quay trở về nước để tham chiến tại Mặt trận Tây Nam Thái Bình Dương. Sang tháng 3, nó được điều đến Alexandria, Ai Cập và gia nhập Chi hạm đội Khu trục 22 trực thuộc Hạm đội Địa Trung Hải, và làm nhiệm vụ tuần tra, hộ tống vận tải và hỗ trợ các chiến dịch quân sự trên bộ tại khu vực Đông Địa Trung Hải. [3]

Vào ngày 19 tháng 3, đang khi thả neo trong cảng Tripoli, Libya, Derwent chịu đựng một đợt không kích nặng nề bởi máy bay ném bom Junkers Ju 88, và bị trúng một quả ngư lôi phóng từ máy bay. Con tàu bị thủng một lổ lớn bên mạn trái, ngập nước phòng nồi hơi, nhưng đã tự mắc cạn để không bị đắm sáu thành viên thủy thủ đoàn đã tử trận trong cuộc tấn công. [8] Vụ ném bom do các không đoàn KG 54 và KG 77 của Đức thực hiện cũng đã đánh chìm tàu liberty Ocean Voyager và tàu buôn Hy Lạp Vavara. [3] [9]

Derwent được sửa chữa tạm thời trong tháng 4 và tháng 5, trước khi được chiếc tàu kéo HMS Allegiance kéo đi trong thành phần Đoàn tàu KMS18 khởi hành từ Gibraltar để quay trở về Anh trong tháng 6. Nó được đưa vào Xưởng tàu Devonport để sửa chữa từ ngày 1 tháng 8 tuy nhiên công việc bị kéo dài gần hai năm do phải dành ưu tiên cho những con tàu tham gia các chiến dịch quan trọng. Cuối cùng vào tháng 1, 1945 người ta quyết định ngừng hẵn mọi công việc sửa chữa và đưa con tàu về thành phần dự bị. Sau khi chiến tranh kết thúc, động cơ bị tháo dỡ vào tháng 9, 1946 để phục vụ cho việc huấn luyện kỹ thuật và con tàu cuối cùng bị bán cho hãng BISCO vào ngày 8 tháng 11, 1946 để tháo dỡ. [3]


HMS Derwent purjehti huhtikuussa hyväsyntätestien päätyttyä Scapa Flowhun viimeisteltäväksi ja varustettavaksi. Toukokuussa alus aloitti koulutuksensa Kotilaivaston mukana ja se määrättiin Välimeren laivaston 5. Hävittäjälaivueeseen. [1]

Alus liittyi 1. kesäkuuta Clydessä saattueeseen WS19P Atlantin ylityksen suojaksi taistelulaiva HMS Nelsonin ja hävittäjä HMS Blackmoren kanssa. Suojaus erkani 15. kesäkuuta Freetowniin saavuttuaan saattueesta. Alus jatkoi 19. kesäkuuta saattueen mukana matkaa Kapkaupunkiin. Suojausosastoa täydensivät taistelulaiva HMS Rodney ja hävittäjät HMS Penn, HMS Pathfinder ja HMS Quentin. Suojaus erkani 1. heinäkuuta määränpäähän saavuttuaan saattueesta. [1]

HMS Derwent aloitti vielä saapumispäivänään kotimatkansa. Alus liittyi elokuun alussa Clydestä Gibraltarille matkanneeseen saattueeseen WS21S, joka oli osa operaatio Pedestalia. Alus muodosti risteilijöiden HMS Nigerian, HMS Kenyan, HMS Manchesterin ja HMS Cairon sekä hävittäjien HMS Ashantin, HMS Intrepidin, HMS Icaruksen, HMS Foresightin, HMS Furyn, HMS Pathfinderin, HMS Pennin, HMS Bramhamin, HMS Bicesterin, HMS Ledburyn' ja HMS Wiltonin kanssa Force X:n, joka suojaisi saattuetta myös Sisilian kapeikosta Valettan satamaan. [1]

Alus erkani 13. elokuuta saattueesta yhdessä HMS Bicesterin ja HMS Wiltonin kanssa suojatakseen edellisenä päivänä torpedo-osumasta vaurioituneen risteilijä HMS Nigerian takaisin Gibraltarille, jonne osasto saapui 15. elokuuta. Alus siirrettiin Etelä-Atlantille ja Intian valtamerelle. [1]

Alus lähti Freetownin ja Simonstownin kautta eteläiselle Atlantille, jossa se liittyi 13. syyskuuta saattueeseen WS22 Hyväntoivonniemeltä Kapakaupunkiin. Alus erkani 18. syyskuuta saattueesta yhdessä Kreikan laivaston Pindoksen kanssa. Alukset matkasivat Durbanin kautta Kilindiniin, jossa alukset palvelivat loppuvuoden suojaten Intian valtameren saattueita. [1]

1943 Muokkaa

HMS Derwent lähti tammikuussa 1943 Punaiselle merelle suojatakseen Australian 9. divisioonaa takaisin kotiin kuljettanutta saattuetta (operaatio Pamphlet). Alus suojasi saattuetta Punaisenmeren ja Adenin lahdella HMS Pakenhamin, HMS Isiksen, HMS Heron ja Kreikan laivaston Vasilissa Olgan kanssa, kunnes valtamerisuojue saavuttua matkasi Aleksandriaan liittyäkseen Välimeren laivastoon. [1]

Alus liittyi maaliskuussa Aleksandriassa Välimeren laivaston 22. Hävittäjälaivueeseen, jonka mukana se suojasi saattueita, partioi sekä tuki maavoimien operaatioita. Alus joutui 19. maaliskuuta voimakkaan ilmahyökkäyksen maaliksi ollessaan Tripolin satamassa. Alukseen osui torpedo sen ollessa poistumassa satamasta, jolloin se kärsi pahoja vaurioita. Aluksen keskiosastot muun muassa kattilahuone täyttyivät vedellä ja se menetti liikuntakykynsä. Aluksella sai surmansa kuusi miehistönjäsentä. [1]

Alukselle tehtiin huhtikuusta toukokuuhun tilapäiskorjauksia matalikolla, minkä jälkeen HMS Allegiance hinasi kesäkuussa aluksen kotimaahan osana Gibraltarilta lähtenyttä saattuetta MKS18. Alus ankkuroitiin Devonportiin odottamaan telakalle pääsyä. [1]

Alus siirrettiin 11. elokuuta telakalle korjattavaksi. Aluksen korjauksia viivytti vuoden lopulla Normandian maihinnousussa saatujen vaurioiden korjaaminen ja seuraavana vuonna töitä tehtiin ainoastaan työvoimaresurssien mukaan. [1]

1945 Muokkaa

HMS Derwentin korjaustyöt päätettiin keskeyttää tammikuussa 1945 ja alus siirrettiin reserviin. Alus odotti Devonportissa heinäkuuhun saakka aseistuksen ja sotamateriaalin poistoa. Alus sijoitettiin elokuussa lopulta reserviin. [1]

Alus makasi ankkuroituna Devonportissa, kunnes syyskuussa 1946 aluksen voimanlähde lähetettiin RNECille Manadoniin käytettäväksi meri-insinöörien kouluttamiseen. Alus myytiin 8. marraskuuta BISCOlle, joka siirsi aluksen romuttamisen T W Wardille Penryniin. Alus saapui 21. helmikuuta 1947 hinattuna romuttamolle. [1]


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