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Battle of Morat, 22 June 1476 (Switzerland)

Battle of Morat, 22 June 1476 (Switzerland)


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Battle of Morat, 22 June 1476 (Switzerland)

Second major defeat for Charles the Rash, duke of Burgundy in his wars against the Swiss. Having rebuilt his army after the defeat at Granson in March, Charles laid siege of Morat, only thirty miles from Berne, hoping to provoke a Swiss attack. In preparation, he fortified his position around Morat. There were several main weakness in his position - the multi-national nature of his army, which, as at Granson, reduced their effectiveness, the closeness of the Forest of Morat to his position, which let the Swiss get close to his forces undetected, his decision to split his army, with one part separated from the rest by the fortress of Morat and finally, a very limited number of routes for a retreat, all of which could be blocked if the Swiss were able to defeat the right of the Dukes army. Using the woods as cover, the Swiss army was able to do just that, having marched along the front of the Dukes left and centre in the cover of the woods. Meanwhile, Duke Charles had allowed the bulk of his troops to return to their camps, leaving his fortifications lightly defended, and the sudden Swiss attack soon overwhelmed them, after which the battle was lost, and unlike at Granson, large numbers of casualties were inflicted on the Duke's trapped army.

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Outcome : A victory for Swiss Confederation over Burgundians

Type of battle : Land

Summary

The Burgundians were laying seige to the Swiss city of Morat [Murten]. Aware that a relieving army was approaching the Burgundians created an entrenchment which they failed to man sufficiently. When this was outflanked and in danger of being overrun Charles the Bold threw more troops into the line. These did not arrive in sufficient numbers as a cohesive force and were defeated piecemeal.

Location

Approximately 16 miles due West of Berne.

More details

Although Charles the Bold of Burgundy had been heavily defeated by the Swiss Confederation [Swiss, Germans and Austrians with significant French funding] in the previous year he returned to the attack in June 1476. His army of over 20,000 men laid seige to the Swiss city of Morat. The garrison was approximately 2000 men. The Swiss Confederation quickly raised a relieving force of 25,000 men. Charles planned to counter this threat with a strong entrenchment placing infantry in the centre, archers on both flanks and artillery enfilading fire from the extreme left flank and a strong cavalry force on the extreme right flank. He continued to invest the city of Morat.

On the 22nd June 1476 the Swiss began their attack on the Burgundians. Charles had underestimated the strength and professionalism of the Swiss. He incorrectly assumed that they could be dealt with by approximately 2,000 infantry and archers with 1,200 cavalry in support, even less than he had originally planned to have in the entrenchment. The experienced Swiss [pikemen, halberdiers, handgunners and crossbowmen] initially took some casualties in their frontal assult but were able to manoeuvre and, while their pikemen held the centre, they outflanked the defensive line.
Troops, from Charles' seige army, were fed into the battle piecemeal only to be defeated as they arrived. A well timed sally by the defenders of Morat took Charles' army in the rear and the Burgundians totally collapsed. They lost about 12,000 men

The Swiss Confederation advanced into Burgundian territory finally defeating Charles at the battle of Nancy on 5th January 1477.
This series of battles established the Swiss infanttry,particularly the pikemen, as 'the best in Europe' their services were much sought after as mercenaries for the next hundred years.


Battle of Murten

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Murten Tourismus / Morat Tourisme
Hauptgasse 27
3280 Murten

On the 22nd of June 1476, Murten was the scene of war between the Swiss Confederates and the Burgundians, led by Charles the Bold.

Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, possessed a Patchwork-Empire that stretched from the North Sea to as far as the Mediterranean. This empire was wedged in between the German Empire and France. Charles’s goal was to consolidate his empire by means of diplomacy and war and then to become king of his empire. During that time, the Canton of Bern was a major block on his path towards his dream. Today, this same area that was once a part of Bern’s territory is known as the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Charles was handed his first defeat and severely looted by the Swiss Confederates in March 1476 in Grandson, on the shores of Lake Neuchatel. Charles went to Lausanne to lick his wounds and gathered up fresh troops in order to prepare another attack this time through the Broye valley, aiming against Bern. In April of that same year, Murten had mustered 2,000 men, under Adrian von Bubenburg’s command. On the 22nd of June 1476, it was raining heavily as the armies were gathering. The Swiss Confederates succeeded in a surprise attack on Charles the Bold’s artillery position on the “Grünhag.” The shock and awe of this maneuver was perfect and the Burgundian Army was dealt a fatal blow. Charles fled away on a fast horse but could not flee his fate. He lost his life in the third battle in Nancy, France. Thus, the Burgundy Empire vanished from the European map, quickly following Charles’ demise. A famous saying, handed down through generations – notes the losses of Charles the Bold: “In Grandson he lost his goods - in Murten he lost his courage and in Nancy he lost his blood.”

The Obelisk of Meyriez: A column erected by the Canton of Fribourg, following the Ossuary’s demolition in 1798. The ossuary was a monument which contained the bones of the Burgundians, in memory of the battle.

Domingue Woods: The Burgundians command site during the Battle of Murten. Find an information panel about the battle at this location. This hill can be seen from the rampart walls from the Tournaletta Tower, facing south.

Multimedia Show: A multimedia show at the Murten Museum traces the history of the battle.

Murten’s Solemnity and the Shoot of Murten commemorate the Battle of Murten.


File:Diebold Schilling, Battle of Morat, 1476.jpg

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Events in History on June 22

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The battle


On June 22, 1476, around mid-morning, Charles ordered his treasurer to pay the entire army, expecting the Confederate troops to continue delaying. The orderly lines of the Burgundian army dissolved into chaos as soldiers scattered throughout the camp collecting their pay, eating their midday meal and seeking shelter from the rain. The skeleton force that remained at the Grunhag were surprised when the Swiss army, in battle order, emerged from the woods less than 1,000 m (1,100 yd) from their lines. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] The Confederate Vanguard of some 6,000 skirmishers and all the 1,200 cavalry present erupted out of Birchenwald Woods to the west of Murten, exactly where Charles had predicted they would appear.

Behind the Vanguard came the main body of pike, the Gewalthut (Centre). This was some 10,000 to 12,000 strong and was formed in a huge wedge with the cantonial standards in the centre, flanked by halberdiers and an outer ring of pikemen. The Rearguard of 6,000 to 8,000 more closely packed pike and halberdiers followed the Gewalthut towards the now sparsely manned Grunhag.

As the Swiss charged downhill into the Burgundian position the artillery managed to fire a few salvoes, killing or maiming several hundred of the overeager Lorrainers. Against the odds the defenders in the Grunhag held the Swiss for some time before a contingent of Swiss found a way through the left flank of the defences near the Burggraben and turned the whole position. The Swiss formed up quickly beyond it and advanced towards Murten and the besieger’s camp.

In the Burgundian camp all hell was let loose once the Swiss were sighted as men rushed to reform and prepare for battle. In the ducal tent on top of the Bois Du Domingue , a hill overlooking Murten, Charles was quickly armed by his retainers before rushing on horseback to try to coordinate the defence of the camp. But as fast as any unit was formed and moved forward against the Swiss, it was swept aside as various uncoordinated attacks were made against the still compact Confederate battle formations. [ 9 ] There was some resistance from the squadrons of the Ducal household who routed the Lorrainers, including René II, Duke of Lorraine, who was saved only by the arrival of the pikes, against which the Gendarmes could only retire, unable to make any impression against them.

Charles managed to muster enough English archers to form a last line of defence before the camp, but these were routed before a bow could be bent, their commander shot by a Swiss skirmisher. Traditionally, the Duke of Somerset is identified as the commander of the English archers. However, the only Duke of Somerset, Edmund Beaufort who was known to have been in Burgundian service died in 1471 at Tewkesbury in England and therefore could not have been at Murten five years later. [ 10 ] Then it was every man for himself as Charles ordered the army to fall back which was interpreted as a retreat, which in turn became a rout as all organized resistance ended.

For some three miles along the lakeside many Burgundians died that day in the rout. The Italian division of some 4,000–6,000 men besieging the southern part of Murten probably suffered the worst fate: cut off by the Swiss rearguard and attacked by a sally from the town, they were hunted down along the shore and driven into the lake. As promised, no quarter was granted.

More fortunate was the Savoyard division under Jacques of Savoy, Count of Romont which was posted in the northern half of the Murten siege works. Forming up and abandoning all their baggage they retreated east round the lake and eventually made good their escape to Romont (one of Jacques' lesser titles was count of Romont).

Part of the war booty captured at this battle is still kept at the castle of Gruyères in Switzerland, which include three capes of the Order of the Golden Fleece which belonged to Charles the Bold including one with the emblem of his father, Philip the Good, which he had with him as he was celebrating the anniversary of the death of his father.


Historical Events on June 22

    Battle at Morat/Murten: Charles the Stout invades Switzerland Antitax insurrection in Cornwall suppressed at Blackheath

Treaty of Interest

1533 Ferdinand of Austria and Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent sign peace treaty

Execution

1535 Cardinal John Fisher is beheaded on Tower Hill, London, for refusing to acknowledge Henry VIII as head of the Church of England

    Jewish quarter of Prague burned and looted Battle of Sisak: Allied Christian troops defeat the Turks Cornelis de Houtmans fleet reaches Banten Java

Event of Interest

1611 Henry Hudson set adrift in Hudson Bay by mutineers on his ship Discovery and never seen again

Event of Interest

1633 Galileo Galilei forced to recant his Copernican views that the Earth orbits the Sun by the Pope (Vatican only admits it was wrong on Oct 31, 1992!)

Event of Interest

1675 Royal Greenwich Observatory established in England by Charles II

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Victory in Battle

1812 Upon learning of plans by the Americans to execute a surprise attack, Laura Secord walks 32 km to warn British troops, results in a British surprise victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams


Five Francs 1976 Battle of Murten, Coin from Switzerland - detailed information

The Five Francs coin is a circulating denomination of the Swiss Franc. Given that Switzerland has four official languages, the Franc has three different names: Franken in German, franc in French and Romansh, and franco in Italian. Initially when federal Swiss coinage was introduced in 1850, all "francs" (including the half franc) were full-bodied silver, while the centimes were either billon (low-grade silver) or base metal.

Normal circulating coins went through several transformations: with a seated figure of Helvetia on the obverse, then a portrait of Helvetia, then the current design by Paul Burkhard. The earliest coins were issued with the specifications of the Latin Monetary Union until in 1931 when the coins were made smaller and the content was slightly debased. Starting in 1936, the country also occasionally issued circulating commemorative one-year type 5 Franc coins in silver to mark various important occasions.

After these were demonetised in 1971 and the denomination became copper-nickel (CuproNickel), Swissimint issued an extensive series of commemoratives between 1974 and 1990 (in parallel with the regular design), after which time it stopped issuing commemoratives in this denomination and returned to the regular design only.

The 1976 Five Francs commemorative coin marks the 500th anniversary of the Battle of Murten (German:Schlacht bei Murten).

The Battle of Murten (German) or Morat (French) was a battle in the Burgundian Wars (1474 - 1477) which was fought on 22 June 1476 between Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, and a Swiss Confederate army at Murten / Morat, about 30 kilometres from Bern. The result was a crushing defeat for the Burgundians at the hands of the Swiss.

5 Fr. coins issued in 1976 have now been in circulation for 45 years.

The obverse shows three Medieval armoured soldiers attacking to left. Around, interrupted by the soldier's spikes, the inscription MVRATVM (the name of the place in Latin) and the anniversary dates 1476 and 1976.

The reverse design consists of text only. The value is a large numeral 5 at centre, with the denomination FR below.

Around, the legend CONFOEDERATIO HELVETICA (translated from Latin: Confederation of Switzerland).

Proof coins ("PP" from "Polierte Platte" in German) distributed individually, not in the year's mint sets.


Angelokastro is a Byzantine castle on the island of Corfu. It is located at the top of the highest peak of the island"s shoreline in the northwest coast near Palaiokastritsa and built on particularly precipitous and rocky terrain. It stands 305 m on a steep cliff above the sea and surveys the City of Corfu and the mountains of mainland Greece to the southeast and a wide area of Corfu toward the northeast and northwest.

Angelokastro is one of the most important fortified complexes of Corfu. It was an acropolis which surveyed the region all the way to the southern Adriatic and presented a formidable strategic vantage point to the occupant of the castle.

Angelokastro formed a defensive triangle with the castles of Gardiki and Kassiopi, which covered Corfu"s defences to the south, northwest and northeast.

The castle never fell, despite frequent sieges and attempts at conquering it through the centuries, and played a decisive role in defending the island against pirate incursions and during three sieges of Corfu by the Ottomans, significantly contributing to their defeat.

During invasions it helped shelter the local peasant population. The villagers also fought against the invaders playing an active role in the defence of the castle.

The exact period of the building of the castle is not known, but it has often been attributed to the reigns of Michael I Komnenos and his son Michael II Komnenos. The first documentary evidence for the fortress dates to 1272, when Giordano di San Felice took possession of it for Charles of Anjou, who had seized Corfu from Manfred, King of Sicily in 1267.

From 1387 to the end of the 16th century, Angelokastro was the official capital of Corfu and the seat of the Provveditore Generale del Levante, governor of the Ionian islands and commander of the Venetian fleet, which was stationed in Corfu.

The governor of the castle (the castellan) was normally appointed by the City council of Corfu and was chosen amongst the noblemen of the island.

Angelokastro is considered one of the most imposing architectural remains in the Ionian Islands.


A Day in the Shoes of Mary Poppins – Murten, Switzerland

You would think that once you visit all of the famous tourist attractions and numerous little towns in one country like we did in Switzerland, they would all start to look alike. Well, yes, that is partly true, but on the other side, we still manage to find something special in each and every one of them.
It was Albert Einstein who said: “There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle.” We aim to make these wise words our life motto and turn every day into a unique adventure.
The city with two names, Murten (German) or Morat (French), located on the border between French and German speaking side of Switzerland, thought us how much an ordinary town could offer if you are ready to seek beauty, fun, and knowledge.

A word or two on Murten’s history

Exploring different corners of the world, we realized every medieval town has an impressive background. The same goes for Murten. This charming municipality of the canton of Fribourg is located on the southern shore of Lake Morat (Lake Murten), which lies between Lake Biel and the Lake Neuchâtel. Once you find yourself in this area, don’t be surprised if you feel the need to turn every meal into a family picnic at picturesque lakeside promenade - that is just how this region affects people.
The more you learn about it, Morat’s history becomes more intriguing. This city changed hands a lot. Even though, the oldest archaeological traces of a settlement around Morat date back to the Mesolithic, the town’s name was first mentioned in 515 as a defensive fortification called "Muratum." Since that moment, King Rudolph III of Burgundy, Emperor Henry IV, Duke Berchtold IV, Count Peter of Savoy, King Rudolph of Habsburg and King Albert I of Germany and many others ruled the city.
However, probably the most significant event in this town’s history is the Battle of Morat. Burgundian army, led by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy attacked the city on June 22nd, 1476. Murten was saved thirteen days later by the Bernese army. Since then, the victory is celebrated every year on June 22nd. Interestingly, the tourism industry in Murten blossomed in 1876 with the celebration of the 400th Battle of Morat anniversary.

Enjoying Murten’s tourist sights

As we previously mentioned, for the city of only around 8000 inhabitants and 24.7 km2 of area, Murten has surprisingly a lot to offer. First things first, there are six heritage sites of national significance – Murten’s City Walls, the Grosshaus at Hauptgasse 43, Löwenberg Castle, the Rathaus or town council house, the Old school house building in Valvenach and the farmhouse at Erli 2.
We started our tour by visiting Murten’s Citi Walls, and it was the perfect beginning of the day. What you’ll get from this experience is the astonishing view of the nearby lake and the vintage rooftops of the Old Town along with additional information on Murten’s history. If you ever wanted to feel as if you were starring in the Marry Poppins movie, this is the perfect place that will sparkle your imagination. If you are coming here with your children, make sure to visit the Murten Tourist Office, before you start your tour. Here, you will get the map and other necessary materials to begin the exciting treasure hunt.
Once you enter the Medieval Old Town, its beautiful arcades will leave you speechless. History enthusiasts shouldn’t miss a chance to visit Museum Murten and Löwenberg Castle (Château de la Motte), which dates back to the 15th or 16th century.


However, if you are more of a nature-oriented type who likes to stay active and try new things during his/hers vacation, you’ll get your fair share of fun too. The region offers 170 km of cycle paths and 90 km of tracks for inline skaters, so exploring the Lake district on your bicycle is also an option. In our humble opinion, you should include a boat trip into your schedule - this is a perfect opportunity to explore the landscape of Lake Murten, along with the lakes of Neuchâtel and Biel-Bienne, which are connected by the canals.
If you have enough time, you should check out the Papilliorama-Nocturama in Kerzers. It is a small zoo park with indoor butterfly, bird and monkey habitats. It simulates the vibrant jungles of Belize during day and night. Also, those interested in the aspects of wine growing should check out the Vully Wine Path. The slopes of the Mont Vully will offer you a relaxed, romantic one hour long walk and the chance to taste local wine.
Join us for a video tour of the medieval town in the heart of Switzerland, on our YouTube channel. Don’t forget to subscribe and give us a big thumbs up! You can also follow our path around the world on our Instagram page. If you look closely enough, you will find pictures of Murten’s rooftops there.
Until our next adventure together, we wish you safe travels.


Founding date of the Swiss Confederation by the central
Swiss cantons of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden: 1291
(traditionally 1st of August 1291, national day, but this was
set in the 19th century)

Battle of Morgarten: 1315
Battle of Sempach (Arnold Winkelried): 1386
Battle of Morat/Murten: 1476 (a defeat of Charles the Bold)
Battle of Marignano: 1515 (first mention of neutrality)
Savoy attacks Geneva: the Escalade: 1602
First official mention of the separation of the Swiss federation
from the Holy Roman Empire: 1648

Invasion by Napoleon (Helvetic Republic): 1798

Armed Neutrality internationally recognized (Vienna congress): 1815
Chocolaterie Cailler founded at Vevey: 1819
War of Sonderbund (Civil war): 1847
Jesuits expelled: 1847

Federal Constitution: 1848
Shoe manufacturer Bally founded: 1850
1st Geneva Convention establishes International Red Cross: 1864
1st Socialist International meets in Geneva: 1866
Nestle founded: 1866
Federal Constitution revised: 1874

General strike: 1918
Youngest Canton Jura: voted 1974, created 1978
Women allowed to vote on federal matters: 1971
Women allowed to vote on Canton matters in all Cantons: 1991

About the Women's suffrage: On the Federal level, it was introduced in


Watch the video: Τρελό γέλιο: Δείτε πως αποχαιρέτησε τον σύντροφό της η Μαρία Ηλιάκη! (May 2022).

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