Gole Mire

Gole Mire

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Gole Mire was born in Poland. In 1933, Mire, a communist, was arrested by the Polish authorities and sentenced to fifteen years in prison.

Mire escaped from prison on the outbreak of the Second World War. She moved to Cracow where she helped organize the resistance against the German Army.

On 22nd December 1942, Mire, Adolf Liebeskind and Yitzhak Zuckerman took part in an attack on a café used by the Schutz Staffeinel (SS) and the Gestapo.

Gole Mire was captured and was killed when she attacked the guards while being moved from one prison to another.

Do not go willingly to your death! Fight for life to the last breath. Greet our murders with teeth and claws, with axe and knife, hydrochloric acid and iron crowbars. Make the enemy pay for blood with blood, for death with death?

Let us fall upon the enemy in time, kill and disarm him. Let us stand up against the criminals and if necessary die like heroes. If we die in this way we are not lost.

Make the enemy pay dearly for your lives! Take revenge for the Jewish centres that have been destroyed and for the Jewish lives that have been extinguished.

Golda Meir

Golda Meir [nb 1] (born Golda Mabovitch May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978) was an Israeli stateswoman, politician, teacher, and kibbutznik who served as the fourth prime minister of Israel.

Born in Kyiv, she emigrated to the United States as a child with her family in 1906, and was educated there, becoming a teacher. After getting married, she and her husband emigrated to then Palestine in 1921, settling on a kibbutz. Meir was elected prime minister of Israel on March 17, 1969, after serving as labour minister and foreign minister. [5] The world's fourth and Israel's only woman to hold the office of prime minister, and the first in any country in the Middle East, she has been described as the "Iron Lady" of Israeli politics. [6]

Former Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion used to call Meir "the best man in the government" she was often portrayed as the "strong-willed, straight-talking, grey-bunned grandmother of the Jewish people." [7]

Meir resigned as prime minister in 1974, the year following the Yom Kippur War. She died in 1978 of lymphoma. [8]

Montana’s Richest Gold Strikes

The largest quantities of gold found today come from large-scale copper mining operations around the mining town of Butte and the surrounding area. Copper is the primary metal that is mined here, yet millions of dollars in gold is produced as a by-product.

However, during the early gold rush to Montana, it was the placer deposits that were first exploited and mined by the prospectors. Ground sluicing, hydraulic methods, and eventually bucket dredges were used to extract placer gold from hundreds of miles of creeks and rivers throughout Montana. Evidence of these past mining operations can still be seen today, and these areas will still produce gold.

The Bannack Mining District in Beaverhead County is an exceptionally rich location that has produced millions in gold. Grasshopper Creek was the location that was first mined and produced an abundance of gold. Many tributaries were also worked by a variety of mining methods and were also quite rich.

The diggings at Grasshopper Creek did not disappoint. Placer deposits were worked in the creek itself, and along bench deposits elevated about 100 feet above the present day creek. There is now a state park located here.

One of Montana’s largest gold nuggets was found south of Butte. It currently resides at Montana Tech and is on public display.

Many other rich discoveries were found throughout Beaverhead County, and the Bannack Mining District was formed. Another notable area was the Argenta district around Rattlesnake Creek.

Broadwater County is also exceptionally rich and still produces good gold, including some nice gold nuggets.

Confederate Gulch was the best area in the county, and one of the richest in Montana also. Most of the production here has come from placers, and some nice gold nuggets can be found all throughout Broadwater County by prospectors using metal detectors.

Granite County has some good mining areas as well. The Garnet, Combination, South Boulder, and Philipsburg Mining Districts are all located in the areas around Missoula and Anaconda and were quite rich. In the Garnet district, Bear Creek and its tributaries very rich and were worked for many years. Miners recovered significant gold from the placers here, and later from lode sources found above the drainages.

Prickly Pear Creek is located in Jefferson County and was mined. From Jefferson City to East Helena, extensive placer mining took place and recovered exceptional amounts of gold.

ALASKA'S "GOLD RUSH" YEARS 1832 &ndash 1913

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Purhcase of Alaska from Russia in 1867

Purhcase of Alaska from Russia in 1867

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Prospectors on Chilkoot Pass

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Treadwell Mine
Photo Credit: Alaska State Library, Case & Draper Photographs PCA 39-869

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1897 Gold Filed Map of Alaska

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Mining on the banks of Nome Beach

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Kennicott (aka Kennecott) Copper Mine

1832 | Russian mining engineer discovers gold near Kuskokwim River.

1849 | Lieutenant Peter Doroshin, a geologist with the Russian Corps of Mining engineers, found traces of gold in the mouths of streams emptying into Kenai Bay, though he never found the source of the gold.

1857 | Coal mining begins at Coal Harbor on the Kenai Peninsula.

1861 | Buck Choquette discovers gold on the Stikine River at Telegraph Creek in British Columbia near Wrangell.

1867 | Alaska purchased from Russia. American prospectors came north to explore the new territory.

1870 | Gold found at Sumdum Bay, SE Alaska.

1871 | Gold discovered at Indian River near Sitka.

1872 | Prospectors make a second Stikine gold strike.

1873 | Jack McQuesten, Arthur Harper and Alfred Mayo begin prospecting along the Yukon River.

1874 | George Holt became the first to cross Chilkoot Pass in search for gold.

1876 | Gold was discovered in Juneau, sparking the Juneau gold rush.

1880 | Tlingit Natives agree to allow prospectors to cross Chilkoot Pass. Joe Juneau and Richard Harris (founders of the city of Juneau) discovered gold deposits in Southeast Alaska

1881 | John Treadwell purchased the Paris claim across the channel from Juneau on Douglas Island.

1882 | The Treadwell Mine (named after John Treadwell) began its gold production near Juneau and would run until 1922 yielding nearly $70 million in gold. The mine was, in its time, the largest hard rock gold mine in the world employing over 2,000 people.

1884 | Congress passes the Organic Act of 1884, providing a civil government for Alaska.

1886 | Howard Franklin and Henry Madison strike gold on Fortymile River in interior Alaska near the Canadian border. This find started the first rush to interior Alaska, setting the stage for further strikes throughout the region. The Fortymile district produced over 568,000 ounces of gold.

1888 | Alexander King discovers gold on Kenai Peninsula. More than 60,000 arrived in Alaska in search of gold.

1892 | A discovery on Birch Creek opens the Circle Mining District and produces over 1 million ounces of gold.

1893 | Gold discoveries near Hope, Rampart, and Circle focused new attention on the Yukon River drainage as a place to prospect. The Panic of 1893 plunges the U.S. into economic depression.

1896 | George Washington Carmack, Tagish Charlie, and Skookum Jim stake a claim on Bonanza Creek, setting off the great Klondike gold rush .

1897 | S.S. Excelsior and S.S. Portland arrive at San Francisco and Seattle loaded with gold from the Klondike. The stampede to the Klondike begins. U.S. Army establishes Fort St. Michaels, first of six gold rush posts.

1898 | 30,000 stampeders reach the Klondike. Gold discoveries at Nome by the "Three Lucky Swedes" caused another massive rush north. The Cape Nome District produced over 5 million ounces of gold.

1899 | More gold was discovered on the beaches of Nome. Gold discoveries in the Koyukuk drainage brought prospectors to the foothills of the Brooks Range, the northern-most extent of Alaska's gold rushes. Small strikes led to short-lived mining camps at Beaver City, Dillman Creek, Coldfoot, and elsewhere.

1900 | Congress authorizes construction of telegraph lines and submarine cables to connect Alaska's military posts with each other and with the rest of the United States. Alexander McKenzie and Judge Arthur H. Noyes arrive ln Nome and start a fraudulent scheme to seize rich mining claims.

1902 | Italian immigrant, Felix Pedro discovers gold on Pedro Creek leads to the founding of Fairbanks.

1903 | Discoveries at Valdez Creek set off a small stampede to a district that contained the largest gold placer mine in North America.

1906 | Gold discovered in Chandalar District.

1908 | John Beaton and William Dikeman strike gold on the Iditarod River and helped to produce 1.5 million ounces of gold.

1909 | Gold discoveries at Iditarod and Flat set off another rush, sometimes called "The Last Great Rush."

1911 | Kennicott copper mines begin production and ran until 1938 producing 590,000 tons of copper and 9 million ounces of silver. Alaska Road Commission blazes the Iditarod Trail, from Seward to Nome.

1912 | Congress passes Organic Act of 1912, giving Alaska Territorial Status and a Legislature.

1913 | Gold found at Marshall. Billy James and Nels Nelson discover gold at Chisana in the Wrangell Mountains.


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Mohawk, self-name Kanien’kehá:ka (“People of the Flint”), Iroquoian-speaking North American Indian tribe and the easternmost tribe of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy. Within the confederacy they were considered to be the “keepers of the eastern door.” At the time of European colonization, they occupied three villages west of what is now Schenectady, New York.

Like the other Iroquois tribes, the Mohawk were semisedentary. Women engaged in corn (maize) agriculture men hunted during the fall and winter and fished during the summer. Related families lived together in longhouses, a symbol of Iroquois society. Each Mohawk community also had a local council that guided the village chief or chiefs.

According to some traditional accounts, the Mohawk visionary chief Dekanawida, who preached principles of peace, was instrumental in founding the Iroquois Confederacy. The Mohawk had nine representatives in the confederacy, three each from their Turtle, Wolf, and Bear clans. As with other Iroquois-speaking tribes, the Mohawk warred frequently against neighbouring Algonquian-speakers the Dutch introduction of firearms during the fur trade increased the number of Mohawk victories. After contact with Europeans, however, the tribe diminished rapidly because of introduced diseases such as smallpox. Most Mohawk allied with the British in the French and Indian War, but some Catholic converts at mission settlements in Canada espoused the French cause and guided expeditions against their former alliance brothers.

During the American Revolution the Mohawk were pro-British as the war concluded, they followed their leader Joseph Brant (Thayendanega) to Canada, where they have descendants at the Bay of Quinte and the Six Nations Indian Reserve at Brantford, Ontario.

Although they are involved in many professions, contemporary Mohawk people may be best known for their work on high steel construction projects, including the Empire State Building and the George Washington Bridge, both in New York City. For some individuals this dangerous work may represent a continuation of the Mohawk ideals of bravery and personal risk taking for the greater good.

Population estimates suggested some 47,000 Mohawk descendants in the early 21st century.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History.


The history of the Old Hundred Gold Mine begins in the spring of 1872 when the first of the three Neigold brothers arrived from Germany and staked their claim on the "Number Seven" vein. Reinhard, Gustave, and Otto Neigold spent the next 30 years prospecting and developing the veins on Galena Mountain. They even had their own town called Neigoldstown along the busy Stony Pass trail that led into Silverton. Educated and sophisticated, the Neigolds entertained the frontier mining camp with music, song, operas, and plays during the long winter months.

Gradually a large block of claims was assembled on the rugged side of Galena Mountain containing several good veins. One of the claims located in 1898 was named the "Old Hundred" probably after the popular German hymn, "Old Hundreth." By then, the brothers had formed the Midland Mining Company which had plans to drive a long tunnel at the base of Galena Mountain to tap the rich veins deep inside the mountain. Work was done on several levels and good gold ore was found in the highest vein, the Number Seven, at an elevation of 12,750 feet above sea level. But the Neigolds did not have the large sums of money needed to develop the mine, and they put the property up for sale.

In 1904, the Midland Mining properties were sold to a new company, the Old Hundred Mining Company organized in Maine. The Neigolds now retired from the scene and left Silverton hoping to enjoy their old age on the annual payments due them by the purchasers. The company raised over one million dollars and drove a new No.7 level tunnel at 12,000 feet elevation, still over 2,000 feet above the creek below. The ť level and two lower levels were connected to the narrow gauge railroad at creek level by an aerial tram, much like a ski lift today. At the mine a large boarding house was built on the side of the cliff for the men to live in. At the bottom massive concrete foundations were poured to build a large stamp mill where the ores were crushed and the gold and other valuable metals separated.

By 1906, gold bars were being shipped to the Denver Mint. The future looked bright and a new "Mill Level" tunnel was started just above the mill, directly into the base of the mountain. But by 1908 the good gold was "mined out" and the financial panic of 1907 dried up sources of new capital for the uncompleted tunnel. The Old Hundred Mining Company never made a profit on the ore it mined, and later defaulted on its debt to the Neigolds who got the now abandoned property back. Broke and broken hearted, the brothers tried to sell the mine but no one wanted a money losing mine. Eventually, it was lost to back taxes and by 1927 the last of the Neigold brothers passed away and their dreams for Galena Mountain seemed gone forever.

During the 1930's, new owners worked the mine sporadically but still unprofitably. However, large tonnages of low grade ore seemed likely to exist in the mountain, and more efficient and cheaper milling methods could hold the answer. What was needed was even more money to finish the long Mill Level Tunnel and a larger modern mill. In 1967 the Dixilyn Corporation, a Texas oil company took a lease on the property. With adequate financing and modern equipment they drove the Mill Level tunnel 5,000 feet into the mountain, an achievement long dreamed about by the Neigolds.

By 1973, after spending over Ů,000,000 and driving over 5 miles of tunnel, the disappointing facts could no longer be ignored. The "rich veins" dreamed about by the Neigolds was nothing but a dream. What little ore was found was unprofitable despite better milling and higher gold prices. The mine buildings were torn down, equipment sold, and the mine returned once more to the owners who had bought it in 1934. Nothing was left except for the long abandoned boardinghouse high on the mountainside and miles of empty tunnels.

Schedule for May 22nd through September 5, 2021:
(Tours depart every hour)

  • 10:00 am
  • 11:00 am
  • 12:00 am
  • 1:00 am
  • 2:00 pm
  • 3:00 pm
  • 4:00 pm

September 6th through October 3, 2021:
(Tours Depart Every Hour)

Schedule Subject to Change Without Notice
(Underground portion of tour lasts about 45 minutes)


Adults: ฬ.00
Seniors ࿜+): ส.00
Kids ƕ-12 years): พ.00
4 & Under (if held on lap): FREE
Group tour rates available, please contact us.
Paid admission includes panning for silver, copper, gold and polished stones.
(Payment by cash or credit/debit card (Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover).

How The Holy Terror Mine Got Its Name

With a name like Holy Terror, you picture the old Keystone mine to be a dark, scary place. It was, but that's not how it got its name.

It was named for a man's wife.

The original mining claim was discovered by William B. Franklin and his adopted daughter, Cora, in 1894. It was a rich ledge of gold-bearing quartz, and it grew to become one of the richest gold mines in the country.

When it came time to name the new mine, friends suggested to Franklin that he name it after his wife, a common practice at the time. Franklin took their advice, sort of. He was a regular at the many saloons in Keystone, and often his wife, Jenny, had to drag him home by the arm. When she retrieved him from the bar, he would wink at a friend and say, "Ain't she a holy terror?"

And that's what he named the mine.

The Holy Terror and the neighboring Keystone Mine later merged, their shafts connected by tunnels. But the two companies continued to operate separate mills.

By 1903, the Holy Terror Mine reached a depth of 1,200 feet. However, the mining company's early success was bogged down by underground water problems and litigation from fatal mine accidents and claim disputes. The mine ceased operation in 1903 and was allowed to fill with water. The Holy Terror had a brief revival from 1938 to 1942. Ore was mined in the neighboring Keystone Mine, brought to the surface through the Holy Terror shaft and processed at the Keystone mill.

The story of the Holy Terror could see another revival in the future. A Canadian company in 2013 began drilling test holes to map the quality of the ore that remains in the Holy Terror vein.


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The hell of Serra Pelada mines, 1980s

Serra Pelada was a large gold mine in Brazil 430 kilometers (270 mi) south of the mouth of the Amazon River. In 1979 a local child swimming on the banks of a local river found a 6 grams (0.21 oz) nugget of gold. Soon word leaked out and by the end of the week, a gold rush had started. During the early 1980s, tens of thousands of prospectors flocked to the Serra Pelada site, which at its peak was said to be not only the largest open-air gold mine in the world but also the most violent.

At first, the only way to get to the remote site was by plane or foot. Miners would often pay exorbitant prices to have taxis drive them from the nearest town to the end of a dirt track from there, they would walk the remaining distance—some 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) to the site. Huge nuggets were quickly discovered, the biggest weighing nearly 6.8 kilograms (15 lb), $108,000 at the 1980 market price ( now $ 310,173 in 2016).

During the peak of the gold rush, the mine was known for appalling conditions and violence, whilst the town that grew up beside it was notorious for both murder and prostitution.

Brazilian photographer Sebastião Salgado traveled to the mines of Serra Pelada taking some of the most haunting pictures of the workers there, highlighting the sheer madness and chaos of the operation. He’s quoted as saying when he saw the mine, “Every hair on my body stood on edge. The Pyramids, the history of mankind unfolded. I had traveled to the dawn of time”.

This is how Sebastião Salgado described the mine during an interview in 1992:

Swept along by the winds that carry the hint of fortune, men come to the gold mine of Serra Pelada. No one is taken there by force, yet once they arrive, all become slaves of the dream of gold and the need to stay alive. Once inside, it becomes impossible to leave.

Every time a section finds gold, the men who carry up loads of mud and earth have, by law, the right to pick one of the sacks they brought out. And inside they may find fortune and freedom. So their lives are a delirious sequence of climbs down into the vast hold and climb out to the edge of the mine, bearing a sack of earth and the hope of gold.

Anyone arriving there for the first time confirms an extraordinary and tormented view of the human animal : 50,000 men sculpted by mud and dreams. All that can be heard are murmurs and silent shouts, the scrape of shovels driven by human hands, not a hint of a machine. It is the sound of gold echoing through the soul of its pursuers.

During the early 1980s, tens of thousands of prospectors flocked to the Serra Pelada site.

Because they work in mud, the gold diggers were called “mud hogs”.

Because of the use of mercury in the gold extraction process large areas around the mine are considered dangerously contaminated.

The discovery of gold in Serra Pelada was unlike any other area on Earth, there was evidence that the gold formed supergenetically (meaning the gold was enriched near the surface by the circulation of rainwater) which is unique to the Amazon gold deposits. To this day the process of supergene enrichment is still unexplained.

The best hypothesis so far is that rainwater mixes with the decaying organic matter of the Amazon forest making the water acidic. This acidic water then becomes a ligand (an ionic network which gold can bond to and therefore be transported by) for gold molecules which then penetrate the ground and eventually accumulate to form an enriched gold zone. Some of the largest gold nuggets in the world formed in these areas.

In the pictures, there can be seen a lot of blocky areas, this is actually because for each miner it was assigned a 2mx2m area. People would just dig down (because that’s all they could do). This became a safety hazard because they didn’t know if the person who was assigned the 2mx2m lot next to them was still alive and digging down on their area. If they weren’t digging, then all the block around them would go deeper and deeper until that persons block became structurally unsafe and would collapse, killing workers it collapsed on.

During its peak, the Serra Pelada mine employed some 100,000 diggers or garimpeiros in appalling conditions, where violence, death, and prostitution were rampant. The diggers scratched through the soil at the bottom of the open pit, filled it into sacks each weighing between 30 to 60 kilograms (65 and 130 pounds), and then carried the heavy sacks up some 400 meters of wood and rope ladders to the top of the mine, where it is sifted for gold. Because they work in mud, the gold diggers were called “mud hogs”. On average, workers were paid 20 cents for digging and carrying each sack, with a bonus if gold was discovered.

Three months after the gold’s discovery, the Brazilian military took over operations to prevent exploitation of the workers and conflict between miners and owners. Before the military takeover, basic goods were sold for hugely inflated prices by the mine owners water cost $3 a liter ($ 8.62 in 2016).

The government agreed to buy all the gold the garimpeiros found for 75 percent of the London Metal Exchange price. Officially just under 45 tons of gold was identified, but it is estimated that as much as 90 percent of all the gold found at Serra Pelada was smuggled away. Using today’s prices that equates approximately to 1.5 billion dollars.

While the military government banned women and alcohol at the actual mine, the nearby town became a town of “stores and whores”. Thousands of underage girls prostituted themselves for gold flakes while around 60–80 unsolved murders occurred in the town every month.

During its peak, the Serra Pelada mine employed some 100,000 diggers.

On average, workers were paid 20 cents for digging and carrying each sack.

The workers in appalling conditions.

Three months after the gold’s discovery, the Brazilian military took over operations to prevent the exploitation of the workers.

The government agreed to buy all the gold the garimpeiros found for 75 percent of the London Metal Exchange price.

Officially just under 45 tons of gold was identified.

It is estimated that as much as 90 percent of all the gold found at Serra Pelada was smuggled away.

Further Reading

Golden Promise in the Piedmont:
The Story of John Reed's Mine

by Richard F. Knapp, North Carolina Office of Archives & History, Revised Edition, 1999.

Gold Mining in North Carolina
by Richard F. Knapp and Brent D. Glass,
North Carolina Office of Archives & History, 1999.

The Reed Gold Mine Guidebook
designed and edited by Linda Funk,
North Carolina Office of Archives & History, 1979.

The First Gold Rush: A Master Plan for Reed Gold Mine
National Park Service, 1972.

Watch the video: 10 penalltite me te mira te pritura nga portieret heronj (November 2022).

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