Drayton DD- 23 - History

Drayton DD- 23 - History

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Percival Drayton, born 25 August 1812 in Charleston, S.C., was appointed a Midshipman 1 December 1827. During the Civil War, he commanded Pocahontas in the expedition against Port Royal, S.C., in October 1861. As Fleet Captain of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron, Drayton served gallantly in command of Admiral D. G. Farragut's flagship Hartford during the Battle of Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. He was appointed Chief of the Bureau of Navigation in April 1865 and died in that post 4 August 1866.

(DD-23: dp. 742, 1. 293'11" b. 27' dr. 8'4", s. 30 k.
cpl. 89; a. 5 3", 6 18' tt.; cl. Paulding)

The first Drayton (DD-23) was launched 22 August 1910 by Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine, sponsored by Miss E. Drayton, niece of Captain Drayton, and commissioned 29 October 1910, Lieutenant Commander H. C. Dinger in command.

Drayton arrived at Key West, Fla., 21 December 1910, to cruise in Cuban waters and on the east coast in exercises and development problems. She sailed from Key West 9 April 1914 to serve on blockade duty off Mexico and take refugees out of the troubled areas returning to New York 1 June, and to Newport I August.

Drayton served on neutrality patrol and conducted torpedo and gunnery exercises out of Newport and in the Caribbean. Calling at Jacksonville, Fla., 5 to 11 April 1917, she took over the German steamer Frieda Leon hard t and interned her crew in accordance with a Presidential proclamation issued upon American entry into World War I. Drayton arrived at Norfolk 12 April and the next day reported for duty with the Patrol Force off the east coast serving until 4 May 1917 when she entered Boston Navy Yard to fit out for distant service.

Drayton departed Boston 21 May 1917 and sailed by way of St. John's, Newfoundland, to Queenstown, Ire land, arriving 1 June. She patrolled along the coast of Ireland, escorting both in bound and outbound ships. On 20 June she searched for the submarine which had torpedoed SS Bengore Head then rescued 42 survivors who were landed at gantry, Ireland. Between 26 June and 4 July she escorted a transport convoy to St. Nazaire and took part in a submarine hunt with two French cruisers. On 15 December with Berzham (DD-49) she picked up the survivors of the mined SS Foylemore, 39 in all.

Transferred to Brest and U.S. Naval Forces Operating in European Waters, Drayton left Queenstown 15 February 1918. She continued her escort and antisubmarine operations out of this port until 16 December when she sailed for the United States, arriving at Boston 2 January 1919 for overhaul. Drayton cruised along the east coast on various exercises and maneuvers until 18 July when she reported to Philadelphia Navy Yard in company with seven other destroyers destined for decommissioning. Drayton was decommissioned 17 November 1919. On 1 July 1933 her name was dropped and she was known as DD-23 until sold 28 June 1935.

Drayton DD- 23 - History

Drayton Hall’s preservation philosophy was groundbreaking for its time and is unique among historic sites today.

Drayton Hall is one of the most remarkable houses in North America in fact, it is the earliest and finest example of Palladian architecture in the United States.

The long-admired landscape of Drayton Hall shows how influences of the past have sculpted the features of the present.

Thanks to multidisciplinary research, we can understand how Drayton Hall’s creators and inhabitants lived their lives and shaped the Atlantic World.

Drayton Hall’s collections include fine arts and historical artifacts that tell the site’s story from its prehistory to the present.


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The Largest Attempted Slave Escape in American History

All through the night of April 15, 1848, slaves slipped out of their masters’ houses and crept through the streets of Washington, D.C. Their destination was the Pearl, a schooner that promised freedom to as many people who could fit on board. As more and more people filled the boat� in all—hope surged through the assembled slaves and the boat’s white crew. Freedom was just 225 miles away…that is, if they made it that far.

Now known simply as the Pearl Incident, the plot was one of the most daring of its era, and one of the most infamous. It was the largest attempted slave escape in American history—one that was doomed from the start.

Ten foot tall bronze sculpture of the Edmonson Sisters by sculptor Erik Blome on Duke Street in Alexandria VA. (Credit: Bronzecastman/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0)

The slaves’ decision to board the Pearl was not spontaneous it was the product of months of planning. It was the brainchild, in part, of two free black men who had seen slavery firsthand. And though the stakes were high, the potential payoff was more than worth it.

Paul Edmonson knew the risks and rewards well. He was free, but his wife, Amelia, wasn’t𠅊nd Maryland law meant that all 14 of the children he had with his enslaved wife belonged to her mistress, Rebecca Culver. Though four of his children had purchased their freedom, the rest were still enslaved and their labor leased out to rich D.C. families.

Paul Jennings, who had been the slave of President James Madison’s family until his wife, Dolley, freed him in her will, was also active in the city’s anti-slavery movement, and the two men reached out to William Chaplin, one of Washington’s most prominent abolitionists. Chaplin and others, including Gerrit Smith, a philanthropist known for using his riches to fund anti-slavery efforts and assist African-Americans, agreed to fund the plan.

Paul Jennings, who had been freed after being a slave for President James Madison. (Credit: The Estate of Sylvia Jennings Alexander)

Captain Daniel Drayton, hated slavery, and during years of sailing up and down the Atlantic coast, the pleas he heard from enslaved people touched his heart. “Why had not these black people, so anxious to escape from their masters, as good a light to their liberty as I had to mine?” he wrote in a memoir of the incident. Drayton hired the Pearl ਊs the escape vessel, enlisting the ship’s white captain, Edward Sayres, and a single boatman to assist with the escape.

News spread that the ship would depart on April 15, and slaves hatched plans to head to the wharf on the Potomac that night. Among them were six Edmonson siblings, including 13-year-old Mary and 15-year-old Emily.

But though hopes were high, the tide—literally—was against the escape attempt. As the boat slipped into Chesapeake Bay on its way to New Jersey, a free state, it faced a strong headwind and the tide brought the ship to a halt within hours. The Pearl was forced to drop anchor near Point Lookout, Maryland.

Daniel Drayton, captain of the Pearl. (Credit: The Library of Congress)

Hours later, a posse hired by the slaves’ furious owners rendezvoused with the boat. They dragged the ship, slaves and crew back to Washington. 𠇊ll on board were…made prisoner without bloodshed, although it was evident that the slaves would have resisted if there were any chance of escape,” wrote a local newspaper.

But the real danger awaited them in Washington, D.C., where an angry mob had gathered at the dock.The slaves, many of them in manacles and chains, were paraded through the streets. The mob taunted and threatened them and yelled obscenities at Drayton and his collaborators.

Then they turned on the nearby office of an abolitionist paper and threatened an openly abolitionist Congressman they accused of supporting the escape. The riot that ensued lasted for three days.

The aftermath was brutal for the slaves who dared to escape. All of them were sold to plantations further south as punishment𠅊 common practice that ensured hard labor and separation from their families. Drayton and Sayres were tried, convicted of 77 counts of illegally transporting a slave and aiding a slave, and thrown into jail when they could not pay their fines. They only left jail four years later, when President Millard Fillmore, who was sometimes accused of being an abolitionist by his Southern enemies, pardoned them.

The 1850 Fugitive Slave Law Convention in Cazenovia, New York. Pictured are the Edmonson sisters, standing wearing bonnets and shawls in the row behind the seated speakers, daughters of Paul Edmonson. Frederick Douglass is seated and standing behind him is Gerritt Smith, the philanthropist who funded the escape on the Pearl. (Courtesy of the J. Paul Getty Museum)

The fates of all 77 slaves are not known, but at least two of them eventually gained freedom. Paul Edmonson used the publicity of the Pearl disaster to raise money for his daughters’ release, and in November 1848 they were emancipated with funds raised by white abolitionists. Both spoke out against slavery and were educated, but Mary died tragically when she was just 20.

The escape was a catastrophe for the slaves who dared make a run for it. But ironically, their disastrous escape attempt helped end the slave trade in Washington, D.C. The Pearl incident and Washington Riot became so well known that pressure to stop the slave trade in the nation’s capital mounted. In 1850, aided by the publicity of the Pearl incident, Congress stopped allowing the import and sale of slaves into the District of Columbia. However, existing slaves in the District were still sold in the city’s thriving slave market.

The Pearl incident helped stop slavery in another way, too: Harriet Beecher Stowe, the famous abolitionist author, cited the failed escape as an inspiration for her book Uncle Tom’s Cabin. And that book helped shock America into abolishing slavery for good.

Drayton DD- 23 - History

by Lt Cdr Geoffrey B Mason RN (Rtd) (c) 2003

HMS FIREDRAKE (H 79) - F-class Destroyer including Convoy Escort Movements

HMS Firedrake ( Navy Photos, click to enlarge)

F-Class Fleet Destroyer ordered on 15th March 1933 from Parsons Marine Turbine Company under the 1932 Programme. The ship was built by Vickers-Armstrong at Newcastle and laid down on 5th July 1933 at the same time as sister ship HMS FAME in the same shipyard. She was launched on 26th July 1934, also the same day as HMS FAME, and was the 7th RN ship to carry this name. It had been introduced in 1648 and previously carried by a 1912 destroyer scrapped in 1921. Build completed on 30th May 1936 and she served mainly in the Mediterranean until 1939 including patrols for the protection of British shipping during the Spanish civil war. After a successful WARSHIP WEEK National Savings campaign held in February 1942 she was adopted by the civil community of Tynemouth. then in the county of Northumberland, now in Tyne and Wear.

B a t t l e H o n o u r s


Badge: On s Field Black, a Firedrake green with red wings

and flames issuing from his mouth.

Vitute ardeo: '1 burn with valour'

D e t a i l s o f W a r S e r v i c e

(for more ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search)

September Part of 8th Destroyer Flotilla, Home Fleet.

3rd Deployed on fleet protection and escort in Home waters.

14th Part of screen for HM Aircraft Carrier COURAGEOUS in SW Approaches.

Participated in sinking of U39 with HM Destroyers FAULKNOR and FOXHOUND.

(Note: Attacking submarine had made an unsuccessful attack on HMS COURAGEOUS

and disabled in a series of depth charge attacks. After surfacing the submarine

was abandoned in position 58.32N 11.39W.

The first U- Boat 'kill' of WW2.)

29th Deployed with screen for Home Fleet during operation in North Sea to ensure the

safe return of damaged submarine SPEARFISH.

4th Rescued survivors of as GLEN FAHG 25 miles East of Orkneys.

November Home Fleet screening and convoy defence in continuation.

to (For details of naval activities In Horns waters see ENGAGE THE ENEMY MORE CLOSELY

December by C. Barnett and Naval Staff History).

January Home Fleet duties with Flotilla in continuation.

28th Damaged when going alongside HM Destroyer ICARUS at Invergordon.

April Passage to Cardiff for repair in commercial shipyard.

2nd Taken in hand for repair.

May Convoy defence and bombardment duties in continuation.

23rd In action with aircraft and received some splinter damage.

27th Provided naval gunfire support with HM Cruisers CAIRO and COVENTRY during allied

Military operations to retake Narvik.

28th Deployed with HM Cruiser SOUTHAMPTON in Ofotfjord.

29th Took part In Bodo evacuation with m Destroyers ARROW, ECHO, HAVELOCK and

(For details of the disastrous operations off Norway see CARRIER GLORIOUS by John

Winton, NARVIK by D Maclntyre. THE DOOMED EXPEDITION by Jack Adams and

the Naval Staff History (2001) )

Rescued pilot of crashed Hurricane off Narvik.

30th Evacuated Irish Guards, Independent Companies and Military Police from Bodo with

June Norwegian evacuation support in continuation.

8th Escorted troopships from Norway.

12th Evacuated troops from Harstad (Operation ALPHABET)

Under air attacks during which A-Gun and steering motor were damaged.

Returned to UK on completion of repair.

16th Under repair in Clyde shipyard

20th Detached for escort duty in Atlantic with 4th Destroyer Flotilla.

July Home Fleet duties in continuation.

2nd Searched for survivors from ARANDORA STAR sunk by U47 in NW Approaches 350

miles west of Malin Head in position 55.20N 10.33W).

August Home Fleet duties in continuation.

17th Escorted ships of 1st Minelaying Squadron with HM Destroyers INGLEFIELD, JAVELIN

and JAGUAR during extension of East Coast Mine Barrier across Moray Firth.

(Operation SN12 - See Naval Staff History (MINING) for details.)

22nd Part of screen for HM Aircraft Carrier ILLUSTRIOUS, HM Cruisers SHEFFIELD and

YORK for passage to Gibraltar to Join Force H.

29th Rejoined 8th Destroyer Flotilla for service with Force H on arrival.

30th Deployed as screen for HMS ARK ROYAL, HM Battlecruiser RENOWN and HMS


FORESTER and ENCOUNTER as Force B to cover passage of reinforcements to

Mediterranean Fleet in Alexandria.

(Operation HATS - HMS ILLUSTRIOUS, HM Battleship VALIANT, HM Cruisers

CALCUTTA and COVENTRY, were to be met by ships Iron Alexandria after passing

through the Sicilian Narrows.

(For details of operations in Mediterranean see THE BATTLE FOR THE


2nd Return passage to Gibraltar after transit of reinforcements.

October Deployed at Gibraltar.

18th Sank Italian submarine DURBO with HM Destroyer WRESTLER and two aircraft.

Retrieved documents before submarine sank.


and GRIFFIN as screen for HMS RENOWN during patrol off coast of West Africa.


FURY and FORTUNE as screen for HMS ARK ROYAL and HMS 3HEPFILED as Force B

providing cover for passage of HM Battleship BARHAM, HM Cruiser BERWICK and HM

Cruiser GLASGOW to reinforce the Fleet in the eastern Mediterranean.

(Operation COAT - See above references).

14th Returned to Gibraltar with Force B after an air attack on Cagliari. (Operation CRACK).

15th Deployed with HM Destroyers FAULKNOR, FORTUNE, FORESTER and FOXHOUND

as screen for HMS RENOWN, HMS ARK ROYAL and HMS SHEFFIELD in Force B to

provide cover for Malta aircraft delivery by HM Aircraft Carrier ARGUS.

(Note: Only five aircraft arrived and diversionary air attack on Alghero was not carried

out because of adverse weather).

25th Deployed with HM Destroyers FAULKNOR, FORESTER, FURY, WISHART,


HM Cruisers SHEFFIELD and DESPATCH during escort of Military convoy during

passage through western Mediterranean.

(Operation COLLAR - This also included the transit of HM Cruisers MANCHESTER and

SOUTHAMPTON to reinforce Fleet based at Alexandria).

27th Took part in brief engagement with Italian warships (Battle of Spartivento).

For details see above references).

December Force H screen in duties with Flotilla in continuation.

(Note: During this period an offensive sweep was carried out off the Azores by HMS


January Intercepted convoy of Vichy French ships and escorted them to Gibraltar with HM


Exchanged fire with shore batteries.

7th Deployed with HM Destroyers FAULKNOR, FORESTER, FURY, FOXHOUND,


SHEFFIELD to provide cover for passage of military convoy in western Mediterranean.

(Operation EXCESS - See above references).

13th Returned to Gibraltar with Force H ships.



provide cover for an aircraft attack from HMS ARK ROYAL on Tirso Dam in Sardinia.

4th Returned to Gibraltar with Force H ships.

7th Joined HM Destroyers DUNCAN, ISIS and JUPITER to form Group 3 as escort for HMS

ARK ROYAL to carry out air operations against Livorno as a diversion during naval

(Operation GROG - replacing Operation RESULT which had been cancelled.

1st Ran aground off Malaga in fog with damage to A/S Dome and propellers.

2nd Taken in hand for temporary repair in Gibraltar.

21st On completion took passage to Chatham for permanent repair.

April Repair in continuation.

19th Carried out post repair trials.

20th Passage to Gibraltar as escort for 9th Motor Launch Flotilla with HM Destroyer BEVERLEY.

28th Resumed Flotilla duties at Gibraltar.

July Flotilla deployment with Force H in continuation.

20th Joined escort for military convoy WS9C during passage in Atlantic to Gibraltar

(Note: This was a Malta relief convoy and part of Operation SUBSTANCE).

21st Joined screen for HM Cruisers EDINBURGH, MANCHESTER, ARETHUSA and


FOXHOUND, ERIDGE, AVONVALE and FARNDALE in Force X for escort of relief

23rd Under air attacks south of Sardinia.

(Note: HMS MANCHESTER and HMS FEARLESS were torpedoed and the latter had to be

Sustained serious structural damage by near miss from 100Kg bomb. Passage to Gibraltar

under tow by HMS ERIDGE and escorted by HMS AVONVALE and HMS SIKH.

30th After arrival at Gibraltar taken in hand for temporary repair.

August Under temporary repair and permanent repair arranged in US shipyard.

September Prepared for ocean passage.

13th Passage to Boston USA with HM Cruiser MANCHESTER for completion of repair.

23rd Taken in hand for repair in US Navy Yard, Boston.

October Under repair and conversion for deployment as Anti-submarine destroyer.

to (Note: Conversion included removal of A gun and replacement by HEDGEHOG weapon as

December well as installation of Radar Type 271 for surface detection.

For details and tactics used for convoy warfare see SEEK AND STRIKE by W Hackmann)

January Post refit trials.

12th Passage to UK as escort for Convoy NA2

February Nominated for Atlantic convoy defence with 7th British Escort Group.

(Note: Other ships in Group included HM Destroyer CHESTERFIELD and HM Corvettes


17th Joined military convoy WS16 in Clyde for Local Escort in NW Approaches with HM



21st Detached from WS16 and returned to Clyde.

Taken in hand for repair in Clyde shipyard.

March During escort of convoy WS16 damaged ASDIC Dome.

Taken in hand for repair in Clyde shipyard.

May Resumed Atlantic convoy defence with Group

June Deployed in NW Approaches for convoy defence.

August Under repair in Belfast.

September Rejoined Group and deployed for Atlantic convoy defence.

26th Rescued survivors from Swedish OLAF FOSTENES which had been sunk on 18th Sept.

October Atlantic convoy defence with Group in continuation.

19th Despatched with US destroyer USS BADGER to reinforce defence of Convoy ONS144 by 6th

British Escort Group under sustained attacks by four U-Boats.

(Note: HM Corvette MONTBRETIA of this Group and manned by the Royal Norwegian

Navy had been sunk by U262 on 18th in defence of this convoy.)

Joined HM Corvettes VERVAIN, POTENTILLA, ROSE and EGLANTINE in escort of

20th Detached from ONS144 on arrival of RCN Local Escort.

(Note: U184 was sunk but five of the thirty three mercantiles in this convoy were lost.

See HITLER'S U-BOAT WAR by C Blair.)

December Deployed with ships of Group including HMS CHESTERFIELD, HM Corvette SUNFLOWER

and four other corvettes for escort of the thirty-eight mercantiles in Convoy ONS153.

15th Under attack by U-Boats of RAUFBOLD Group in extreme weather conditions.

17th Torpedoed by U211 on starboard side and broke In two in position 50.50N 5.50W 600 miles

Stern portion remained afloat for some hours. Only 26 of the 148 personnel on

board survived and were rescued by HM Corvette SUNFLOWER.

(See HITLER'S U-BOAT WAR by C Blair and WARSHIP LOSSES OF WW2 by D Brown.)

Drayton DD- 23 - History

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    Drayton DD- 23 - History

    1938 General Motors forms the GM Diesel Division, which produces the two-cycle Series 71 engine for construction, military and standby generator use. 1955 GM Diesel develops heavy-duty engines to meet commercial trucking needs, including the Series 53 engine, introduced for the on-highway market. 1965 GM Diesel becomes the Detroit Engine Division, consolidating business with the Allison Division for the next two decades. 1970-1986 Detroit Diesel Allison produces its first four-cycle engine. In the early 1980s, diesel engine production splits off as Detroit Diesel Allison Division, while turbine engine production retains the Allison Division name. 1987 The Detroit Diesel Series 60® engine is developed to meet the demand for a more fuel-efficient, heavy-duty engine, quickly becoming the most popular heavy-duty diesel engine in the North American class-8 truck market. 1988 A joint venture between Penske Corporation and General Motors creates Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC). 1993 By this point, DDC has grown on-highway market share from 3% to 33%. 2000 Daimler Chrysler acquires DDC, placing it under the Daimler Trucks of North America umbrella, bringing all commercial vehicle divisions together in a new business unit. 2005 DDC invests over $300 million to refurbish and retool its manufacturing facility. This decade also includes the Heavy-Duty Engine Platform launch, including the DD15® engine and the sale of the millionth Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine. 2010 An additional $190 million investment in DDC includes the launch of BlueTEC® emissions technology and other DD engine platforms. 2011 Expanding its product line beyond engines to include transmissions and axles, DDC simplifies its name to Detroit®. 2012 The one-hundred-thousandth DD-platform engine leaves the factory, while axles, transmissions, Detroit Connect Virtual Technician® and Detroit Connect® are introduced, along with the Detroit® Genuine Parts brand 2013 Detroit completes the Detroit Connect® telematics solution, the first OEM provided, factory-installed telematics solution with remote diagnostics and on-board tablets. Detroit® also launches the first fully integrated Detroit® powertrain in the Freightliner Cascadia Evolution, with components that were engineered and manufactured to work together. The integrated powertrain features a down-sped DD15® engine, the DT12® transmission, and puts power to the road with high-speed ratio 6x4 or 6x2 2015 Daimler designs and offers the first complete suite of safety systems, Detroit Assurance®, featuring both a radar system and optional camera system. Assurance is the future of driving. And staying ahead of the new 2017 Greenhouse Gas emission standards, Detroit offers 2016 engines that meet these regulations a full year ahead of schedule, showing that we’re working towards a greener footprint. Finally, Detroit® announces a $375 million investment to bring new mid-range engine line to the

    USS O'Bannon (DD 987)

    USS O'BANNON was the 25 th SPRUANCE - class destroyer and the last east coast destroyer of her class decommissioned. USS O'BANNON was last homeported in Mayport, Fla., and was originally scheduled to be transfered to Turkey. The transfer was canceled and the O'BANNON was sunk as a target on October 6, 2008, by the USS STOUT (DDG 55).

    General Characteristics: Awarded: January 15, 1975
    Keel laid: February 21, 1977
    Launched: September 25, 1978
    Commissioned: December 15, 1979
    Decommissioned: August 19, 2005
    Builder: Ingalls Shipbuilding, West Bank, Pascagoula, Miss.
    Propulsion system: four General Electric LM 2500 gas turbine engines
    Propellers: two
    Blades on each Propeller: five
    Length: 564,3 feet (172 meters)
    Beam: 55,1 feet (16.8 meters)
    Draft: 28,9 feet (8.8 meters)
    Displacement: approx. 9,200 tons full load
    Speed: 30+ knots
    Aircraft: two SH-60B Seahawk (LAMPS 3)
    Armament: two Mk 45 5-inch/54 caliber lightweight guns, one Mk 41 VLS for Tomahawk, ASROC and Standard missiles, Mk 46 torpedoes (two triple tube mounts), Harpoon missile launchers, one Sea Sparrow launcher, two 20mm Phalanx CIWS, one Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) System
    Crew: approx. 340

    This section contains the names of sailors who served aboard USS O'BANNON. It is no official listing but contains the names of sailors who submitted their information.

    About the Ship's Coat of Arms:

    Blue and Gold are the colors traditionally associated with the U.S. Navy and both are symbolic of the Navy's element, the sea and it's goal of excellence. The Shield symbolizes an event in 1805 during the Tripolitan War when LT Presley O'Bannon (USMC), at the head of an escort of seven Marines and one midshipman, stormed the fort at Derna in present day Libya. This fort is represented by the embattled partition line. With his own hands, O'Bannon hoisted an American Flag over a captured position for the first time in the history of the US. At Malta, according to tradition, Hamet presented O'Bannon with the jeweled sword he carried while a refugee with the Mameluke in Egypt. This type of blade, known as a Mameluke sword, is worn by Marine Officers today and is the oldest weapon in continuous use by the Armed Forces of the United States.

    On his return home, O'Bannon was presented a second sword, this time a ceremonial one, by his native state of Virginia. The crossed sword and cutlass on the shield have been adopted from the Enlisted and Officers surface warfare badges and represent the two swords presented O'Bannon as well as the mission, capabilities, and personnel of the Spruance Class Destroyer. Three shamrocks refer not only to the O'Bannon's Irish heritage, but also the three ships to bear this name DD 177, DD/DDE 450 and DD 987. The globe and the anchor, adapted from a USMC seal, are direct references to Presley O'Bannon's outstanding service in the USMC.

    Presley Neville O'Bannon was born on 1776, in Fauquier County, Virginia. First appointed a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps on 18 January 1801, he served in various stations in the United States prior to assignment onboard USS ADAMS. Following a deployment to the Mediterranean on the ADAMS, First Lieutenant O'Bannon returned to the United States in November 1803. He was assigned to duty at Marine Barracks, Washington D.C.

    In 1804, First Lieutenant O'Bannon was again called to sea duty, this time onboard PRESIDENT. Setting sail for the Mediterranean in May 1804, the USS PRESIDENT arrived at Gibraltar in August. Following several months in the Mediterranean, First Lieutenant O'Bannon was transferred to another warship, USS CONSTITUTION, and then to USS ARGUS. While serving as the Marine Officer on the later vessel, he was selected for a mission that later was commemorated in the colors of the Marine Corps and recorded in the Marine Hymn in the words "to the shores of Tripoli".

    For many years the United States had maintained peace with the Barbary States by "buying" treaties and paying tributes to the Pasha. The states of Algiers, Morocco, and Tunis remained reasonably complacent under this system, though Tripoli continued to demand larger payments and make threats against the United States.

    Finally, (May 14th 1801) the Pasha of Tripoli, Yousuf, demonstrated his dissatisfaction by cutting down the flag staff in front of the U.S. Consulate. This led to a declaration of war by the United States and more warships being dispatched to the Mediterranean. During a storm, one of these, USS PHILADELPHIA, went on the rocks off Tripoli, with her crew being captured and imprisoned at Derna.

    This event, and the inability of U.S. agents to ransom the crew of the Philadelphia, led to the formation of a bold rescue plan, which included First Lieutenant O'Bannon. The plan, conceived by Naval Agent William Eaton, proposed the formation of an alliance with Prince Hamet of Tripoli, elder brother of the Pasha of Tripoli.

    In January of 1805, First Lieutenant O'Bannon, in command of a Marine Detachment consisting of one sergeant and six privates, joined Eaton's allied force at Alexandria, Egypt. This army of 500 men then began an expedition against Derna. The ships HORNET, NAUTILUS, and ARGUS further augmented the force. Under a bombardment provided by these ships, Lt. O'Bannon led his force on March 27th 1805 through a shower of musketry and stormed the principal edifices, routing the enemy in such haste that their guns were left loaded and primed. First Lieutenant O'Bannon planted the United States Flag upon the ramparts and then turned the guns upon the enemy. After some two hours of hand-to-hand fighting, the stronghold was occupied and for the first time in history the flag of the United States flew over a fortress of the Old World.

    The Tripolitains counter-attacked the fortress a number of times, but were repelled with heavy losses. Finally, through a spirited bayonet charge, the enemy was driven from the vicinity of Derna. This stubbornness and pugnacity by the Americans led to an almost mythical belief in their fighting ability.

    On the occasion of his departure, Prince Hamet of Tripoli honored LT Presley O'Bannon by giving him his jeweled sword with a Mameluke Hilt. This sword was the model for the dress sword used by Marine Corps Officers today, making it the oldest continuously used weapon in the U.S. Military Arsenal. Upon his return to the United States, the state of Virginia presented O'Bannon a sword modeled after the original Mameluke blade given him by Prince Hamet of Tripoli.

    Hailed as a national hero, "the hero of Derna", Presley O'Bannon resigned from the Marine Corps on March 6th, 1807. He went to Kentucky and served in the State Legislature. He died on September 12th, 1850 at the age of 74. A monument to his memory was erected over his grave in the state cemetery in Frankfort, Kentucky.

    Former president Ulysses S. Grant dies

    On July 23, 1885, just after completing his memoirs, Civil War hero and former president Ulysses S. Grant dies of throat cancer.

    The son of a tanner, Grant showed little enthusiasm for joining his father’s business, so the elder Grant enrolled his son at West Point in 1839. Though Grant later admitted in his memoirs that he had no interest in the military apart from honing his equestrian skills, he graduated in 1843 and went on to serve first in the Mexican-American War, which he opposed on moral grounds, and then in California and Oregon, tours of duty that forced him to leave behind his beloved wife and children. 

    WATCH: Full episodes of the epic miniseries event, GRANT.

    The loneliness and sheer boredom of duty in the West drove Grant to binge drinking. By 1854, Grant’s alcohol consumption so alarmed his superiors that he was asked to resign from the Army. He did, and returned to Missouri to try his hand at farming and land speculation. Although he kicked the alcohol habit, he failed miserably at both vocations and was forced to take a job as a clerk in his father’s tanning business.

    If it were not for the Civil War, Grant might have slipped quickly into obscurity. Instead, he re-enlisted in the Army in 1861 and embarked on a stellar military career, although his tendency to binge-drink re-emerged and he developed another unhealthy habit: chain cigar-smoking, which probably caused the throat cancer that eventually killed him. In 1862, Grant led troops in the captures of Forts Henry and Donelson in Tennessee, and forced the Confederate Army to retreat back into Mississippi after the Battle of Shiloh. After the Donelson campaign, Grant received over 10,000 boxes of congratulatory cigars from a grateful citizenry.

    In 1863, after leading the Union Army to victory at Vicksburg, Grant caught President Abraham Lincoln’s attention. The Union Army had suffered under the service of a series of incompetent generals and Lincoln was in the market for a new Union supreme commander. In March 1864, Lincoln revived the rank of lieutenant general𠅊 rank that had previously been held only by George Washington in 1798𠅊nd gave it to Grant. As supreme commander of Union forces, Grant led troops in a series of epic and bloody battles against Confederate General Robert E. Lee. On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House. The victory solidified Grant’s status as national hero and, in 1869, heꂾgan his first of two terms as president.

    Grant’s talent as political leader paled woefully in comparison to his military prowess. He was unable to stem the rampant corruption that plagued his administration and failed to combat a severe economic depression in 1873. However, successes of Grant’s tenure include passage of the Enforcement Act in 1870, which temporarily curtailed the political influence of the Ku Klux Klan in the post-Civil War South, and the 1875 Civil Rights Act, which attempted to desegregate public places such as restrooms, “inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement.” In addition, Grant helped to improve U.S. and British diplomatic relations, which had been damaged by the British offer to supply the Confederate Army with tools to break the Union naval blockade during the Civil War. He also managed to stay sober during his two terms in office.

    Upon leaving office, Grant’s fortunes again declined. Although he and his wife Julia traveled to Europe between 1877 and 1879 amid great fanfare, the couple came home to bankruptcy caused by Grant’s unwise investment in a scandal-prone banking firm. Grant spent the last few years of his life writing a detailed account of the Civil War and, after he died of throat cancer in 1885, Julia lived on the royalties earned from his memoirs.

    23 - Latin and vernacular Apocalypses

    The final book of the New Testament canon, the Apocalypse of John (or Book of Revelation), is part of the visionary and prophetic genre which was characteristic of both Jewish and Christian writings of the first century ce . The Greek word ‘apokalupsis’ means ‘revelation’ or ‘unveiling’ and such texts aimed to reveal things that were hidden and also to present prophecies of future events. The date of composition of this ‘revelation’ of John is controversial, as is the identity of its author, who gives his name as John. The dating ranges from c . 65 to 95. Some have considered that it was written before the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem by Titus in the year 70, but many others think it dates from the reign of Domitian (81–96), with others suggesting somewhere in between. The dates most usually proposed are in either the late 60s or the early 90s. The ‘revelation’ of John is presented in a prophetic and eschatological framework ending with the judgement and the appearance of the New Jerusalem. Although the Gospels and the Epistles of Paul make several important eschatological statements, they contain very little prophecy the Apocalypse of John is the most exclusively eschatological and prophetic text of the New Testament, and because of that occupies a very special position in biblical interpretation.

    When the eschatological predictions in the Gospels came to be seen by the early church as not so imminent as might have been expected, the Apocalypse of John assumed a particular importance as a text prophetic of future times which would lead up to the ‘last things’. As its text refers to periods of rule by the beast that rises from the sea, whom the earliest commentators were quick to identify as the Antichrist, who would reign for a time before the final judgement, the interest in the Apocalypse in the Middle Ages is closely linked to prophecies of the coming of the Antichrist, and who he might be. Perhaps the most famous candidate for the Antichrist in the Middle Ages was the Emperor Frederick II in the thirteenth century, to whom Pope Gregory IX referred in language derived from the Apocalypse in his letter of 1239 to Edmund Rich, archbishop of Canterbury, as ‘The beast filled with the names of blasphemy has risen from the sea…this beast Frederick, called emperor’.

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