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Siege of Alexandria, 29 July- 2 August 1174

Siege of Alexandria, 29 July- 2 August 1174

Siege of Alexandria, 29 July- 2 August 1174

The siege of Alexandria of 29 July- 2 August 1174 was a brief and very unsuccessful attempt by the Normans of Sicily to play a part in the overthrow of Saladin, then vizier of Egypt.

In 1169 Saladin had become vizier and commander-in-chief of the Egyptian army, a position that meant he was officially working both for his own master, the Sunni Nur-ad-Din and for the Fatimid caliph in Cairo, a Shiite. The Crusaders quickly realised the danger posed by a united Moslem world, and attempted to intervene, attacking Damietta (25 October-19 December 1169). This attack was repulsed, and in 1170 Saladin went onto the offensive himself, capturing Ayla at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba.

In 1171 Saladin finally substituted the name of the orthodox Sunni caliph for that of the Fatimid caliph in the prayers in the mosques of Cairo, announcing the return to orthodoxy in Egypt. The last caliph died a few days later, of natural causes and probably without ever knowing that he had been overthrown. At first the surviving members of the Fatimid elite stayed quiet, but by 1174 they had decided to revolt.

The plan was for a multi-pronged assault on Saladin. There would be a revolt in Cairo and another revolt at Aswan in the far south. The Egyptians returned to their almost traditional policy of allying with the Crusaders, and arranged for two attacks. One would come from Jerusalem, led by king Amalric while the second would be a naval attack on Alexandria, to be carried out by the Normans of Sicily, then one of the main naval powers in the Mediterranean.

The plot fell apart before it could begin. In March Saladin's men uncovered the plot in Cairo. The chief plotters were arrested, and in April they were executed. Amalric died in July, removing the last truly effective King of Jerusalem. The revolt in Aswan remained undetected, but by the time the news reached Saladin the threat to Alexandria was already over.

The Sicilian threat was still a serious one. King William II collected a large fleet, which Ibn al-Athir described as containing 200 warships forty supply ships, 1,500 cavalry, 30,000 infantry and six ships full of siege engines. Other sources agree on the size of the fleet although differ slightly on the size of the army.

This sounds like an impressive army, but the Sicilians had expected that Saladin would be distracted by revolts and by Amalric. Instead he was close to Alexandria and ready to intervene. The port was blocked with sunken ships. The Sicilians were able to land, and assembled either three or six massive siege towers, and three heavy catapults. These greatly impressed the defenders of the city, but they were less impressed with the organisation of the Sicilian army.

On the third day of the siege the defenders sallied from the city gates and caught the Sicilians by surprise. The siege towers were destroyed and most of the besieging troops fled to their ships. Three hundred horsemen were isolated and had to dig in on top of a hill, before later being overwhelmed. On 2 August the Sicilians abandoned the siege, and sailed away. William of Tyre extends the siege to five or six days, but the result was the same.

In some versions of the siege the sortie was on the third day and the final fighting and the isolation of the 300 took place when Saladin's field army arrived. In others the sortie and the final battle both took place on the third day of the siege. The sortie came first, and the defenders attacked a second time on the same day when a messenger arrived from Saladin to announce that his army was close by.

Only now did news arrive of the revolt in the south. This was soon under control, and Saladin was finally free to take advantage of news that had arrived from Syria - in May Nur ad-Din had died, and while Saladin was defending Egypt the unity of Syria collapsed. Saladin was invited to take over at Damascus. Once the revolts had been out down he left Cairo heading for Syria and the campaigns that would secure him as an independent ruler of Damascus and Egypt.


Siege of Candia

The siege of Candia (modern Heraklion, Crete) was a military conflict in which Ottoman forces besieged the Venetian-ruled city. Lasting from 1648 to 1669, or a total of 21 years, it is the second longest siege in history after the siege of Ceuta however, the Ottomans were ultimately victorious despite Candia's resistance.

The long duration of the siege and cost to the Ottoman side, can be attributed to helping the decline of the Ottoman Empire, especially after the Great Turkish War.


A limber is a two-wheeled cart designed to support the trail of an artillery piece, or the stock of a field carriage such as a caisson or traveling forge, allowing it to be towed.

Musée des familles ("Museum of Families") was an illustrated French literary magazine that was published in Paris from 1833 to 1900.

The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.


Siege of Alexandria, 29 July- 2 August 1174 - History

Union Regimental Histories

6th Regiment Infantry (3 Months)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., April 22-27, 1861. Left State for Grafton, W. Va., May 30. Attached to Kelly's Command. Action at Philippi June 3. Morris' Indiana Brigade, Army of West Virginia, July. West Virginia Campaign July 6-16. Carrick's Ford July 12-14. Pursuit of Garnett's forces July 15-16. Mustered out August 2, 1861. Lost 3 by disease.

6th Regiment Infantry (3 Years)

Regiment organized at Madison, Ind., and mustered in September 20, 1861. Ordered to Louisville, Ky., September 20. Duty at Muldraugh's Hill until October 14. Moved to Nolin River, Ky. Duty at Bacon Creek and Green River until February, 1862. Attached to 1st Brigade, McCook's Command, at Nolin, Ky., October-November, 1861. 4th Brigade, Army of the Ohio, to December, 1861. 4th Brigade, 2nd Division, Army of the Ohio, to September, 1862. 4th Brigade, 2nd Division, 1st Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Right Wing 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 20th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to September, 1864.

SERVICE.--March to Nashville, Tenn., February 14-March 3, 1862. March to Duck River, thence to Savannah, Tenn., March 16-April 6. Battle of Shiloh, Tenn., April 6-7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Duty at Corinth until June 10. March to Iuka, Miss., thence to Tuscumbia, Florence, Huntsville and Stevenson, Ala., June 10-July 5. Expedition to Tullahoma July 14-18. March to Pelham July 24, thence to Altamont August 28. Reconnaissance toward Sequatchie Valley August 29-30. March to Louisville, Ky., in pursuit of Bragg, August 30-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1-15. March to Nashville, Tenn., October 16-November 7, and duty there until December 26. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, 1862, and January 1-3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro until June. Middle Tennessee (or Tullahoma) Campaign June 23-July 7. Liberty Gap June 24-27. (Guard Ammunition Trains through Liberty Gap.) Occupation of Middle Tennessee until August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-20. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23. Reopening Tennessee River October 26-29. Brown's Ferry October 27. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Orchard Knob November 23-24. Mission Ridge November 25. March to relief of Knoxville, Tenn., November 28-December 8. Operations in East Tennessee December, 1863, to April, 1864. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1 to August 22. Demonstrations on Rocky Faced Ridge and Dalton May 8-13. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Adairsville May 17. Near Kingston May 18-19. Near Cassville May 19. Advance on Dallas May 22-25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Pickett's Mills May 27. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Hill June 11-14. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Ruff's Station, Smyrna Camp Ground, July 4. Chattahoochee River July 5-17. Pace's Ferry July 5. Peach Tree Creek July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 22. Ordered to Chattanooga, Tenn., August 22. Mustered out September 22, 1864. Expiration of term. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 68th Indiana Infantry.

Regiment lost during service 9 Officers and 116 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 140 Enlisted men by disease. Total 267.

7th Regiment Infantry (3 Months)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., April 21-27, 1861. Left State for West Virginia May 29. At Grafton, W. Va., June 1. Attached to Kelly's Command. Action at Philippi June 3. Attached to Morris' Indiana Brigade Army of West Virginia, July. West Virginia Campaign July 6-17. Laurel Hill July 7. Bealington July 8. Carrick's Ford July 12-14. Pursuit of Garnett's forces July 15-17. Mustered out August 2, 1863.

Regiment lost during service 1 Enlisted man killed and 2 Enlisted men by disease.

7th Regiment Infantry (3 Years)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., and mustered in September 13, 1861. Ordered to Cheat Mountain, W. Va., September, 1861. Attached to Cheat Mountain District, West Virginia, to January, 1862. 3rd Brigade, Landers' Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 3rd Brigade, Shields' 2nd Division, Banks' 5th Army Corps. and Dept. of the Shenandoah, to May, 1862. 4th Brigade, Shields' Division, Dept. of the Rappahannock, to June, 1862. 4th Brigade, 2nd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of Virginia, to September, 1862. 2nd Brigade. 1st Division, 3rd Corps, Army of Virginia, September, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 1st Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, 5th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to April, 1864. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 5th Army Corps, to August, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 5th Army Corps, to September, 1864.

SERVICE.--Duty in Cheat Mountain District, West Virginia, to December, 1861. Action at Greenbrier October 3-4. Scouting Expedition through the Kanawha District October 27-November 7. Expedition to Camp Baldwin December 11-14. Moved to Green Springs Run December 18, and duty there until March, 1862. Advance on Winchester March 5-13. Middletown March 18. Battle of Winchester March 22-23. Mt. Jackson March 25. Occupation of Mt. Jackson April 17. March to Fredericksburg, Va., May 12-21, and return to Front Royal May 25-30. Burner's Springs, near Front Royal, May 31. Battle of Port Republic June 9. March to Cloud's Mills, near Alexandria, June 10-26, and duty there until July 24. Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 6-September 2. Fords of the Rappahannock August 21-23. Thoroughfare Gap August 28. Battles of Groveton August 29 Bull Run August 30. Maryland Campaign September 6-22. Battles of South Mountain, Md., September 14 Antietam September 16-17. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 29-November 17. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth until April 27. Expedition to Martex Creek February 12-14. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Operations at Pollock's Mill Creek April 29-May 2. Fitzhugh's Crossing April 29-30. Battle of Chancellorsville May 2-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3. Duty on line of the Rappahannock and Rapidan to October, 1863. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James River May 4-June 15. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7 Laurel Hill May 8 Spottsylvania May 8-12 Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Jericho Ford May 23. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Bethesda Church June 1-3. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16-September 20. Weldon R. R. August 18-21. Non-Veterans mustered out September 20, 1864. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 19th Indiana Infantry September 23, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 8 Officers and 108 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 111 Enlisted men by disease. Total 229.

8th Regiment Infantry (3 Months)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., April 21-27, 1861. Ordered to West Virginia June 19. Attached to Rosecrans' Brigade, McClellan's Provisional Army of West Virginia. Moved to Clarksburg, W. Va., June 19 thence march to Buckhannon June 29. Occupation of Buckhannon June 30. West Virginia Campaign July 6-17. Battle of Rich Mountain July 11. Mustered out August 6, 1861.

Regiment lost during service 4 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 3 Enlisted men by disease. Total 7.

8th Regiment Infantry (3 Years)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., August 20-September 5, 1861. Ordered to St. Louis, Mo., September 10. Attached to Fremont's Army of the West and Dept. of Missouri to January, 1862. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of Southwest Missouri, Dept. of Missouri, to May, 1862. 1st Division, Army of Southwest Missouri, to July, 1862. District of Eastern Arkansas, Dept. of Missouri, to October, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, District of Southeast Missouri, Dept. of Missouri, to March, 1863. 1st Brigade, 14th Division, 13th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee, to July, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 13th Army Corps, Dept. of the Tennessee, to August, 1863, and Dept. of the Gulf to June, 1864. District of LaFourche, Dept. of the Gulf, to August, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 19th Army Corps, Army of the Shenandoah, Middle Military Division, to August, 1864. 4th Brigade, 2nd Division, 19th Army Corps, to December, 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 19th Army Corps, to January, 1865. 1st Brigade, Grover's Division, District of Savannah, Ga., Dept. of the South, to August, 1865.

SERVICE.--Fremont's advance on Springfield, Mo., September 22-October 15. Camp at Otterville until January 25, 1862. Expedition to Milford December 15-19, 1861. Action at Milford, Blackwater or Shawnee Mound December 18. Curtis' advance on Springfield January 25-February 14, 1862. Pursuit of Price to Cassville, Ark. Battle of Pea Ridge March 6-8. At Sulphur Rock until May. March to Batesville, Ark. thence to Helena, Ark., May 25-July 14. Action at Hill's Plantation, Cache River, July 7. Expedition to Coldwater, Miss., July 22-25 (Cos. "B," "E"). White Oak Bayou July 24 (Cos. "B," "E"). Austin, Tunica County, August 2. At Helena until October. Ordered to Pilot Knob, Mo., and operations in Southeast Missouri until March 5, 1863. Moved to Helena, Ark., thence to Milliken's Bend, La. Movement on Bruinsburg and turning Grand Gulf April 25-30. Battle of Port Gibson May 1. Battle of Champion's Hill May 16. Big Black River May 17. Siege of Vicksburg, Miss., May 18-July 4. Assaults on Vicksburg May 19 and 22. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 4-10. Siege of Jackson, Miss., July 10-17. Duty at Vicksburg until August 20. Ordered to New Orleans, La. Duty at Carrollton, Brashear City and Berwick until October. Western Louisiana "Teche" Campaign October 3-November 8. Moved to New Orleans, La., November 8, thence to Texas November 12. Capture of Mustang Island November 17. Fort Esperanza November 27-30. Duty at Matagorda Bay until February, 1864. Duty at Indianola and Lavacca, Tex., until April. Veterans on furlough April and May. Duty in District of LaFourche, La., until July. Ordered to Washington, D.C. Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign August 7 to November 28. Berryville, Va., September 3. Battle of Opequan. Winchester, September 19. Fisher's Hill September 22. Battle of Cedar Creek October 19. Duty in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, until January, 1865. Moved to Baltimore, Md., January 6-7, 1865 thence to Savannah, Ga., January 14-20. Duty there and at various points in Georgia and South Carolina until August. Mustered out August 28, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 7 Officers and 84 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 5 Officers and 166 Enlisted men by disease. Total 258.

9th Regiment Infantry (3 Months)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., April 22-27, 1861. Ordered to Grafton, W. Va., May 29. Attached to Kelly's Command, West Virginia, to July. Action at Philippi June 3. Attached to Morris' Indiana Brigade, West Virginia, July. West Virginia Campaign July 6-17. Laurel Hill July 7-8. Bealington July 10. Carrick's Ford July 12-14. Pursuit of Garnett's forces July 14-17. Mustered out August 2, 1861.

Regiment lost 3 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Enlisted men by disease. Total 5.

9th Regiment Infantry (3 Years)

Organized at Laporte September 5, 1861. Ordered to Cheat Mountain, West Virginia, September 10. Attached to Cheat Mountain District, West Virginia, to March, 1862. 19th Brigade, 4th Division, Army of the Ohio, to September, 1862. 19th Brigade, 4th Division, 2nd Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Left Wing 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 21st Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to June, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 4th Army Corps, to August, 1865. Dept. of Texas to September, 1865.

SERVICE.--Duty at Cheat Mountain, West Virginia, until January 9, 1862. Action at Greenbrier River October 3-4, 1861. Expedition to Camp Baldwin December 11-13. Greenbrier River December 12. Camp Allegheny December 13. Moved to Fetterman, W. Va., January 9, 1862, and duty there until February 19. Ordered to Louisville, Ky., February 19 thence march to Nashville, Tenn. March to Savannah, Tenn., March 18-April 6. Battle of Shiloh, Tenn., April 6-7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Occupation of Corinth May 30, and pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 12. March to Iuka, Miss., thence to Tuscumbia, Florence and Athens, Ala., June 12-July 8. Duty at Athens until July 17, and at Murfreesboro, Tenn., until August 17. March to Louisville, Ky., in pursuit of Bragg August 17-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg, to Loudon, Ky., October 1-22. Battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8. Danville October 11. Wild Cat Mountain, near Crab Orchard, Big Rockcastle River and near Mt. Vernon October 16. Wild Cat October 17. Rockcastle River and Nelson's Cross Roads October 18. Pittman's Forks October 20. March to Nashville, Tenn., October 22-November 5, and duty there until December 26. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30. Lavergne December 26-27. Stewart's Creek December 27. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, 1862, and January 1-3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro and Readyville until June. Woodbury January 24. Expedition from Readyville to Woodbury April 2. Middle Tennessee (or Tullahoma) Campaign June 23-July 7. At Manchester until August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Lee and Gordon's Mills, Ga., September 11-13. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-20. Siege of Chattanooga September 22-November 23. Before Chattanooga September 22-27. Reopening Tennessee River October 26-29. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Lookout Mountain November 23-24. Mission Ridge November 25. Ringgold Gap, Taylor's Ridge, November 27. At Whitesides, Ala., until March, 1864, and at Cleveland, Tenn., until May. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1-September 8. Tunnell Hill May 6-7. Demonstration on Rocky Faced Ridge and Dalton May 8-13. Buzzard's Roost Gap May 8-9. Near Dalton May 13. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Near Kingston May 18-19. Cassville May 19 and May 24. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Hill June 11-14. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Ruff's Station Smyrna Camp Ground July 4. Chattahoochee River July 5-17. Peach Tree Creek July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Operations against Hood in North Georgia and North Alabama, September 29-November 3. Nashville Campaign November-December Columbia Duck River November 24-27. Battle of Franklin November 30. Battle of Nashville December 15-16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17-28. Moved to Huntsville, Ala., and duty there until March, 1865. Operations in East Tennessee March 15-April 22. Duty at Nashville until June. Ordered to New Orleans, La., June 16 thence to Indianola, Tex., July 7. Duty at San Antonio and at New Braunfels until September. Mustered out September 28, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 11 Officers and 120 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 220 Enlisted men by disease. Total 353.

10th Regiment Infantry (3 Months)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., April 22-25, 1861. Duty near Evansville, Ind., until June 7. Ordered to West Virginia June 7. Attached to Rosecrans' Brigade, McClellan's Army of West Virginia. Occupation of Buckhannon June 30. West Virginia Campaign July 6-17. Battle of Rich Mountain July 11. Duty at Beverly until July 24. Mustered out August 2, 1861.

Regiment lost during service 4 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Enlisted men by disease. Total 6.

10th Regiment Infantry (3 Years)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., September 18, 1861. Ordered to Louisville, Ky., September 22. Attached to Thomas' Command, Army of the Ohio, October-November, 1861. 2nd Brigade, Army of the Ohio, to December, 1861. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Army of the Ohio, to September, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 3rd Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division (Center), 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 14th Army Corps, to December, 1863. Garrison, Chattanooga, Tenn., Dept. of the Cumberland, to April, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 14th Army Corps, to September, 1864.

SERVICE.--At Bardstown, Ky., October and November, 1861. Advance on Camp Hamilton, Ky., January 1-15, 1862. Action at Logan's Cross Roads January 19. Mill Springs January 19-20. Moved to Louisville, Ky., thence to Nashville, Tenn., February 11-March 2. March to Savannah, Tenn., March 20-April 7. Expedition to Bear Creek, Ala., April 12-13. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Pursuit to Booneville May 30-June 12. March to Iuka, Miss., thence to Tuscombia, Ala., and duty there until August. March to Louisville, Ky., in pursuit of Bragg August 20-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg Into Kentucky October 1-15. Battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8 (Reserve). March to Gallatin, Tenn., and duty there until January 13, 1863. Operations against Morgan December 22, 1862, to January 2, 1863. Boston December 29, 1862. Action at Rolling Fork December 30. Moved to Nashville, Tenn., January 13, 1863 thence to Murfreesboro, Tenn., and duty there until June. Expedition toward Columbia March 4-14. Middle Tennessee (or Tullahoma) Campaign June 23-July 7. Hoover's Gap June 24-26. Tullahoma June 29-30. Occupation of Middle Tennessee until August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-21. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Orchard Knob November 23-24. Mission Ridge November 25. Demonstration on Dalton, Ga., February 22-27, 1864. Tunnel Hill, Buzzard's Roost Gap and Rocky Faced Ridge February 23-25. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1 to September 8. Demonstrations on Rocky Faced Ridge May 8-11. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Advance on Dollas May 18-25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Hill June 11-14. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Ruff's Station July 4. Vining Station July 4-5. Chattahoochee River July 5-17. Peach Tree Creek July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Utoy Creek August 5-7. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 58th Indiana Infantry September 8, 1864. Old members mustered out September 19, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 3 Officers and 64 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 5 Officers and 114 Enlisted men by disease. Total 186.

11th Regiment Infantry (3 Months)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., April 21-25, 1861. Duty picketing the Ohio River, near Evansville, Ind., until June 7. Moved to Cumberland, Md., June 7-9. Action at Romney June 13. Seneca Mills June 14. Frankfort and Patterson Creek June 27. March to Bunker Hill July 8 and joined Patterson's command. Expedition to Romney July 11-13. Moved to Indianapolis, Ind., July 29. Mustered out August 2, 1861.

Regiment lost 1 Enlisted man by disease during service.

11th Regiment Infantry "Wallace's Zouaves" (3 Years)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., August 31, 1861. Moved to Paducah, Ky., September 6, and duty there until February 5, 1862. Attached to 5th Brigade, 2nd Division, Army of the Tennessee, February, 1862. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of the Tennessee, to July, 1862. Helena, Ark., District of East Arkansas, Dept. of Missouri, to December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, District of Eastern Arkansas, Dept. of the Tennessee, to January, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 12th Division, 13th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee, to February, 1863. 1st Brigade, 12th Division, 13th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 13th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee, to August, 1863, and Dept. of the Gulf to June, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 19th Army Corps, to August, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 19th Army Corps, Army of the Shenandoah, Middle Military Division, to January, 1865. 2nd Separate Brigade, 8th Army Corps, Middle Department, to July, 1865.

SERVICE.--Operations against Forts Henry and Heiman, Tenn., February 2-6, 1862. Investment and capture of Fort Donelson, Tenn., February 12-16. Expedition to Clarksville, Tenn., February 19-21. Expedition toward Purdy and operations about Crump's Landing, Tenn., March 9-14. Battle of Shiloh, Tenn., April 6-7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Occupation of Corinth and pursuit to Booneville May 30-June 3. March to Memphis, Tenn., June 3-20, and duty there until July 24. Ordered to Helena, Ark., July 24, and duty there until April, 1863. Expedition from Helena to Arkansas Post, Ark., November 16-21, 1862. Expedition from Helena to Grenada, Miss., November 27-December 5. Tallahatchie November 30. Mitchell's Cross Roads December 1. Moved to Milliken's Bend, La., April 14. Movement on Bruinsburg and turning Grand Gulf April 25-30. Battle of Port Gibson May 1. 14-Mile Creek May 12-13. Battle of Champion's Hill May 16. Siege of Vicksburg, Miss., May 18-July 4. Assaults on Vicksburg May 19 and 22. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 4-10. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Duty at Vicksburg until August 6. Ordered to New Orleans, La., August 6 thence to Brasher City, and duty there until October. Western Louisiana Campaign October 3-November 30. Bayou Cortableau October 21. Carrion Crow Bayou November 3. Regiment Veteranize January 1, 1864. Veterans on furlough March 4 to May 8. Duty in District of LaFourche and Defenses of New Orleans, La., until May. At New Orleans, La., until July 19. Ordered to Washington, D. C., July 19. Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign August 7-November 28. Battle of Opequan, Winchester, September 19. Fisher's Hill September 22. Woodstock September 23. Mt. Jackson September 23-24. Battle of Cedar Creek October 19. Duty in the Shenandoah Valley until January, 1865. Duty at Fort Marshall, Baltimore, Md., January 7 to July 26, 1865. Mustered out July 26, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 1 Officer and 114 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 3 Officers and 170 Enlisted men by disease. Total 288.

12th Regiment Infantry (1 Year)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., for one year's State service May 11, 1861. Moved to Evansville, Ind., June 11. Transferred to U.S. service July 18, 1861. Left State for Baltimore, Md., July 23 thence moved to Sandy Hook, Md., July 28. Attached to Abercrombie's Brigade, Banks' Dept. of the Shenandoah, to October, 1861. Abercrombie's Brigade, Bank's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 2nd Brigade, Williams' 1st Division, Banks' 5th Army Corps, to April, 1862, and Dept. of the Shenandoah to May, 1862.

SERVICE.--Duty at Harper's Ferry, W. Va., Williamsport and Sharpsburg, Md., until March, 1862. Advance on Winchester, Va., March 1-12. Skirmish at Stephenson's Station, near Winchester, March 11. Operations in the Shenandoah Valley until April. Duty at Warrenton Junction, Va., April 3-May 5. Reconnaissance to Rappahannock River and skirmish at Rappahannock Crossing April 18. March to Washington, D.C., May 5, and mustered out May 14, 1862. Expiration of term.

Regiment lost during service 24 Enlisted men by disease.

12th Regiment Infantry (3 Years)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., May 27 to August 27, 1862, and mustered in August 17, 1862. Left State for Kentucky August 21. Attached to Cruft's Brigade, Army of Kentucky, and moved to Richmond, Ky. Battle of Richmond, Ky., August 30. Regiment mostly captured. Paroled and sent to Indianapolis, Ind., for reorganization. Action at Lexington, Ky., September 2 (Detachment). Regiment left Indianapolis, Ind., for Memphis, Tenn., November 23, 1862. Attached to 2nd Brigade, District of Memphis, Tenn., 13th Army Corps (Old), to December, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, District of Memphis, 13th Army Corps, December, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 17th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee, to January, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 16th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 15th Army Corps, to September, 1864. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 15th Army Corps, to June, 1865.

SERVICE.--Grant's Central Mississippi Campaign November-December, 1862. Action at Holly Springs, Miss., December 20, 1862. Duty at Grand Junction and Colliersville, Tenn., guarding Memphis & Charleston R. R. until June, 1863. Ordered to Vicksburg, Miss., June 9. Siege of Vicksburg June 12-July 4. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 4-10. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Duty at Big Black until September 28. Moved to Memphis, Tenn., thence march to Chattanooga, Tenn., September 28-November 20. Operations on the Memphis & Charleston R. R. in Alabama October 20-29. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Tunnel Hill November 23-25. Missionary Ridge November 25. March to relief of Knoxville, Tenn., November 28-December 8. Duty at Scottsboro, Ala., until May, 1864. Atlanta Campaign May 1-September 8. Demonstrations on Resaca May 8-13. Near Resaca May 13. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Movements on Dallas May 18-25. Battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Brush Mountain June 15. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Nickajack Creek July 2-5. Chattahoochee River July 5-17. Battle of Atlanta July 22. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Ezra Chapel, Hood's 2nd sortie, July 28. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Operations against Hood in North Georgia and North Alabama September 29-November 3. March to the sea November 15-December 10. Siege of Savannah December 10-21. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April, 1865. Reconnaissance to Salkehatchie River, South Carolina, January 25. Salkehatchie Swamp February 2-5. South Edisto River February 9. North Edisto River February 12-13. Congaree Creek February 15. Columbia February 16-17. Battle of Bentonville, N. C., March 20-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 10-14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. March to Washington, D.C., via Richmond, Va., April 29-May 20. March and review June 24, 1865. Veterans and Recruits transferred to the 48th and 59th Indiana Infantry.

Regiment lost during service 8 Officers and 92 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 193 Enlisted men by disease. Total 295.

13th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., for one year's service May, 1861, but reorganized for three years and mustered in June 19, 1861. Left State for West Virginia July 4. Attached to Rosecrans' Brigade, McClellan's Army of West Virginia, July 1861. 1st Brigade, Army of Occupation, West Virginia, to September, 1861. Reynolds' Cheat Mountain Brigade, West Virginia, to November, 1861· Milroy's Command, Cheat Mountain District, W. Va., to January, 1862. 2nd Brigade, Landers' Division, to March, 1862. 2nd Brigade, Shields' 2nd Division, Banks' 5th Army Corps and Dept. of the Shenandoah to May, 1862. 2nd Brigade, Shields' Division, Dept. of the Rappahannock, to July, 1862. Ferry's 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to September, 1862. Ferry's Brigade, Division at Suffolk, Va., 7th Army Corps, Dept. of Virginia, September, 1862. Foster's Provisional Brigade, Division at Suffolk, 7th Army Corps, to April, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 7th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 1st Brigade, Vogdes' Division, Folly Island, S.C., 10th Army Corps, Dept. of the South, to January. 1864. 1st Brigade, Vogdes Division, Folly Island, S.C., Northern District, Dept. of the South, to February, 1864. 1st Brigade, Vogdes' Division, District of Florida, to April, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 10th Army Corps, Army of the James, Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to May, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 18th Army Corps, to June, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 10th Army Corps, to December, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 24th Army Corps, to January, 1865. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Terry's Provisional Corps, Dept. of North Carolina, to March, 1865. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 10th Army Corps, Dept. of North Carolina, to September, 1865.

SERVICE.--Campaign in West Virginia July 7-17, 1861. Battle of Rich Mountain July 11. Moved to Beverly July 13, thence to Cheat Mountain Pass. Operations on Cheat Mountain September 11-17. Cheat Mountain Pass September 12. Greenbrier River October 3-4. Scouting Expedition through the Kanawha District October 29-November 7. Expedition to Camp Baldwin December 11-14. Action at Camp Allegheny December 13. Moved to Green Springs Run December 18, and duty there until March, 1862. Skirmishes at Bath, Hancock, Great Cacapon Bridge, Alpine Station and Sir John's Run January 1-4. Advance on Winchester, Va., March 5-15. Kernstown March 22. Battle of Winchester March 23. Occupation of Mt. Jackson April 17. Summerville Heights May 7. March to Fredericksburg May 12-21, and return to Front Royal May 25-30. Battle of Port Republic June 9. Moved to the Peninsula, Va., June 29-July 2. At Harrison's Landing until August 16. Moved to Fortress Monroe August 16-23, thence to Suffolk, Va., August 30, and duty there until June 27, 1863. Reconnaissance to Franklin on the Blackwater October 3, 1862. Franklin October 3. Zuni Minor's Ford December 12. Expedition toward Blackwater January 8-10, 1863. Action at Deserted House January 30. Leesville April 4. Siege of Suffolk April 12-May 4. Edenton, Providence Church and Somerton Roads April 13. Suffolk April 17. Edenton Road April 24. Siege of Suffolk raised May 4. Foster's Plantation May 20. Dix's Peninsula Campaign June 24-July 7. Expedition from White House to South Anna Bridge July 1-7. South Anna Bridge July 4. Moved to Folly Island, S.C., July 28-August 3. Siege operations against Fort Wagner, Morris Island and against Fort Sumter and Charleston, S.C., until February, 1864. Capture of Forts Wagner and Gregg September 7, 1863. Stationed at Folly Island October, 1863, to February, 1864. Reenlisted December, 1863. Moved to Jacksonville, Fla., February 23, 1864, and duty there until April 17. Ordered to Hilton Head, S.C. thence to Gloucester Point, Va. Butler's operations on Southside of the James River and against Petersburg and Richmond, Va., May 4-28. Occupation of Bermuda Hundred May 5. Port Walthal Junction May 6-7. Swift Creek May 9-10. Operations against Fort Darling May 12-16. Battle of Drury's Bluff May 14-16. Bermuda Hundred May 16-28. Moved to White House, thence to Cold Harbor May 28-June 1. Battles about Cold Harbor June 1-12 before Petersburg June 15-18. Siege operations against Petersburg and Richmond June 16, 1864, to December 6, 1864. Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30, 1864. Non-Veterans left front June 19. Mustered out June 24, 1864. Demonstration north of the James at Deep Bottom August 13-20. Battle of Strawberry Plains August 14-18. Chaffin's Farm, New Market Heights, September 28-30. Battle of Fair Oaks October 27-28. Detached duty at New York City during Election of 1864 November 4-17. Expedition to Fort Fisher, N. C., December 7-27. 2nd Expedition to Fort Fisher, N. C., January 3-15, 1865. Assault and capture of Fort Fisher January 15. Town Creek February 19-20. Capture of Wilmington February 22. Campaign of the Carolinas March 1-April 26. Advance on Goldsboro March 6-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 21. Advance on Raleigh April 10-14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. Duty at various points in North Carolina until September. Mustered out September 5, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 3 Officers and 104 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 146 Enlisted men by disease. Total 255.

14th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Terre Haute, Ind., for one year's service May, 1861. Reorganized for three years' service and mustered in June 7, 1861. (1st three years Regiment organized in Indiana.) Moved to Indianapolis, Ind., June 24, thence to Clarksburg, W. Va., July 5. Attached to 1st Brigade, Army of Occupation, West Virginia, to September, 1861. Reynolds' Cheat Mountain District, W. Va., to December, 1861. 1st Brigade, Lander's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 1st Brigade, Shields' 2nd Division, Banks' 5th Army Corps, to April, 1862. and Dept. of the Shenandoah to May 1862. 1st Brigade, Shields' Division, Dept. of the Rappanhannock, to June, 1862. Kimball's Independent Brigade, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to September, 1862. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to March, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to June, 1864.

SERVICE.--Campaign in West Virginia July 7-17, 1861. Battle of Rich Mountain July 11 (Reserve). Moved to Cheat Mountain July 13, and duty there until October. Operations on Cheat Mountain September 11-17. Cheat Mountain Summit September 12. Action at Greenbrier River October 3-4. Duty at Huttonsville, Philippi and Romney until January 10, 1862. Expedition to Blue's Gap January 6-7. Hanging Rock, Blue's Gap, January 7. Moved to Paw Paw Tunnel January 10, and duty there until March 5. Advance on Winchester, Va., March 5-15. Battle of Winchester March 23. Columbia Furnace April 16. Occupation of Mt. Jackson April 17. March to Fredericksburg May 12-21, and return to Front Royal May 25-30. Front Royal May 30. Expedition to Luray June 3-7. Forced march to Port Republic June 8-9. Battle of Port Republic June 9 (Reserve). Moved to Alexandria June 29, thence to Harrison's Landing June 30-July 2. Chickahominy Swamps July 3-5. Saxall's, Herring Creek, Harrison's Landing July 4. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Moved to Alexandria, thence to Centreville August 16-29. In works at Centreville and cover Pope's retreat to Washington August 29-September 2. Maryland Campaign September 6-22. Battles of South Mountain September 14 Antietam September 16-17. Moved to Harper's Ferry, W. Va., September 22, and duty there until October 30. Reconnaissance to Leesburg October 1-2. Berry's Ford Gap November 1. March to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 19. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth until April. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 2-4. Pursuit of Lee to Manassas Gap, Va., July 5-24. Detached on duty at New York City during draft disturbances August 16 to September 6. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Auburn and Bristoe October 14. Blackburn's Ford October 15. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Robertson's Tavern or Locust Grove November 27. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864. Morton's Ford February 6-7. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James River May 4-June 15. Battle of the Wilderness May 5-7. Laurel Hill May 8. Spottsylvania May 8-12. Po River May 10. Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient "Bloody Angle" May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-6. Left front June 6. Mustered out June 16, 1864, expiration of term. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 20th Indiana Infantry.

Regiment lost during service 11 Officers and 139 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 72 Enlisted men by disease. Total 222.

15th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Lafayette, Ind., for one year's service May, 1861. Reorganized for three years' service and mustered in June 14, 1861. Moved to Indianapolis, Ind., thence to Clarksburg, W. Va., July 1-6. West Virginia Campaign July 6-17. Attached to 1st Brigade, Army of Occupation, West Virginia, July to September, 1861. Reynolds' Cheat Mountain District, W. Va., to November, 1861. 15th Brigade, Army of the Ohio, to December, 1861. 15th Brigade, 4th Division, Army of the Ohio, to March, 1862. 15th Brigade, 6th Division, Army of the Ohio, March, 1862. 21st Brigade, 6th Division, Army of the Ohio, to September, 1862. 21st Brigade, 6th Division, 2nd Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862, 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Left Wing 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 21st Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to February, 1864. Garrison, Chattanooga, Tenn., Dept. of the Cumberland, to June, 1864.

SERVICE.--Duty in Elkwater Valley, W. Va., July to November, 1861. Operations on Cheat Mountain September 11-17. Elkwater September 11. Cheat Mountain Pass September 12. Greenbrier River October 3-4. Ordered to Louisville November 19. Duty at Bardstown and Lebanon, Ky., until February, 1862. March to Nashville, Tenn., February 17-March 13, and to Savannah, Tenn., March 21-April 6. Battle of Shiloh April 6-7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Pursuit to Booneville May 30-June 12. Buell's Campaign in Northern Alabama and Middle Tennessee June to August. March to Louisville, Ky., in pursuit of Bragg August 21-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1-22. Battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8 (Reserve). March to Nashville, Tenn., October 22-November 7, and duty there until December 26. Lavergne December 11. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, 1862, and January 1-3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro until June. Reconnaissance to Nolensville and Versailles January 13-15. Middle Tennessee or Tullahoma Campaign June 23-July 7. Camp at Pelham until August 17. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 17-September 22. Occupation of Chattanooga September 9, and assigned to duty there as garrison. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Orchard Knob November 23-24. Mission Ridge November 25. Pursuit to Graysville November 26-27. March to relief of Knoxville, Tenn., November 28-December 8. Duty at Knoxville and vicinity until February, 1864. Ordered to Chattanooga, Tenn., and garrison duty there until June. Mustered out June 16, 1864 (expiration of term). Veterans and Recruits transferred to 17th Indiana Infantry.

Regiment lost during service 4 Officers and 103 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 76 Enlisted men by disease. Total 183.

16th Regiment Infantry (1 Year)

Organized at Richmond, Ind., for one year's service May, 1861. Transferred to United States service July 23, 1861, and left State for Baltimore, Md. thence moved to Sandy Hook, Md., July 28. Attached to Abercrombie's Brigade, Dept. of the Shenandoah, to October, 1861. Abercrombie's Brigade, Banks' Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Banks' 5th Army Corps, to April, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of the Shenandoah, to May, 1862.

SERVICE.--Duty at Pleasant Valley, Md., until August 17, 1861, and at Darnestown until October 21. Operations about Ball's Bluff October 21-24. Action at Goose Creek and near Edward's Ferry October 22. Camp at Seneca Creek until December 2, and at Frederick City until February, 1862. Moved to Harper's Ferry, W. Va., February 27, and to Charleston March 1. March to Winchester March 10-12. Strasburg March 27. Operations in the Shenandoah Valley until April. Duty at Warrenton, Va., April 2 to May 22. Reconnaissance to the Rappahannock River April 7. Ordered to Washington, D.C., May 12, and mustered out May 14, 1862.

Regiment lost during service 1 Enlisted man killed and 15 Enlisted men by disease. Total 16.

16th Regiment Infantry (3 Years)

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., May 27 to August 19, 1862. Mustered in August 19, 1862. Moved to Louisville, Ky., August 19, and to Richmond, Ky. Attached to Manson's Brigade, Army of Kentucky. Battle of Richmond, Ky., August 30. Regiment captured. Paroled and sent to Indianapolis, Ind. Exchanged November 1, 1862. Ordered to Memphis, Tenn., November 20. Attached to 1st Brigade, 10th Division, Right Wing 13th Army Corps (Old), Dept. of the Tennessee, to December, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Sherman's Yazoo Expedition to January, 1863. 1st Brigade, 10th Division, 13th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee, to July, 1863. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 13th Army Corps, Dept. of the Tennessee, to August, 1863, and Dept. of the Gulf to September, 1863. Unattached Cavalry Division, Dept. of the Gulf, to November, 1863. 1st Brigade, Cavalry Division, Dept. of the Gulf, to June, 1864. 4th Brigade, Cavalry Division, Dept. of the Gulf, to August, 1864. District of LaFourche, Dept. of the Gulf, to June, 1865.

SERVICE.--Sherman's Yazoo Expedition December 20, 1862, to January 3, 1863. Expedition to Texas and Shreveport R. R. December 25-26. Chickasaw Bayou December 26-28. Chickasaw Bluff December 29. Expedition to Arkansas Post, Ark., January 3-10, 1863. Assault and capture of Fort Hindman, Arkansas Post, January 10-11. Moved to Young's Point, La., January 17-21. Duty there and at Milliken's Bend until April. Expedition to Greenville, Miss., and Cypress Bend, Ark., February 14-29. Action at Cypress Bend, Ark., February 19. Fish Lake, near Greenville, February 23. Movement on Bruinsburg and turning Grand Gulf April 25-30. Battle of Port Gibson. Miss., May 1. Battle of Champion's Hill May 16. Big Black River May 17. Siege of Vicksburg May 18-July 4. Assaults on Vicksburg May 19 and 22. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 4-10. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Duty at Vicksburg until August 24. Ordered to New Orleans, La., August 24. Regiment mounted and assigned to duty along Eastern shore of the Mississippi, protecting transportation to New Orleans and points along the coast until October. Expedition to New and Amite Rivers September 24-29. Western Louisiana "Teche" Campaign October 3-November 30. Action at Grand Coteau November 3. Vermillionville November 8. Camp Piatt November 20. Ordered to New Orleans to refit. Action at Franklin February 22, 1864. Red River Campaign March 10-May 22. Advance from Franklin to Alexandria March 14-26. Bayou Rapides March 20. Henderson's Hill March 21. Monett's Ferry and Cloutiersville March 29-30. Crump's Hill April 2. Wilson's Plantation, near Pleasant Hill, April 7. Bayou de Paul Carroll's Mills April 8. Battle of Sabine Cross Roads April 8. Pleasant Hill April 9. Grand Ecore April 16. Natchitoches April 22. About Cloutiersville April 22-24. Cane River Crossing April 23. Alexandria April 28. Hudnot's Plantation May 1. Alexandria May 1-8. Retreat to Morganza May 13-20. Wilson's Landing May 14. Avoyelle's Prairie May 15. Mansure May 16. Morganza May 28. Ordered to report to General Cameron, and assigned to frontier and patrol duty in District of Lafourche, Dept. of the Gulf, until June, 1865. Action at Berwick August 27, 1864. Expedition to Natchez Bayou August 30-September 2. Near Gentilly's Plantation September 1. Expedition to Grand Lake, Grand River, Lake Fosse Point, Bayou Pigeon and Lake Natchez September 7-11. Labadieville September 8. Bayou Corn September 9. Expedition from Terre Bonne to Bayou Grand Caillou November 19-27. Bayou Grand Caillou November 23. Expedition from Morganza to Morgan's Ferry, Archafalaya River, December 13-14. Expedition from Brashear City to Amite River February 10-13, 1865. Expedition to Grand Glaze and Bayou Goula February 14-18 (Cos. "B," "F," "K"). Scout to Bayou Goula March 23-24 (Co. "K"). Skirmish Grand Bayou April 4. Expedition to Bayou Goula April 19-25 (Cos. "B," "K"). Operations about Brashear City April 21-22. Skirmish Brown's Plantation May 11. Mustered out June 30, 1865. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 13th Indiana Cavalry.

Regiment lost during service 3 Officers and 82 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 212 Enlisted men by disease. Total 297.

Source - "A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion" by Frederick H. Dyer (Part 3)


Battle of Alexandria

42nd Highlanders rescuing General Sir Ralph Abercromby at the Battle of Alexandria on 21st March 1801 in the French Revolutionary War

73. Podcast on the Battle of Alexandria: the British victory in Egypt, fought between 8 th and 21 st March 1801 during the French Revolutionary War, over Napoleon Buonaparte’s vaunted veterans of the Army of Italy: John Mackenzie’s britishbattles.com podcasts

The previous battle in the Napoleonic Wars is the Battle of the Nile

The next battle in the Napoleonic Wars is the Battle of Copenhagen

Lieutenant General Sir Ralph Abercromby, British commander at the Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801: picture by John Hoppner

War: French Revolutionary War

Date of the Battle of Alexandria:8 th to 21 st March 1801

Place of the Battle of Alexandria: Alexandria on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast

Combatants at the Battle of Alexandria: British against the French.

Commanders at the Battle of Alexandria: Lieutenant General Sir Ralph Abercromby against the French General Menou.

Size of the armies at the Battle of Alexandria:

The British army that landed at Aboukir in Egypt numbered 15,000.

The French ‘Armée de L’Est’ in Egypt was estimated to number around 30,000 men. Many of these troops were in garrisons across Egypt. The French army that gathered in Alexandria to confront the British army of General Abercromby numbered around 10,000 men.

Winner of the Battle of Alexandria:

British Order of Battle:

Lieutenant General Sir Ralph Abercromby in command

Guard’s Brigade (Major General Ludlow): 1 st Coldstream Guards and 1/3 rd Foot Guards

1 st Brigade (Major General Coote): 2 nd /1 st (Royals), 2 Battalions of 54 th Regiments and 92 nd Highlanders

2 nd Brigade (Major General Craddock): 8 th (King’s), 13 th , 18 th and 90 th Regiments

90th Perthshire Regiment: Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801: picture by Richard Simkin

3 rd Brigade (Major General Lord Cavan): 50 th Regiment and 79 th Cameron Highlanders

4 th Brigade (Major General Doyle): 2 nd (Queen’s), 30 th , 44 th and 89 th Regiments

5 th Brigade (Major General John Stuart): Minorca Regiment, De Roll’s and Dillon’s Regiments

Reserve (Major General Moore, Brigadier General Oakes): 23 rd Royal Welch Fusiliers, 28 th Regiment, 42 nd Black Watch, 58 th and 4 Cos 40 th Regiments and Corsican Rangers

Cavalry (Brigadier General Finch): 1 troop 11 th Light Dragoons, 12 th , 26 th and Hompesch’s Light Dragoons

Artillery: 700 all ranks with twenty-four light 6 pounders, four light 12 pounders, twelve medium 12 pounders and six 5 ½ inch howitzers.

Siege pieces: four 12 pounders, twenty 24 pounders, two 10 inch and ten 8 inch howitzers, eighteen 5 ½ inch, ten 8 inch and twelve 10 inch mortars

Background to the Battle of Alexandria:

In April 1798, following his victories in Italy over the Austrians, General Napoleon Buonaparte persuaded the Directory in Paris to permit him to launch an expedition in Egypt to capture the country from the Ottoman Empire and begin a threat to the British position in India.

On 19 th May 1798 the French fleet sailed from Toulon carrying, after meeting convoys from Corsica and Italy, 30,000 troops from Buonaparte’s ‘Army of Italy’, hotly pursued by Admiral Nelson with his British fleet.

Buonaparte captured Malta on 12 th June 1798 and sailed on to Egypt.

Admiral Nelson arrived off Alexandria on 28 th June 1798 and, finding no sign of the French, sailed on to continue his search.

The French fleet arrived at Alexandria on 1 st July 1798 and Buonaparte disembarked his army and began his invasion of the Turkish colony of Egypt.

Buonaparte took Cairo and conquered Lower Egypt, heavily defeating the Mamelukes at the Battle of the Pyramids on 21 st July 1798.

In the meantime, Nelson returned to Egypt and, surprising the French fleet, virtually annihilated it at the Battle of the Nile on 1 st August 1798, leaving Buonaparte and his army stranded in Egypt.

In March 1799, Buonaparte invaded Syria, laying siege to Acre, defended by a garrison of Royal Navy sailors and Turkish troops commanded by Captain Sir Sidney Smith Royal Navy.

After nine weeks, Buonaparte abandoned the siege of Acre and retreated to Egypt, having suffered 5,000 casualties to battle and disease.

It became clear to Buonaparte that it was in his own pressing interest for him to return to France.

On 22 nd August 1799, Buonaparte secretly embarked for France, telling only General Kléber, his successor in command in Egypt, of his clandestine departure, leaving his troops in ignorance of his desertion of them.

Buonaparte returned to France to become First Consul of the Republic on 25 th December 1799.

In late 1800, Lieutenant General Sir Ralph Abercromby was ordered by the British Government to take 15,000 British troops to Egypt and capture the port city of Alexandria.

The French army in Egypt was believed to number around 15,000 men. In fact, the number was nearer to 30,000.

However, the British government was correct in its belief that the French soldiers were ‘very anxious to return home’.

An offer was to be made to the French commander in Egypt to provide transports to convey his army to France. If he refused, the offer was to be made known to the French rank and file.

Arrangements were put in train to convey an additional force of British and Indian troops from India to advance into Egypt from the east coast.

The British fleet conveying Abercromby’s troops to Egypt was routed via Minorca and Malta.

The fleet left Gibraltar at the end of October 1800 and reached Malta at the end of November 1800.

In Malta a number of the transport ships were emptied and repaired.

On 15 th December 1800, Abercromby’s army numbered 16,000 fit men and 1,270 sick men. There were only some 400 cavalry in this number and the cavalrymen were almost entirely without horses.

Abercromby’s expedition sailed from Malta and arrived in Marmorice Bay on the coast of modern Turkey on 29 th and 30 th December 1800.

The purpose of Abercromby’s stay in Marmorice Bay was to receive food and other stores and horses for his cavalry, to be supplied by the Ottoman authorities on the Island of Rhodes. None were forthcoming.

In addition, neither the Ottoman fleet nor its army in Jaffa was in a position to assist Abercromby in his attack on the French in Egypt.

One of the pressing problems for Abercromby was how to supply his army with water once it had landed on the desert plains of the Egyptian coast. Until Alexandria was taken the army would have to rely on the Fleet for its water.

Abercromby had experience of the disastrous outcome to landing on a hostile shore with inadequate preparation and ill-trained troops, from the landing at Helder in the Netherlands in 1799.

Abercromby issued full instructions to the fleet and army for the landing, which was to be made in three lines of boats provided by the fleet. The formation for the boats was laid down in detail. The troops were to sit in the boats with muskets unloaded without movement or noise. Once landed the troops were to form up on the shore.

The landing procedures were practised in Marmorice Bay until all knew their parts thoroughly.

The 12 th and 26 th Light Dragoons joined the army, but without horses, which Abercromby was unable to supply due to the lack of Ottoman assistance.

Meanwhile Buonaparte, concerned for the safety of his army in Egypt, sent Admiral Ganteaume’s squadron from Brest to convey re-enforcements to Egypt.

Of the various ships sent only three French frigates managed to reach Alexandria, carrying supplies and additional troops.

British ships intercepted many of the French vessels sailing between France and Egypt, preventing further re-enforcement of the French army and supplying Abercromby with information on the state of the French in Egypt.

The French troops were not in a good state of discipline, having to rely upon local sources for food and drink and resenting their continued exile from France.

The command of General Kléber, a popular and competent commander, kept the French troops in hand.

In May 1800 Kléber was assassinated by an Egyptian fanatic. Command of the French army in Egypt devolved on General Jacques-François de Menou.

Menou declared Egypt to be a French colony, bringing him into conflict with the existing local authorities. Menou was also in conflict with his own divisional commanders, particularly with Reynier.

On 22 nd February 1801, the British fleet with Abercromby’s army set sail for Egypt. Two British engineer officers were sent ahead to reconnoitre the landing beach.

In March 1801 the French army in Egypt numbered around 30,000 men, of which some 6-7,000 were either on the sick list or in permanent garrisons across the country.

Menou’s total available force for the field was 15,200 infantry and gunners and 1,700 cavalry. Of these the main body of French troops was in Cairo with Menou and amounted to 8,000 men.

The French force in Alexandria amounted to 2,000 troops, with a further 2,000 seamen and invalids, commanded by General Friant.

The city-port of Alexandria lay at the end of a 13-mile-long isthmus running to Aboukir Bay. On one side of the one- to two-mile-wide isthmus lay the Mediterranean Sea and on the other the Lakes of Mariotis and Maadieh.

Friant took up positions at Aboukir with 1,600 men (61 st and 75 th demibrigades, companies from the 51 st and 25 th demibrigades, 18 th Dragoons and a detachment from the 20 th Dragoons). He also occupied Aboukir Castle, standing on the northern end of Aboukir Bay, equipped with eight 24 pounders and two 12-inch mortars.

A block house at the south-eastern end of Aboukir Bay contained another heavy gun, possibly more.

In answer to Friant’s request for assistance, Menou made some minor movements of troops, reinforcing Alexandria with a further 600 men.

Battle of Alexandria:

The British fleet commanded by Admiral Keith with Abercromby’s army on board came to anchor off Aboukir Bay on the morning of 2 nd March 1801.

Abercromby found that one of the engineer officers had been killed and the other made prisoner. He therefore set off in a fleet cutter with his second in command, Major General John Moore, to carry out his own reconnaissance of the landing beach.

The beach was at the north-eastern end of the 13-mile-long narrow isthmus leading to the city of Alexandria.

The beach was crescent shaped, two miles in length, with the Castle of Aboukir at the north-western end and hills running from the centre of the bay to the south-eastern end, where there the block-house stood.

The guns in Aboukir Castle precluded a landing anywhere on the north-western half of the bay. The landing would need to be made on the hilly section running from the centre of the bay to the south-east.

No sign of field fortifications in the hilly section could be detected by the British generals. An armed French vessel anchored under the castle walls as the inspection was taking place.

Abercromby and Moore selected points for the landing in the south-eastern section of the beach and returned to the fleet.

Abercromby ordered that the landing take place the next day, but a gale blew up and continued for four days, precluding any landing.

The gale blew out on 7 th March 1801 and Abercromby ordered the landing for the next morning.

British landing in Aboukir Bay on 8th March 1801: Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801: map by John Fawkes

The Landing in Aboukir Bay on 8 th March 1801:

The orders for the British landing were that the Reserve commanded by Moore was to take the right, landing on the central hilly section of the coast, with, to its left, the Guards Brigade, the 1 st Royal Scots and the 54 th Regiment.

The other regiments were to form the second and third waves.

During the evening of 7 th March 1801 two boats were moored to mark the points between which the landing boats were to form up.

The troops of the second line were transferred to vessels with shallow draught to be brought closer to land.

The start of the landing was signalled by a rocket fired from the flagship and the boats were rowed to the transport ships and the troops loaded on board.

By 3.30am on 8th March 180, the flotilla was under way to cover the 5 miles to the rendezvous.

By 9am the flotilla was drawn up and the first line of 58 flat boats set off for the landing beach, followed by the second line comprising 84 cutters and the third line of 37 launches.

Each of the small craft carried around 50 soldiers, sitting with unloaded muskets and carrying three days provisions and sixty rounds of ammunition.

In the rear of these three lines were 14 cutters, each with a gun and a crew of seamen and gunners, commanded by Captain Sir Sidney Smith.

On each wing of the flotilla were two gunboats and a bomb ship.

Three more vessels of light draught moored close to the shore to provide gun support with their broadsides to the landing troops.

As the landing craft approached the shore, the French guns in Aboukir Castle, the Blockhouse and positioned along the sandhills opened fire.

A shell hit a boat carrying Coldstream Guardsmen, killing and wounding many and throwing the remainder into the sea.

This incident caused a section of the line of boats to swerve to the left.

As the boats approached the shore, the French infantry on the sand hills along the shoreline opened musketry fire on the British.

Moore’s reserve brigade headed undeviating towards the great sand-hill in the centre of the bay.

British landing in Aboukir Bay: Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801: picture by Henri Louis Dupray

Moore’s brigade grounded and the soldiers of the 40 th , 23 rd Royal Welch Fusiliers and 28 th Regiments leaped ashore.

Moore led the troops straight up the sandhill, without pausing to load.

The French 61 st Demi-Brigade held the summit of the sandhill, but, as the British troops appeared at the top of the forward slope, the French were driven from the hill-top and hunted back through the sandhills into the plain, the British capturing 4 guns.

Moore halted his men and waited for the results of the rest of the landings. It had taken him twenty minutes to take the great sand-hill.

On Moore’s left, the 42 nd landed with the 58 th in support. The Highlanders formed up and loaded, in time to meet an attack by French cavalry, which they repelled with volleys.

On their left the British Guards Brigade landed in some confusion due to the sinking of two of their boats.

An attack by the French cavalry was repelled with the assistance of the 58 th Regiment, enabling the Guards to move forward.

On their left the 54 th and Royal Regiments drove back a French battalion advancing to take the Guards in their left flank.

Major General Coote now launched an assault against the French, driving their sharpshooters out of the sandhills and after an hour and a half the French were pushed off the sandhills entirely, back into the plain, losing eight guns.

As the Royal Navy boats unloaded the initial landing force, they returned to the fleet to collect the rest of the army from the transports and land them.

The whole of Abercromby’s army was landed before dark and advanced into the plain where they halted for the night.

Battle of Alexandria on 21st March 1801 in the French Revolutionary War: picture by Philip James de Loutherbourg

Casualties in the Landing:

The 42 nd Black Watch suffered 21 men killed and 8 officers and 148 soldiers wounded.

The Coldstream Guards suffered 6 officers and 91 men killed, wounded or missing.

Total British casualties in the landing were 31 officers and 621 soldiers killed, wounded or missing.

The Royal Navy suffered 7 officers and 90 men killed or wounded.

British casualties were over 700 in all.

French casualties were 300 to 400 killed wounded or captured.

Map of the Battle at Mandora on 13th March 1801: Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801 in the French Revolutionary War: map by John Fawkes

The British Advance on Alexandria, the battle for the Roman Camp on 13 th March 1801, known as the Battle of Mandora:

Abercromby’s army now stood at the eastern end of a long thin strip of land, around a mile wide, that stretches along the Egyptian coast from Aboukir Bay for some 13 miles to the City of Alexandria, with Lake Maadieh and the much larger Lake Mareotis on the southern side and the Mediterranean Sea on the northern side.

Unloading British guns in Aboukir Bay: Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801: print after Thomas Rowlandson

The surface of the strip of land was largely sand, dotted with palm trees, making marching arduous.

The pressing need for the army as it waited for its supplies to be landed from the fleet was for water.

British Coldstream and Third Foot Guards: the Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801

Captain Sir Sidney Smith instructed the soldiers to dig in the area of the palm trees and by doing so a ready supply of water was found.

On 9 th and 10 th March 1801, the wind resumed, preventing the landing of stores from the fleet and the army remained stationery.

General Friant, the French commander in Alexandria, drew in all his detachments, other than the garrison in Aboukir Castle and stationed his army, with the reinforcement of General Lanusse’s division, on the Heights of Nicopolis outside Alexandria, his force being around 5,000 men with 21 guns.

While Abercromby’s army waited for its stores to be landed, Moore’s Reserve moved forward and the 2 nd Queen’s Regiment with 400 dragoons took over the blockade of Aboukir Castle.

On 11 th March 1801, the landing of supplies from the fleet began and the few horses were transferred to the shore.

The problem of moving supplies and reserves of ammunition once ashore was met by Royal Navy gunboats breaking through into Lake Maadieh and moving along the shore in parallel with the troops.

The lack of experience of the French High Command in dealing with maritime matters was shown by their failure to appreciate the importance of blocking the entrances to Lake Maadieh from the sea.

On 12 th March 1801 Abercromby’s army began its march along the isthmus towards Alexandria.

The French cavalry retired in front of them until they reached the main body of the French army advancing towards the British.

The French took up positions along the heights across the isthmus at the western point of Lake Maadieh.

Lake Mareotis at this time of year was largely dry.

Between Lake Mareotis and Lake Maadieh ran a narrow strip of land carrying the canal from Alexandria to the hinterland of Egypt, forming the only viable communication for the city with the interior and along which any reinforcements for Friant’s army from General Menou would have to pass, or so Friant assumed on the basis that even where dry, Lake Mareotis was impassable to guns.

Friant considered it important to prevent the British from cutting off this route to Alexandria.

Abercromby halted his army and resolved to attack the French the next day.

The heights, running obliquely across the isthmus were known as the Roman Camp. The French left was around some old buildings.

Abercromby advanced to the attack with the aim of turning Friant’s left flank at 6.30am on 13 th March 1801.

Moore’s Reserve, marching in column through the heavy sand, took the right flank, by the sea. Coote’s and the Guards Brigades formed the central column, with Cavan’s, Stuart’s and Doyle’s Brigades and a battalion of Marines forming the left column.

Royal Navy sailors dragged the guns through the sand, in the absence of horse teams.

The whole army was preceded by an advanced guard of the 90 th Regiment marching in front of the centre column and the 92 nd Highlanders with two guns in front of the left column.

The small force of dragoons marched between the right and centre Columns.

Abercromby’s army numbered some 14,000 men.

As the British advanced, they were subjected to a heavy fire from the French guns on the heights.

The difficulty of dragging the guns through the sand delayed the main British columns and the two advanced regiments outdistanced them.

The undulations in the ground concealed the centre column from the French on the high ground and they supposed the 90 th and 92 nd Highlanders to be unsupported.

Friant, acting on a suggestion from Lanusse, deployed 1,800 men with guns to contain Moore’s right column, while the rest of the French army fell on the advanced regiments and the left column.

The French 22 nd Chasseurs à Cheval caught the 90 th Regiment in the course of deploying into line.

The massed 90 th held their fire until the French cavalry were almost upon them and shattered the Frenchmen with a volley fired at a few yards distance.

90th Perthshire Regiment at Mandora in the Battle of Alexandria on 13th March 1801 in the French Revolutionary War: picture by Richard Simkin

The French infantry came up and fell upon the 90 th and 92 nd , which fought hard to hold them.

The British centre and left columns came up and joined the fighting with the French.

Moore’s Reserve on the British right and Doyle’s Fourth Brigade on the British left continued their advance in column.

The French began to fall back under the pressure, the 92 nd Highlanders capturing three guns in the French position.

The French horse artillery particularly distinguished themselves, retiring a short distance before halting and firing a number of rounds at the slowly advancing British infantry, before limbering up and withdrawing a further short distance and repeating the process.

The British Reserve and Craddock’s Brigade on the British right was in advance of the rest of the line and advanced onto the heights of the Roman Camp, causing the French to abandon that position.

There, Moore and Craddock halted to allow the rest of the British troops to come up.

92nd Highlanders at Mandora in the Battle of Alexandria on 13th March 1801 in the French Revolutionary War: picture by Richard Simkin

On the left, Dillon’s Regiment stormed a French fieldwork on the Alexandra canal bank, allowing the rest of the British line to move forward, the threat to its left flank removed.

The French fell back to the next line of hills in front of the Alexandria fortifications.

Abercromby halted on the line of hills taken by Moore and Craddock, the Roman Camp and summoned his senior generals, Moore and Hutchinson for a consultation.

The French were now in front of their main position, a chain of fortified heights known as the ‘Heights of Nicopolis’.

Abercromby failed to see what a formidable position this was and ordered attacks on the French by Hutchinson on the left flank with the Third, Fourth and Fifth Brigades, while Moore attacked simultaneously on the right with the Reserve.

The remainder of the British troops were to lie down where they halted.

Hutchinson marched to a bridge across the Alexandria Canal, intending to approach the French left across a dried-up section of Lake Mareotis.

The bridge was defended by French infantry with a howitzer but was stormed by the British 44 th Regiment.

The rest of Hutchinson’s column was subjected to a heavy bombardment by the French guns on the heights and it became clear to Hutchinson what a strong position the French were occupying, causing him to halt and await further orders.

Badge of the 28th Regiment (Gloucestershire Regiment) with the ‘Sphinx’ for the Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801 Badge of the 92nd (Gordon Highlanders) with the ‘Sphinx’ for the Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801 Badge of the 42nd Black Watch with the ‘Sphinx’ for the Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801

Abercromby sent Colonel John Hope of his staff to report on the strength of the French right.

In the meantime, the British infantry were subjected to a lengthy and damaging bombardment by the French guns.

It was now evening. Abercromby resolved to abandon the attack and his army fell back to the Roman Camp position.

French casualties in the day’s fighting were around 500 officers and soldiers killed, wounded or captured.

British casualties were Army: 6 officers and 150 men killed, 66 officers and 1016 men wounded. The Royal Navy, crewing the gunboats and Marines suffered 3 officers and 27 men killed and 4 officers and 50 men wounded.

The 90 th Regiment suffered 240 casualties and the 92 nd Highlanders 140 casualties.

The day saw Abercromby’s army well advanced and with 5 captured guns.

Abercromby was now beyond the end of Lake Mareotis and could no longer rely on the Royal Navy’s gunboats to transport his supplies. Lacking sufficient horses or carts the troops were compelled to carry the supplies themselves over the difficult sandy hills.

Battle for the Great Redoubt at the Battle of Alexandria on 21st March 1801: picture by Philippe de Loutherbourg

The British troops were set to digging entrenchments in defence of the Roman Camp ridge.

This feature comprised a central ridge with a further ridge on the right, next to the sea.

Areas of flat ground lay between the two ridges and between the central ridge and the shore of Lake Mareotis on the southern side.

The ridge on the right flank, next to the sea, was called the ‘Roman Camp’ and was surmounted by an old building. Moore and his Reserve were positioned on the Roman Camp ridge.

Medal issued by the Highland Society of London commemorating the Battle of Alexandria on 21st March 1801

Field-works were dug on the central ridge and a number of guns installed, two 24 pounders and 34 field guns.

The Central Ridge was held by the Guards’ and Coote’s Brigades with Craddock’s Brigade between the Central Ridge and Lake Mareotis.

Medal issued by the Highland Society of London commemorating the Battle of Alexandria on 21st March 1801

In the British second line, behind the Roman Camp ridge, were the brigades of Stuart, Doyle, Finch and Cavan.

Royal Navy gunboats covered the British Right Flank from the sea.

By the 18 th March 1801, the British sick list reached 3,500 due to the burden building the field fortifications and moving supplies.

In a cavalry skirmish, the British 26 th Light Dragoons rashly suffered casualties of 5 officers, 25 men and 42 horses killed, wounded or captured.

On that day the French garrison surrendered Aboukir Castle to the British.

On 19 th March 1801, General Menou crossed by a dried-out section of Lake Mareotis and reached Alexandria with reinforcements of infantry, cavalry and guns, increasing the French force to 10,000 men, including 1,400 cavalry with 46 guns.

Menou was aware that a British force from India under General Baird was due to arrive on the Red Sea coast and that the Turkish army was finally on the move. Menou determined to take the initiative and attack Abercromby’s army on the Roman Camp Ridge.

Menou’s plan was for Lanusse’s Division of 2,700 men to attack the British position on Roman Camp ridge by the Mediterranean before dawn, to be followed by an attack by Rampon’s Division of 2,000 men on the central ridge, supported by Reynier’s Division of 3,500 men, which was also to hold the British left in check.

A force of 900 cavalrymen under General Roize was to remain in reserve and complete the overthrow of the British with a charge down the isthmus once the infantry had successfully carried the British positions.

Battle of Alexandria 21st March 1801 in the French Revolutionary War: map by John Fawkes

The Battle to take the Roman Camp ridge on 21 st March 1801:

The French attack was launched before dawn to take the British by surprise, Menou making the reasonable assumption that Abercromby would be unlikely to be aware of his arrival with a strong force in Alexandria.

Nevertheless, Abercromby issued orders on the 20 th March 1801, warning of the likelihood of a night attack by the French and giving orders that the troops were to sleep fully equipped in their forward positions and be under arms half an hour before dawn.

Moore was major general of the day on 21 st March 1801.

Soon after 5am Moore heard firing from the British left.

Moore was making his way there when heavy firing broke out on the British right.

This is the real attack’ Moore commented and rode hard to the Roman Camp Redoubt.

Lanusse’s Division was attacking the British right, Valentin’s Brigade advancing in column along the seashore while Silly’s Brigade launched a direct attack on the redoubt.

Silly’s Brigade took an advanced fleche, but was repelled by volleys from the 28 th Regiment, commanded by Paget, in its attack on the main redoubt, swerving to the left of the redoubt.

Valentin’s Brigade turned to its right and climbed the hillside,

its right battalion climbing towards the north-west face of the redoubt, the left battalion advancing into the space between the redoubt and the ruined building.

The right battalion was met with a storm of grapeshot and reeled back. Lanusse, in attempting to rally them was mortally wounded, the battalion streaming back.

The left battalion, caught in a cross-fire between the British 28 th and 58 th Regiments also reeled back.

Rampon’s Division advanced on Lanusse’s right. His left brigade, disorientated in the darkness, became entangled with Silly’s brigade.

Rampon’s right brigade advanced along the low ground between the Roman Camp and the Central Ridge and its leading battalion, turning to its left, advanced up to the Roman Camp ridge from the rear.

Moore ordered a wing of the 42 nd and soldiers from the 28 th to face about, driving Rampon’s stray battalion to take shelter in the building, where they were met by the 23 rd and the 58 th , every man in the French battalion becoming a casualty or a prisoner.

Moore re-formed the 42 nd and led them to the left flank of the Redoubt where they encountered the rear battalion of Silly’s Brigade, driving it back.

Moore received a wound in the leg, while the 42 nd and 28 th pursued Silly’s retreating battalion.

Menou now launched the first line of his reserve of cavalry to attack these two British regiments, which were harried back into the area around the Redoubt.

The French horsemen here came to grief in a number of holes dug by the British troops for shelter in the absence of tents.

The 42 nd , rallying, attacked the French cavalry, driving them back with heavy loss.

With daylight, Silly’s leading battalion renewed the attack on the redoubt at its north face, the point where Valentin’s battalions had been driven back.

These troops came under heavy fire from the 58 th Regiment in their front and the Royal Navy gunboats off the coast to their rear. The French attack collapsed.

To the right of Lanusse’s Division, Rampon’s Division attacked the British Guards Brigade. Driven back by heavy volleys, Rampon directed his men around the left flank of the British Guards.

Several companies of the Third Guards were drawn back to meet this attack, but suffered heavily until relieved by the advance of the Royal Scots of Coote’s Brigade, whereupon Rampon withdrew.

In a final effort, Menou ordered General Roize to attack with his second line of cavalry. The 500 troopers of three cavalry regiments charged up the southern ridge of the Roman Camp while part of the line attacked the Central Ridge.

The French cavalry were supported by an advance of part of Reynier’s Division.

The French cavalry broke through the 42 nd Highlanders on the southern edge of the Great Redoubt. Moore managed to gallop clear of the French attack, but Abercromby was taken prisoner, although immediately rescued by a highlander of the 42 nd .

The 42 nd , broken up into small groups, fought on resolutely and the 28 th Regiment faced about and shot down those French cavalrymen who managed to penetrate into the rear of the Great Redoubt.

Attack of the French Dragoons at the Battle of Alexandria on 21st March 1801: picture by Henri Louis Dupray

The 40 th Regiment destroyed the main party of the left of Roize’s brigade with two volleys.

Roize’s right hand squadrons charged into the gap between the Roman Camp and the Central Ridge where they broke through Stuart’s Minorca Regiment, receiving volleys as they passed and a further devastating fire as they attempted to return.

The French attack had been decisively repelled. The confused remnants of Lanusse’s and Rampon’s Divisions remained scattered among the sandhills at the bottom of the ridge.

French Dragoons capture General Abercromby at the Battle of Alexandria on 21st March 1801: picture by Richard Caton Woodville

By this time the first line British regiments were largely out of ammunition, as were many of the French troops attacking the Roman Camp Ridge.

The French guns came forward and continued to fire at maximum elevation, inflicting loss on the British second line behind the two ridges.

Abercromby rode to a fieldwork at the northern end of the central ridge. He was complaining of a blow to the chest, but he had also been shot in the thigh.

Ammunition was brought up and the British guns resumed their fire on the French.

Menou declined to withdraw, until two French ammunition waggons were detonated by British shells. The French then withdrew to their positions on the Heights of Nicopolis in good order. The battle was over.

Fatal wounding of General Abercromby at the Great Redoubt in the Battle of Alexandria on 21st March 1801: there were no pyramids on the battlefield

Casualties in the Battle of Alexandria:

Fortescue assesses that the numbers of troops on each side actually involved in the fighting in the battle were roughly the same, with the French having a slight advantage.

Moore by keeping his battalions concealed behind field fortifications kept their casualties low.

The 28 th , although heavily involved in the fighting, suffered only 4 officers and 70 men killed or wounded.

The 23 rd , 58 th and 40 th , also in the Great Redoubt fortifications, suffered less than 50 casualties between them.

The battalions caught up in the French cavalry charge suffered heavily.

The 42 nd Black Watch suffered casualties of 4 officers and 48 men killed and 8 officers and 253 men wounded.

Stuart’s Minorca Regiment suffered casualties in its action against the French cavalry of 13 officers and 200 men killed or wounded.

The Third Guards suffered casualties of nearly 200 officers and men killed or wounded in the attack by Reynier’s Division.

Total British casualties were 10 officers and 233 men killed, 60 officers and 1,193 men wounded and 3 officers and 29 men missing (captured).

Soon after the end of the battle, Abercromby collapsed and the bullet wound in his thigh was discovered.

Abercromby was conveyed on board ship where he was operated upon. It was found that the bullet was too deeply embedded in his thigh to be extracted. Abercromby died from the consequences of gangrene on 28 th March 1801. His body was taken to Malta where it was buried.

Of the other British generals, Moore was wounded, as were Oakes, Moore’s brigadier, Lawson, commanding the artillery and John Hope, the adjutant general.

Fatal wounding of General Abercromby at the Battle of Alexandria on 21st March 1801: picture by J.J. Jenkins

The French left on the field over 1,000 dead, 600 wounded and 200 prisoners.

Fortescue calculates the total French casualties as being around 4,000 in all.

General Lanusse was killed commanding his division and Silly, a brigade commander, severely wounded. In Rampon’s Division both brigade commanders were wounded (Eppler and d’Estin). Baudot, brigade commander in Reynier’s Division was killed. General Roize of the cavalry was killed and his deputy severely wounded.

Naval General Service Medal 1848 with ‘Egypt’ clasp for the Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801

Aftermath to the Battle of Alexandria:

Following the death of General Abercromby, and the wounding of General Moore, General Hutchinson took over command of the British army in Egypt.

On 2 nd September 1801, the French commander, General Menou, signed terms of capitulation whereby he surrendered the City of Alexandria and the French army in Egypt was transported back to France by the British Fleet.

Military General Service Medal 1848 with ‘Egypt’ clasp for the Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801

Battle Honours and Medal for the Battle of Alexandria:

The Military General Service Medal 1848 was issued to all those serving in the British Army present at specified battles during the period 1793 to 1840, who were still alive in 1847 and applied for the medal. The medal was only issued to those entitled to one or more of the clasps.

‘Egypt’ was one of those clasps.

Equally, the Naval General Service Medal 1848 was issued to those serving in the Royal Navy during the period 1793 to 1840, who were still alive in 1847 and applied for the medal. The medal was only issued to those entitled to one or more of the clasps.

‘Egypt’ was one of those clasps.

‘Egypt 1801’ is a battle honour for the following British regiments: 11 th and 12 th Light Dragoons, Coldstream Guards, Third Foot Guards, 1 st Royal, 2 nd Queen’s Royal, 8 th King’s, 10 th , 13 th , 18 th , 20 th , 23 rd Royal Welch Fusiliers, 24 th , 25 th , 26 th , 27 th , 28 th , 30 th , 40 th , 42 nd Black Watch, 44 th , 54 th , 58 th , 61 st , 79 th , 80 th , 86 th , 88 th , 89 th , 92 nd and 97 th Regiments.

Not all of these regiments were present at the Battle of Alexandria, some being in the force from India commanded by General Baird that landed on the south-east coast of Egypt.

In addition, the battle honour ‘Mandora’ was awarded to the 90 th Regiment and the 92 nd Highlanders for their part in the fighting on 13 th March 1801.

Anecdotes and traditions from the Battle of Alexandria:

  • When Abercromby’s force arrived in Malta one of the complications he faced was that he had two battalions from the 54 th Regiment and four companies from the 40 th Regiment comprising 1,500 militiamen engaged for service in Europe only. This problem was resolved when all ranks volunteered to serve in Egypt.
  • Fortescue, writing at the end of the 19 th Century describes the British Landing at Aboukir Bay as ‘perhaps the most skilful and daring operation of its kind that was ever attempted’: clearly hyperbole, but nevertheless a confirmation that for such an operation to succeed careful planning and frequent practice are essential: lessons relearnt in World Wars 1 and 2 at Gallipoli, Dieppe, North Africa, Sicily and D-Day.
  • The French troops in Egypt were Buonaparte’s veterans from the Army of Italy. One of the captured French colours bore among its battle honours ‘the Bridge of Lodi’. After the Battle of Alexandria, French soldiers are reported as saying that ‘their work in Italy had been child’s play compared to the three actions of the 8 th , 13 th and 21 st of March, and that they had never yet known what it was to fight.’
  • Required to face about and repel the French attacks on the rear of the Great Redoubt, the 28 th Regiment were awarded a ‘back badge’, which all ranks of the 28 th wore on their head-dresses. This dress convention was continued by the Gloucesters, the successor regiment to the 28 th . The ‘back badge’ was a Sphinx, the badge adopted by several of the regiments in Abercromby’s army.

Aboukir Castle: Battle of Alexandria 8th to 21st March 1801: picture by Rev Cooper Willyams

References for the Battle of Alexandria:

History of the British Army by Sir John Fortescue Volume IV Part II

73. Podcast on the Battle of Alexandria: the British victory in Egypt, fought between 8 th and 21 st March 1801 during the French Revolutionary War, over Napoleon Buonaparte’s vaunted veterans of the Army of Italy: John Mackenzie’s britishbattles.com podcasts

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UNION CONNECTICUT VOLUNTEERS

Overview: Organized at Washington, D. C., from 4th Conn. Infantry, January 2, 1862. Attached to Military District of Washington to April, 1862. Siege artillery, Army Potomac, to May, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 5th Army Corps, Army Potomac, to July, 1862. Siege artillery, Army Potomac, to August, 1862. Artillery defences Alexandria Military District of Washington, to February, 1863. Artillery defences of Alexandria, 22nd Army Corps, to April, 1863. 2nd Brigade, DeRussy's Division, defences south of the Potomac, 22nd Army Corps, to May, 1863. 3rd Brigade, DeRussy's Dlvision, 22nd Corps, to December, 1863. 2nd Brigade, DeRussy's Division, 22nd Army Corps, to March, 1864. 4th Brigade, DeRussy's Division, 22nd Army Corps, to May, 1864. (Cos. "B" and "M" attached to Artillery Reserve, Army Potomac, October, 1862, to January, 1864.) Point of Rocks, Va., Dept., of Virginia and North Carolina to June, 1864. Siege artillery, Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina in the field, and siege artillery, Army Potomac, to May, 1865. Siege artillery, Dept. of Virginia, to July, 1865. 4th Brigade, DeRussy's Division, 22nd Army Corps, Dept. of Washington, to August, 1865. 3rd Brigade, Dept. of Washington, to September, 1865.

Service: Duty at Fort Richardson, defences of Washington, D. C., till April, 1862. Ordered to the Peninsula, Va., in charge of siege train Army Potomac, April 2. Siege of Yorktown April 12-May 4. Battle of Hanover C. H. May 27. Operations about Hanover May 27-29. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Gaines' Mill June 27. Malvern Hill July 1. At Harrison's Landing till August 15. Moved to Alexandria, Va., August 16-27. Duty in the defences of Washington, D. C., till May, 1864, as garrison at Fort Richardson. Cos. "B" and "M" detached with Army Potomac, participating in battle of Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 12-15. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Stafford Heights June 12. Battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Brandy Station November 8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Rejoined regiment in defences of Washington January, 1864. Regiment ordered to Bermuda Hundred, Va., May 13, 1864. Engaged in fatigue duty and as garrison for batteries and forts on the Bermuda front and lines before Petersburg during siege operations against Petersburg and Richmond, May, 1864, to April, 1865. Occupy Fort Converse, Redoubt Dutton, Batteries Spofford, Anderson, Pruyn and Perry on the Bermuda front, and Forts Rice, Morton, Sedgewick and McGilvrey, and Batteries 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20, Burpee, Drake and Sawyer, on the Petersburg front, and at Dutch Gap, north of the James River. Assaults on Fort Dutton June 2 and 21, 1864 (Co. "L"). Attacks on the lines May 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 27, 30, 31, June 1, 2, 5, 9, 18, 20 and 23. Mine explosion July 30, August 25, November 17, 18 and 28, 1864. Repulse of rebel fleet at Fort Brady on James River January 23-24, 1865. Expedition to Fort Fisher, N. C., January 3-15, 1865 (Cos. "B," "G," "L"). Capture of Fort Fisher January 15 (Cos. "B," "G," "L"). Assaults on and fall of Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865. Duty in the Dept. of Va. till July 11. Moved to Washington, D.C. and duty in the defences of that city till September. Mustered out September 25, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 2 Officers and 49 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 172 Enlisted men by disease. Total 227.

4th REGIMENT INFANTRY.
Organized at Hartford May 21, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., June 10. Attached to Abercrombie's 6th Brigade, 2nd Division, Dept. of Pennsylvania. to August, 1861. 2nd Brigade, Banks' Division, Army Potomac, to December, 1861. Dcfences of Washington to January, 1862.

Service: Duty at Chambersburg, Pa., and at Hagerstown. Md., till July 4, l861, and at Williamsport till August 16. At Frederick, Md., till September 5. Moved to Darnestown September 5, thence to Fort Richardson. Defences of Washington, D. C., and duty there till January, 1862. Designation of regiment changed to 1st Conn. Heavy Artillery January 2, 1862. (See 1st Heavy Artillery.) Soldiers: View Battle Unit's Soldiers »


UNION INDIANA VOLUNTEERS

Organized at Indianapolis, Ind., and mustered in August 22, 1862. 4 Companies ordered to Henderson, Ky. Regiment to Louisville, Ky. Served Unattached Army of Kentucky, Dept. of the Ohio, to November, 1862. District of Western Kentucky, Dept. of the Ohio, to March, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to June, 1865. (Co. "C" served detached at Headquarters of Gen. A. J. Smith, October, 1862, to August, 1863.) Cavalry Brigade, 13th Army Corps, Dept. of the Gulf, to September, 1863. 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, Dept. of the Gulf, to November, 1863. 3rd Brigade, Cavalry Division, Dept. of the Gulf, to January, 1864. 1st Brigade, Cavalry Division, Dept. of the Gulf, to June, 1864. Unattached Dept. of the Gulf to September, 1864.

Service: Actions at Madisonville, Ky., August 25 and September 5, 1862 (4 Companies). Lebanon Junction, Ky., September 21. Floyd's Forks October 1. Bardstown Pike, near Mt. Washington, Ky., October 1. Madisonville October 5. Duty in Western Kentucky till January, 1863. Operations against Morgan December 22, 1862, to January 2, 1863. Bear Wallow December 23. Munfordsville December 25. Burksville Road, near Green's Chapel, December 25. Ordered to Murfreesboro, Tenn., January, 1863. Near Murfreesboro January 21. Expedition to Auburn, Liberty and Alexandria February 3-5. Franklin April 10. Triune June 9 and 11. Middle Tennessee (or Tullahoma) Campaign June 23-July 7. Eaglesville and Rover June 23. Middleton June 24. Guy's Gap, Fosterville and Shelbyville June 27. Bethpage Bridge, Elk River, July 1. Expedition to Huntsville July 13-22. Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Reconnoissance toward Rome, Ga., September 11. Alpine September 12. Dirt Town, Lafayette road, near Chattooga River September 13. Reconnoissance from Lee and Gordon's Mills toward Lafayette, and Skirmish, September 13. Near Summervllle September 13. Near Stevens' Gap September 18. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-21. Operations against Wheeler and Roddy September 29-October 17. Valley Road, near Jasper, October 2. Scout to Fayetteville October 29-November 2. Fayetteville November 1. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. March to relief of Knoxville November 28-December 8. Mossy Creek Station December 24. Peck's House, near New Market, December 24. Operations about Dandridge and Mossy Creek December 24-28. Mossy Creek December 26. Talbot's Station December 28. Mossy Creek, Talbot's Station, December 29. Near Mossy Creek January 11-12, 1864 (Detachment). Operations about Dandridge January 16-17, 1864. Bend of Chucky Road, near Dandridge, January 16. Dandridge January 17. Operations about Dandridge January 26-28. Fair Garden January 27. Swann's Island January 28. Reeonnoissance toward Seviersville February 1-2. Dandridge February 17. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May to September. Demonstrations on Dalton May 9-13. Tilton May 13. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Advance on Dallas May 18-25. Stilesboro May 23. Burnt Hickory May 24. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Near Burned Church May 26 and May 30-June 1. Ackworth June 3-4. Big Shanty June 6. Ackworth June 10. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Allatoona June 15. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. On line of Nickajack Creek July 2-5. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. McCook's Raid on Atlanta and West Point R. R. July 27-31. Campbellton July 28. Lovejoy Station July 29. Clear Creek and Newnan's July 30. Expedition to Jasper August 11-15. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Rousseau's pursuit of Wheeler September 24-October 18. Pulaski September 26-27. Operations against Hood till November. Ordered to Louisville, Ky., and duty there refitting till December. Pursuit of Lyons from Paris to Hopkinsville, Ky., December 6, 1864, to January 15, 1865. Action at Hopkinsville December 16, 1864. At Nashville, Tenn., till February, 1865, and at Waterloo, Ala., till March. Wilson's Raid to Macon, Ga., March 22-April 24. Centreville April 2. Selma April 2. Montgomery April 12. Columbus Road, near Tuskegee, April 14. Fort Tyler, West Point, April 16. Near Opelika April 16. Near Barnesville April 19. Capture of Macon April 20. Duty at Macon till May and at Nashville and Edgefield, Tenn., till June. Mustered out June 29, 1865.

Company "C" served detached from Regiment at Headquarters of Gen. A. J. Smith, Commanding 10th Division, 13th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee, December, 1862, to August, 1863, participating in the following service: Movement to Memphis, Tenn., November, 1862. Sherman's Yazoo Expedition December 20, 1862, to January 3, 1863. Chlckasaw Bayou and Bluff December 26-29. Expedition to Arkansas Post, Ark., January 3-10, 1863. Capture of Fort Hindman, Arkansas Post, January 10-11. Reconnoissance to White River and St. Charles January 13, 1863. Moved to Young's Point, La., January 17. Duty there and at Milliken's Bend till April. Movement on Bruinsburg and turning Grand Gulf April 25-30. Battle of Port Gibson May 1. Battle of Champion's Hill May 16. Siege of Vicksburg, Miss., May 18-July 4. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 4-10. Near Baker's Creek July 7. Bolton's Depot and near Clinton July 8. Jackson July 9. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Brookhaven July 18. Moved to New Orleans, La., August. Western Louisiana Campaign October 3-November 30. Reconnoissance toward Opelousas October 20. Opelousas and Barre Landing October 21. Grand Coteau November 3. Duty in defences of New Orleans till September 1, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 3 Officers and 25 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 5 Officers and 193 Enlisted men by disease. Total 226.


The Siege of Damascus, 1148 CE

The siege of Damascus in 1148 CE was the final act of the Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE). Lasting a mere four days from 24 to 28 July, the siege by a combined western European army was not successful, and the Crusade petered out with its leaders returning home more bitter and angry with each other than the Muslim enemy. Additional crusades would follow, but the myth of invincibility of the western knights was shattered forever at the debacle of Damascus.

Background: The Second Crusade

The Second Crusade was a military campaign organised by the Pope and European nobles to recapture the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia, which had fallen in 1144 CE to the Muslim Seljuk Turks. Edessa was an important commercial and cultural centre and had been in Christian hands since the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE). However, when Pope Eugenius III (r. 1145-1153 CE) formally called for a crusade on 1 December 1145 CE, the goals of the campaign were put somewhat vaguely as a broad appeal for the achievements of the First Crusade and Christians and holy relics in the Levant to be protected.

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The Second Crusade included successful campaigns in the Iberian peninsula and the Baltic against Muslim Moors and pagan Europeans respectively, but it was the Levant that remained the focus of Christianity's holy war. The Crusader army in the Middle East, numbering some 60,000 men, was led by the German king Conrad III (r. 1138-1152 CE) and Louis VII, the king of France (r. 1137-1180 CE). Just as in the First Crusade, the bulk of the army travelled via Constantinople where they were met with misgivings by the Byzantines and their emperor Manuel I Komnenos (r. 1143 - 1180 CE). Manuel's primary concern was that the Crusaders were really only after the choice parts of the Byzantine Empire. Accordingly, Manuel insisted the leaders of the Crusade, on arrival in September and October 1147 CE, swear personal allegiance to him. At the same time, the western powers considered the Byzantines rather too preoccupied with their own affairs and unhelpful in the noble opportunities they thought a crusade presented. The old divisions between the eastern and western churches had not gone away either. It was significant that Manuel, despite the diplomacy, strengthened the fortifications of Constantinople and provided a military escort to see the Crusaders on their way as quickly as possible.

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The German contingent of the crusader army, already having suffered significant losses during a terrible flash flood at their camp near Constantinople, ignored Manuel's advice to stick to the safety of the coast once in Asia Minor and so met another, even worse disaster. At Dorylaion, a force of Muslim Seljuk Turks caused havoc with the slow-moving westerners on 25 October 1147 CE, and, forced to retreat to Nicaea, Conrad himself was wounded but did eventually make it back to Constantinople.

Meanwhile, the army led by Louis VII, although shocked to hear of the Germans' failure, pressed on and managed to defeat a Seljuk army in December 1147 CE. The success was short-lived, though, for on 7 January 1148 CE the French were beaten badly in battle as they crossed the Cadmus Mountains. It was a disastrous opening to a campaign which had not even reached its target of northern Syria and a sorry tale of bad planning, poor logistics, and unheeded local advice.

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Louis VII and his ravaged army finally arrived at Antioch in March 1148 CE. From there, he ignored Raymond of Antioch's proposal to fight in northern Syria and marched on to the south. In any case, a council of western leaders was convened at Acre, and the target of the Crusade was now selected, not at the already destroyed Edessa, but Muslim-held Damascus, the closest threat to Jerusalem and a prestigious prize given the city's history and wealth.

The Great City of Damascus

Although Damascus, located in southwest Syria, had once been an ally of the Crusader-led Kingdom of Jerusalem, the shifting loyalties between the various Muslim states in the Levant meant this fact held no guarantee for the future and, faced with the necessity to take at least one major city or go home as complete failures, Damascus was as good a choice as any for the Crusaders. Indeed, two attempts had already been made to take the city by the Franks, as the western settlers in the Middle East were widely known, in 1126 and 1129 CE. The situation was now made more urgent as there was a very real prospect that the Muslims of Damascus would join up with those of Aleppo under command of Edessa's most recent conqueror, the ambitious Nur ad-Din (sometimes also given as Nur al-Din, r. 1146-1174 CE). Sure enough, the Muslim military commander or atabeg of Damascus, the city's ruler in practical terms, was Mu'in al-Din Abu Mansur Anur (aka Mu'in al-Din 'Unar, r. 1138-1149 CE), and in 1147 CE he had arranged for his daughter to marry Nur ad-Din. The Muslim world was beginning to unite against the repeated attacks by western armies.

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Damascus gained its wealth from its advantageous position on the caravan routes and Silk Road, as well as its control of a vast agriculturally rich hinterland. The city, too, had a religious significance for both Christians and Muslims. The capital of the Umayyad Empire from 661 to 750 CE, the city had been a great centre of learning and the arts and boasted such fine architecture as the 8th-century CE Great Mosque which contained one of Islam's holiest relics, the Koran of the Caliph Uthman, one of Muhammad's early successors. Further, nearby Mount Kaisoun was regarded as the birthplace of Abraham and, in Muslim tradition, Damascus was to be the place of the Messiah's arrival before the Day of Judgement. It was a city worth fighting for both for ideological and financial reasons.

The Muslim army tasked with defending Damascus was composed of a professional core, the askars, and a mixed bag of supplementary forces which included a militia, the ahdath, drawn from the poorer elements of the city and its large surrounding territory Turkoman and Kurdish volunteers troops provided by states under the rule of Damascus - notably a sizeable contingent of archers from Lebanon and, finally, Arab Bedouin allies. It was these forces that would have to hold the city against the feared western knights.

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The Siege

When news of the Crusader army's approach reached Mu'in al-Din, the commander set about spoiling all wells and water sources on the invaders' probable approach route. The Crusader army, split into three contingents with one each led by Louis VII, Conrad III, and Baldwin III of Jerusalem (r. 1143-1163 CE), arrived at Damascus on 24 July 1148 CE and immediately attacked. Indeed, although the historical accounts are notoriously confused and conflicting, it seems that the Crusaders expected the city to fall within days and they made no contingency plans in the case of a protracted defence.

After the Crusaders crossed the city's outlying irrigation channels, Mu'in al-Din sent out his army to prevent the Crusader force from crossing the Barada River. Baldwin's and Louis' forces were kept back, but Conrad's force broke through the lines, and the Muslims were forced to retreat back through the difficult terrain of orchards and low-walled copses - which stretched some 8 km (5 miles) out from the city walls - finally reaching the safety of the city's defensive walls.

The crusader army, perhaps then numbering some 50,000 men, moved forwards, taking control of the western approach to the city. At Rabwa, fortifications were built to cut off Damascus from the Biqa'a Valley. The suburbs of Faradis were the first to be attacked, and by the 25th a fortification was constructed outside the Bab al-Jabiya gate using wood from the city's orchards. The siege was underway, but Mu'in al-Din had already sent for help from Nur ad-Din at Aleppo and Sayf al-Din Ghazi at Mosul (r. 1146-1149 CE).

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By the end of the day of 25 July, the Crusader army set up camp on the Green Maydan (Maydan al-Akhdar), the grassy area used by the Damascan cavalry as a training ground. The city sent out a force to repel the attackers and a day of heavy fighting ensued, especially to the north of Damascus. The defenders sustained heavy losses, but it is likely they did clear this area and so permit reinforcements to arrive from Lebanon and Sayf al-Din on 26 and 27 July. It is also probable that the Crusaders intended to now concentrate on either the eastern or the southern edge of the city and the weakest of the gates, the Bab al-Saghir or 'Small Gate' built only of mud bricks - even if these areas were much less advantageous for food and water supplies. However, Mu'in al-Din organised major attacks on the Crusader camps with a force which included anyone who could carry arms, as described here by the Muslim historian Abu Shama (1203-1268 CE):

A large group of inhabitants and villagers…put to flight all the sentries, killed them, without fear of the danger, taking the heads of all the enemy they killed and wanting to touch these trophies. The number of heads they gathered was considerable. (Nicolle, 71)

Meanwhile, the city's inhabitants strengthened their own, rather poor fortifications using wooden palisades. Damascus was proving to be a much more difficult target than the westerners had anticipated, and to improve moral, a relic of the True Cross was paraded about the Crusader camps.

On 28 July the Crusaders moved their main base camp from the Green Maydan but, before settling on a new site and after only four days of siege, the leaders decided to withdraw from Damascus the next day. Even then, the westerners had to face fierce harrying attacks to their rear as they tried to regroup to the south. The siege of Damascus was a lacklustre final episode of the campaign, and nothing short of a debacle considering the original glorious intentions of those who had organised the Second Crusade.

Causes of the Failure

The causes of the Crusader's failure were multiple:

  • the difficulties presented by the defences - principally the terrain and sheer size of the city
  • the hit-and-run guerrilla tactics of the defenders and their tenacity
  • the continued harassment from the local militia in the outlying territories of Damascus
  • and the serious lack of food and water for the attackers.

All of these factors combined meant the siege had to be abandoned. It is also interesting to note that neither Christian or Muslim sources mention the presence of siege engines. Once again, bad planning and poor logistics were to prove the Crusaders' undoing. The fighting around the city had been ferocious with heavy casualties on both sides, but no real advance had been made over the four days. The absence of a determined pre-set plan backed by appropriate logistics and siege weaponry had proved fatal. The failures of the Second Crusade were now putting the already legendary successes of the First Crusade into some perspective.

The collapse of the siege after such a short time led some, notably Conrad III, to suspect the defenders had bribed the Christian residents into inaction. Others suspected Byzantine interference. There was probably disagreement and suspicion amongst the Crusader factions, especially between those already established in the Levant and the newer arrivals, and between leaders over what exactly to do with Damascus if and when it was captured. Overlooked too, perhaps, is the zeal of the defenders to keep their prized possession and the arrival of a large Muslim relief army 150 kilometres away, sent by Nur ad-Din. With limited numbers and supplies and facing a short time limit to capture the city before relief arrived and threatened their own poor defences, the Crusader leaders may have preferred the option of retreat to fight another day. There was to be no other fight, though, as the army retreated to the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Conrad III returned to Europe in September 1148 CE, and Louis, after a sightseeing tour of the Holy Land, did the same six months later. The Second Crusade, despite so much early promise, had disappointingly fizzled out like a water-damaged firework.

Aftermath

Nur ad-Din, as the Crusaders no doubt had feared, continued to consolidate his empire, and he took Antioch on 29 June 1149 CE after the battle of Inab, beheading its ruler Raymond of Antioch. Raymond, the Count of Edessa, was captured and imprisoned, and the Latin state of Edessa was eliminated by 1150 CE. Next, Nur ad-Din took over Damascus in April 1154 CE following the death by natural causes of Mu'in al-Din, thus uniting Muslim Syria. The Muslims would pose a permanent threat to both the Byzantine Empire and the Latin East. When Nur ad-Din's general Shirkuh conquered Egypt in 1168 CE, the way was paved for an even greater threat to Christendom, the great Muslim leader Saladin (r. 1169-1193 CE), Sultan of Egypt, whose victory at the Battle of Hattin in 1187 CE would spark off the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE).


Siege of Alexandria, 29 July- 2 August 1174 - History

Organized at Centralia, Ill., and mustered in September 3, 1862. Moved to Louisville, Ky., September 8, 1862, thence to Jeffersonville September 9, and to Shepherdsville September 19. Attached to 40th Brigade, 12th Division, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 5th Division, Centre 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 5th Division, 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to June, 1863. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 14th Army Corps, to October, 1863. Wilder's Mounted Infantry Brigade, Army of the Cumberland, to November, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Cumberland, November, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to December, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to November, 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Cavalry Corps, Military Division Mississippi, to June, 1865.

SERVICE - Moved to Elizabethtown, Ky., thence to Frankfort and Versailles September 30 - October 13, 1862. March to Bowling Green, Ky., October 26 - November 3, thence to Scottsboro November 10 To Gallatin November 26, and to Castillian Springs November 28. To Bledsoe Creek December 14. Operations against Morgan in Kentucky December 22 - January 2, 1863. Moved to Cave City, thence to Murfreesboro, Tenn., January 2-8, and duty there till June. Expedition to Auburn, Liberty and Alexandria February 3-5. Regiment mounted March 8. Expedition to Woodbury March 3-8. Expedition to Lebanon, Carthage and Liberty April 1-8. Expedition to McMinnville April 20-30. Reconnaissance to the front May 23, Armed with Spencer Carbines May 31. Liberty Road June 4. Liberty June 10. Middle Tennessee or Tullahoma Campaign June 24 - July 7. Hoover's Gap June 24-26. Occupation of Manchester June 27. Dechard June 29. Pelham and Elk River Bridge July 2. Occupation of Middle Tennessee till August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16 - September 22. Friar's Island September 9. Lee and Gordon's Mills September 11-13. Ringgold September 11. Leet's Tan Yard September 12-13. Pea Vine Ridge September 18. Alexander's Bridge September 18. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-21. Operations against Wheeler and Roddy September 30 - October 17. Hill's Gap, Thompson's Cove, near Beersheba October 3. Murfreesboro Road near McMinnville and McMinnville October 4. Farmington October 7. Sims' Farm near Shelbyville October 7. Chattanooga - Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Raid on East Tennessee and Georgia R. R. November 24-27. Charleston November 26. Cleveland November 27. March to relief of Knoxville and operations in East Tennessee November 28, 1863, to January 6, 1864. Near Loudon December 2, 1863. Expedition to Murphy, N. C., December 6-11. Operations in North Alabama January 23-29, 1864. Florence January 25. Demonstration on Dalton, Ga., February 22-27. Tunnel Hill, Buzzard's Roost Gap and Rocky Faced Ridge February 23-25. Near Dalton February 23. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1 - September 4. Battle of Resaca May 13-15. Rome May 17-18. Near Dallas May 24. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25 - June 5. Near Big Shanty June 9. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10 - July 2. Noonday Creek June 19-20. Powder Springs, Lattimer's Mills, June 20. Noonday Creek and assault on Kenesaw June 27. Nickajack Creek July 2-5. Rottenwood Creek July 4. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Garrard's Raid to Covington July 22-24. Siege of Atlanta July 22 - August 25. Garrard's Raid to South River July 27-31. Flat Rock Bridge July 28. Kilpatrick's Raid around Atlanta August 20-22. Operations at Chattahoochie River Bridge August 26 - September 2. Operations against Hood in North Georgia and North Alabama September 29 - November 3. Near Lost Mountain October 4-7. New Hope Church October 5. Dallas October 7 Rome October 10-11. Narrows October 11. Near Rome October 13. Near Summerville October 18. Little River, Ala., October 20. Leesburg October 21. Ladiga, Terrapin Creek, October 28. Moved to Nashville, Tenn., thence to Louisville, Ky., November 2-15, and duty there refitting till December 26. March to Nashville, Tenn., December 26, 1864, to January 12, 1865, thence to Gravelly Springs, Ala., and duty there till March 13. Wilson's Raid to Macon, Ga., March 22 - April 24. Summerville April 2. Selma April 2. Montgomery April 12. Columbus, Ga., April 16. Macon April 20. Provost duty at Macon till May 33. Moved to Edgefield and duty there till June, 1865.

Mustered out June 27 and discharged at Springfield, Ill., July 7, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 30 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 5 Officers and 136 Enlisted men by disease. Total 171.


The result

No British ships lost – 200 dead, 700 wounded.
Eleven French warships lost and two frigates – two warships and two frigates escaped – 1,700 dead, 1,500 wounded.
Perhaps the worst French defeat of the whole Napoleonic period. And unlike at Trafalgar its results were felt immediately. Without a fleet in the Mediterranean, France could no longer run the Egyptian campaign satisfactorily – Malta subsequently returned to British control. The Turks declared war on France, 4 September, and as a result of the lack of naval support Napoleon was to meet with failure at the siege of St John d'Acre. From Alexandretta Nelson sent a messenger to Bombay to inform of the 'glorious battle fought at the Mouth of the Nile' and the 'great victory'. The British under Wellington invaded Mysore and in 1799 Tippoo Sahib died defending his capital. And all French designs on India died with him.


Watch the video: Η αναπαράσταση της μάχης Κλείσοβας 2017 (January 2022).

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