Quentin Bell

Quentin Bell

Quentin Bell, the younger son of Clive Heward Bell and his wife, Vanessa Bell, the daughter of Leslie Stephen, and the sister of Virginia Woolf, was born on 19th August 1910. He was brought up in the family home at 46 Gordon Square and at Charleston Farmhouse, near Firle. Like his brother, Julian Bell, he was educated at Leighton Park School, the Quaker boarding-school in Reading.

A talented artist, Bell left school at seventeen and went on a tour of central European galleries with Roger Fry, the famous art critic. He spent periods of time painting in both Paris and Rome.

In 1933 Bell was forced to spend seven months in a sanatorium in Switzerland followed by convalescence near Monaco. In 1935 he returned to Italy and had his first exhibition at the Mayor Gallery. But later that year he decided to become a potter rather than a painter and enrolled himself at Burslem School of Art. While living in Stoke-on-Trent he became an active member of the Labour Party. Eventually he set up a studio at Charleston Farmhouse, where his artist mother Vanessa Bell and her former lover, Duncan Grant, also worked.

According to Leonard Woolf, Bell became a member of the Bloomsbury Group: "in the 1920's and 1930's when Old Bloomsbury narrowed and widened into a newer Bloomsbury, it lost through death Lytton (Strachey) and Roger (Fry) and added to its numbers, Julian, Quentin and Angelica Bell, and David (Bunny) Garnett."

His parents had been pacifists during the First World War. Bell was willing to joined the British Army after the outbreak of the Second World War but as was in poor health he was rejected on medical grounds. He therefore worked on the farm owned by John Maynard Keynes near Firle. He also joined his mother Vanessa Bell and her former lover, Duncan Grant, in providing wall-paintings at Berwick Church, that were completed in 1943. He was also employed by David Garnett in the political warfare department of the Foreign Office.

In 1947 Bell published his first major book, On Human Finery, a study of the history of fashion. He married the art historian, Olivier Popham, on 16th February 1952. Soon afterwards he became a senior lecturer at King's College, Newcastle upon Tyne. He moved to Leeds Art School in 1959. He also taught at Slade Art School and Hull Art School before in 1967 becoming professor of the history and theory of art at Sussex University.

Bell had been a member of the Bloomsbury Circle, a group that included Virginia Woolf, Vanessa Bell , Clive Bell, John Maynard Keynes, Adrian Stephen, E. M. Forster, Leonard Woolf, Lytton Strachey, Desmond MacCarthy, Mary MacCarthy, Duncan Grant, Arthur Waley and Saxon Sydney-Turner. He was therefore in a good position to publish Bloomsbury (1968) and a two volume biography of his aunt, in his much acclaimed Virginia Woolf: A Biography (1972).

According to his biographer, Charles Saumarez Smith: "After retiring from his post at Sussex in 1975, Bell was able to spend more time and energy on his pottery. In 1985 he and his wife, Olivier, moved to a smaller house next door to the park in Firle and each morning he would wake up early and disappear to his kiln, only emerging for gin and ginger beer in the evening. He undertook a mixture of work, some rough, painted plates and mugs, which he saw as belonging to an artisan tradition, but also more ambitious ceramic sculpture. Neither style fitted comfortably within the work of contemporaries, as his pots were too utilitarian to be regarded as art and his ceramic sculpture too conventionally figurative. But this in no way deterred him from turning out a great amount of work which was both vigorous and affordable, a crossover between the Omega workshop and folk art."

Bell helped establish the Charleston Trust, which was responsible for saving his mother's house. Other books included a novel, The Brandon Papers (1985), a collection of essays and lectures in Bad Art (1989), and a series of character sketches, Elders and Betters (1995).

Quentin Bell died at his home, 81 Heighton Street, Firle, East Sussex, on 16th December 1996.

Then on Monday, July 3rd, only three weeks after I had arrived in England, I went and dined with Vanessa and Clive Bell in Gordon Square. I was alone with them at dinner, but afterwards Virginia, Duncan Grant, and Walter Lamb came in. This was, I suppose, so far as I was concerned, the beginning of what came to be called Bloomsbury.

What came to be called "Bloomsbury" by the outside world never existed in the form given to it by the outside world. For "Bloomsbury" was and is currently used as a term - usually of abuse - applied to a largely imaginary group of persons with largely imaginary objects and characteristics. I was a member of this group and I was also one of a small number of persons who did in fact eventually form a kind of group of friends living in or around that district of London legitimately called Bloomsbury. The term Bloomsbury can legitimately be applied to this group and will be so applied in these pages. Bloomsbury, in this sense, did not exist in 1911 when I returned from Ceylon; it came into existence in the three years 1912 to 1914 . We did ourselves use the term of ourselves before it was used by the outside world, for in the 1920's and 1930's, when our own younger generation were growing up and marrying and some of our generation were already dying, we used to talk of "Old Bloomsbury", meaning the original members of our group of friends who between 1911 and 1914 came to live in or around Bloomsbury.

Old Bloomsbury consisted of the following people: The three Stephens: Vanessa, married to Clive Bell, Virginia, who married Leonard Woolf, and Adrian, who married Karin Costello; Lytton Strachey; Clive Bell; Leonard Woolf; Maynard Keynes; Duncan Grant; E. Forster (who will be referred to in this book as Morgan Forster or Morgan); Saxon Sydney Turner; Roger Fry. Desmond MacCarthy and his wife Molly, though they actually lived in Chelsea, were always regarded by us as members of Old Bloomsbury. In the 1920's and 1930's, when Old Bloomsbury narrowed and widened into a newer Bloomsbury, it lost through death Lytton and Roger and added to its numbers Julian, Quentin, and Angelica Bell, and David (Bunny) Garnett, who married Angelica.

It was a spring evening. Vanessa and I were sitting in the drawing room.... At any moment Clive might come in and he and I should begin to argue - amicably, impersonally at first; soon we should be hurling abuse at each other and pacing up and down the room. Vanessa sat silent and did something mysterious with her needle or her scissors. I talked egotistically, excitedly, about my own affairs no doubt. Suddenly the door opened and the long and sinister figure of Mr. Lytton Strachey stood on the threshold. He pointed his finger at a stain on Vanessa's white dress.

"Semen?" he said.

Can one really say it? I thought and we burst out laughing. With that one word all barriers of reticence and reserve went down. A flood of the sacred fluid seemed to overwhelm us. Sex permeated our conversation. The word bugger was never far from our lips.

In January 1966 Quentin Bell committed himself to writing the biography of Virginia Woolf. The starting point was obviously her diaries. Leonard posted off his manila envelopes containing the chopped-up sections of his carbon copies. He told Quentin that, with the extracts published in A Writer's Diary, he now had the lot. It was not so easy. The truncated pages sometimes had the dated portion cut off, and bits were missing. Fortunately Quentin's wife Olivier was a highly trained researcher, having been employed in her youth by eminent scholars to "get things right". She reconstituted the diaries, using Leonard's master-copy when in difficulties.

The work was made easier from early 1967 when Quentin was appointed professor of History and Theory of Art at the University of Sussex, and he and his family came to live at Cobbe's Place, within a couple of miles of, and roughly equidistant from, Charleston and Monks House. Leonard rooted out for them bundles and boxes of letters, including the copies of those he had sold. He was helpful but not controlling, exerting no pressures. Quentin sent Leonard a "Report on Preliminary Research" after one year: the main task had been to put the 300,000 words of the diary into "usable form". He and Olivier were preparing a biographical index and notes as they went along. They were also sorting the Charleston papers, and were planning to interview people who knew Virginia. Olivier constructed a system of card indexes and a chronology.

History of Bells

History of bells started with the advancement of metallurgy in ancient china. In 2000 BC, fist bells started to appear, slowly managing to infuse themselves into Chinese culture, religion and the way of life. As the centuries went on, creation of bells became and art, giving artist a chance to infuse on them various images and themes that attracted the attention for Royalty and nobility in China. They changed the way how bells were used, creating from the an item that symbolized wealth, power and influence. However, this all changed when bells started spreading across Asia from rich India to the land of the rising sun Japan. This expansion provided several important changes in the way bells were used – smaller bells were openly used by people who wanted easy way of conveying information across large distances (notifying end of a work shift for example), musicians of all sorts adopted small and precisely made bells as important instrument, and most importantly, religions such as Buddhism, Hindu, Shinto, and even Ancient Egyptian religion of sun gods. These religions proved to be crucial for adoption of bells all across the world, and many of their early bell uses still survive today in numerous religious ceremonies, traditions and public superstitions that were created by the people themselves.

Before Christianity even appeared, bells were viewed as a musical instrument of the gods, as items that can carry the will of the gods across the land, provide peace, clear minds, exile bad spirits and provide happiness. The bible has many mentions of the bells, especially in the tales of Moses who studied priesthood in Egypt and carried knowledge of bells and gongs to Christianity.

  • Bell clapper is made from same material as the bell itself.
  • Bell clapper can hit the bell with speed of up to 1000 kilometers per hour, and bell can withstand this force for thousands of years if its created correctly.
  • Toiling bell is stationary bell that rings in slow repetition.
  • Carillons are set of minimum of 23 precisely tuned bells.
  • Great Britain has nickname of “The Ringing Isle” because of its many bells.
  • Largest bell ever made was Great Bell of Dhammazedi. It weighted over 300 tons when it was created, and was eventually lost under the river Burma when Portuguese conquerors tried to steal it and melt it for cannons.
  • Titanic had three bells with diameters ranging from 2 to 23 inches.

Bell war der Sohn von Clive Bell und Vanessa Bell, geborene Stephen, und der Neffe von Virginia Woolf. Bells Biografie seiner berühmten Tante, Virginia Woolf: A Biography, zwei Bände (London: Hogarth Press, 1972), gewann nicht nur den „James Tait Black Memorial Prize“, sondern auch den 𠇭uff Cooper Prize“ und den „Yorkshire Post Book of the Year Award“. Er schrieb verschiedene B࿌her ﲾr die Bloomsbury Group und Charleston Farmhouse. Er lehrte Kunstgeschichte am King’s College, University of Durham (Newcastle University ab 1963) von 1952 bis 1959. Dann war er Professor an der Leeds University. 1964 lehrte er an der Oxford University und 1965 an der Hull University. Er war Professor für Kunstgeschichte und -theorie an der University of Sussex von 1967 bis 1975.

Bell war mit (Anne) Olivier Bell, geborene Popham, verheiratet. Sie hatten drei Kinder: Julian Bell, Maler und Kunstkritiker, Cressida Bell, eine bekannte Textildesignerin und Virginia Bell, die Autorin von Among the Bohemians und Singled Out. Sein älterer Bruder war der Dichter Julian Bell. Die Schriftstellerin Angelica Garnett war seine Halbschwester. Nach dem Tod von Leonard Woolf (1880�) erbten Quentin Bell und Angelica Garnett Virginia Woolfs literarisches Verm์htnis.

Quentin Bell liegt begraben auf dem Friedhof von St. Peter’s Church, West Firle, East Sussex.


Tarantino was born on March 27, 1963, in Knoxville, Tennessee, the only child of Connie McHugh and aspiring actor Tony Tarantino, who left the family before his son's birth. [2] [11] His father is of Italian descent, and his mother has Cherokee and Irish ancestry. He was named in part for Quint Asper, Burt Reynolds' character in the CBS series Gunsmoke. [12] Tarantino's mother met his father during a trip to Los Angeles, where Tony was a law student and would-be entertainer. After a brief marriage and divorce, Connie Tarantino left Los Angeles and moved to Knoxville, where her parents lived. In 1966, Tarantino and his mother returned to Los Angeles. [13] [14]

Tarantino's mother married musician Curtis Zastoupil soon after arriving in Los Angeles, and the family moved to Torrance, a city in Los Angeles County's South Bay area. [15] [16] Zastoupil encouraged Tarantino's love of movies, and accompanied him to numerous film screenings. Tarantino's mother allowed him to see movies with adult content, such as Carnal Knowledge (1971) and Deliverance (1972). After his mother divorced Zastoupil in 1973, and received a misdiagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, [17] Tarantino was sent to live with his grandparents in Tennessee. [18] He remained there less than a year before returning to California. [19]

Late 1970s to 1988: Education, first jobs, and early projects Edit

At 14 years old, Tarantino wrote one of his earliest works, a screenplay called Captain Peachfuzz and the Anchovy Bandit, based on Hal Needham's 1977 film Smokey and the Bandit starring Burt Reynolds. The summer after his 15th birthday, Tarantino was grounded by his mother for shoplifting Elmore Leonard's novel The Switch from Kmart. He was allowed to leave only to attend the Torrance Community Theater, where he participated in such plays as Two Plus Two Makes Sex and Romeo and Juliet. [17] At age 15, Tarantino dropped out of Narbonne High School in Harbor City, Los Angeles. [20] [21] He then worked as an usher at an adult movie theater in Torrance, called the Pussycat Theater. Later, Tarantino attended acting classes at the James Best Theatre Company, where he met several of his eventual collaborators. [22] [23] While at James Best, Tarantino also met Craig Hamann, with whom he would collaborate to produce his first film in 1987. [24] [25]

Throughout the 1980s, Tarantino had a number of jobs. He spent time as a recruiter in the aerospace industry, and for five years, he worked at Video Archives, a video store in Manhattan Beach, California. [26] [27] Actor Danny Strong describes Tarantino as "such a movie buff. He had so much knowledge of films that he would try to get people to watch really cool movies." [27] [a] After meeting at a Hollywood party, Lawrence Bender encouraged Tarantino to write a screenplay. His first attempt on a script, which he described as a "straight 70s exploitation action movie", was never published and was abandoned soon after. [29] In 1987, Tarantino co-wrote and directed his first film, My Best Friend's Birthday (1987). It was left uncompleted, but its screenplay later formed the basis for True Romance. [30]

In 1986, Tarantino was employed in his first Hollywood job, working with Roger Avary as production assistants on Dolph Lundgren's exercise video, Maximum Potential. [31] The following year, he played an Elvis impersonator in "Sophia's Wedding: Part 1", an episode in the fourth season of The Golden Girls, which was broadcast on November 19, 1988. [32] Tarantino recalled in 2020 that the pay he received from that part helped finance Reservoir Dogs he estimated he initially was paid about $600, but since the episode was frequently rerun because it was on a "best of. " lineup, he received about $3,000 in residuals over three years. [33]

Tarantino cameos in the majority of his films. His character with most time onscreen was Jimmie Dimmick in Pulp Fiction (1994).

1990s: Breakthrough Edit

Tarantino received his first paid writing assignment in the early 1990s when Robert Kurtzman hired him to write the script for From Dusk till Dawn. [34] [35] [36]

In January 1992, Tarantino's neo-noir crime thriller Reservoir Dogs—which he wrote, directed, and acted in as Mr. Brown—was screened at the Sundance Film Festival. It was an immediate hit, with the film receiving a positive response from critics. The dialogue-driven heist film set the tone for Tarantino's later films. Tarantino wrote the script for the film in three-and-a-half weeks and Bender forwarded it to director Monte Hellman. Hellman helped Tarantino to secure funding from Richard N. Gladstein at Live Entertainment (which later became Artisan, now known as Lionsgate). Harvey Keitel read the script and also contributed to the budget, taking a role as co-producer and also playing a major part in the picture. [37]

Tarantino's screenplay True Romance was optioned and the film was eventually released in 1993. The second script that Tarantino sold was for the film Natural Born Killers, which was revised by Dave Veloz, Richard Rutowski and director Oliver Stone. Tarantino was given story credit and stated in an interview that he wished the film well, but later disowned the final film. [38] [39] [40] The film engendered enmity, and the publication of a "tell-all" book titled Killer Instinct by Jane Hamsher—who, with Don Murphy, had an original option on the screenplay and produced the film—led to Tarantino physically assaulting Murphy in the AGO restaurant in West Hollywood, California in October 1997. [41] Murphy subsequently filed a $5 million lawsuit against Tarantino the case ended with the judge ordering Tarantino to pay Murphy $450. [42] [43] Tarantino was also an uncredited screenwriter on both Crimson Tide (1995) and The Rock (1996). [44] [45]

Following the success of Reservoir Dogs, Tarantino was approached by Hollywood and offered numerous projects, including Speed (1994) and Men in Black (1997), but he instead retreated to Amsterdam to work on his script for Pulp Fiction. [46]

Tarantino wrote, directed, and acted in the black comedy crime film Pulp Fiction in 1994, maintaining the aestheticization of violence for which he is known, as well as his non-linear storylines. Tarantino received the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay, which he shared with Roger Avary, who contributed to the story. He also received a nomination in the Best Director category. The film received another five nominations, including for Best Picture. Tarantino also won the Palme d'Or for the film at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival. The film grossed over $200 million [47] and earned positive reviews. [48] [49]

In 1995, Tarantino participated in the anthology film Four Rooms, a collaboration that also included directors Robert Rodriguez, Allison Anders, and Alexandre Rockwell. Tarantino directed and acted in the fourth segment of "The Man from Hollywood", a tribute to the Alfred Hitchcock Presents episode "Man from the South". He re-teamed with Rodriguez later in the year with a supporting role in Desperado, while in 1996 From Dusk till Dawn was finally released with Rodriguez directing and Tarantino starring alongside Keitel, George Clooney, and Juliette Lewis. His third feature film was Jackie Brown (1997), an adaptation of Elmore Leonard's novel Rum Punch. A homage to blaxploitation films, it starred Pam Grier, who starred in many of the films of that genre in the 1970s. It received positive reviews and was called a "comeback" for Grier and co-star Robert Forster. [50] Leonard considered Jackie Brown to be his favorite of the 26 different screen adaptations of his novels and short stories. [51]

In 1998, Tarantino made his major Broadway stage debut as an amoral psycho killer in a revival of the 1966 play Wait Until Dark, which received unfavorable reviews from critics, but his star power ensured a nearly sold-out production for its limited, 16-week Broadway run. [52] In December 1999, Tarantino was attached to a film adaptation of the Marvel comic Iron Man for New Line Cinema. Nothing came of the project. [53] Throughout the 1990s, Tarantino had a number of minor acting roles, including in Eddie Presley (1992), [54] The Coriolis Effect (1994), [55] Sleep With Me (1994), [56] [57] Somebody to Love (1994), [58] All-American Girl (1995), Destiny Turns on the Radio (1995), [59] Desperado (1995), [60] From Dusk till Dawn (1996), and Girl 6 (1996). [61] He also starred in Steven Spielberg's Director's Chair, a simulation video game that uses pre-generated film clips. [62]

2000s: Subsequent success Edit

Tarantino had planned to start work on Inglourious Basterds, as it was provisionally titled, but postponed this to write and direct Kill Bill, a highly stylized "revenge flick" in the cinematic traditions of Wuxia (Chinese martial arts), Jidaigeki (Japanese period cinema), Spaghetti Westerns and Italian horror. It was originally set for a single theatrical release, but its 4-hour running time prompted Tarantino to divide it into two movies. Volume 1 was released in late 2003 and Volume 2 was released in 2004. It was based on a character called The Bride and a plot that he and Kill Bill ' s lead actress Uma Thurman had developed during the making of Pulp Fiction.

From 2002 to 2004, Tarantino portrayed villain McKenas Cole in the ABC television series Alias. [63] In 2002, while in negotiations with Lucy Liu for Kill Bill, the two helped produce the Hungarian sports documentary Freedom's Fury. [64] When Tarantino was approached about a documentary about the Blood in the Water match, he said "This is the best story I've ever been told. I'd love to be involved". [64]

In 2004, Tarantino attended the 2004 Cannes Film Festival, where he served as President of the Jury. [65] Although Kill Bill was not in competition, Vol. 2 had an evening screening, and was also shown on the morning of the final day in its original 3-hour plus version, with Tarantino himself attending the full screening. Tarantino went on to be credited as "Special Guest Director" in Robert Rodriguez's 2005 neo-noir film Sin City, for his work directing the car sequence featuring Clive Owen and Benicio del Toro. [66]

In May 2005, Tarantino co-wrote and directed "Grave Danger", the fifth season finale of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. For this episode, Tarantino was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series at the 57th Primetime Emmy Awards. [67] Tarantino's next film project was Grindhouse, which he co-directed with Rodriguez. Released in theaters on April 6, 2007, Tarantino's contribution to the Grindhouse project was titled Death Proof. It began as a take on 1970s slasher films, [68] but evolved dramatically as the project unfolded. [69] Box-office sales were low but the film garnered mostly positive reviews. [70] [71]

Tarantino's film Inglourious Basterds, released in 2009, is the story of a group of Jewish-American guerrilla soldiers in Nazi-occupied France during World War II. Filming began in October 2008. [72] The film opened on August 21, 2009, to very positive reviews [73] and reached the # 1 spot at the box office worldwide. [74] It went on to become Tarantino's highest-grossing film until it was surpassed by Django Unchained three years later. [75] For the film, Tarantino received his second nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director and Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay.

2010s: Established auteur Edit

In 2011, production began on Django Unchained, a film about the revenge of a former slave in the U.S. South in 1858. The film stemmed from Tarantino's desire to produce a Spaghetti Western set in America's Deep South. Tarantino called the proposed style "a southern", [76] stating that he wanted "to do movies that deal with America's horrible past with slavery and stuff but do them like spaghetti westerns, not like big issue movies. I want to do them like they're genre films, but they deal with everything that America has never dealt with because it's ashamed of it, and other countries don't really deal with because they don't feel they have the right to". [76] The film was released on December 25, 2012. In an interview with Krishnan Guru-Murthy on Channel 4 News, Tarantino reacted angrily when, in light of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, he was questioned about an alleged link between movie violence and real-life violence, and informed Guru-Murthy he was "shutting [his] butt down". [77] Tarantino further defied the journalist, saying: "I refuse your question. I'm not your slave and you're not my master. You can't make me dance to your tune. I'm not a monkey." [78]

In November 2013, Tarantino said he was working on a new film and that it would be another Western. He stated that it would not be a sequel to Django. [79] On January 12, 2014, it was revealed that the film would be titled The Hateful Eight. Production of the Western would most likely have begun in the summer of 2014, but after the script for the film leaked in January 2014, Tarantino considered dropping the movie and publishing it as a novel instead. [80] [81] He stated that he had given the script to a few trusted colleagues, including Bruce Dern, Tim Roth and Michael Madsen. [82] [83]

On April 19, 2014, Tarantino directed a live reading of the leaked script at the United Artists Theater in the Ace Hotel Los Angeles. The event was organized by the Film Independent at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, as part of the Live Read series. [84] Tarantino explained that they would read the first draft of the script, and added that he was writing two new drafts with a different ending. The actors who joined Tarantino included Samuel L. Jackson, Kurt Russell, Amber Tamblyn, James Parks, Walton Goggins, and the first three actors to be given the script before the leak, Bruce Dern, Tim Roth and Michael Madsen. [85] In October 2014, Jennifer Jason Leigh was in talks to play the female lead in the film. [86] Leigh, Channing Tatum, and Demián Bichir joined the cast in November. [87]

The Hateful Eight was released on December 25, 2015, as a roadshow presentation in 70 mm film format theaters, before being released in digital theaters on December 30, 2015. [88] Tarantino narrated several scenes in the film. He edited two versions of the film, one for the roadshow version and the other for general release. The roadshow version runs for three hours and two minutes, and includes an overture and intermission, after the fashion of big-budget films of the 1960s and early 1970s the general release is six minutes shorter and contains alternate takes of some scenes. Tarantino has stated that the general release cut was created as he felt that some of the footage he shot for 70 mm would not play well on smaller screens. [89] The film has received mostly positive reviews from critics, with a score of 74% on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes. [90]

On July 11, 2017, it was reported that Tarantino's next project would be a film about the Manson Family murders. [91] In February 2018, it was announced that the film's title will be Once Upon a Time in Hollywood, and that Leonardo DiCaprio would play Rick Dalton, a fictional star of television Westerns, with Brad Pitt as Dalton's longtime stunt double Cliff Booth. [92] Tarantino wrote the screenplay for the film. Margot Robbie also starred as real life actress Sharon Tate, portrayed as Dalton's next-door neighbor. Among the film's supporting cast were Timothy Olyphant, [93] Kurt Russell, Michael Madsen and Al Pacino. [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] Filming took place in the summer of 2018. [99] In wake of the Harvey Weinstein sexual abuse allegations, Tarantino severed ties to The Weinstein Company permanently and sought a new distributor after working with Weinstein for his entire career. The film first officially premiered at the 2019 Cannes Film Festival, where it was in competition for the Palme d'Or. [100] It received positive reviews at the festival, with praise for DiCaprio, Pitt and Robbie, although reactions were mixed regarding the ending of the film. It received a seven-minute standing ovation, although it did not win in any category. Sony Pictures distributed the film, which was theatrically released on July 26, 2019. [95] [101]

As producer Edit

In recent years, Tarantino has used his Hollywood power to give smaller and foreign films more attention than they might have received otherwise. These films are often labeled "Presented by Quentin Tarantino" or "Quentin Tarantino Presents". The first of these productions was in 2001, with the Hong Kong martial arts film Iron Monkey, which made over $14 million in the United States, seven times its budget. In 2004, he brought the Chinese martial arts film Hero to U.S. shores. It ended up having a number one opening at the box office and earning $53.5 million. [102] In 2006, another "Quentin Tarantino presents" production, Hostel, opened at number one at the box office with a $20.1 million opening weekend. [103] He presented 2006's The Protector, and is a producer of the 2007 film Hostel: Part II. In 2008, he produced the Larry Bishop-helmed Hell Ride, a revenge biker film.

In addition, in 1995, Tarantino formed Rolling Thunder Pictures with Miramax to release or re-release several independent and foreign features. By 1997, Miramax had shut down the company due to poor sales. [104] The following films were released by Rolling Thunder Pictures: Chungking Express (1994, dir. Wong Kar-wai), Switchblade Sisters (1975, dir. Jack Hill), Sonatine (1993, dir. Takeshi Kitano), Hard Core Logo (1996, dir. Bruce McDonald), The Mighty Peking Man (1977, dir. Ho Meng Hua), Detroit 9000 (1973, dir. Arthur Marks), The Beyond (1981, dir. Lucio Fulci), and Curdled (1996, dir. Reb Braddock).

Unproduced and potential films Edit

Early on in his career, Tarantino considered filming comic book adaptations. In the early 1990s, while fresh from his critical success with Reservoir Dogs, Tarantino came to Constantin Productions with a script for a Silver Surfer film, but was turned away. [105] Following the release of Reservoir Dogs, Tarantino considered making a film adaptation of Luke Cage, but chose to make Pulp Fiction instead. [106] In the late 1990s, he was offered to direct a film adaptation of Green Lantern before there was even a script, but Tarantino declined the offer. [107] In 1999, Quentin Tarantino was also linked to a live-action Iron Man film, as director and writer. [108]

Before Inglourious Basterds, Tarantino had considered making The Vega Brothers. The film would have starred Michael Madsen and John Travolta reprising their roles of Vic (Mr. Blonde) from Reservoir Dogs and Vincent from Pulp Fiction. In 2007, because of the age of the actors and the onscreen deaths of both characters, he claimed that the film—which he intended to call Double V Vega—is "kind of unlikely now". [109]

In 2009, in an interview for Italian television, after being asked about the success of the two Kill Bill films, Tarantino said, "You haven't asked me about the third one", and implied that he would be making a third Kill Bill film with the words, "The Bride will fight again!" [110] Later that year, at the Morelia International Film Festival, [111] Tarantino announced that he would like to film Kill Bill: Volume 3. He explained that he wanted ten years to pass between The Bride's last conflict, in order to give her and her daughter a period of peace. [112] In a 2012 interview for the website We Got This Covered, Tarantino said that a third Kill Bill film would "probably not" happen.

He also said that he would not be directing a new James Bond film, saying that he was only interested in directing Casino Royale at one point. [113] Sometime in that same year he was asked about the Kill Bill films, he has stated that he was a huge fan of Simon Pegg, and sought to adapt the Len Deighton novels into a film starring Pegg, Kate Winslet, Michael Caine, and Anthony Hopkins. [114] [115] [116] [117]

In a late 2012 interview with the online magazine The Root, Tarantino clarified his remarks and described his next film as being the final entry in a "Django-Inglourious Basterds" trilogy called Killer Crow. The film will depict a group of World War II-era black troops who have "been fucked over by the American military and kind of go apeshit. They basically – the way Lt. Aldo Raine (Brad Pitt) and the Basterds are having an 'Apache resistance' – [the] black troops go on an Apache warpath and kill a bunch of white soldiers and white officers on a military base and are just making a warpath to Switzerland." [118]

A long-running rumor in the industry is that Tarantino is interested in filming a new version of Bret Easton Ellis's 1985 novel Less Than Zero. His friend Roger Avary adapted The Rules of Attraction, another novel by Ellis, to film in 2002, and since both he and Tarantino like the works by Ellis, Tarantino has been eyeing the possibility of adapting Less Than Zero. Ellis confirmed in a 2010 interview that Tarantino had been "trying to get Fox to let him remake it". [119] In 2012, when asked whether Less Than Zero would be remade, Ellis once again confirmed that Tarantino "has shown interest" in adapting the story. [120] At the San Diego Comic-Con in 2014, Tarantino revealed he is contemplating a possible science-fiction film. [121] In November 2014, Tarantino said he would retire from films after directing his tenth film. [122]

In November 2017, Tarantino and J. J. Abrams pitched an idea for a Star Trek film with Abrams assembling a writers room. If both approve of the script, Tarantino will direct and Abrams will produce the film. [123] Mark L. Smith was hired to write the screenplay the same month. [124] In January 2020, Tarantino stated the film might be made, but he would not direct it. [125]

In June 2019, Tarantino had picked Jerrod Carmichael to co-write a film adaptation based on the Django/Zorro crossover comic book series. [126]

Early influences Edit

In the 2012 Sight & Sound directors' poll, Tarantino listed his top 12 films: Apocalypse Now, The Bad News Bears, Carrie, Dazed and Confused, The Great Escape, His Girl Friday, Jaws, Pretty Maids All in a Row, Rolling Thunder, Sorcerer, Taxi Driver and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, with the last being his favorite. [127] Sergio Leone was a profound influence. [128] In 2009, he named Kinji Fukasaku's violent action film Battle Royale as his favorite film released since he became a director in 1992. [129] In 2020, Tarantino named David Fincher's film The Social Network his favorite movie of the 2010s. [130] He is also a fan of the 1981 film Blow Out, directed by Brian De Palma, which led to his casting of John Travolta in Pulp Fiction. [131] Tarantino praised Mel Gibson's 2006 film Apocalypto, saying, "I think it's a masterpiece. It was perhaps the best film of that year." [132] Tarantino has also labeled Rio Bravo as another one of his favorites numerous times. He listed the Australian suspense film Roadgames (1981) as another favorite film. [133] Tarantino is also a noted fan of Elaine May's 1987 film Ishtar, despite its reputation as being a notorious box-office flop and one of the worst films ever made. [134]

In August 2007, while teaching in a four-hour film course during the 9th Cinemanila International Film Festival in Manila, Tarantino cited Filipino directors Cirio H. Santiago, Eddie Romero and Gerardo de León as personal icons from the 1970s. [135] He referred to De Leon's "soul-shattering, life-extinguishing" movies on vampires and female bondage, citing in particular Women in Cages "It is just harsh, harsh, harsh", he said, and described the final shot as one of "devastating despair". [135] Upon his arrival in the Philippines, Tarantino was quoted in the local newspaper as saying, "I'm a big fan of RP [Republic of the Philippines] cinema." [136]

Style Edit

Tarantino's films often feature graphic violence, a tendency which has sometimes been criticized. [137] [138] [139] Reservoir Dogs was initially denied United Kingdom certification because of his use of torture as entertainment. [140] Tarantino has frequently defended his use of violence, saying that "violence is so good. It affects audiences in a big way". [141] Tarantino has stated that the celebrated animation-action sequence in Kill Bill: Volume 1 was inspired by the use of 2D animated sequences in actor Kamal Haasan's Tamil film Aalavandhan. [142] [143] He often blends esthetics elements, in tribute to his favorite films and filmmakers. In Kill Bill, he melds comic strip formulas and esthetics within a live action film sequence, in some cases by the literal use of cartoon or anime images. [144] [145]

Tarantino has also occasionally used a nonlinear story structure in his films, most notably with Pulp Fiction. He has also used the style in Reservoir Dogs, Kill Bill, and The Hateful Eight. [146] [147] Tarantino's script for True Romance was originally told in a nonlinear style, before director Tony Scott decided to use a more linear approach. [148] [149] Critics have since referred to the use of this shifting timeline in films as the "Tarantino Effect". [150] Actor Steve Buscemi has described Tarantino's novel style of filmmaking as "bursting with energy" and "focused". [151] According to Tarantino, a hallmark of all his movies is that there is a different sense of humor in each one, which prompts the viewer to laugh at scenes that are not funny. [152] However, he insists that his films are dramas, not comedies. [153]

He also creates his own products and brands that he uses in his films to varying degrees. [154] His own fictional brands, including "Acuña Boys Tex-Mex Food", "Big Kahuna Burger", "G.O. Juice", "Jack Rabbit Slim's", "K-Billy", "Red Apple cigarettes", "Tenku Brand Beer" and "Teriyaki Donut", replace the use of product placement, sometimes to a humorous extent. [155] [145] Tarantino is also known for his choice of music in his films, [156] including soundtracks that often use songs from the 1960s and 70s. [157] [158] [159] In 2011, he was recognized at the 16th Critics' Choice Awards with the inaugural Music+Film Award. [160] [161]

On the biopic genre, Tarantino has said that he has "no respect" for biopics, saying that they "are just big excuses for actors to win Oscars. . Even the most interesting person – if you are telling their life from beginning to end, it's going to be a fucking boring movie." [162] However, in an interview with Charlie Rose, he said, "There is one story that I could be interested in, but it would probably be one of the last movies I [ever make] . My favorite hero in American history is John Brown. He's my favorite American who ever lived. He basically single-handedly started the road to end slavery and . he killed people to do it. He decided, 'If we start spilling white blood, then they're going to start getting the idea.'" [163]

Tarantino has stated in many interviews that his writing process is like writing a novel before formatting it into a script, saying that this creates the blueprint of the film and makes the film feel like literature. About his writing process he told website The Talks, "[My] head is a sponge. I listen to what everyone says, I watch little idiosyncratic behavior, people tell me a joke and I remember it. People tell me an interesting story in their life and I remember it. . when I go and write my new characters, my pen is like an antenna, it gets that information, and all of a sudden these characters come out more or less fully formed. I don't write their dialogue, I get them talking to each other." [162] In 2013, a survey of seven academics was carried out to discover which filmmakers had been referenced the most in essays and dissertations on film that had been marked in the previous five years. It revealed that Tarantino was the most-studied director in the United Kingdom, ahead of Christopher Nolan, Alfred Hitchcock, Martin Scorsese and Steven Spielberg. [164]

Gun violence Edit

Tarantino has stated that he does not believe that violence in movies inspires acts of violence in real life. [165] After the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in 2012, NRA Chief Executive Wayne LaPierre accused him of being insensitive to the event. [166] In an interview with Terry Gross, Tarantino expressed "annoyance" at the suggestion that there is a link between the two, saying, "I think it's disrespectful to [the] memory of those who died to talk about movies . Obviously the issue is gun control and mental health." [167] Soon after, in response to a Hollywood PSA video titled "Demand a Plan", which featured celebrities rallying for gun control legislation, [168] a pro-gun group used scenes from Tarantino's film Django Unchained to label celebrities as "hypocrites" for appearing in violent movies. [169]

Racial slurs Edit

In 1997, Spike Lee questioned Tarantino's use of racial slurs in his films, especially the word "nigger" and "gooks", particularly in Pulp Fiction and Jackie Brown. [170] In a Variety interview discussing Jackie Brown, Lee said, "I'm not against the word . And some people speak that way, But Quentin is infatuated with that word. I want Quentin to know that all African Americans do not think that word is trendy or slick."". [171] Tarantino responded on The Charlie Rose Show by stating:

As a writer, I demand the right to write any character in the world that I want to write. I demand the right to be them, I demand the right to think them and I demand the right to tell the truth as I see they are, all right? And to say that I can't do that because I'm white, but the Hughes brothers can do that because they're black, that is racist. That is the heart of racism, all right. And I do not accept that . That is how a segment of the black community that lives in Compton, lives in Inglewood, where Jackie Brown takes place, that lives in Carson, that is how they talk. I'm telling the truth. It would not be questioned if I was black, and I resent the question because I'm white. I have the right to tell the truth. I do not have the right to lie. [172]

In addition, Tarantino retaliated on The Howard Stern Show by stating that Lee would have to "stand on a chair to kiss [his] ass". [173] Samuel L. Jackson, who has appeared in both directors' films, defended Tarantino's use of the word. At the Berlin Film Festival, where Jackie Brown was being screened, Jackson responded to Lee's criticism by saying, "I don't think the word is offensive in the context of this film . Black artists think they are the only ones allowed to use the word. Well, that's bull. Jackie Brown is a wonderful homage to black exploitation films. This is a good film, and Spike hasn't made one of those in a few years." [174] Tarantino has defended his use of the word, arguing that black audiences have an appreciation of his blaxploitation-influenced films that eludes some of his critics, and indeed, that Jackie Brown was primarily made for "black audiences". [175]

Django Unchained was the subject of controversy because of its use of racial slurs and depiction of slavery. Reviewers have defended the use of the language by pointing out the historic context of race and slavery in America. [176] [177] Lee, in an interview with Vibe magazine, said that he would not see the film, explaining, "All I'm going to say is that it's disrespectful to my ancestors. That's just me . I'm not speaking on behalf of anybody else." [178] Lee later tweeted, "American Slavery Was Not A Sergio Leone Spaghetti Western. It Was A Holocaust. My Ancestors Are Slaves. Stolen From Africa. I Will Honor Them." [179] Writing in the Los Angeles Times, journalist Erin Aubry Kaplan noted the difference between Tarantino's Jackie Brown and Django Unchained: "It is an institution whose horrors need no exaggerating, yet Django does exactly that, either to enlighten or entertain. A white director slinging around the n-word in a homage to '70s blaxploitation à la Jackie Brown is one thing, but the same director turning the savageness of slavery into pulp fiction is quite another". [180]

Harvey Weinstein Edit

On October 18, 2017, Tarantino gave an interview discussing sexual harassment and assault allegations against producer Harvey Weinstein. Tarantino said his girlfriend Mira Sorvino told him in the mid-1990s about her experience with Weinstein. Tarantino confronted Weinstein at the time and received an apology. [181] Tarantino said: "What I did was marginalize the incidents, I knew enough to do more than I did." [181]

On February 3, 2018, in an interview with The New York Times, Pulp Fiction and Kill Bill actress Uma Thurman said Harvey Weinstein sexually assaulted her, which she reported to Tarantino. Tarantino said he confronted Weinstein, as he had previously when Weinstein made advances on his former partner, demanded he apologize and banned him from contact with Thurman for the rest of production. [182]

Kill Bill car crash Edit

Uma Thurman was in a serious car accident on the set of Kill Bill because Tarantino had insisted she perform her own driving stunts. [183] Tarantino said he did not force her to do the stunt. [182] [184] Though Thurman found the incident "negligent to the point of criminality," she did not believe Tarantino had "malicious intent". [185]

Bruce Lee Edit

In 2019, Shannon Lee, daughter of Bruce Lee, called his depiction in Once Upon a Time in Hollywood disheartening and inaccurate. [186] Tarantino said: "Bruce Lee was kind of an arrogant guy. The way he was talking, I didn't just make a lot of that up." [187]

As a child, Tarantino was a fan of the early eras of Marvel Comics, particularly those that were written by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, and is an admitted fan of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. [188]

In a December 2009 interview with John Scott Lewinski of Digital Spy, Tarantino said that he plans to retire from filmmaking when he is 60, in order to focus on writing novels and film literature. He is skeptical of the film industry going digital, saying, "If it actually gets to the place where you can't show 35 mm film in theaters anymore and everything is digital projection, I won't even make it to 60." [189] He has also stated that he has a plan, although "not etched in stone", to retire after making his tenth movie: "If I get to the 10th, do a good job and don't screw it up, well that sounds like a good way to end the old career." [190]

In February 2010, Tarantino bought the New Beverly Cinema in Los Angeles. Tarantino allowed the previous owners to continue operating the theater, but stated he would make occasional programming suggestions. He was quoted as saying: "As long as I'm alive, and as long as I'm rich, the New Beverly will be there, showing films shot on 35 mm." [191] Starting in 2014, Tarantino took a more active role in programming film screenings at the New Beverly, showing his own films as well as prints from his personal collection. [192]

As a youth, Tarantino attended an Evangelical church, describing himself as "baptized, born again and everything inbetween." Tarantino said this was an act of rebellion against his Roman Catholic mother, as she had encouraged what might usually be considered more conventional forms of rebellion, such as his interests in comic books and horror films. Throughout the 1990s, Tarantino was evasive about his specific religion despite making it clear that he believed in God, who he credited with giving him his writing ability. [193] Beginning around the 2000s and 2010s, Tarantino continued ascribing his talents to gifts from God although he started expressing uncertainty regarding God's existence. "I think I was born Catholic, but I was never practiced," said Tarantino. "As time has gone on, as I've become a man and made my way further as an adult, I'm not sure how much any of that I believe in. I don't really know if I believe in God, especially not in this Santa Claus character that people seemed to have conjured up." [194] [195] By June 2021, Tarantino had declared himself an atheist. [196]

On June 30, 2017, Tarantino became engaged to Israeli singer Daniella Pick, daughter of musician Svika Pick. They met when Tarantino was in Israel to promote Inglourious Basterds in 2009. [197] They married on November 28, 2018, in a Reform Jewish ceremony in their Beverly Hills Home. [198] [199] On August 21, 2019, it was announced that the couple were expecting their first child. [200] He lives with his wife in Ramat Aviv Gimel, Israel. [201] On February 22, 2020, their son, Leo (named after his wife's maternal grandfather), [202] was born in Israel. [203]

Tarantino has built up an informal "repertory company" of actors who have appeared in many roles in his films. [227] [228] Most notable of these is Samuel L. Jackson, who has appeared in six films directed by Tarantino and a seventh written by him, True Romance. [229] [230] Other frequent collaborators include Uma Thurman, who has been featured in three films and whom Tarantino has described as his "muse" Michael Madsen, James Parks and Tim Roth, who respectively appear in five, four and three films. Roth appeared in Four Rooms, an anthology film where Tarantino directed the final segment, as well as having filmed a scene for Once Upon a Time in Hollywood before it was cut for time and Zoë Bell, who has acted or performed stunts in seven Tarantino films. [230] [231] [232] Other actors who have appeared in several films by Tarantino include Michael Bacall, Michael Bowen, Bruce Dern, Harvey Keitel, Michael Parks, Kurt Russell and Craig Stark, who have appeared in three films each. Leonardo DiCaprio and Brad Pitt have each appeared in two Tarantino films, the second of which, Once Upon a Time in Hollywood, they appear in together. [233] [234] Like Jackson, Pitt also appeared in the Tarantino-penned True Romance.

Several actors have been nominated for Academy Awards for their roles in Tarantino's films. Samuel L. Jackson, Uma Thurman and John Travolta were each nominated for Pulp Fiction (for Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actress and Best Actor, respectively) Robert Forster was nominated for Best Supporting Actor for his role in Jackie Brown and Jennifer Jason Leigh earned a nomination for Best Supporting Actress for her role in The Hateful Eight. Christoph Waltz won Best Supporting Actor in 2010 for Inglourious Basterds and again in 2013 for Django Unchained. Leonardo DiCaprio and Brad Pitt were nominated for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor, respectively, for their roles in Once Upon a Time in Hollywood with Pitt winning.

Editor Sally Menke, who worked on all Tarantino films until her death in 2010, was described by Tarantino in 2007 as "hands down my number one collaborator". [235] [236] Since her death, Fred Raskin has taken over editing duties.

Tarantino has also had a long partnership and collaboration with Lawrence Bender, who produced all his directorial efforts from Reservoir Dogs through Inglourious Basterds, except for Death Proof. Robert Richardson has been director of photography for all films from Kill Bill: Volume 1 through Once Upon a Time in Hollywood, except for Death Proof.

Actor/actress Reservoir Dogs
Pulp Fiction (1994) Jackie Brown (1997) Kill Bill: Volume 1
Kill Bill: Volume 2
Death Proof (2007) Inglourious Basterds
Django Unchained (2012) The Hateful Eight
Once Upon a Time in Hollywood
Zoë Bell
Samuel L. Jackson
Michael Madsen
James Parks
Michael Parks
Tim Roth
Harvey Keitel
Vivica A. Fox
David Steen
Uma Thurman
Michael Bowen
Jonathan Loughran
Ambrosia Kelley
Michael Bacall
Omar Doom
Kurt Russell
Bruce Dern
Lee Horsley
Craig Stark
Steve Buscemi
Sid Haig
Daryl Hannah
Julie Dreyfus
Bo Svenson
Perla Haney-Jardine
Eli Roth
Laura Cayouette
Monica Staggs
Jacky Ido
Gordon Liu
Brad Pitt
Christoph Waltz
Walton Goggins
Dana Gourrier
Leonardo DiCaprio
James Remar

Throughout his career, Tarantino and his films have frequently received nominations for major awards, including for seven Academy Awards, seven BAFTA Awards, seven Golden Globe Awards, two Directors Guild of America Awards, and sixteen Saturn Awards. He has won the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay twice, for Pulp Fiction and Django Unchained. He has four times been nominated for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival, winning once for Pulp Fiction in 1994. In addition to his recognition for writing and directing films, Tarantino has received five Grammy Award nominations and a Primetime Emmy Award nomination.

In 2005, Tarantino was awarded the honorary Icon of the Decade at the 10th Empire Awards. [237] He has earned lifetime achievement awards from two organizations in 2007, from Cinemanila, [238] and from the Rome Film Festival in 2012. [239] In 2011, Tarantino was awarded the Honorary César by the Académie des Arts et Techniques du Cinéma. [240]

A skilled mountaineer, Bell almost met her end on a slope

She started climbing years earlier during a family holiday in La Grave, France, in 1897. She tackled greater heights with her 1899 ascents of the Meije and Les Ecrins in the French region of the Alps. Bell continued to challenge herself with other peaks in the Swiss Alps the following year. Becoming one of the leading female climbers of her day, she helped tackle some of the virgin peaks of the Engelhorner range. One of these previously uncharted peaks was named Gertrudspitze in her honor.  

Bell, with her guides, tried to climb another mountain, the Finsteraarhorn, in 1902, when a blizzard hit. She spent more than 50 hours on a rope on the mountain’s northeast side before she was able to make it back to a local village with her guides. The experience left Bell with frostbitten hands and feet, but it did not end her love of climbing. She went on to scale the Matterhorn in 1904. She described her experience in one of her letters, according to A Woman in Arabia: The Writings of the Queen of the Desert. “It was beautiful climbing, never seriously difficult, but never easy, and most of the time on a great steep face which was splendid to go upon.”

M.S.Ed in History and Philosophy of Education

In this program you’ll have the opportunity for growth in fundamental abilities that contribute clarity of direction and purpose to the professional tasks of educators.

Inquire into the historical roots of educational policies and problems and explore the relationship between educational philosophies and the practices and policies of educational and other social institutions.

This 36 credit-hour master's degree is often a step toward the doctorate.

Starting SemesterDeadline
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In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Graduate Studies Office will accept unofficial transcripts and self-reported test scores for admission reviews. Any admission made with these documents would be conditioned on receipt of official documents, which should be provided as soon as possible.

Lifestyle and beliefs

Artists and friends in a fake plane. From left to right: Unknown, David Garnett, Vanessa Bell, Oliver Strachey, Dora Carrington, Duncan Grant, and Barbara Bagenal

Above all, the personalities that counted as far as the inhabitants of Gordon Square and Charleston were concerned were their own: what Virginia had to say about Lytton, whether Duncan was sleeping with Vanessa or Maynard, and whether Roger and Clive knew or cared.

Charles Derwent, The Independent on Sunday, 7 November, 1999

The Bloomsbury Group are often better known for their unconventional personalities and lifestyles than for their art. What was it about them that outraged people at the time and still fascinates people today?

They came from wealthy backgrounds, which had given them social advantages and self-confidence. But they were linked by a spirit of rebellion against what they saw as the unnecessary conventions, restraints and double standards of their parents&rsquo generation. They wanted freedom to develop their own ideas and lifestyles. They were politically liberal. They also had liberal ideas about sex, which meant there were often complicated relationships and affairs between the various members of the Bloomsbury circle.

Charleston farmhouse

The social life of the Bloomsbury circle revolved around the various houses members and their friends owned. Charleston farmhouse was Vanessa Bell&rsquos house in the Sussex countryside. She moved there during the First World War with her children and her close friend the artist Duncan Grant. David &lsquoBunny&rsquo Garnett (another Bloomsbury Group member and Duncan&rsquos current lover) also moved in with them as did a nurse, a housemaid, a cook &ndash and Duncan&rsquos dog Henry.

This is how Vanessa described Charleston in a letter to her friend Roger Fry:

It&rsquos most lovely, very solid & simple, with flat walls in that lovely mixture of brick & flint that they use about here, & perfectly flat windows in the walls & wonderful tiled roofs. The pond is most beautiful with a willow at one side & a stone &ndash or flint &ndash wall edging it all round the garden part, & a little lawn sloping down to it, with formal bushes on it. Then there&rsquos a small orchard & the walled garden&hellip& another lawn or bit of field railed in beyond. There&rsquos a wall of trees &ndash one single line of elms all round two sides which shelters us from west winds.

Letter from Vanessa Bell to Roger Fry

Although a big house, it was quite run down. The garden was overgrown and inside there was no telephone, central heating or electricity. But it was in a beautiful setting, on a gentle slope overlooking stunning countryside.

Duncan and Vanessa chose rooms for their studios and immediately started to decorate the house. Walls, fireplaces, door panels and furniture were all decorated in the style of their paintings. Fabrics and ceramics designed by the Omega Workshops, (a design company started by Bloomsbury member Roger Fry), were included in the overall design.

Photograph of interior decorations at Charleston farmhouse
© Tate

Photograph of interior decorations at Charleston farmhouse
© Tate

House parties were common at Charleston and it was often full of guests. They were captured on camera by Vanessa Bell, a keen photographer.

Frederick Ashton, Lydia Lopokova, Duncan Grant and Billy Chappell drinking a toast in the garden at Charleston
© Tate

Photograph of Duncan Grant in costume as a Spanish dancer, at Charleston
© Tate

Photograph of Clive Bell and Lytton Strachey in the garden at Charleston
© Tate

Duncan Grant and Angelica Bell in the garden of Charleston farmhouse in Sussex, 1927
© Tate

Group picnic at High and Over, Sussex
© Tate

In 1916, the artist Dora Carrington was invited to stay at Charleston. She described the experience in a letter to her friend, giving us a fascinating peep inside the house and the lifestyle of its inhabitants.

It was indeed a romantic house buried deep down in the highest & most wild downs I have ever seen. Duncan Grant was there, who is much the nicest of them & Strachey with his yellow face & beard. Ugh! I used to walk along the ridge of the downs every morning early when the sun was just rising. And the wind of the top was more fierce & powerful than anything you could imagain [sic]. It roared in my ears. And I had to lie flat down on the wet grass in order to look at the land below & the sea beyond Newhaven which shone all silver.
We lived in the kitchen & cooked & ate there. All the time I felt one of them would suddenly turn into mother and say &lsquowhat brekfast [sic] at 10.30! Do use the proper butter knife!&rsquo &ndash But no. Everything was behind time. Everyone devoid of table manners. & the vaguest cooking insued [sic] &ndash Duncan earnestly putting remains of milk pudding into the stockpot! They were astounded because I knew what part of the leak [sic] to cook! What poseurs they are really-

Letter from Dora Carrington to Christine Nash, n.d. [Dec. 1916]

Family [ edit ]

He was married to Anne Olivier Bell (née Popham). They had three children: Julian Bell, an artist and muralist Cressida Bell, a notable textile designer and Virginia Nicholson, Γ] the writer of Charleston: A Bloomsbury House and Garden, Among the Bohemians and Singled Out.

His older brother was the poet Julian Heward Bell who died in the Spanish Civil War in 1937, aged 29. The writer and artist Angelica Garnett was his half-sister. He is a nephew of Virginia Woolf.

National Baseball Hall of Fame

In 1974, Cool Papa Bell’s place in baseball history was sealed when he became the fifth player from the Negro Leagues inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown. Holding no grudges, Bell graciously appeared at the annual induction ceremonies year after year and received ovations from the fans. His obituary in the New York Times noted that when told about his election, Bell said it was his biggest honor but not his biggest thrill. That, he said, “was when they opened the door in the majors to black players.”

He died March 7, 1991, at age 87 in St. Louis, just a few weeks after Clarabelle’s death. Two months later he was inducted into the St. Louis Walk of Fame, which honors individuals from the St. Louis area who made major national contributions to America’s cultural heritage. A bronze sculpture of Bell can be found inside the Negro Leagues Baseball Museum in Kansas City, Missouri.

Bell was posthumously inducted into the Mississippi Sports Hall of Fame and Museum in 1995. The road leading to the museum off Lakeland Drive in Jackson is named Cool Papa Bell Drive. In 1999, author Willie Morris and Buck O’Neil, representing the Negro Leagues Baseball Museum, dedicated a historical marker honoring Bell in Starkville. The marker is located at the Little League baseball park to show that there was once a little boy from Starkville, Mississippi, who ran so fast he made it all the way to the Hall of Fame.

William “Brother” Rogers is the assistant director for programs, Stennis Center for Public Service in Starkville.

The Liberty Bell

Tradition tells of a chime that changed the world on July 8, 1776, with the Liberty Bell ringing out from the tower of Independence Hall summoning the citizens of Philadelphia to hear the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence by Colonel John Nixon.

The Pennsylvania Assembly ordered the Bell in 1751 to commemorate the 50-year anniversary of William Penn's 1701 Charter of Privileges, Pennsylvania's original Constitution. It speaks of the rights and freedoms valued by people the world over. Particularly forward thinking were Penn's ideas on religious freedom, his liberal stance on Native American rights, and his inclusion of citizens in enacting laws.

The Liberty Bell gained iconic importance when abolitionists in their efforts to put an end to slavery throughout America adopted it as a symbol.

As the Bell was created to commemorate the golden anniversary of Penn's Charter, the quotation "Proclaim Liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof," from Leviticus 25:10, was particularly apt. For the line in the Bible immediately preceding "proclaim liberty" is, "And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year." What better way to pay homage to Penn and hallow the 50th year than with a bell proclaiming liberty?

Also inscribed on the Bell is the quotation, "By Order of the Assembly of the Province of Pensylvania for the State House in Philada." Note that the spelling of "Pennsylvania" was not at that time universally adopted. In fact, in the original Constitution, the name of the state is also spelled "Pensylvania." If you get a chance to visit the second floor of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, take a moment to look at the original maps on the wall. They, too, have the state name spelled "Pensylvania" (and the Atlantic Ocean called by the name of that day, "The Western Ocean"). The choice of the quotation was made by Quaker Isaac Norris, speaker of the Assembly.

Centered on the front of the Bell are the words, "Pass and Stow / Philada / MDCCLIII." We'll get to Pass and Stow in a bit.

The Crack

There is widespread disagreement about when the first crack appeared on the Bell. Hair-line cracks on bells were bored out to prevent expansion. However, it is agreed that the final expansion of the crack which rendered the Bell unringable was on Washington's Birthday in 1846.

The Philadelphia Public Ledger takes up the story in its February 26, 1846 publication:

The Bell as Icon

The Bell achieved its iconic status when abolitionists adopted the Bell as a symbol for the movement. It was first used in this association as a frontispiece to an 1837 edition of Liberty, published by the New York Anti-Slavery Society.

It was, in fact, the abolitionists who gave it the name "Liberty Bell," in reference to its inscription. It was previously called simply the "State House bell."

In retrospect, it is a remarkably apt metaphor for a country literally cracked and freedom fissured for its black inhabitants. The line following "proclaim liberty" is, "It shall be a jubilee unto you and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family." The Abolitionists understood this passage to mean that the Bible demanded all slaves and prisoners be freed every 50 years.

William Lloyd Garrison's anti-slavery publication The Liberator reprinted a Boston abolitionist pamphlet containing a poem about the Bell, entitled, The Liberty Bell, which represents the first documented use of the name, "Liberty Bell."

The Bell and the Declaration of Independence

In 1847, George Lippard wrote a fictional story for The Saturday Currier which told of an elderly bellman waiting in the State House steeple for the word that Congress had declared Independence. The story continues that privately he began to doubt Congress's resolve. Suddenly the bellman's grandson, who was eavesdropping on the doors of Congress, yelled to him, "Ring, Grandfather! Ring!"

This story so captured the imagination of people throughout the land that the Liberty Bell was forever associated with the Declaration of Independence.

The truth is that the steeple was in bad condition and historians today highly doubt that the Bell actually rang in 1776. However, its association with the Declaration of Independence was fixed in the collective mythology.

Bell as Symbol

After the divisive Civil War, Americans sought a symbol of unity. The flag became one such symbol, and the Liberty Bell another. To help heal the wounds of the war, the Liberty Bell would travel across the country.

Starting in the 1880s, the Bell traveled to cities throughout the land "proclaiming liberty" and inspiring the cause of freedom. We have prepared a photo essay of its 1915 journey to the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco.

A replica of the Liberty Bell, forged in 1915, was used to promote women's suffrage. It traveled the country with its clapper chained to its side, silent until women won the right to vote. On September 25, 1920, it was brought to Independence Hall and rung in ceremonies celebrating the ratification of the 19th amendment.

To this day, oppressed groups come to Philadelphia to give voice to their plight, at the Liberty Bell, proclaiming their call for liberty.

History of the Bell

On November 1, 1751, a letter was sent to Robert Charles, the Colonial Agent of the Province of Pennsylvania who was working in London. Signed by Isaac Norris, Thomas Leech, and Edward Warner, it represented the desires of the Assembly to purchase a bell for the State House (now Independence Hall) steeple. The bell was ordered from Whitechapel Foundry, with instructions to inscribe on it the passage from Leviticus.

The bell arrived in Philadelphia on September 1, 1752, but was not hung until March 10, 1753, on which day Isaac Norris wrote, "I had the mortification to hear that it was cracked by a stroke of the clapper without any other viollence [sic] as it was hung up to try the sound."

The cause of the break is thought to have been attributable either to flaws in its casting or, as they thought at the time, to its being too brittle.

Two Philadelphia foundry workers named John Pass and John Stow were given the cracked bell to be melted down and recast. They added an ounce and a half of copper to a pound of the old bell in an attempt to make the new bell less brittle. For their labors they charged slightly over 36 Pounds.

The new bell was raised in the belfry on March 29, 1753. "Upon trial, it seems that they have added too much copper. They were so teased with the witticisms of the town that they will very soon make a second essay," wrote Isaac Norris to London agent Robert Charles. Apparently nobody was now pleased with the tone of the bell.

Pass and Stow indeed tried again. They broke up the bell and recast it. On June 11, 1753, the New York Mercury reported, "Last Week was raised and fix'd in the Statehouse Steeple, the new great Bell, cast here by Pass and Stow, weighing 2080 lbs."

In November, Norris wrote to Robert Charles that he was still displeased with the bell and requested that Whitechapel cast a new one.

Upon the arrival of the new bell from England, it was agreed that it sounded no better than the Pass and Stow bell. So the "Liberty Bell" remained where it was in the steeple, and the new Whitechapel bell was placed in the cupola on the State House roof and attached to the clock to sound the hours.

The Liberty Bell was rung to call the Assembly together and to summon people together for special announcements and events. The Liberty Bell tolled frequently. Among the more historically important occasions, it tolled when Benjamin Franklin was sent to England to address Colonial grievances, it tolled when King George III ascended to the throne in 1761, and it tolled to call together the people of Philadelphia to discuss the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765.

In 1772 a petition was sent to the Assembly stating that the people in the vicinity of the State House were "incommoded and distressed" by the constant "ringing of the great Bell in the steeple."

But, tradition holds, it continued tolling for the First Continental Congress in 1774, the Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775 and its most resonant tolling was on July 8, 1776, when it summoned the citizenry for the reading of the Declaration of Independence produced by the Second Continental Congress. However, the steeple was in bad condition and historians today doubt the likelihood of the story.

In October 1777, the British occupied Philadelphia. Weeks earlier all bells, including the Liberty Bell, were removed from the city. It was well understood that, if left, they would likely be melted down and used for cannon. The Liberty Bell was removed from the city and hidden in the floorboards of the Zion Reformed Church in Allentown, Pennsylvania, which you can still visit today.

Throughout the period from 1790 to 1800, when Philadelphia was the nation's capital, uses of the Bell included calling the state legislature into session, summoning voters to hand in their ballots at the State House window, and tolling to commemorate Washington's birthday and celebrate the Fourth of July.

The Bell Today

On every Fourth of July, at 2pm Eastern time, children who are descendants of Declaration signers symbolically tap the Liberty Bell 13 times while bells across the nation also ring 13 times in honor of the patriots from the original 13 states.

Each year, the bell is gently tapped in honor of Martin Luther King Day. The ceremony began in 1986 at request of Dr. King's widow, Coretta Scott King.

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