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January 27, 2018 Day 8 of the Second Year - History

January 27, 2018 Day 8 of the Second Year - History


Historical Events on January 2

The Surrender of Granada by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz: Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile accept the surrender of Granada

Event of Interest

1570 Tsar Ivan the Terrible's march to Novgorod begins

    Spain & Catholic France sign Saint League of Joinville Spanish force in Ireland surrender to the English army at Kinsdale Staatsoper Hamburg opens with Theiles "Adam und Eva" British troops occupy Calcutta India Austria ends the use of interrogation by torture

Constitution of the United States

1788 Georgia is 4th state to ratify US constitution

    Big Bottom massacre in the Ohio Country, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War. Free African American community of Philadelphia petitions US Congress to abolish the slave trade US Sen Thomas Pickering is 1st senator censured (revealed confidential documents communicated by the president of the US)

Event of Interest

    Lord Byron completes "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" (4th canto) The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded. Liberator, abolitionist newspaper, begins publishing in Boston 1st Curling club in US (Orchard Lake Curling Club) opens Re-establishment of British rule on the Falklands.

Famous Photo

1839 1st photo of the Moon (French photographer Louis Daguerre)

Music Premiere

1843 Richard Wagner's opera "The Flying Dutchman" premieres in Dresden

    South Carolina seizes inactive Ft Johnson in Charleston Harbor Colonel Charles Stone is put in charge of organizing DC militia Battle of Murfreesboro (Stone's River) ends Welterweight Con Orem & heavyweight Hugh O'Neill brawl for 185 rounds before darkness ends legendary bare knuckle boxing match in Virginia City, Montana King Amadeus I of Spain inaugurated at 25

Event of Interest

1879 Australian fast bowler Fred Spofforth dismisses 3 English batsmen with consecutive deliveries during the 3rd Test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground for Test cricket's first "hat-trick"

    British battleship Thunder explodes in Gulf of Ismid, 9 die Dr Benjamin Mays, named president of Atlanta Board of Education Camille Saint-Saëns' 3rd Concerto in B, premieres Because of anti-monopoly laws, Standard Oil is organized as a trust Battle of Boschberg takes place in South Africa as part of the Mapoch War General Wolseley receives last distress signal of General Gordon in Khartoum

Event of Interest

1903 US President Theodore Roosevelt shuts down post office in Indianola Miss, for refusing to accept its appointed postmistress because she was black

    Elara, a satellite of Jupiter, discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine in San Jose, California Japanese troops capture Port Arthur from Russia, a blow to national morale and causing further discontent within Russia American anarcho-syndicalist union known as the Industrial Workers of the World forms

Historic Invention

1906 Willis Carrier receives a US patent for the world's first air conditioner

    Canadian branch of the Royal Mint opens in Ottawa 1st official Dutch 11 city skate (Minne Hoekstra in 13:50) 1st junior high schools in US opens (Berkeley California) Brookyln Superbas Baseball Club President Charles Ebbets announces purchase of 4.5 acres of land to build a new concrete-and-steel stadium to seat 23,000 Ebbets Field opens in 1913 International Lawn Tennis Challenge, Christchurch, NZ: Norman Brookes & Alfred Dunlop beat Americans Maurice McLoughlin & Beals Wright 6-4, 5-7, 7-5, 6-4 Australasia unassailable 3-0 lead win 4-0 National Woman's Party forms

Event of Interest

1913 Mahatma Gandhi leaves the Tolstoy Farm in Transvaal, South Africa

Event of Interest

1918 After repeated clashes over pay with the Brooklyn Robins owner Charlie Ebbets, star right fielder and future Baseball Hall of Fame manager Casey Stengel is traded to the Pittsburgh Pirates

    Montreal Arena in Westmount, Quebec, the home rink of 4-time Stanley Cup winners the Montreal Wanderers burns down leading to the club disbanding Responding to global fear of communism caused by the Russian Revolution, US Attorney General Palmer authorizes raids across the country on unionists and socialists 1st religious service radio broadcast in US, KDKA-Pittsburgh DeYoung Museum in Golden Gate Park opens Ku Klux Klan surprise attack on black residential area Rosewood Florida, 8 killed (compensation awarded in 1995) Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region established (now in Tadzhik SSR) US & Canada agree to preserve Niagara Falls Young gang shoot dead 6 police in Springfield Missouri

Event of Interest

1933 Don Bradman holds off England's hostile pace bowling to score an unbeaten 103 leading Australia to a 111 run victory in the 2nd 'Bodyline' Test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground

    Ijmuider fishing strike begins (till July 11th) US troops leave Nicaragua 1st state liquor stores open, in Pennsylvania

Murder of Interest

1935 Bruno Hauptmann trial begins for kidnap-murder of Charles Lindbergh's baby

    1st electron tube to enable night vision described, St Louis, Missouri Australian master batsman Don Bradman scores 357 (424 minutes, 40 fours) for South Australia v Victoria in a Sheffield Shield match in Melbourne his 5th 300+ score in first-class cricket Book publisher Simon and Schuster founded Master batsman Don Bradman scores 107 for South Australia in a Sheffield Shield match against Victoria for his 4th consecutive century in first-class cricket World War II: German bombing severely damages the Llandaff Cathedral in Cardiff, Wales

Boxing Title Fight

1957 In the first of 4 meetings between the fighters, Gene Fullmer wins the world middleweight boxing title with a 15-round unanimous decision over Sugar Ray Robinson at New York’s Madison Square Garden

Music Concert

1958 Dmitri Shostakovich' 2nd Piano concert, premieres in NY

    USSR launches Mechta (Luna 1) for 1st lunar fly-by, 1st solar orbit 1st redshank old world shore bird reported in North America (Halifax) John Reynolds sets age of solar system at 4,950,000,000 years Roger Sessions' 4th Symphony, premieres

Event of Interest

1960 Senator John F. Kennedy, announces his candidacy for the US Presidency

    Hawaii's, then all time low temperature, 14°F recorded atop Haleakale Nighttime version of "Password" with Allen Ludden premieres on CBS

Assassination Attempt

1964 Failed assassination attempt on President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana

Event of Interest

1965 Martin Luther King Jr. begins a drive to register black voters

Contract of Interest

1965 New York Jets sign future Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Joe Namath to a $427,000 contract over three years (pro football record at the time)

    Obverse design of all Canadian coins is changed to depict present-day 1st Jewish child born in Spain since 1492 expulsion National Football League Championship, Lambeau Field, Green Bay: Green Bay Packers beat Cleveland Browns, 23-12 first NFL title game televised in colour last one played before Super Bowl era "Zizi" closes at Broadway Theater NYC after 49 performances Christiaan Barnard performs 2nd heart transplant on Philip Blaiberg KBHK TV channel 44 in San Francisco, California (IND) begins broadcasting

Appointment of Interest

1968 Cecil Day-Lewis is appointed British Poet Laureate by Queen Elizabeth II

    "Fig Leaves Are Falling" opens at Broadhurst Theater NYC for 4 performances Once influential daily sports newspaper, 'Soviet Sport' declares Czech super-star distance runner Emil Zatopek a "public enemy" after he supports democratic wing of the Communist Party at start of the Prague Spring Lorraine Hansberry's "To be Young, Gifted & Black," premieres in NYC Luis Ferré becomes the first statehooder Governor of Puerto Rico Operation Barrier Reef begins in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Event of Interest

1969 Australian Rupert Murdoch gains control of the 'News of the World'

    Dutch premiere of musical "Hair" in Amsterdam US population is 293,200,000 African American population: 22,600,000 (11.1%) Spectator crush at Ibrox Park in Glasgow, Scotland as Rangers supporters leave the ground with home team 0-1 behind to Old Firm rivals Celtic 66 deaths and more than 200 injuries Rangers score late for 1-1 "Rothschilds" closes at Lunt-Fontanne Theater NYC after 505 performances Mariner 9 begins mapping Mars AFC Championship, Miami Orange Bowl: Miami Dolphins beat Baltimore Colts, 21-0 An anti-internment rally is held in Belfast, North Ireland

Australian Open Women's Tennis

1972 Australian Open Women's Tennis: Virginia Wade of England wins her first Grand Slam title beats home favourite Evonne Goolagong 6-4, 6-4

    NFC Championship, Texas Stadium, Irving: Dallas Cowboys beat San Francisco 49ers, 14-3 Japanese boxer Masao Ohba retains his WBA flyweight title with a 12th-round knockout of Chartchai Chionoi of Thailand in Tokyo Ohba dies three weeks later in a car accident

Event of Interest

1974 55 MPH speed limit imposed by Richard Nixon

    Worst fire in Argentine history destroys 1.2 million acres US Department of Interior designates grizzly bear a threatened species

Event of Interest

1977 MLB Commissioner Bowie Kuhn suspends Atlanta Braves owner Ted Turner for one year due to tampering charges in Gary Matthews free-agency signing

Murder of Interest

1979 Sid Vicious' trial for murder of girlfriend Nancy Spungen begins

    Australian Open Women's Tennis: unseeded Australian Christine O'Neil wins her first and only Grand Slam event beats American Betsy Nagelsen 6-3, 7-6 British Steel workers go on a national strike

Australian Men's Tennis Open

1980 Australian Open Men's Tennis: Guillermo Vilas retains title for 4th and last Grand Slam win beats American John Sadri 7-6, 6-3, 6-2

    "Camelot" closes at Winter Garden Theater NYC after 48 performances New York Islanders beat Philadelphia Flyers, 3-1 at Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum to start 23 NHL game undefeated home streak (21-0-2), 14 straight wins "The Epic in Miami", in 85 degree heat (Fahrenheit), the San Diego Chargers defeat the Miami Dolphins 41-38 in overtime in the AFC Divisional Playoff Game, a game that set numerous playoff scoring records

Australian Open Women's Tennis

1982 Australian Open Women's Tennis: Martina Navratilova wins her 1st of 3 Australian singles crowns beats Chris Evert-Lloyd 6-7, 6-4, 7-5

Event of Interest

1983 Duke Ellington's musical "Sophisticated Ladies" closes at Lunt-Fontanne, NYC after 767 performances

    Gary Trudeau takes a 20-month break from writing "Doonesbury" In a 35-27 win over the Houston Oilers, Cincinnati Bengals quarterback Ken Anderson completes 20 consecutive passes and finishes the season winning his second consecutive passing title with an NFL record 70.55% completion percentage Several African National Congress (ANC) members detained in Swaziland decide to leave the country voluntarily for Mozambique. 16 year old future South African Test cricket batsman Darryl Cullinan scores his 1st first-class century (106 no) for Border against Natal B in East London Riot in Tunis kills over 100 Wilson Goode, sworn-in as Philadelphia's 1st black mayor

Coup d'état

1984 Major-General Muhammadu Buhari is declared Head of State in Nigeria, following a military coup

    Leg-spin bowler Bob "Dutchy" Holland takes 4/90 for match figures of 10/144 as Australia beats the West Indies by innings in 5th Test in Sydney Windies take series, 3-1

Event of Interest

1985 Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak reappoints Coptic pope Shenuda III

    Nevada Las Vegas basketball gives coach Jerry Tarkanian his 600th career victory with a 142-140 win over Utah State in triple overtime total of 282 points breaks NCAA men's record of 275 set in 1976 191.66 million shares traded in NY Stock Exchange

NHL Record

1986 Islanders right wing Mike Bossy scores his 499th and 500th career goals in the final 2:22 to lift the New York to a 7-5 victory over the Boston Bruins 11th player in NHL history to score 500 goals

    Troops of Chad President Habré conquer Fada oasis Indiana Pacers beat the Los Angeles Clippers, 116-106 to give coach Jack Ramsay his 800th NBA victory at the time Ramsey is one of only 2 coaches (with Red Auerbach) to reach milestone Ashland Oil storage tank spills 3.8 million gallons, Penn

Agreement of Interest

1988 Mulroney & Reagan sign Canada-US free trade agreement

    Right-wing guerrillas ambush a train near Mozambique's western border, killing at least 22 people and injuring 71. UCLA beats Arkansas Razorbacks, 17-3 to win the Cotton Bowl Classic in Dallas record 7th consecutive football bowl game victory for the Bruins "Superwoman" single released by Karyn White (Billboard Song of the Year 1989) Dow Jones hits record 2,800 (2,810.15)

Event of Interest

1990 Sting joins pro wrestling's legendary "4 Horsemen" (Ric Flair, Arn Anderson, Ole Anderson)

    University of Colorado, Boulder, coached by Bill McCartney wins its first Associated Press National Championship of College Football poll Australian cricket spin bowling great Shane Warne (145 Tests, 708 wickets 194 ODIs) makes Test debut v India in 3rd Test at Sydney Cricket Ground "Gypsy Passion" closes at Plymouth Theater NYC after 55 performances Opposing factions in the Bosnian conflict hold meetings with the aim of ending the nine month conflict "Abe Lincoln in Illinois" closes at Beaumont NYC after 40 performances "Shakespeare after My Father" closes at Helen Hayes NYC after 266 performances Battles between army & rebellious indians in South Mexico, kill 57 Bus crashes in Luzon Philippines, 29 killed

Event of Interest

2014 Raúl Castro gives a speech commemorating the 55th anniversary of the Cuban revolution and warns of "neo-liberal and neo-colonial thinking" entering the country

Event of Interest

2015 The Economist lists Daniel Kahneman as the 7th most influential economist in the world

    Saudi Arabia executes 47 alleged terrorists, including Shia cleric Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr US House Republicans vote to gut the independent Office of Congressional Ethics, a public uproar forces them to back down the next day Michael van Gerwen of the Netherlands wins his 2nd PDC World Darts Championship beating defending champion Gary Anderson, 7-3 at the Alexandra Palace, London Bus crash in Pasamayo, Peru, kills 51 on notorious "Devil's Curve" road WHO reveals it will classify gaming addiction as mental health condition in its next Classification of Diseases Storm Eleanor forms near Ireland then sweeps across the UK and Western Europe in next few days US senator Al Franken resigns United States international Christian Pulisic becomes the most expensive American soccer player when he moves from Borussia Dortmund to Chelsea for £58 remains at Dortmund on loan until the end of the season

Event of Interest

2019 Apple CEO Tim Cook blames below expectation Chinese iPhone sales for downturn in company's outlook, rocking international stock markets


List of all Sessions

1 The adjournment date is consistently referred to as the last calendar date of the session, regardless of the legislative day.

2 "Calendar days" is defined as the total number of calendar days from the convening date to adjournment date that Congress met during that session. “Legislative days” indicates the total days Congress recorded as a working parliamentary day.

* Indicates that a special session of the House and/or Senate was convened during a Congress. Article II, Section 3 of the constitution provides that the President "may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them." This procedure occurs only if the Congress is convened by presidential proclamation. Extraordinary sessions have been called by the Chief Executive to urge the Congress to focus on important national issues. These are separate sessions of Congress, unless otherwise noted. Source: Congressional Directory House Journal.

** President Harry S. Truman called the Congress into extraordinary session twice, both times during the 80th Congress. Each time Congress had essentially wrapped up its business for the year, but for technical reasons had not adjourned sine die, so in each case the extraordinary session is considered an extension of the regularly numbered session rather than a separately numbered one. The dates of these extraordinary sessions were Nov. 17 to Dec. 19. 1947, and July 26 to Aug. 7, 1948.


New England Record Snow Tracker: Boston Breaks All Time Seasonal Snow Record in 2014-2015

A six-week-plus snow siege in January-February 2015 had parts of New England blowing past all-time records.

Below, we have a rundown of heaviest snowstorm, snowiest month and season lists for the hardest hit parts of New England. Click on each bolded city link for the latest forecast.

Boston

As of 7 pm EDT on March 15, the National Weather Service in Boston announced that Boston Logan Airport received 108.6 inches of snow, officially making the 2014-2015 season the all time snowiest season for the city. In the last 21 years, Boston has now had 4 of its top 5 snowiest seasons. (These counts cover the period from July 1 through June 30, to include snow in the fall and spring months.)

The city has since picked up another two inches of snow since breaking the record.

1. 2014-2015: 110.6 inches2. 1995-1996: 107.6 inches3. 1993-1994: 96.3 inches4. 1947-1948: 89.2 inches5. 2004-2005: 86.6 inches6. 1977-1978: 85.1 inches7. 1992-1993: 83.9 inches8. 2010-2011: 81.0 inches9. 1915-1916: 79.2 inches10. 1919-1920: 73.4 inches

For perspective, the average seasonal snowfall at Logan Airport is 43.5 inches.

February 2015 obliterated the previous snowiest month on record in Boston.

1. February 2015: 64.8 inches2. January 2005: 43.3 inches3. January 1945: 42.3 inches4. February 2003: 41.6 inches5. February 1969: 41.3 inches

Winter Storms Juno and Marcus each made the top 10 heaviest Boston snowstorms, all-time.

1. Feb. 17-18, 2003: 27.6 inches2. Feb. 6-7, 1978: 27.1 inches3. Feb. 24-26, 1969: 25.8 inches4. Mar. 31 - Apr. 1, 1997: 25.4 inches5. Feb. 8-9, 2013 (Nemo): 24.9 inches6. Jan. 26-28, 2015 (Juno): 24.6 inches7. Feb. 7-10, 2015 (Marcus): 23.8 inches8. Jan. 22-23, 2005: 22.5 inches9. Jan. 20-21, 1978: 21.4 inches10. Mar. 3-5, 1960: 19.8 inches

In just over two years, we've had three of the top seven heaviest snowstorms in Boston.

Other records Boston has set during this stretch include:

- Record 30-day snowfall: 94.4 inches from Jan. 24- Feb. 22, 2015, inclusive (previous record: 58.8 inches from Jan. 9 - Feb. 7, 1978). Incredibly, this 30-day total would be the third snowiest season!

- Record snowfall for meteorological winter (December, January and February): 99.4 inches (previous record: 81.5 inches in 1993-94 of the 107.6 inches in 1995-96, only 79.4 inches came in December, January and February)

- Record snow depth*: 37 inches on Feb. 9 (previous record: 31 inches on Jan. 11, 1996 * gaps in this dataset exist)

- Fastest six-foot snowfall: 72.5 inches in 18 days from Jan. 24 - Feb. 10, 2015 (previous record: 73 inches in 45 days from Dec. 29, 1993 to Feb. 11, 1994)

- Fastest 90-inch snowfall: 23 days from Jan. 24 - Feb. 15, 2015 (previous record: 78 days from Dec. 30, 1993 to Mar. 17, 1994)

- Four calendar days with at least 12 inches of snow, a first for any snow season (previously, only two seasons had as many as two such days, in 1977-1978 and 1960-1961 seasons)

- At least 0.5 inch of snow had fallen 6 straight days through Feb. 12, topping the previous such record stretch of 5 days in 1943. The record stretch of measurable snow (at least 0.1 inch) was 9 straight days ending on Mar. 10, 1916.

- Most days with measurable snow in a month: 16 in February, topping the record of 14 days in March 1916, January 1923 and January 1994. It also breaks the record for the month of February, which was previously 13 days set in 1907 and 1967.

- The Blue Hill Observatory in Milton, Massachusetts set an all-time snow depth record on the morning of February 15. Then, as spring officially arrived, they set their record seasonal snowfall previously set in 1995-1996 (144.4 inches).

- While not a snow record per se, part of the difficulty Boston has faced in dealing with the snow is the persistent cold weather, which has prevented any meaningful snowmelt. The city recorded 28 consecutive days with lows 20 degrees or colder from Jan. 25 through Feb. 21 (inclusive), breaking the all-time record of 27 consecutive days set Jan. 12 through Feb. 7, 1881.

- Boston also failed to reach 40 degrees from January 20 through March 3, a record streak of 43 consecutive days. The previous such record streak of 42 straight days was set in the winter of 1968-1969.

Worcester, Massachusetts

(Caveat: Except for the April Fools' snowstorm in 1997, there is a gap in the period of record from 1997-2002)

February 2015 was their snowiest month, all-time. Incredibly, they've had 2 of their top 5 snowiest months back-to-back (highlighted below):

1. February 2015: 53.4 inches2. January 2005: 50.9 inches3. January 2011: 48.4 inches4. January 1987: 46.8 inches5. January 2015: 46.5 inches

Worcester chalked up its third snowiest season.

1. 1995-1996: 132.9 inches2. 1992-1993: 120.1 inches3. 2014-2015: 119.7 inches4. 2004-2005: 114.3 inches5. 2002-2003: 111.8 inches

Winter Storm Juno in late January set a snowstorm record for Worcester.

1. Jan. 26-27, 2015 (Juno): 34.5 inches2. Mar. 31 - Apr. 1, 1997 (April Fools): 33.0 inches3. Dec. 11-12, 1992: 32.1 inches4. Feb. 8-9, 2013 (Nemo): 28.7 inches5. Feb. 14-16, 1962: 24.8 inches

Providence, Rhode Island

(Caveat: The snowiest season for Providence is somewhat uncertain, due to conflicting data from different sources. The number-one season cited below is the best estimate from the National Weather Service office in Taunton, Massachusetts)

February 2015 was their second snowiest month, all-time.

1. January 2005: 36.7 inches2. February 2015: 31.8 inches3. January 1948: 31.7 inches4. March 1956: 31.6 inches5. February 1962: 30.9 inches

Providence has now tallied its second snowiest season. Even the awful 1977-1978 season was less snowy (70.2 inches) in the Rhode Island capital than this season.

1. 1995-1996: 106.1 inches2. 2014-2015: 76.2 inches3. 1947-1948: 72.9 inches4. 2004-2005: 72.2 inches5. 1906-1907: 71.4 inches

In an average season, Providence picks up 34.3 inches of snow.

Portland, Maine

Winter Storm Juno in late January was a top-five snowstorm for Portland.

1. Feb. 8-9, 2013 (Nemo): 31.9 inches2. Jan. 17-18, 1979: 27.1 inches3. Feb. 17-18, 1952: 25.3 inches4. Jan. 27-28, 2015 (Juno): 23.8 inches5. Jan. 23-24, 1935: 23.3 inches

Bangor, Maine

February was the fifth snowiest month and second snowiest February for Bangor.

1. February 1969: 58 inches2. January 1966: 48.4 inches3. December 1962: 47.5 inches4. January 1987: 46.7 inches5. February 2015: 42.4 inches

January 2015 just missed the top five, with 41.8 inches.

Bangor landed in second place in their snowiest seasons list, their snowiest season in 52 years.

1. 1962-1963: 181.9 inches2. 2014-2015: 139 inches3. 1970-1971: 119.7 inches4. 2010-2011: 115.1 inches5. 1968-1969: 114.4 inches

On February 26, Bangor may have tied its all-time record snow depth (snow that's on the ground at any one time) of 53 inches from Feb. 27 - Mar. 1, 1969. However, that data is under review by National Weather Service meteorologists.

Bangor and other Downeast Maine locations set several 7-to-10 day snowstorm records from late January to early February.

One of those Downeast Maine locations, Eastport, picked up over 11 feet (132 inches) of snow from January 25 through February 26.


116th Congress legislative calendar

The 116th Congress convened on January 3, 2019, and concluded on January 3, 2021.

According to the 2020 House of Representatives floor schedule released at the end of 2019, the House was scheduled to be in session for fewer days in 2020 than in the previous two years. The House was scheduled to meet for 113 days, compared to the 130 days it was scheduled to meet in 2019 and the 171 days it was scheduled to meet in 2018. Ώ] ΐ]

The Senate released its 2020 calendar for February through December at the end of 2019. Α] The Senate met for fewer days in 2019 than 2018, with 168 days scheduled versus 186. Β]

From 2001 to 2018, the Senate spent an average of 165 days in session each year, and the House spent an average of 146 days in session.

The calendars for the first and second sessions of the 116th Congress appear below.


How Much Data Is on the Internet? Plus More Stats (Editor’s Choice)

  • The amount of data in the world was estimated to be 44 zettabytes at the dawn of 2020.
  • By 2025, the amount of data generated each day is expected to reach 463 exabytes globally.
  • Google, Facebook, Microsoft, and Amazon store at least 1,200 petabytes of information.
  • The world spends almost $1 million per minute on commodities on the Internet.
  • Electronic Arts process roughly 50 terabytes of data every day.
  • By 2025, there would be 75 billion Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices in the world
  • By 2030, nine out of every ten people aged six and above would be digitally active.

How Big Is Big Data?

1. By 2025, there will be 175 zettabytes of data in the global datasphere.

The rate at which we create information has been growing for years at a more-or-less predictable rate. As such, we can get a decent idea of how much data will exist in the world a few years from now.

The relevant data stats agree that there should be around 175 zettabytes of data by 2025. It’s a number that’s hard to envision! But as you read on, you’ll get a better idea of its scope.

2. In 2018, more than 2.5 quintillion bytes of data were created every day.

By the year 2018, the digital world had been generating jaw-dropping amounts of data. It was the year when people used over 3.1 million gigabytes of internet data, and 1.25 new bitcoins were mined every minute.

3. The amount of data in the world was estimated to be 44 zettabytes at the dawn of 2020.

A zettabyte is 1,000 bytes to the seventh power. In other words, one zettabyte has 21 zeros. Such an insane number was attainable by adding up the total amount of data generated each day by social media sites, financial institutions, medical facilities, shopping platforms, automakers, and many other activities online.

4. At the beginning of 2020, the number of bytes in the digital universe was 40 times bigger than the number of stars in the observable universe.

The exponential growth of big data is difficult to perceive. That said, some comparisons can really put it into perspective. There were 40 times more data found in the digital realm at the beginning of 2020 than observable stars in the universe.

5. By 2025, the amount of data generated each day is expected to reach 463 exabytes globally.

(World Economic Forum, High Scalability)

For those who don’t know, an exabyte is 1,000 bytes to the sixth power. The estimated amount of data on the internet created daily will be 463 exabytes in 2025. To add to the amazement, all the words ever spoken by humans fit into only 5 exabytes.

6. Google, Facebook, Microsoft, and Amazon store at least 1,200 petabytes of information.

There are unbelievable 1,200 petabytes of information stored by Google, Microsoft, Amazon, and Facebook. Although this number sounds amazing, all the data across the rest of the Internet put it to shame. In all likelihood, these industry leaders will increase the amount of data on their websites even more.

Data-Generating Activity Online

7. As of July 2020, there were over 4.8 billion internet users in the world.

In other words, nearly 60% of all the people on the planet at that time were digitally active. The internet penetration rates in North America and Europe were around 90%, but the largest group of people on the Web came from Asia, comprising just over 50% of overall traffic.

Africa, the planet’s second-most-populous continent, has been exhibiting the fastest growth, with a growth rate of 12,441% from 2000 to 2020. With these statistics in mind, it is no wonder that the amount of data created daily is getting increasingly harder to comprehend.

8. 80% of online content is available in just one-tenth of all languages.

One of the many reasons billions of people are still offline is that they struggle to find the content they can understand. So, despite its massive expansion, the growth of data on the internet has not been diverse enough to accommodate everyone.

9. Google handles a staggering 1.2 trillion searches every year.

At the moment, Google stands as the undisputed leader in the realm of Internet searches. Every year, 1.2 trillion searches take place thanks to Google.

Of course, Google didn’t start out with such wild numbers. Given how much data is on the Internet now compared to the earliest 2000s, it never could. But it enjoyed outstanding search volume growth YoY (especially in its younger years), and the amount of data online grew along with it.

10. Despite processing just 6.62% of all searches in the US, Bing makes almost $5 billion in ad revenues.

( Pro Rank Tracker , StatCounter GlobalStats )

While obtaining the amount of data generated by Google daily is still a pipedream, Microsoft’s search engine has yet to fade into oblivion. Apple devices may have switched back to Google, but Bing has been the default search engine of most internet properties and hardware pieces that Google could not control.

Bing’s story emphasizes the intriguing monetary value of data generated daily in the eyes of marketers.

11. There were 71.5 billion apps downloaded worldwide in the first half of 2020.

This stat highlights the growth of data generated each day by apps downloaded from Google Play Store and App Store. Google Play Store had 52.3 billion total downloaded apps during the said period while App Store had 18.3 billion.

While the available data presented only the first half of the year, the figures indicate that global app downloads from both stores have surpassed half of that in 2019.

12. The world spends almost $1 million per minute on commodities on the Internet.

Online shopping is becoming the norm with every passing day given the above data . Since a buyer’s online journey, from the initial site visit to purchase, is typically well documented, every purchase contributes to how much data is created every day .

Meanwhile, here are some more every-minute numbers that show just how much information is on the Internet . For example, there are around a million views on Twitch per minute.

Approximately 41.6 million messages are sent on Snapchat and Facebook Messenger. Moreover, a million people log into Facebook every minute.

13. In 2020, roughly 306.4 billion emails were sent and received each day.

Emails have been a widely used communication medium, be it in the workplace or for personal purposes. When the COVID-19 pandemic hit the globe in 2020, forcing many companies worldwide to move their offices to homes, online communication became even more significant.

With nearly 306.4 billion emails sent and received per day last year, emails are undeniably a key indicator of information growth.

14. Almost 5 billion videos on Youtube are watched every day.

Looking at the data generated every day by YouTube, we can see that the video platform receives a lot of attention. Overall, YouTube reached an amazing 5 billion videos being viewed every single day.

15. In 2019, nearly 695,000 hours of Netflix content were watched per minute across the world.

This number was just 266,000 in 2018. This statistic represents the growing love of internet users for media streaming. Considering the rise of the company’s share of the total amount of data in the world in 2019 , Netflix has further cemented its position as a staple of the cinema viewing experience.

16. Netflix released approximately 2,769 hours of original content in 2019.

In the hope of preserving its market share, Netflix does what it can to boost the movie and TV show data created every day . To that end, the streaming giant added approximately 2,769 hours of original movies, TV shows, and other productions.

As a matter of fact, Netflix’s content output increased dramatically in just a short span of time. From $1.4 billion in 2016, this has skyrocketed to nearly $10 million in 2019.

17. Four petabytes is the estimated amount of new data being generated by Facebook daily.

( Facebook Research , Statista )

Instagram’s parent company is still growing on its own. In fact, its number of active users has been on an upward trend since Q1 2011.

As of Q1 2020, around 1.8 billion people logged on to the most popular social networking site every 24 hours. It is safe to presume that the amount of data created on Facebook every day will not go down any time soon.

18. Every 24 hours, 500 million tweets are published on Twitter.

( Internet Live Stats , Statista )

Despite the microblogging site’s character limit, that number still translates to an enormous amount of big data generated daily . Twitter may not have seen a steady rise of monthly active users since 2019, but the service is still America’s favorite social media, apart from the Facebook-owned brands.

19. Snaps created on Snapchat reached over 210 million each day in 2020.

The initial prediction that Snapchat usage would not recover in the coming years was indeed false. After suffering in 2019, the platform was able to bounce back and increase its amount of data and use generated daily per person in 2020. In the first quarter of 2020 alone, the number of snaps created on Snapchat reached a whopping 210+ million per day.

20. Global Instagram users surpassed the 1 billion mark in 2020.

It seems that Snapchat is not the only one making breakthroughs, but so does Instagram . The photo- and video-sharing social networking service had a big year. In 2020, the number of people using the app worldwide did not only reach the 1 billion mark but even surpassed it. This notable rise in the number of users helped boost Instagram’s daily user data production .

21. 18.7 billion text messages are sent every day worldwide.

Apart from emails, texting is one of the most frequent activities happening online. Based on statistics, the amount of text data created every day across the globe is more than 18 billion. One-third of this number, or 6 billion SMS, is sent in the U.S. daily.

22. 20% of online users watched a live stream of other people playing games in 2020.

Game streaming has become a global phenomenon, attracting over 1 billion internet users. As of January 2020 , 20% of internet users watched live streams of other players every month, up by 7% from 2019 . The amount of data generated daily by passive and active gaming enthusiasts has been ballooning as a result.

23. Nearly 1 in 4 American adults owns a smart speaker.

The smart speaker ownership in America grew tremendously from roughly 119 million in 2019 to a staggering 157 million in 2020. In all likelihood, the daily US data production will steadily grow as more and more people warm to IoT devices.

24. Electronic Arts process roughly 50 terabytes of data every day.

Gaming has been a budding industry for decades, with an ever-expanding user base. So how much data does gaming use ? It’s difficult to estimate, but some gaming giants, such as EA, have their own data wrangling. Apparently, EA receives around 50 terabytes of fresh data every single day.

What Factors Will Further Accelerate Data Generation?

25. 5G can increase data transmission speed by up to 100 times and decrease latency from about 20 milliseconds to one millisecond.

( CNET , Fierce Wireless , Light Reading , Statista )

In the future, where the adoption of the 5G cellular connection is pervasive, the amount of data produced daily will be nothing short of unfathomable. Imagine how much content you would consume if you could download an entire TV series season in less than a minute.

Right now, 31.4 gigabytes is the average amount of data used per month worldwide. But the arrival of 5G technology has already driven up smartphone data usage dramatically in the areas where it is available.

As of July 2020 , the average 5G customer in South Korea used 26.9 GB per subscription . Such data usage is more than 2.6 times what typical 4G subscribers consume. Faster internet speeds will almost certainly cause the amount of data created daily to skyrocket.

26. By 2025, there will be 75 billion IoT devices.

( FinancesOnline , Visual Capitalist )

Presently, there are more than 26 billion of them. In 2019, about 180 smart speakers were shipped every 60 minutes. In 2018, only 67 voice-first devices were shipped per minute. Judging by all the data available, the upward trend will continue.

If you can’t work out how much data is created every day , you should better learn about and get used to zettabytes and yottabytes. The proliferation of IoT products will flood the digital universe with pieces of data never before available.

Compared to the current data generated each day , more frequent conversations between connected hardware will form colossal mountains of insightful information since IoT devices automatically produce a digital footprint.

27. By 2030, 90% of the population older than six will be online.

( Cybersecurity Ventures , Data Reportal )

With the aid of 5G networks and IoT devices, worldwide internet penetration will continue to surge. One estimation has revealed that, in January 2019, there were more than one million new users every day, which was a historical fact. Naturally, it translated to a greater amount of data generated daily .


6 factors that fueled the stock market dive in 2018

2018 was not a good year for the stock market. Since the beginning of the year, the Dow Jones Industrial Average has lost about 10 percent of its value, as did the S&P 500. The Nasdaq dropped roughly 8 percent.

The vast majority of losses have come since October, when the stock market, which was experiencing the longest bull run in history, took a turn for the worst. The stock market is on pace for its worst December since 1931, but it also setrecord single-day gains Wednesday, when the Dow jumped by more than 1,000 points.

The stock market woes come despite signs that the general economy is still doing well — with record low unemployment, strong GDP growth and relatively low inflation.

But this year a number of other factors outweighed those positive economic indicators. President Donald Trump’s trade war with China, the slowdown in global economic growth and concern that the Federal Reserve was raising interest rates too quickly all contributed to a pessimistic reaction from the stock market. The federal government shutdown that began early Saturday has only added to the anxiety.

Many of the same factors that affected the economy in 2018 are likely to continue into the new year. Here are six.

Tariffs driving uncertainty

The Trump administration’s tariffs on imported aluminum, steel, and other goods have introduced a large amount of uncertainty into the global economy.

In May, Trump decided not to spare any country –including U.S. allies — from the steel and aluminum tariffs. The trade war, which has centered on China, continued to escalate until Trump and China’s President Xi Jinping agreed earlier this month to hold off on imposing new tariffs for 90 days.

But even if a more permanent agreement can be reached by March, some damage has already been done.

The Shanghai Stock Exchange has lost a quarter of its value so far this year, and China’s GDP grew by 6.5 percent in the third quarter — still a large gain, but the slowest growth since the global financial crisis a decade ago. China also reported earlier this month that it recorded lower than expected industrial production and retail sales, an announcement that quickly rippled through the global markets and helped spark a nearly 500-point drop in the Dow.

The Federal Reserve and interest rate hikes

The Federal Reserve raised interest rates four times this year. Earlier this month, at the Fed’s last meeting of 2018, Chairman Jerome Powell signaled that the central bank’s board of governors would likely issue fewer rate hikes next year, but investors were not appeased and the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 352 points.

Federal Reserve Board Chairman Jerome Powell speaks during his news conference after a Federal Open Market Committee meeting in Washington, on Dec. 19, 2018. REUTERS/Yuri Gripas

The drop underscored fears on Wall Street that continued interest rate increases could trigger a recession — a concern Trump has expressed numerous times.

Bloomberg reported last week that Trump has considered trying to fire Powell, though it’s unclear if the president can do so.

The Fed has another problem to worry about as well. Reducing interest rates is the bank’s biggest tool to fight economic downturns. But the current benchmark rates are still relatively low, and if another recession hits, the Fed would not have as much flexibility to try and revive the economy, said Itay Goldstein, a professor of finance at the University of Pennsylvania Wharton School.

The Federal Reserve, and the world’s other major central banks, have also been tightening their monetary policies. That reduces liquidity in the market, creating obstacles for obtaining credit and loans — factors that could slow down the global economy. Companies that have been kept afloat by lenient lending, such as Sears, could be in jeopardy, said Liz Ann Sonders, a chief investment strategist at Charles Schwab.

Over the weekend Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin attempted to alleviate concerns about a tightening credit market, saying that the nation’s major banks have plenty of money to lend. Mnuchin’s attempt to calm traders appeared to have the opposite effect, with stocks taking a major hit during a shortened day of trading Monday.

Big tech under scrutiny

Five major tech companies — Facebook, Apple, Amazon, Netflix and Google — make up 11 percent of the S&P 500 index.

When those companies are doing well, they can lift the S&P 500 as a whole, but when they perform poorly, they can drag the index down as well.

While most of the Silicon Valley giants are still making healthy profits, they have come under increased pressure this year from regulators amid news reports about data privacy and the the tech sector’s role in the 2016 presidential election.

Congress has focused in particular on companies like Google, Twitter and Facebook, which have been criticized for not doing more to help block Russian interference in the 2016 election.

Facebook and other major tech companies faced greater scrutiny in 2018, including from lawmakers in Congress. File photo by Dado Ruvic/Illustration/Reuters

Meanwhile Apple has a lawsuit before the Supreme Court over antitrust allegations. And Amazon has been the target of Trump’s tweets, which has added to the concern investors already have about its revenue.

Inflated company earnings

Stocks were relatively high at the beginning of 2018. The Dow Jones Industrial Average index had tripled since the low of the Great Recession.

Some stock watchers warned companies were overvalued. The Shiller price to earnings ratio — a statistic that compares a company’s earnings to its number of shares and is sometimes used as a way to determine whether stocks are overvalued — was 33.31 in January. Compare that to the historical average of 16.59. Since the latest stock market drop, the price to earnings ratio is now 26.74.

The GOP tax cuts

The market was further boosted at the end of 2017 and into the beginning of 2018 by the Republican tax cut package Trump signed into law at the end of last year.

The tax cut, which included a reduction in the corporate tax rate, increased corporate profits, which helped boost stock prices. Stock buybacks were another major factor. Many companies that moved their profits from overseas back to the U.S. used the money to buy back their own shares, which further inflated their stock prices.

The stock market is not the economy

It’s worth remembering that there is a fundamental difference between economic indicators like the unemployment rate and the stock market.

The economic indicators are backwards looking they tell us what the unemployment rate was in the last few weeks or months. The stock market, in contrast, is forward looking investors are always trying to guess what is going to happen next and how it might affect a company and its profitability.

“It’s human nature to think about the economy in good or bad terms,” said Sonders. But for stock market investors watching for positive — or negative — signs in the economy, “better or worse matters more than good or bad,” she said.

There are some economic indicators that hint at future trouble. The pace of job growth declined in November, and the length of the average work week has shortened.

Hiring remains strong, but if it weakens in 2019, it would make investors more pessimistic and likely to sell stocks, potentially helping speed up an economic downturn.

Support for Making Sen$e Provided By:

Left: Traders on the New York Stock Exchange spent many uneasy moments watching the markets at the close of 2018. Photo by Drew Angerer/Getty Images


Man Incarcerated for 6 Years Without a Trial Because He Demanded a Speedy Trial

Phartisan / Dreamstime

Federal authorities arrested Joseph Tigano III in 2008 and charged him with running a marijuana-growing operation. Tigano entered a plea of not guilty and insisted that his case move quickly to trial. Instead he languished in pretrial detention—jail—for nearly seven years before he finally appeared before a jury, which convicted him in 2015. In an opinion issued this week, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit dismissed Tigano's indictment "with prejudice" on the grounds that his "oppressive period of pretrial incarceration" violated his constitutional right to a speedy trial under the Sixth Amendment.

The criminal justice system's treatment of Tigano is appalling. During his nearly seven-year pretrial incarceration, Tigano loudly and repeatedly invoked his Sixth Amendment right to a speedy trial. Because Tigano kept bringing up the Sixth Amendment, he was forced to undergo three separate court-ordered examinations to determine whether he was competent to be tried. According to one of the prosecutors involved in the case, "Mr. Tigano III had been sort of demanding his speedy trial, which is part of the prompting for the Court sending him out for this evaluation." Tigano passed all three exams with flying colors.

The 2nd Circuit was correct to toss out Tigano's conviction. The framers and ratifiers of the Constitution viewed trial by jury as a fundamental right. Article III, Section 2 of the Constitution says "the Trial of all Crimes, except in cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed." Because that language was not strong enough to satisfy the Anti-Federalists, the Sixth Amendment was added to the Constitution as an extra safeguard in 1791. "In all criminal prosecutions," it reads, "the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed." In a 1789 letter to Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson expressed the opinion of many in the founding generation when he praised the right to trial by jury as "the only anchor ever yet imagined by man, by which a government can be held to the principles of its constitution."

It was this bedrock constitutional right that Joseph Tigano III invoked again and again during his pretrial incarceration. And it was because Tigano kept invoking this right that he was made to suffer the punishment—there is no other word for it—of being left to rot in a cell without trial for 6 years, 9 months, and 26 days. As the 2nd Circuit observed, Tigano's detention "appears to be the longest ever experienced by a defendant in a speedy trial case in the Second Circuit." If that doesn't violate the Sixth Amendment, what does?

Tigano's ordeal illuminates a much bigger problem. Consider what Assistant U.S. Attorney Thomas Duszkiewicz had to say about the third competency examination that Tigano was forced to undergo. It was sparked "not necessarily [by] the competency question," Duszkiewicz said, "but [by] whether there is some other psychological problem that's going to prevent [Tigano] from understanding the difference between what he potentially looks at as far as a conviction as well as what's being offered by way of this plea."

Translation: Federal prosecutors piled on the charges expecting Tigano to plead guilty to a lesser offense and save everybody the trouble of going to trial. The prosecutors also let it be known that if Tigano rejected their deal, they would throw the book at him and he would forfeit his shot at "what's being offered by way of this plea." In short, sacrifice your Sixth Amendment rights and you'll do less time.

That coercive approach is standard operating procedure among prosecutors in criminal cases. According to the Justice Department, 97 percent of federal criminal convictions result from guilty pleas. At the state level, the figure is roughly 94 percent. In other words, only a tiny number of criminal suspects ever go to trial. For all practical purposes, the Sixth Amendment right "to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed," has been largely abolished.

The criminal justice system has become "almost exclusively a system of plea bargaining, negotiated behind closed doors and with no judicial oversight," Judge Jed S. Rakoff wrote in 2014. "The outcome is very largely determined by the prosecutor alone." Rakoff's description of the phenomenom is worth quoting at length:

[W]hat really puts the prosecutor in the driver's seat is the fact that he—because of mandatory minimums, sentencing guidelines (which, though no longer mandatory in the federal system, are still widely followed by most judges), and simply his ability to shape whatever charges are brought—can effectively dictate the sentence by how he publicly describes the offense. For example, the prosecutor can agree with the defense counsel in a federal narcotics case that, if there is a plea bargain, the defendant will only have to plead guilty to the personal sale of a few ounces of heroin, which carries no mandatory minimum and a guidelines range of less than two years but if the defendant does not plead guilty, he will be charged with the drug conspiracy of which his sale was a small part, a conspiracy involving many kilograms of heroin, which could mean a ten-year mandatory minimum and a guidelines range of twenty years or more. Put another way, it is the prosecutor, not the judge, who effectively exercises the sentencing power, albeit cloaked as a charging decision.


January 27, 2018 Day 8 of the Second Year - History

Are you looking for a list of all Fridays in 2018? You have come to the right place for a complete list of all Fridays in 2018.

Here is Research Maniacs' list of all Fridays for 2018, listed in chronological order.

Friday, January 5, 2018
Friday, January 12, 2018
Friday, January 19, 2018
Friday, January 26, 2018
Friday, February 2, 2018
Friday, February 9, 2018
Friday, February 16, 2018
Friday, February 23, 2018
Friday, March 2, 2018
Friday, March 9, 2018
Friday, March 16, 2018
Friday, March 23, 2018
Friday, March 30, 2018
Friday, April 6, 2018
Friday, April 13, 2018
Friday, April 20, 2018
Friday, April 27, 2018
Friday, May 4, 2018
Friday, May 11, 2018
Friday, May 18, 2018
Friday, May 25, 2018
Friday, June 1, 2018
Friday, June 8, 2018
Friday, June 15, 2018
Friday, June 22, 2018
Friday, June 29, 2018
Friday, July 6, 2018
Friday, July 13, 2018
Friday, July 20, 2018
Friday, July 27, 2018
Friday, August 3, 2018
Friday, August 10, 2018
Friday, August 17, 2018
Friday, August 24, 2018
Friday, August 31, 2018
Friday, September 7, 2018
Friday, September 14, 2018
Friday, September 21, 2018
Friday, September 28, 2018
Friday, October 5, 2018
Friday, October 12, 2018
Friday, October 19, 2018
Friday, October 26, 2018
Friday, November 2, 2018
Friday, November 9, 2018
Friday, November 16, 2018
Friday, November 23, 2018
Friday, November 30, 2018
Friday, December 7, 2018
Friday, December 14, 2018
Friday, December 21, 2018
Friday, December 28, 2018

Thank you for using Research Maniacs to get a list of all Fridays in 2018.

To look up another day of the week for any year, please go to Days by Year .

More information from Research Maniacs:
You may also be interested in the next day of the week that we researched which was Mondays in 2018


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