Literacy in the classical world

Literacy in the classical world

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How literate was the ancient world? I'm particularly interested in the Romans, Greeks, and Egyptians in, say, the first few centuries BC. It's hard to find authors willing to give an explicit number, though sometimes ranges are given:

[It is] unlikely that the overall literacy of the western [Roman] provinces even rose into the range of 5-10%. [1]


In ancient Egypt levels of literacy were very low, less than one per cent. [2]

Most stick to descriptive terms:

a very small percentage [of Roman Britains were literate] [3]

But there is evidence that it was not too low, e.g. Vindolanda. So what is known for different cultures? I've read a (semi-)famous book on the subject---some kind of Classics prizewinner, focusing on pre-Roman and Roman Egypt, published maybe 8 years ago---but even that didn't often, if ever, give numbers. This is somewhat frustrating because I don't know what "a very small percentage" is. 10%? 1%? 0.1%? 0.01%?

Any reasonable information would be welcome. I'd be happy to split this further if there's enough information (4th century BC Romans, Athens in its Classical Period, etc.) but so far the information I have seen deals with all of these together (thousand-year periods across the entire Mediterranean).

  1. William Harris, Ancient Literacy, 1989, p. 272.
  3. Ellis Evans, Language Contact in Pre-Roman and Roman Britain, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.29.2 (1983), pp. 949-987.

A reference to check out is Carlo Cipolla: Literacy and Development in the West. I don't have it right here, and can't find an online version (it's a book from 1969) but found a review here: which quotes:

By 1750 at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, almost 5000 years had elapsed since the first rudimentary appearance of the art of writing. Yet more than 90 percent of the world's population had no access to this art.

There are many more numbers for specific societies in the book. Of course, the methods used will be open to challenge. Another approach would be to look at todays' worst-off countries and posit that it was even lower in all countries a long time ago; for example, the CIA World Factbook gives a literacy rate for Afghanistan in 2000 at 28.1%.

Literacy in the classical world - History

In the cult-classic 1989 movie, Bill and Ted’s Excellent Adventure, two air-headed teenagers use time-travel to study history for a school project. Along the way they kidnap a group of historical figures, including Socrates. During their encounter with Socrates, Ted tells Bill, “Ah, here it is, So-crates… ‘The only true wisdom is in knowing that you know nothing.’ That’s us, dude!” Unless you are able to time-travel, you will have to read about the early founders of Old School communication, such as Aspasia, Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato. It was at the Lyceum approximately 2,500 years ago that Aristotle and other rhetoricians taught public speaking and persuasion, which marks what we refer to as the Classical Period of communication study.

If you’ve taken a public-speaking class, you’ve probably learned and applied principles of public speaking developed during the Classical Period. During this time, people placed high value on the spoken word and argumentation skills, accentuated emotion and logic to persuade others, and developed guidelines for public presentations. It is largely agreed-upon that the formal study of communication began approximately 2,500 years ago in Greece and Sicily. It is here that we will begin our tour of Ancient Greece with the “fantastic four”—Aspasia of Miletus, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle—who have come to be regarded as the foremother and forefathers of rhetoric and the field of Communication as a whole. Then, we’ll turn to scholars who extended the work of the fantastic four—Corax, Tisias, Cicero, Quintilian, and Pan Chao.

The argument can be made that our field primarily emphasizes the contributions of men because women were routinely excluded from education as well as other public institutions during this time. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that several women actively contributed to this period (Harris), participating in and receiving educational opportunities not afforded to most women. This begs the question, “If some women were receiving advanced education and producing work in philosophy and rhetoric themselves, then it becomes more puzzling to explain the absence of any surviving texts by them” (Bizzell & Herzberg 26). So, who can we look to as an example of a prominent female scholar during this early period?

The Debate of Socrates and Aspasia

Aspasia of Miletus (469 BCE) is an excellent example of an educated woman who is often credited as the “mother of rhetoric” (Glenn). Although relatively little is known about her scholarship because of her disappearance from history circa 401 BCE, Aspasia of Miletus is believed to have taught rhetoric and home economics to Socrates. Her influence extends to Plato as well who argued that belief and truth are not always interchangeable. Even Cicero used Aspasia’s lesson on induction as the centerpiece for his argumentation chapter in De Inventione (Glenn). Aspasia’s social position was that of a hetaera, or romantic companion, who was “more educated than respectable women, and [was] expected to accompany men on occasions where conversation with a woman was appreciated, but wives were not welcome” (Carlson 30). Her specialty was philosophy and politics, and she became the only female member of the elite Periclean circle. In this circle she made both friends and enemies as a result of her political savvy and public speaking ability.

Aspasia was described as one of the most educated women of her era and was determined to be treated as an equal to men (an early feminist to say the least!). She was born into privilege in Miletus, a Greek settlement on the coast of Western Turkey, and did not have many of the same restrictions as other women, working her way to prominence most often granted only to the men of her time. During this period Pericles, the Athenian ruler and Aspasia’s partner, treated Aspasia as an equal and allowed her every opportunity to engage in dialogue with the important and educated men of society. Socrates acknowledged Aspasia as having one of the best intellects in the city. With this intellect and the opportunities presented to her, Aspasia was politically progressive, influencing the works of many of the men who are most often credited with founding our field (PBS).

With Aspasia’s work influencing his education, Socrates (469-399 BCE) greatly influenced the direction of the Classical Period. Most of what we know about Socrates comes from the writings of his student Plato (429-347 BCE) who wrote about rhetoric in the form of dialogues where the main character was Socrates. This era produced much discussion regarding the best ways to write and deliver speeches, with a great deal of the debate focusing on the importance of truth and ethics in public speaking.

From these writings, the idea of the dialectic was born. While this term has been debated since its inception, Plato conceptualized it as a process of questions and answers that would lead to ultimate truth and understanding. Think for a moment about contemporary situations where people use this process. Have you ever had a discussion with a professor where he/she questioned you about your interpretation of a poem? Consider the role that a therapist takes when he/she asks you a series of questions to bring greater clarity in understanding your own thoughts, motives, and behavioral patterns. These are just two examples of dialectic at work. What others can you think of?

While Plato contributed a great deal to classical rhetorical theory he was also very critical of it. In Georgias, Plato argued that because rhetoric does not require a unique body of knowledge it is a false, rather than true, art. Similarly, Socrates was often suspicious of the kind of communication that went on in the courts because he felt it was not concerned with absolute truth. Ultimately, the legal system Socrates held in contempt delivered his fate. He was tried, convicted, and executed on charges of atheism and corrupting Athenian youth with his teachings (Kennedy). This same sentiment applies today when we think about lawyers in our courts. In the famous O.J. Simpson case in the 1990’s, Johnnie Cochran became famous for his phrase “If the glove doesn’t fit, you must acquit.” This received great criticism because it didn’t really speak to the absolute truth of the facts of the case, while at the same time, this rationale was often credited as the reason O.J. Simpson was found not guilty.

The Classical Education of the Puritans

Was the pervasive influence of the classics and classical languages seen as a hindrance—or as a help—to those who labored in the Lord’s vineyard to establish a Christian government and culture in early America? It is an easy question to answer. Not only were the majority of Puritans not threatened by the classical emphasis in the education of the time, but they were positively enthusiastic about it. In fact, much of the classical education of the colonies was the direct result of its promotion by Puritan leaders.

Although the “shot heard ’round the world” is generally considered to refer to the first gun shots fired in the War for Independence, there was another event in early America that made history: the Massachusetts Education Laws of 1642 and 1647. In many respects, these were as revolutionary as the war itself. The product of the concern for education in Puritan New England, these laws constitute the first time in history that an organized state had mandated universal education. The Puritans had the creation of a Godly society as their chief end, and this, they thought, was best accomplished by educated citizens. But what is interesting about the Puritans is the kind of education they sought.

When the Massachusetts General Court passed the School Laws, they did it with the purpose in mind to further knowledge of the Bible by promoting literacy. The law not only required that every town of 50 homes or more have an elementary school teacher, but that every town of 100 or more have a grammar school. The grammar schools of the time emphasized Latin and, secondarily, Greek and Hebrew. They were designed to prepare students for college and, ultimately, for the ministry, the law, and sometimes medicine. They strove to prepare them to read all the classical authors in their original tongues.

How the Puritans Were Educated

Latin grammar was taught from one of the numerous revisions of Lily, supplemented by texts like John Amos Comenius’ Orbis pictus, John Brinsley’s Latin Accidence, and Charles Hoole’s The Common Rudiments of Latin Grammar the students then parsed and construed from the Sententiae puriles, Cato’s Distichs, Aesop’s Fables, and the Colloquies of Erasmus and Corderius and from these introductory materials they went on to selected works by Ovid, Cicero, Virgil, Horace, and Juvenal. Greek grammar was usually studied out of Camden, with scholars going on to Homer, Hesiod, Isocrates, and the Greek New Testament. When Hebrew was included, it was mostly taught from the grammars of William Schickard or John Buxtorf though, since the language was not required for entrance into Harvard, it was probably not begun in earnest until the freshman year, during which it was vigorously stressed owing to the Biblical interests of the Puritans and the scholarly interests of Henry Dunster and Charles Chauncy.

A “grammar school” was what came to be known also as a “Latin school.” The oldest continuously operating school in the United States is Boston Latin School, which was founded in 1635. It produced many famous Americans, including Samuel Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, Benjamin Franklin, William Hooper, Robert Treat Paine, Josiah Quincy, John Winthrop, and Cotton Mather, five of whom signed the Declaration of Independence.

Boston Latin was a “grammar-school,” which emphasized instruction in classical languages, primarily Latin and Greek. “By the time a pupil reached his seventh year at the Boston Latin School,” says Richard Gummere in his seminal book, The American Colonial Mind and the Classical Tradition, “he was reading Cicero’s orations, Justinian, the Latin and Greek Testaments, Isocrates, Homer, Hesiod, Virgil, Horace, Juvenal, and dialogues from the topics in Godwin’s Roman Antiquities, as well as turning the Psalms into Latin verse!”

The classical program in Boston schools became even more classical in the 18th century. “I entered Lovell’s [John Lovell, headmaster of Boston’s South Latin School] in 1776 at seven years,” said Jonathan Homer, pastor of First Church in Newton, Massachusetts, “and studied Latin from 8 o’clock to 11, and from 1 till dark. I entered college at the age of fourteen, and was equal in Latin and Greek to the best in the Senior class.”

Education of Cotton Mather

But it is in Cotton Mather, the quintessential New England Puritan, that we see the most accomplished, yet representative, example of the work of classical education in the Puritan colonies. He was the grandson, on his mother’s side, of John Cotton, one of the founders of Boston Latin School, who entered Cambridge (Emmanuel College) when he was thirteen. He was also the son of Increase Mather, another prominent New England Puritan scholar. Increase was a graduate of the school his father-in-law helped found, and, after graduating from Harvard, he went on to obtain his M. A. from Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland. An “austere Puritan divine” like his own father, Richard, Increase was also the President of Harvard for 16 years, during which time he continued to fill the pulpit of North Church in Boston, an activity he engaged in until his death in 1723. He spent 16 hours a day in his study, “emerging only for meals and family prayers.” “He loved his study,” said one contemporary, “to a kind of excess.”

Cotton Mather was descended, said one writer, “in right of both parents, from what was deemed the aristocracy of New England, when clergymen were the nobles of the religious dynasty, which our fathers sought to establish in the new world.” With such a pedigree, it is hard to imagine that Cotton Mather himself could have become anything but what he became. In fact, the distinction of the Mather family seemed only to become more pronounced as generation succeeded generation. “The family of Mathers was remarkable for the retentive memory and studious inclinations that seemed to be constitutional with its members qualities that appeared rather to increase than diminish,” and which seemed to culminate in Cotton. An epitaph to his grandfather, Richard, reportedly read:

Under this stone lies Richard Mather,
Who had a son greater than his father,
And eke a grandson greater than either.

“Thus happily born,” said David Hall, “and possessing such favorable capacities, it was set down as a matter of course, that Cotton Mather must make a great man.” And he did. ”Prophetically ushered into life,” as one writer put it, he not only became one of the most influential American exponents of Christianity, but one of the best educated and most learned minds of his age.

Cotton, the oldest of numerous children in what one biographer calls a “bookish, hothouse religious atmosphere,” attended Boston Latin School during the headmastership of Ezekiel Cheever, the greatest and most famous of that school’s headmasters, who “brought the dead languages to life while teaching Mather to love Christ above the classics.” The school emphasized the classics, and “[b]y the age of 11,” says Jennifer Monaghan, “he was so fluent in Latin that he would take notes in Latin on sermons as they were delivered in English.” He entered Harvard at the age of 11, when he was examined by the President of Harvard himself, Leonard Hoar, who determined the boy’s knowledge of Greek and Latin exceeded that required to enter the college, and graduated at the age of 15. Despite his age, said biographer Kenneth Silverman, “he seems to have breezed through.” In fact, he was the youngest student Harvard ever had. He began to assist in his father’s ministry in 1680, was ordained in 1685, and served the church for the rest of his life.

“Cotton Mather and his father Increase Mather,” says Gummere, “are the high-water mark of the ancient learning as applied to the conversion of souls in the Puritan hierarchy.” Mather devoted the rest of his life to scholarship and the writing of books, of which he produced some 382. His books display a wide diversity of interest and concern. Many of his writings dealt with the educational responsibilities of teachers, ministers, pastors, and parents.

The Purpose of Puritan Education

For Mather, the chief purpose of education was theological: “All the learning the many have,” he said, “serves only as a bag of gold about a drowning man it sinks them the deeper into the scalding floods of the lake that burns with fiery brimstone: But the knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ is a saving thing.” While learning might speed a man to Hell, he thought, it could also help transport him to heaven—if used rightly and for the right purpose. Mather’s works, reflecting the larger colonial culture, illustrate his facility and his passion for Latin, logic, and rhetoric, the three subjects in the classical trivium, as well as the mathematical subjects in the quadrivium.

Mather Combines the Classical and the Christian

His writings display the characteristic style of academic and theological writing of the time, which was to express thoughts by using expressions culled both from the Bible and classical authors. Everything, it seemed, had some Biblical or classical precedent, some analog in ancient history or literature. It was a common technique, especially among the Church fathers, to allegorize the writings of the pagans and see their lives and their literature as a foreshadowing of the Christian revelation. Echoing the argument of St. Augustine, Mather argued, “in our valuable citations from them that are strangers to Christianity, [we] should seize upon the sentences as containing our truths, detained in the hands of unjust possessors.” “Once this was established,” said Gustaaf Van Crumphout, Mather “did not scruple to elucidate Christian mysteries with phrases from Euripides’ Bacchae or to describe the Gospel as a new song of Orpheus or the mount of God as the true Cithaeron.” In fact, Mather was criticized for many things, but few more severely than the stylistic results of the over-profusion of classical quotations in his writings.

This tendency to fuse together the Biblical and the classical was not merely ornamentation, but a product of the deep-seated thinking of Christian intellectuals soaked and steeped in both traditions. Their goal was not merely spiritual and not merely educational, but was directed at melding the two traditions into one, all the while reminding their readers that as wonderful and useful as are the classics, it is through their conscription into the service of Christ that they gained their greatest glory. It was, according to Robert Middlekauf, to “fuse piety and intellect, to pursue ideas with the heart as well as with the mind, and to bring their thinking constantly to bear on their love of God.” So deeply was Mather immersed in both Biblical and classical literature that the two traditions seemed inseparable. “It often seems,” said Cromphout, “as if [Mather] needed to draw upon both traditions, the Judaeo-Christian and the classical, in order to complete a thought.”

Although Mather gave great credence to what he found in the ancient authors, he did so not because they were old, but because he found in them what seemed to coincide with reason. Their literary value was also a logical one. In the contest that was later in the French Revolution to pit reason against authority, Mather saw not a contest, but a correspondence. He approved of the rules of Aristotle and Horace because “they were logical and based on reason or nature,” says Cromphout, “not because they had the sanctity of authority.” The wisdom of the ancients derived its authority from reason, and it found its expression even in the pagans because the “Power and Process of Reason is Natural,” Mather said, “to the Soul of Man,” a very part of the image of God.

Classical Rhetoric and Principled Persuasion

As always, Mather notes that the principles the student would find articulated by the classical authors found their greatest expression in the Bible itself, telling his readers, “That there is nowhere to be found any such Rhetoric, as there is in our Sacred Scriptures.” It is yet another refrain of his theme that classical learning, far from being at odds with Christianity, is to be seen as a fulfillment of what the pagans had only imperfectly grasped. The pagan discoveries of the principles of persuasion did not make these principles pagan in themselves rather the principles were the products of the divinely instituted order of the world the pagans had only happened upon and put to use. And the Word of God not only did not repudiate these principles, but in fact served as their most glorious exemplars—a fact, he asserts, that even the pagans recognized: “Even the pagan Longinus himself,” Mather pointed out, “will confess, The Sublime, shining in them.”

A “mighty and wondrous incentive to religion”

Mather’s interest in and mastery of the trivium of Latin, logic, and rhetoric was accompanied by an equal preoccupation with the quadrivium—the scientific learning of the time. In fact, his book, The Christian Philosopher, although intended primarily to be a work of natural theology, was, according to Solberg, “the first comprehensive treatise on all the science known at the time to be written by an American.” It was a book in which he “ransacked the learning of the ages” to make the argument that God had revealed himself not only in Scripture, but, as the Apostle Paul argues, in nature itself. He wrote it to demonstrate that “Philosophy is no enemy, but a mighty and wondrous incentive to religion.” “The whole world is indeed a temple of God, built and fitted by that Almighty Architect.” Mather saw no clear distinction between the secular and the theological. For him, everything was part of what one of his commentators called the “divinely organized universe of correspondences.” “Mather’s writing aims at nothing less than the perfecta summaque sapientia—the perfection and summation of wisdom—through a comprehensive accumulation and organization of all the knowledge stored up in the textual memory of the contemporary academic discourses.”

Mather never worshiped the classical learning he expounded, but rather pressed that learning into the service of the One he did worship. “His God remained,” said Cromphout, “like Pascal’s, the ‘God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob’ and never became ‘the God of the philosophers and savants.’” Mather’s manual for the training of ministers was just one indication of the essential role the classics were seen to have in a complete Christian education. Not only was classical education conducted largely by ordained Christian ministers (or aspiring ones), but education in the classics was considered an essential element in the education of a Christian cleric. Not only did they think a classical education was consistent with a Christian vocation they considered it absolutely essential.

Mather was only the most prominent of the many Puritan divines who saw classical education as an essential preparation for the Christian life of learning. Not only did the Puritans ensure as much as possible that their children receive such an education, but they were the acknowledged leaders of the educational institutions of the time. In fact, Harvard itself, a thoroughly classical institution up until fairly recent times, was founded by Puritans. Those of the founding fathers who had a formal education were themselves classically educated. It is widely known that John Adams and Thomas Jefferson are the most startling examples of men who knew the classics in Latin and Greek. What is less widely known is that we have the Puritans to thank for it.

Originally published in The Classical Teacher Spring 2011 edition.

Technological progress in the Classical World

There is a highly popular myth that slavery hindered technological progress because slaves were cheap and so a slave using society wouldn't have the incentives to develop technology as anything could be done by cheap slaves.

This myth is particularly sad since it only shows that the people who advocate it lack basic economic reasoning skills and therefore only show the lack of basic economic literacy among not only the general public but from scholars of other areas.

What it states is that it starts from the assumption that slaves were cheap. Now why would slaves be cheap? The price of a slave would be determined by the expected future flow of output from the labor of the slave discounted by the subsistence cost of the slave plus the costs of incentives (peculium) plus interest over the net gains for each period plus a discount based on the probability that the slave dies in each period. What we have left is a price that is a function of the productivity of slave.

Therefore slaves would be cheap if their productivity were low and would be expensive if their productivity were high. Productivity is itself determined by technology and efficiency in the employment of factors of production. So claiming that cheap slaves hinder technological progress is circular logic. Technological progress would increase the output of labor, increasing the demand for labor and hence it's value, reflected in both wages and slave prices.

Case study: If the average annual productivity of unskilled labor was 1000 sesterces, the rate of interest was 12%, the average chance of that a slave dies in the next year was 4%, a slave maintenance cost of 240 sesterces (3,200 calories a day) and assuming peculium would be half of the slaves' net income, 380 sesterces, yields a net income for the master of 380 sesterces, using a discount rate of 16% yields a slave price of 2,375 sesterces. The actual slave prices in the Roman Empire were usually between 2,000 and 3,000 sesterces, in Pompeii a slave was sold for 2,500 sesterces, a price 5% different from our calculations.

Given a certain price of a slave the slave owner would always try to maximize his profits and therefore to make his slave as productive as possible. Using labor saving devices to increase a slave productivity makes the same sense as using labor saving devices to increase the productivity of a wage laborer. A serf, on the other hand, did not have a price, in either wage or a full price, as result his employer (lord of the manor) wouldn't be able to maximize the efficiency of his use to society. Prices are the information networks of a market economy, giving information for each agent to allocate his resources to their best possible uses. So slaves, which had a price, were from an economic point of view not inefficient.

However, it is true that slaves tend to be less productive than free laborers since they never earn the full value of their labor (some go to the master) and hence do not have the best possible incentives. Also, since slaves are not free to apply their ideas, slavery actually tends to hinder technological progress in the sense that the idea creating capabilities of a fraction of the population are neutralized by their servile condition.

Roman labor saving devices

To give an example I will show to you people the greatest labor saving device ever build before the 19th century!
The Aqua Claudia, one of the dozen aqueducts of Rome and the greatest in capacity, build in the 1st century AD, at the zenith of Classical Civilization:

The Aqua Claudia delivered to Rome nearly 200,000 cubic meters of clean spring water per day over a distance of 69 kilometers. How many slaves carrying water amphoraes would take to do the same? A amphorae could carry 0.025 cubic meters of water, while a slave could walk up to 50 kilometers per day, so walking back and forth the journey to the spring would be 140 kilometers. So it would take 3 days for a slave to carry an amphorae back and forth from the spring. To deliver 200,000 cubit meters of water per day we would need therefore

3 X 200,000 X 1/0.025 = 24 million

So this single work of engineering saved the labor of 24 million slaves. This ends, once and for all the idiotic idea of slaves not allowing the development of labor saving devices.

Technological progress from the 8th century BC to the 1st century AD

From the beginnings of classical civilization to it's zenith nearly a thousand years later technology changed radically. While our information of Ancient Technology is highly incomplete we have at least enough information of civil engineering to give us a good idea of the scale of the progress. Buildings in the 8th century BC Rome were simple huts. While over the next several centuries technology evolved enough to allow the development of Roman concrete, arches, high level of metal use in construction (some examples of the structural use of iron have been found by archaeologists, large scale use of iron for building structures started in the 19th century), works of sanitations such as the massive aqueducts: Rome's aqueduct system was only equalled in the 20th century.

A comparison between two famous classical buildings 500 years apart illustrate the vast progress in technology in the intervening period:

The Parthenon incorporated a rather simple construction technology: the most advanced elements of the Partenon were it's use of metal clamps to hold the marble pieces together and the use of pieces of marble weighting 5-6 tons. While Pantheon was a vastly more advanced building: it used a massive concrete dome of nearly 50 meters in diameters, the largest dome in the world until the 15th century and the second largest ever build until the late 19th century. Still is the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world to the present day. It also used massive monolithic columns of 60 tons each, which involved some of the most impressive weight lifting technology ever developed for their erection.Crane used to build the Parthenon:

Crane used by the Romans 500 years later:

Many other examples from the advances in technology from the 5th century BC to the 1st century AD are apparent. For example, the 1st century city of Pompeii was build with much more advanced techniques than the 4th century BC city of Olynthus. By the second century AD most Roman buildings used fired bricks, concrete and plaster widely:

Myth: Classical technology was limited to civil engineering

The myth is also associated with the slave fallacy. It goes as follows: The Romans were very good at building big buildings, but since they used slaves to do all the work they didn't develop other technologies such as machines to save labor. I have already blow up the slave fallacy and the fact is that buildings are labor saving devices. So why we know much more of Roman civil engineering than Roman mechanical engineering? Simple: because machines made of wood and metal don't last 2,000 years! Buildings made of stone and concrete can last thousands of years as result they present much more evidence for us today.

Still, some examples of complex machinery survive to the present day:

This mechanism, dated from about 100 BC, is the most complex known mechanical device dated from before 1300 AD.

But many other machines were invented in the Classical period:

Earliest surviving example of a steam engine:

The next examples of a machine using steam to perform a mechanical task are dated from the 16th and 17th centuries, 1,500 years later.

The printing press was invented in the 15th century, however it's basic design was based on the Roman Olive press:

It represented a great improvement over the presses used in the Classical period (500 to 330 BC):

Greek, 350 BC (these were small and lacked capacity for grinding grain for a large number of families):

Roman 80 AD (much larger and more advanced as the grinding stones were actualy imported from thousands of kilometers away and were made with the best time of material for grinding grain using optimal design):

Mechanical cylinder pumps were invented in the 3rd century BC:

This one was found in a Roman mine in Spain:

By the heigh of the Roman Empire many types of machines were in wide use, though machines as complex as the Antikhytera mechanism weren't common.

Water mills

Modern archaeology is gradually expanding the set of know Roman watermills. While a few decades ago it was though that while the Romans had water mills the full use of water mill technology came in the middle ages today we know that is not true, in fact it was the inverse: as of 2006 the vast majority of the 1st millennium water mills discovered by archaeologists date from the Roman period and not from the early middle ages: in the 3rd century we know of 12 Roman water mills and from the 9th century only 3 water mills have been identified. (source: Quantifying the Roman Economy)

Roman water mills were not only used to grind grain, but also for cutting marble using cranck and connecting rod mechanisms:

"With the crank and connecting rod system, all elements for constructing a steam engine (invented in 1712) &#8212 Hero's aeolipile (generating steam power), the cylinder and piston (in metal force pumps), non-return valves (in water pumps), gearing (in water mills and clocks) &#8212 were known in Roman times."

Ritti, Tullia Grewe, Klaus Kessener, Paul (2007), "A Relief of a Water-powered Stone Saw Mill on a Sarcophagus at Hierapolis and its Implications", Journal of Roman Archaeology 20: 138&#8211163

Determinants of technological progress

Technological progress occurs when there are people with ideas and freedom to apply these ideas, people with money to finance these ideas, a economic system advanced enough to demand these ideas, a culture that accepts technological change and there exists mechanisms of financial intermediation to bring into fruition these ideas. Technological progress is therefore a function of institutions, social development and culture.

In that regard Classical Civilization was not less conductive to technological progress than other pre-19th century cultures but certainly less conductive to technological progress than our modern culture. The main difference lies in the acceptance of technological change and the scale of our modern society. Today we crave for technological innovation, we expect it and we love it. In past cultures the downsides of technological innovation dominated the upside and most of the time the implementation of new technologies took centuries. That's because any change in technology has a negative impact on certain segments of society: scribes lost their jobs to the printing press in the 16th century and the makers of writing machines lost their jobs to our modern information technology.

Our History

Since l was at school, I understood the power of literacy and how all learning starts with the ability to read.

In 2001, reading a United Nations report, I got concerned about the high rates of illiteracy around the world.

Then when I travelled to Ethiopia in 2002, I witnessed first-hand the lack of educational resources and books in the classrooms and I could see the link between young people and the poverty trap due to their limited access to education.

After a successful commercial career, l wanted to give back to the community. Therefore in 2003, I established the World Literacy Foundation with the goal to bring books, tutoring and literacy resources to children without any support.

In 2005, we started with the transportation of children’s books to Africa and a few years later, we expanded our programs to United States and United Kingdom and Australia.

In 2014, we founded a small reading group in Colombia that has grown through the years reaching every day more families.

In 2016, we incorporated the Sun Books initiative in Uganda, a low-cost solution to deliver hundreds of eBooks pre-loaded in solar-powered tablets to reach students in off-the-grid classrooms. Today we have extended to Zimbabwe, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa.

Later in 2018, we decided to implement the literacy app in Northern Territory, Australia and included e-books and games to help children learn English in conjunction with their mother tongue.

Meanwhile, in 2012 we ran for the first time the World Literacy Summit at Oxford University to bring together the global literacy community to build greater collaboration and partnerships.

It was a complete success and we decided to celebrate it again in 2014, 2018 and in 2020 we moved to an online conference, due to Covid-19 and the unforeseen circumstances worldwide.

Last year, we reached more than 315,000 children and young people with our services in the USA, Australia, UK, Africa, and Latin America.

I am satisfied and keen to continue working for literacy and education for children because I strongly believe literacy is the vehicle, the pathway to young people reaching their full potential.

“Reading skills are the key determining factor for a child’s future academic success and reaching their full potential”

Literacy in the classical world - History

Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469–June 21, 1527) was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, Humanist, and writer. He has often been called the founder of modern political science. He was for many years a senior official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. He also wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry. His personal correspondence is renowned in the Italian language. He was secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power. He wrote his most renowned work, The Prince (Il Principe) in 1513.

“Machiavellianism” is a widely used negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described most famously in The Prince. Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and killing innocents, as being normal and effective in politics. He even seemed to endorse it in some situations. The book itself gained notoriety when some readers claimed that the author was teaching evil, and providing “evil recommendations to tyrants to help them maintain their power.” The term ” Machiavellian ” is often associated with political deceit, deviousness, and realpolitik. On the other hand, many commentators, such as Baruch Spinoza, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Denis Diderot, have argued that Machiavelli was actually a republican, even when writing The Prince, and his writings were an inspiration to Enlightenment proponents of modern democratic political philosophy.

Portrait of Niccolò Machiavelli: Machiavelli is a political philosopher infamous for his justification of violence in his treatise The Prince.

The Prince

Machiavelli’s best-known book, The Prince, contains several maxims concerning politics. Instead of the more traditional target audience of a hereditary prince, it concentrates on the possibility of a “new prince.” To retain power, the hereditary prince must carefully balance the interests of a variety of institutions to which the people are accustomed. By contrast, a new prince has the more difficult task in ruling: he must first stabilize his newfound power in order to build an enduring political structure. Machiavelli suggests that the social benefits of stability and security can be achieved in the face of moral corruption. Machiavelli believed that a leader had to understand public and private morality as two different things in order to rule well. As a result, a ruler must be concerned not only with reputation, but also must be positively willing to act immorally at the right times.

As a political theorist, Machiavelli emphasized the occasional need for the methodical exercise of brute force or deceit, including extermination of entire noble families to head off any chance of a challenge to the prince’s authority. He asserted that violence may be necessary for the successful stabilization of power and introduction of new legal institutions. Further, he believed that force may be used to eliminate political rivals, to coerce resistant populations, and to purge the community of other men of strong enough character to rule, who will inevitably attempt to replace the ruler. Machiavelli has become infamous for such political advice, ensuring that he would be remembered in history through the adjective “Machiavellian.”

The Prince is sometimes claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy, especially modern political philosophy, in which the effective truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal. It was also in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time concerning politics and ethics. In contrast to Plato and Aristotle, Machiavelli insisted that an imaginary ideal society is not a model by which a prince should orient himself.


Machiavelli’s ideas had a profound impact on political leaders throughout the modern west, helped by the new technology of the printing press. During the first generations after Machiavelli, his main influence was in non-Republican governments. One historian noted that The Prince was spoken of highly by Thomas Cromwell in England and had influenced Henry VIII in his turn towards Protestantism and in his tactics, for example during the Pilgrimage of Grace. A copy was also possessed by the Catholic king and emperor Charles V. In France, after an initially mixed reaction, Machiavelli came to be associated with Catherine de’ Medici and the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre. As one historian reports, in the 16th century, Catholic writers “associated Machiavelli with the Protestants, whereas Protestant authors saw him as Italian and Catholic.” In fact, he was apparently influencing both Catholic and Protestant kings.

Modern materialist philosophy developed in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, starting in the generations after Machiavelli. This philosophy tended to be republican, more in the original spirit of Machiavellianism, but as with the Catholic authors, Machiavelli’s realism and encouragement of using innovation to try to control one’s own fortune were more accepted than his emphasis upon war and politics. Not only were innovative economics and politics results, but also modern science, leading some commentators to say that the 18th century Enlightenment involved a “humanitarian” moderating of Machiavellianism.

Although Jean-Jacques Rousseau is associated with very different political ideas, it is important to view Machiavelli’s work from different points of view rather than just the traditional notion. For example, Rousseau viewed Machiavelli’s work as a satirical piece in which Machiavelli exposes the faults of one-man rule rather than exalting amorality.

Scholars have argued that Machiavelli was a major indirect and direct influence upon the political thinking of the Founding Fathers of the United States due to his overwhelming favoritism of republicanism and the republic type of government. Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and Thomas Jefferson followed Machiavelli’s republicanism when they opposed what they saw as the emerging aristocracy that they feared Alexander Hamilton was creating with the Federalist Party. Hamilton learned from Machiavelli about the importance of foreign policy for domestic policy, but may have broken from him regarding how rapacious a republic needed to be in order to survive.

10 th &ndash 12 th Grade

World History and Literature

World History and Literature is a one-year curriculum for high school that integrates history, English, and Bible (3 full-year credits). As students journey through the curriculum&aposs pre-planned daily lessons, they will experience spiritual growth as they read the entire New Testament and other thought-provoking Christian literature. Students will also engage in readings and analysis of classic literature written in or about the historical period being studied while learning valuable research and composition methods.

Educational Developmentwith My Father's World

  • Verse-By-Verse Reading of the New Testament
  • Comprehension and Critical Thinking
  • Classics and British Literature
  • Research Paper
  • Composition Skills
  • Geography

World History and Literature lesson plans are written to the student for parent-guided independent work. On Fridays, the student and parent have a conference to discuss the week's topics and review completed work. There are 36 weeks of lessons, five days a week, with a somewhat lighter schedule on most Fridays. You will need to add science, math, and electives such as foreign language.

Evaluation of student work: Parents assign grades for coursework based on informal discussions, essays for English and history, and daily written questions and quizzes for history. There are no formal test for Bible or literature.

If you have more than one student in high school: Students may share most of the books in this program. This will involve establishing a workable time schedule for when each student may use each book. However, each student will need his own World History Timeline Book and Experiencing God. Pages for World History Map Activities and the timeline figures will need to be photocopied for additional students. Lesson plans are designed to be written in by the student as a record of the school year you may photocopy the plans for siblings. Some families may want to buy additional copies of books so that students do not have to share books.

The Goals of Our Program Are:

Bible (New Testament/Church History) and World History:

  • Read the entire New Testament as well as challenging books such as Experiencing God: Student Edition and More Than a Carpenter. The concepts in Experiencing God are life changing. We strongly encourage parents, especially dads, to purchase their own book and complete this study to help in guiding a weekly discussion with the student as well as for personal spiritual growth.
  • Study world history from Rome to modern times. Assignments include reading with comprehension questions, unit quizzes, and map work. Students also create a detailed timeline. Christian Church history is integrated with the history studies.
  • Participate in service projects chosen and/or developed by the student and the parent-teacher.

Literature and Composition:

  • Enjoy and analyze (from a Christian perspective) literature written during or about historical periods being studied: Julius Caesar, Beowulf, Pilgrim's Progress, Pride and Prejudice, The Hiding Place, Animal Farm, and more. Also read short selections from classic works of British literature such as The Canterbury Tales, Paradise Lost, and Gulliver's Travels.
  • Learn how to write a research paper with detailed, step-by-step instructions.
  • Develop a wide range of composition skills with topics from literature and history. Writers INC is used as a guide for essays and other writing forms.

Geography and Fine arts:

  • Completion of all assigned maps earns 1/4 credit of geography. This credit may be combined with the geography included in Year 4, U.S. History 1877 to the Present, to provide up to one credit of geography.
  • The lesson plans also include recommendations for completing a fine arts credit.

Math, Science, and Electives:

  • Math &ndash We recommend Saxon Math with one year of Jacobs Geometry.
  • Science &ndash We recommend Physical Science through Advanced Biology.
  • Foreign Language &ndash Consider at least two consecutive years of a foreign language during high school.
  • Electives &ndash Fine Arts Elective is found inside the Daily Lesson Plans or look at other options.

"The way that the program is laid out, there is never a question about what he is supposed to do on any given day. It is a challenging curriculum as well, so it makes him think. This HS curriculum will definitely get him ready for college level work"


To Complete Your Curriculum

Required For Additional Students

  • Daily Lesson Plans (or photocopy for siblings)
  • Experiencing God Student Edition (recommended also purchase one for each parent)
  • World History Timeline Book

Required For All Students

  • Exploring World History (Notgrass) (from Ancient History and Literature)
  • Exploring World History Student Review Pack (from Ancient History and Literature)

Recommended For All Students

  • Encyclopedia of the Ancient World (from Ancient History and Literature)
  • Church History in Plain Language

Other Credits For All Students

  • Add Math
  • Add Science
  • Add Foreign Language
  • Add Fine Arts Elective (found inside the Daily Lesson Plan) or other Electives (as needed)
  • Consider Enrichment Items


You will enjoy seeing your kids go through high school with MFW! I loved watching my daughter read the entire Old Testament last year.


The way that the program is laid out, there is never a question about what he is supposed to do on any given day. It is a challenging curriculum as well, so it makes him think. This HS curriculum will definitely get him ready for college level work.


Literacy in the classical world - History

At one time, much of the discussion in the West of the "Classical World" was centered on Greece and Rome between 600 BCE and 600 CE. Often, not only were the non-Western "Classical" civilizations excluded from discussion, but the vital contributions those civilizations made to Greco-Roman civilization were ignored, despite the long-established process of "Southernization," or the manner in which Middle Eastern, north African, and Asian cultural, technological, political and economic advancements were passed to the Greek and Roman via trade routes into the Mediterranean (See Lynda Shaffer, "Southernization," Journal of World History, Vol. 5, no. 1 (Spring, 1994), 1-21, or visit

Today, only die-hard Eurocentric historians cloud the use of the global reach of the term "Classical World." It is now generally accepted that "classical" can be taken to mean a period or style that set an 'exemplary standard' or marking the establishment of "traditional and long-established in form." As such, Classicism is recognized in other parts of the World approximately between 900 BCE and 550 CE (800 CE to 1300 CE in Southeast Asia), and is used in supporting a chronology or periodization allowing comparative analysis of classical Western and non-Western societies such as those of Persia, Parthia, the Han, Mauryas, the Guptas, the Sogdians, the Kushans, Pagan, Angkor, Sukhothai, Dai Viet, Srivijaya, and Majapahit.

The following digital database is designed to support world historical research and classroom approaches to this revised view of the Classical World, The database is divided into sections as follows: websites/lessons, Historiography, the Middle Eastern Classical World, the Asian and particularly South Asian Classical World, the Greek World, the Roman World, and the topics of Gender, Race and Ethnicity, Collapse of Classical empires, Journals, Classical World influence on future civilizations, Travel Writing and Early Silent Film on the Classical World.

Classical World websites, lessons
Attalus: sources for Greek & Roman history, 323-30 BCE. Website with 30,000 links to authors of Greek Latin studies on the web.
VoS is a Classical Studies website, Voice of the Shuttle, developed by Alan Liu, English Department, University of California, Santa Barbara. See large index for General Classical Resources, Language Resources, History and Culture, Literature, Philosophy, Journals, Syllabi, Classic Departments, Programs and Associations.
A 300-600 CE, Asia for Educators website offers a "Timeline of Asia in World History." See resources for China, SE Asia, Korea, Japan and South Asia in the Classical era. Asia for Educators offers primary sources for China from 1000 BCE-300 CE and 300-600 CE. plus tabs for Southeast E Asia, Korea, Japan and South Asia in the following entry.
"Primary Sources with. Questions, China," Asia for Educators, Columbia University.
Society for Classical Studies website, founded in 1869 as the American Philological Association. See Classical Era monographs and articles.
Home-Our Shared Past in the Mediterranean: Teaching Modules, Ali Vural Ak Center for Global Islamic Studies with a grant in the "Our Shared Past" initiative from the British Council and the Social Science Research Council. A team of distinguished Mediterranean historians from the U.S., Europe, Turkey, and North Africa. See teaching modules and world history curriculum for educators. Lesson Modules 2 and 3 included classical antiquity.

Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics, Classics Department of Princeton University and the Classics Department of Stanford University, 2005-2013. See 'tab' "The Papers" on left side of this page to read full pdf papers on classical world history.
Melissa Lane, "Ancient Political Philosophy," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, first published September 6, 2010, substantive revision December 7, 2018. Greek and Roman political thought with extensive bibliography with additional websites noted at the end of this article Perseus Project of Greek-Roman texts, Seneca's works in Latin Library at Ad Fontes Academy, and International Plato Society.
"Greece," The Ancient Web. Ancient Greece and the Ancient Aegean World.
"Lesson Plans for 'The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization, 3-part documentary,'" PBS website, 2000. See the three-part documentary video links in beginning of Greek section of this article.
Center for Hellenic Studies, Harvard University website.
The Ancient World, Eyewitness to History website. Primary sources for Classical Greece and Rome.
"Ancient Warfare," The History Network, podcasts such as Mercenaries, Alexander in Afghanistan, Chariot Warfare, Contests and Rituals, Septimius Severus, Role of Geography in ancient warfare, Roman conquest of Spain among others.
Ryan Stitt, "The History of Ancient Greece Podcast," podcast series.
Chris Hasler, England, "History of the World Podcast," Vol. 1-Prehistoric, Vol. 2-Ancient World, Vol. 3-Classical world. See Vol. 3 "Classical World" podcasts including Greece, Sasanians, Parthian and Seleucids, and Achaemenid Persia.
Scott Chesworth, "The Ancient World podcasts," podcasts on Ancient Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia and Rome, ongoing series since April 2012.
VROMA website with online resources for teaching about the Latin Language and ancient Roman culture. Will have to register as a Guest until online issues are solved.
Livius website. Articles on classical antiquity. See more topics to the right of this Home page.
Classical Traditions (1000 BCE-300 CE), PBS Learning Media. Lessons on Classical Traditions for all grades. Free interactive resources and activities including videos. See tabs on left side of page for more Classical lessons.
Sarah Rose Sharp, "Explore Ancient Athens Online Through 3D Models, Created by One Animator Over 12 Years," Hyperallergic, February 11, 2020. Animator and photographer Dimitris Tsalkanis stated, "3D is an amazing tool to simulate what people who lived 2, 500 years ago might have experienced while walking around Athens."
"'The Daily Athenian': A Greek Newspaper Project," PBS, Empires, The Greeks. See lesson module.
"Classical Civilizations," New Visions, Social Studies. Classical Civilizations lesson modules aimed at 9th grade global history courses.
"World History Era 3," Public History Initiative, National Center for History in the Schools, UCLA History. World History Era 3 provides resources, lessons titled "Classical Traditions, Major Religions, and Giant Empires, 1000 BCE-300 CE. See also World History Era 4 resources to left of this page.
"Pressured by Persia: The Persian Empire, 550-479 BCE," Closeup Teaching Unit 4.4.2, Big Era Four-Expanding Networks of Exchange and Encounter, 1200 BCE-500 CE, World History for Us All, UCLA. 51-page teaching module.
"Classical (600 BCE-600 CE)," Freemanpedia website, Ben Freeman, Riverside High School, Leesburg Virginia, Loudon County Public Schools. Advanced Placement World History old curriculum resources. New AP World History Modern course took effect in Fall 2019, teaching world history from 1200 to the Present.
History Lessons, Stanford History Education Group. See Classical era lesson modules from Reading like a Historian curriculum focused on historical inquiry and primary source documents.
4:24 Video. "Why Did Civilizations Expand?" Big History Project, published on You Tube, August 15, 2013. Seen on Mr. Tickler's APWH website, Mission Viejo, California School District. See Worksheet for "Why Civilizations Expand?" worksheet:"why_did_civilizations_expand.pdf
Robert W. Strayer, "The Classical Era in the Big Picture 500 BCE-500 CE," Ways of the World, seen in Houston ISD. A summary of the classical era in Rome, Greece, India and China. See slim questions at the end of this 'summary.'
Michelle and Patrick Bulla, "The Qin Dynasty, the Hellenistic Empire, and the Art that May Connect Them: Why Exploring Cultural Connections Matters for Educators and Students of World History," World History Connected, Vol. 16, no. 3, October 2019. Trade route lesson designed for high school students asked students to evaluate if Hellenistic art penetrated the Qin Dynasty and influenced their art, especially figural statues and ceramics. Also, a historiographic question as to this Western assertion questioned by Asian scholars.
Department of Ancient Near East Art, "Trade Routes between Europe and Asia during Antiquity," In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. See Primary and secondary essays to the right of this page for more Classical age resources from Europe to Asia.
Steven Kreis, "Lectures on Ancient and Early Medieval History," History Guide, last revised July 2, 2014. Steven Kreis university lectures, five to ten pages, on classical world history. See especially Lectures 6-17.
History From Below--Musings on Daily Life in the Ancient and Early Medieval Mediterranean website, by Sarah E. Bond. Note articles on race and identity in context of modern history.
Ancient Greek History, Culture, etc., Ancient Greece, Library Guides at University of Washington Libraries.
"Ancient Greece Teaching Resources," National Geographic Society. See videos, artifacts, images for 6th-12th grades + lessons.
Home-Classics for All, UK website which champions classics in UK primary and secondary schools.
"Hero's Journey Lesson," Creative Educator, 2013. See a video critique of Joseph Campbell Monomyth thesis, esp. as to Campbell's gender bias here: 13:19 Video. Mike Rugnetta, "The Hero's Journey and the Monomyth: Crash Course World Mythology #25, published on You Tube, September 2, 2017.
Lessons. "Roman Empire and Christianity," Stanford History Education Group. Will have to register/subscribe. It is free.
"Teaching Idea: Ancient Rome," National Geographic Society, Resource Teaching Library. Lesson module resources claim they are for 6th-8th grades, Middle School, but many could be utilized for high school world history courses.
"Shakespeare's Coriolanus and The Midland Revolt," Classics and Class, C & C, A People's History of Classics, King's College of London website.
Best of History Web Sites. See Greece, Rome tabs esp. to left of page.
"Ancient History Archives," World History. See classical Greek and Roman articles in this world history website.
Ancient history resources, Classical world articles, resources.
Jade Koekoe, "10 History Blogs to Follow," Ancient History et cetera, July 22, 2015.
Lesson Plan overview, The Story of India--For Teachers, with Michael Wood, PBS and BBC 6 part documentary website which premiered January 5, 2009. See Classical India-Rome lesson from this website below:
"Lesson 3: The Winds of Trade," The Story of India-For Teachers, PBS. Role-play lesson to accompany Episode 3 of The Story of India. Students are put in the shoes of a Roman merchant in the state of Kerala.
Marc Jason Gilbert, "Paper Trails: Port Cities in the Classical Era of World History," World History Connected, Vol. 3, no. 2, February 2006.
Arthur de Graauw, "(PDF) Ancient Ports and Harbors-The Catalogue," Vol. 1, 6th edition, 2017. Arthur de Graauw collected, identified and located ancient harbors and ports such as Etruscan, Minoan, Mycenaean, Phoenician, Greek, and Roman in this catalogue. Uploaded to Academia by Arthur de Graauw.
"Digital Resources for Travel Writing and Travel Narratives in World History," World History Connected, Vol. 10, no. 2, June 2013. See especially first section to 600 CE which covered the ancient and Classical world.
Uwe Walter, "The Classical Age as a Historical Epoch," Wiley, Chapter 1, Introduction to A Companion to the Classical World, ed., Konrad H. Kinzel, Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Periodization.
Barbara A. Barletta, "State of the Discipline--Greek Architecture," American Journal of Architecture, 115, 2011, 611-40. Barletta described the historiography of Greek architecture.
Tim Rood, "The Development of the War Monograph," Chapter 11 in A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography, John Marincola, ed., Blackwell Publishing, Vol. 1, 2007, 147-158. See other chapters included in this link, including Introduction by John Marincola, editor. Uploaded to Academia by Tim Rood. See review of A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography below:
Book Review. John Bauschatz, John Marincola, ed., A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography, 2 vols., Blackwell Companion to the Ancient World, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007, 656 pages, seen in Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 2008.
Riccardo Vattuone, "Looking for the Invisible: Theopompus and the Roots of Historiography," Center for Hellenic Studies, Harvard University. Look to the left of this page to see other Classical Greece and Rome historiography monographs.
Book Review. Kostas Vlassopoulos, "Josiah Ober, The Rise and Fall of Classical Greece, The Princeton History of the Ancient World, Princeton Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2015, 416 pages, seen in Bryn Mawr Classical Review, March 4, 2016. Vlassopoulos challenged Ober's historiography as Greek exceptionalism or Greek "economic and cultural efflorescence." See Josiah Ober's reply below:
Josiah Ober, "Reply to Vlassopoulos," March 6, 2016, uploaded to Academia by Josiah Ober.
Peter Jones and Catherine Trend, "The Realness of Things Past: Ancient Greece and Ontological History," Classics for All, September 19, 2019. Greg Anderson claimed that historians do the classical ancient world an injustice by thinking about it in 'modernistic Euro-centric terms rather than its own. See another review of Anderson's historiographic view below:
Book Review. Mark Roblee, "The Realness of Things Past," Bryn Mawr Classical Review, October 3, 2019. Review of Greg Anderson, The Realness of Things Past: Ancient Greece and Ontological History, Oxford New York: Oxford University Press, 2018, 318 pages. Anderson theorized that there was no ancient Greek 'state,' indeed, no classical Athenian 'democracy,' at least not in the modern western sense. "Demokratia" was a 'way of life,' not a political system.
James Kierstead, "The Future of Our Ancient Past," Quillette, January 10, 2019. Pt. 1 of a four-part series on the Classics. See other 3 parts, "Are the Classics Complicit in White Supremacy?" "Is Western Civilization Uniquely Bad?," "Is Western Civilization a Thing?," and "The Future of our Ancient Past."
Emilio Gabba, "True History and False History in Classical Antiquity," The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 71, 1981, 50-62, seen in, accessed May 19, 2012.
Giovanni Parmeggiani, ed., Between Thucydides and Polybius: The Golden Age of Greek Historiography, Hellenic Studies Series 64, Washington DC: Center for Hellenic Studies, 2014, Harvard University. See all chapters for this work on Greek historiography on left side of this page.

Giovanna Ceserani, "Modern Historiography of ancient Greece: genealogies, contexts and 18th-century narrative historiography," Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics, Version 1.0, February 2008. Focus on the earliest modern narrative histories of ancient Greece, written at the beginning of the 18th century and how they effected modern historiography.
William L. Carey, "Greek and Roman Historians," Classics 370, George Mason University, The Latin Library, no date. See links to Ancient Historians on History, Syllabus for course, Geography and Maps, Chronology, Genealogy, Narratives, Full texts, and List of Ancient Historians.
Mark Kindrachuk, (PDF) Bibliography: ancient historiography," December 22, 2011, uploaded to Academia by Mark Kindrachuk. This work offers a list of resources dealing with the use and interpretation of Classical historical sources (work in progress). See other historiographical resources and papers to the right of this page.
David John DeVore, "Greek Historiography, Roman Society, Christian Empire: The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius of Caesarea," PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, Spring 2013, 333 pages.
Christopher A. Baron, "Greek Historiography," Oxford Bibliographies, last modified October 29, 2013. Slim introduction and summary of the writing of history in ancient Greece (500 BCE-500 CE) and a select number of books on this topic.
Paul Ioan Vadan, "The Evolution of the Study of the Hellenistic Period," Study of the Hellenistic Period, McGill University, Canada, October 11, 2009, 121-129.
Victor Davis Hanson, "Introduction: The Modern Historiography of Ancient Warfare," Chapter 1 in The Cambridge History of Greece and Roman Warfare, Vol. 1: Greece, the Hellenistic World and the Rise of Rome, Philip Sabin, et. al., eds., December 2007.
Guido Clemente, "Between Hellenism and the Roman Empire," The Legacy of Arnaldo Momigliano, Wartburg Institute Colloquia 25, 2014, uploaded to Academia by Guido Clemente. A series of essays which honored noted Hellenist and Classical scholar Arnaldo Momigliano (1908-1987) which gave insight into Momigliano's historiography, perspective and biography.
Tim Cornell, "Momigliano and Biography," The Legacy of Arnaldo Momigliano, Wartburg Institute Colloquia 25, 2014, uploaded to Academia by Tim Cornell.
William M. Calder III, Review of Michael P. Steinberg (ed), The Presence of the Historian: Essays in Memory of Arnaldo Momigliano, History and Theory: Studies in the Philosophy of History, Beiheft 30, Wesleyan University, 1991, seen in Bryn Mawr Classical Review, March 3, 2018. Note discussion of Momigliano's focus on Judaism and importance of religious history.
Alain M Gowing, "The Imperial Republic of Velleius Paterculus," The Blackwell Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography, J. Marincola, ed., 2007, uploaded to Academia by Alain Gowing. Judged to be historically superficial, marred by an overbearing urge to please the emperor Tiberius, and a vehicle for imperial propaganda, Velleius's work has been given short shrift, but now being reevaluated. See more papers, monographs on Roman and Greek historiography to the right of this page.
Louisa Schoeller, "Roman Historiography," Making History, University of New Mexico Introduction to Classical Antiquity. See Greek and other historiography resources to the left of this page.
Jacquelyn Williamson, "Cleopatra and Fake News: How ancient Roman political needs created a mythic temptress," Shakespeare and Beyond blog, Folger Shakespeare Library, October 20, 2017.
"Greek and Latin Biography in Oxford Bibliographies Online (2016)," uploaded to Academia by Alexei Zadorojnyi. Greeks and Romans recorded the lives of heroes, tyrants, sages, and celebrities, mostly male. Note comments on these "narratives" and their historiography.
Antti Lampinen, 'Orientalizing the Galatae: Methods, Motives, Motifs," presented at Creating and Strengthening Identities: Greek-Roman Stereotypes of the East, Finnish Institute at Athens, February 8-9, 2019. Greek and Roman primary source statements 'identifying' the Gauls of the East.
Takeshi Aoki, "(PDF) Zoroastrianism in the Far East," Chapter 9 in The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism, Michael Stausberg, Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina with assistance of Anna Tessmann, eds., 2015, 147-156, updated to Academia by Takeshi Aoki. Note historiographical discussion of Far Eastern historians research on Zoroastrianism in the Far East, especially during the classical period.
Alexandra Lianeri, "The Persian Wars as the 'Origin' of Historiography: Ancient and Modern Orientalism in George Grote's History of Greece," Chapter 14, Cultural Responses to the Persian Wars Antiquity to the Third Millennium, edited by Emma Bridges, Edith Hall, and P.J. Rhodes, Oxford University Press, 2007.
Elton Daniel and A. Shapur Shahbazi, "Historiography of Ancient Iran," CAIS, The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies, extracted from Encyclopaedia Iranica, no date. See especially first third of article as to historiography of Iranian and Persephone pre-Islamic world.
Keenan Baca-Winters, "From Rome to Iran: Identity and Xusro II," PhD dissertation, History, University of California, Irvine, 2015. Uploaded to Academia. A survey of Byzantine-Roman, Iranian, Arab historians as to the last great Iranian-Sasanian King, Xusro II (590-628 CE) who nearly conquered the Roman-Byzantine empire in the early 7th century CE.
Bram Fauconnier, "(PDF) Ex Occidente Imperium. Alexander the Great and the Rise of the Maurya Empire," Histos 9, 2015, 120-173. Since the 19th century, historians have written tomes on Alexander in the Punjab. British and Indian nationalist historians have disagreed as to Alexander's importance in the rise of the classical Mauryans. Uploaded to Academia.
Muhammad Shafique, "British Historiography of South Asia: Aspects of Early Imperial Patterns and Perceptions," National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, Centre of Excellence, Quaid-Azam University, Islamabad, 2016. See especially Chapter 3, "Coalescing the Romance of India," which described South Asia and Persian British historiography linked to Orientalism.
Dr. Binod Bihari Satpathy, "Indian Historiography," Paper, Utkal University, n.d., 269 pages.
Jesse Greenspan, "6 Ancient Historians,", updated August 22, 2018. Slim article describing Herodotus, Thucydides, Tacitus, Livy, Sima Qian, and Ban Zhao.
Daniel Walker Howe, "Classical Education in America," Wilson Quarterly, Spring 2011.
Meghan Cox Gordon, "Rediscovering the Lost Power of Reading Aloud-The History of Oral Storytelling," Literary Hub, January 22, 2020. Note references to Classical oral storytelling as a means to absorb literature.

Middle East Classical World
"Ancient Classics Philosophy and Mythology: Near East," Library Guides at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY, Lloyd Sealy Library, Guide for Library Research on Ancient Classics. See tabs at top of page for Books and Databases, Links and Resources, Rome, Asia.
"A Portrait of Jesus' World-Jews and the Roman Empire," From Jesus to Christ-The First Christians, Frontline, PBS. Note primary sources on tensions between Jews and Rome in Palestine region including two revolts, Caesarea and Jerusalem, including Masada. See part 1 and 2 of Frontline, From Jesus to Christ-The First Christians, below:
Pt. 1 and 2 TV Documentary. "From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians," Frontline/PBS, Aired April 6, 1998. Part 1, 1:51:25, Part 2, 1:53:06. See Home Page website:
Sidnie White Crawford, "Roman, Greek, and Jews: The World of Jesus and the Disciples," Classics and Religious Studies, Digital Commons, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, March 2004. Twelve-page essay.
Nicholas Barber, "Life of Brian: The most blasphemous film ever?" BBC, Culture, August 22, 2019. Monty Python film set in Roman occupied Palestine during the classical era. See debates over the film as to being blasphemous, heretical, and anti-Jewish and anti-Christian.
Life of Brian-1979 Debate (1/4), Friday Night, Saturday Morning, November 9, 1979, You Tube video. Debate as to Monty Python's Life of Brian, which had been banned by many local councils and caused protests throughout the world with accusations that it was blasphemous. See 4-part debate between Monty Python artists, John Cleese and elite conservative British spokespersons Malcolm Muggeridge and Bishop of British Anglican church. See part 2, 3 and 4 below:
Life of Brian-1979 Debate (2/4). Friday Night, Saturday Morning, November 9, 1979. You Tube video.
Life of Brian-1979 Debate (3/4), Friday Night, Saturday Morning, November 9, 1979. You Tube video.
Life of Brian-1979 Debate (4 /4), Friday Night, Saturday Morning, November 9, 1979. You Tube video.
"Ancient Jewish History: The Diaspora," Jewish Virtual Library. See many more topics for Classical Jewish history to left of this page.
Charlotte Higgins, "Ancient Greece, the Middle East and an ancient cultural internet," Education, The Guardian, July 11, 2013.
Andre Heller, "(PDF) Why the Greeks Know so Little about Assyrian and Babylonian History," chapter in Mesopotamia in the Ancient World-Impact, Continuities, Parallels, 2013, 331-348, Proceedings of the Seventh Symposium of the Melammu Project, Obergurgl, Austria, November 4-8, 2013, Melammu Symposia 7, published 2015.Uploaded to Academia by Andre Heller.
11:38 Video. John Green, "The Persians & Greeks: Crash Course World History #5," Crash Course World History, published on You Tube, February 23, 2012. Contrast of Greek civilization and the Persian Empire.
"Ancient Civilization of Persia: History and Culture of the Persian Empire," Ancient Civilizations World, January 12, 2017. Summary of Persian history and culture. See 'Home' tab for more resources, esp. for Greece and Rome.
7:56 Video. "Zoroastrianism," Ancient History Encyclopedia, Khan Academy, published September 25, 2017. Zoroastrianism flowered under the classical age of Cyrus the Great, 576-529 BCE.
49:23 Video. "Lost Worlds: Persia's Forgotten Empire," Timeline-World History Documentaries, published November 8, 2017. Focus on Persepolis.
Dattatreya Mandai, "Achaemenid Persian Empire: Origins, History, And Military," Realm of History, last updated November 5, 2019. 550-330 BCE.
Religion and Power-Divine Kingship in the Ancient World and Beyond, ed. Nicole Brisch, The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Oriental Institute Seminars, Number 4, Chicago, Illinois, 2008. See chapters in the 286-page Institute paper on Persia, Maya and Roman classical age Kingship.
8:42 Video. "The Parthian Empire," The Great Courses, published on You Tube May 10, 2018. Professor Kenneth W. Harl described the Parthians. 247 BCE-224 CE.
Mark Kenneth Gradoni, "(PDF) The Parthian Campaigns of Septimius Severus," Chapter 1 in The Roman Empire During the Severan Dynasty: Case Studies in History, Art, Architecture, Economy and Literature, Eric C. De Sena, ed., American Research Center in Sofia and John Cabot University, Rome, uploaded to Academia by Mark Kenneth Gradoni.
Geoffrey Greatrex, "(PDF) Roman Frontiers and Foreign Policy in the East," Aspects of the Roman East, Papers in Honour of Professor Fergus Millar, Richard Alston and Samuel N. C. Lieu, eds., Brepols, 2007, 103-173. Uploaded to Academia by Geoffrey Greatrex.
Touraj Daryaee and Khodadad Rezakhani, "The Sasanian Empire," Chapter in King of the Seven Climes-A History of the Ancient Iranian World (3000 BCE-651 CE), Touraj Daryaee, ed., UCI Jordan Center for Persian Studies, 2017, 155-197. Uploaded to Academia.
Scott McDonough, "Fighting the Other, Part III, Military and Society in Sasanian Iran," Impacts and Techniques: War in the Classical World, 2012, 601-620, uploaded to Academia by Scott McDonough.
Katarzyna Maksymiuk, "HISTORIA I AWIAT, 6, 2017, ISSN 2299-2464," Siedlce Nr 6/2017, Poland. See articles on Parthian Iran (Arscid Iran), Sasanian Iran and Rome, uploaded to Academia by Katarzyna Maksymiuk.
Khodad Rezakhani, "From the Kushans to the Western Turks," Chapter in King of the Seven Climes-A History of the Ancient Iranian World (3000 BCE-651 CE), Touraj Daryaee, ed. UCI Jordan Center for Persian Studies, 2017, 199-226. Uploaded to Academia.
Omar Coloru, Alexis Lycas, and Giusto Traina, "(PDF) The Sasanians," in M. Bernardini, G. Bonora, G. Traina (eds.), Turkmenistan. Histories of a Country, Cities and a Desert, Umberto Allemandi, Torino 2016, 59-66. Uploaded to Academia by Omar Coloru and Alexis Lycas.
Matthew P. Canepa, "The Two Eyes of the Earth--Art and Ritual of Kingship between Rome and Sasanian Iran," University of California Press, 2009, full book uploaded to Academia. See more papers and monographs on this topic to the right side of this page.ānsīh
Matthew P. Canepa, "Building a New Vision of the Past in the Sasanian Empire: The Sanctuaries of Kayansih and the Great Fires of Iran," Journal of Persianate Studies, 6, 2013, 64-90, uploaded to Academia by Matthew Canepa. Sasanian empire (224-642 CE) use of Zoroastrian religion in "new and built environments" to solidify power after supplanting the Arsacis (Parthians).
Jan Willem Drijvers, "Rome and the Sassanid Empire: Confrontation and Coexistence," Chapter 29, A Companion to Late Antiquity, P. Rousseau, ed., Malden-Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2009, 441-454, uploaded to Academia by Jan Willem Drijvers, November 25, 2008.
Katarzyna Maksymiuk, "Geography of Roman-Iranian wars. Military operations of Rome and Sasanian Iran," Siedlce, 2015. Uploaded to Academia by Katarzyna Maksymiuk. Book of annotated maps detailing military activity from 229 through 628 CE.
James Howard-Johnston, "Late Sasanian army," Chapter 7 in Late Antiquity: Eastern Perspectives, Teresa Bernheimer and Adam Silverstein, eds., E.J.W. Gibb Memorial Trust, 2012, 87-127, uploaded to Academia by James Howard-Johnston.Ērān_ud_Anērān._Studies_Presented_to_B._I._Maršak_1st_part_?email_work_card=title
"Eran ud Aneran. Studies Presented to B. I. Marsak, 1st part," eds., Matteo Compareti, etc., Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina, April 2006, uploaded to Academia by Matteo Compareti. Short papers on late Classical Iran and neighboring states in honor of B.I. Marsak's 70th birthday.
Matthew P. Canepa, "Distant Displays of Power: Understanding Cross-Cultural Interaction Among the Elites of Rome, Sasanian Iran, and Sui Tang China," ARS Orientalis 38, 2010. Uploaded to Academia by Matthew P. Canepa. Article analyzed the cultural processes of competitive interactions that unfolded among elites across Eurasia in late antiquity.
Scott McDonough, "(PDF) Fighting the Other, Part III Military and Society in Sasanian Iran (Uncorrected Proof)," in Brian Campbell and Larry A. Tritle, Oxford University Press Handbook of Warfare in the Classical World, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 601-620, uploaded to Academia by Scott McDonough, August 23, 2012. Sasanian Iran vs. Rome.
Anthony Comfort, "(PDF) Travelling between the Euphrates and the Tigris in Late Antiquity," Viae Romanae, Zurich, June 1-2, 2017, uploaded to Academia by Anthony Comfort. Southeastern Anatolia Roman roads, new evidence, new perspectives through three case studies.
"Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Persia," Fordham University Library. See resources on Persian classical history.
Nathan Cantu, "The Persian Royal Roads," STMU History Media, St. Mary's University, San Antonio, Texas, student media, November 13, 2016. Slim article on the Persian Royal Road. See "World History" tab at top of page for more Classical world history articles from this source.
Dominique Lenfant, "Greek Monographs on the Persian World: The Fourth Century BCE and its innovations," Chapter 9 in Giovanni Parmeggiani, ed., "Between Thucydides and Polybius: The Golden Age of Greek historiography. Lenfant analyzed Ctesias' Persica, the best-known Greek monograph on the Persian world written in the 4th century BCE.
Jason G. Goldman, "How Elephant Armies Built the Ancient World," Animals, March 17, 2014.
Touraj Daryaee, "'From Terror to Tactical Usage: Elephants in the Partho-Sasanian Period,' The Parthian and Early Sasanian Empires: Adaptation and Expansion, eds. V. Sarkhosh Curtis et. al, Oxford, 2016, 36-41," uploaded to Academia by Touraj Daryaee.
Dr. Kaveh Farrokh, "Archive for the 'Parthian Military History' category," Kaveh Farrokh website, February 9, 2014. Parthians (Arscid Iran) rose to power in 247 BCE and were replaced by the Sassanid empire in 223 CE. The Parthians fought many battles with the Romans and stopped Roman advancement east. See more from Dr. Farrokh's website on the Parthians:

"A Roman description of the Parthians or later Persians from Justin's History of the World," primary source document from Professor Nicholas C. J. Pappas, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas ancient history website.
Marek Jan Olbrycht, "Arscid Iran and the Nomads of Central Asia, Ways of Cultural Transfer," in Complexity of Interaction along the Eurasian Steppe Zone in the First Millennium CE, edited by Jan Bemmann and Michael Schmander, (Contributions to Asian Archaeology, Vol. 7), Bonn, 2015. Uploaded to Academia. Arscid Iran, 248 BCE-226 CE or Parthians, which saw a vibrant afterlife as the Sasanian Empire, 226-651 CE was described with their cultural links to the nomads of Central Asia.
Richard Payne, "'The Silk Road and the Iranian Political Economy in Late Antiquity,' Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 81 (2018): 227-250. " Uploaded to Academia by Richard Payne. The Iranian Empire emerged in the third century in the interstices of the Silk Road that increasingly linked the markets of the Mediterranean and the Near East with South, Central, and East Asia.
Barbara Kaim and Maja Kornacka, University of Warsaw, "Religious Landscape of the Ancient Merv Oasis, pdf," IRAN, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, 54, 2016, 47-72. Uploaded to Academia. Northeastern Iran city of Merv and its oasis from the Parthian period onward, 2nd century BCE through mid-seventh century CE which was a crossroads for traders and missionaries.
Byzantine Military blog, October 1, 2013. Website dedicated to the military history and civilization of the Eastern Roman Empire (330-1453 CE). See "Farmer's Law," 7th-8th centuries, Byzantine fortresses, defensive fortifications, images, photographs, maps.

Classical World in East, South and Southeast Asia

Historian Michael Aung-Thwin examines the meaning of the term "classical" for Southeast Asia in "The "Classical in Southeast Asia: The Present in the Past," in Perspectives on Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 26, Issue 1 (March 1995), 75-91.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art's resources on Classical Southeast Asia includes essays, works of art, and a chronology.
Asia for Educators "Timeline of Asia in World History, 1000 BCE-300 CE: Classical Traditions. Major Religions & Giant Empires." Includes parallel chronology and essays.
Book. History of Civilizations of Central Asia-The Crossroads of Civilization, AD 250-750, Vol. III, B. A. Litvinsky, ed., UNESCO Publishing, 1996, 558 pages, uploaded to Academia by Luigi Boeri.
Book. Jan Bemmann and Michael Schmauder, eds., "Complexity of Interaction Along the Eurasian Steppe Zone in the first millennium CE," Bonn Contributions to Asian Archaeology, Vol. 7, 2015, 708 pages. Uploaded to Academia by Jan Bemmann. See chapters on Classical civilizations and era. Book is out of print.
Internet History Sourcebooks Project. See especially "medieval India," which includes classical India and "Greek and Chinese sources" on India.
"The Art of War online," Sun Tzu, Ancient Military, 2010. Also, see Sun Tzu Chinese military leader, 544-496 BCE.
Nicholas C. Zakas, "Book Review of Art of War,", March 1, 2009. Comments on Sun Tzu and Sun Bin and Thomas Cleary's, "The Art of War: Complete Texts and Commentaries."
Xiangchu Fang, "Burning Books and Burying Scholars: On the Policies of the Short-lived Qin Dynasty in Ancient China (221-207 BC), International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science, Vol. 3, no. 7, September 2015, 54-61.
Yuen Ting Lee, "Ban Zhao: Scholar of Han Dynasty China," World History Connected, Vol. 9, no.1, February 2012. First women historian of classical China. See Han Dynasty website with 'topics' to the left of this page, Totally History.
"Han Dynasty Military," Totally History. Short article describing Han military, conscription and weapons.
Leo Timm, "Cuju: 2,000 Years of Ancient Chinese Soccer," The Epoch Times, September 6, 2015. According to FIFA, the earliest form of soccer was a Chinese invention dating back to classical China.
32:20 Video documentary, "Roman Empire VS Chinese Empire," Metatron, published on You Tube, January 10, 2019.
"Han China and Ancient Rome," China 360. See other resources as one navigates through this website from the China Institute.
Kenneth J. Hammond, "The Three Kingdoms Period: China's Golden Age of Adventure," from Lecture series: From Yao to Mao-5000 Years of Chinese History, The Great Courses Daily, December 1, 2017. After the last Han emperor was set aside (220 CE), China broke up into three successor states, Shu Han, Wei, and Wu, competing for power from 222-265 CE.
Justin Rowan, "The Rise of Buddhism in Politics and War," Samurai Archives. Essay with works cited page.
Professor Albert Dien, "The Stirrup and Its Effect on Chinese Military History," Silk Road Foundation @1997-2000. Essay including the stirrups effect on northern nomadic tribes with comparative to European feudal class development and Chinese professional military class.
Robin Yates, "The Development of Some Early Chinese Weapons," Needham Review Institute Newsletter, No. 16, February 1998. Scroll down page to see Robin Yates brief review of early Chinese hand weapons.
Angelo Andrea Di Castro, "The Barbarisation of Bactria," In Cultural Interaction in Afghanistan, c. 300 BCE to 300 CE, Working Paper 5, Centre of South Asian Studies, Monash University Press, Clayton, 2005. Role of Bactrian people in commercial and cultural exchange during Hellenistic and Kushan periods. Uploaded to Academia.
Rachel Mairs, "The Archaeology of the Hellenistic Far East: A Survey. Bactria, Central Asia and the Borderlands, c. 300 BCE-100 CE, Oxford: BAR International series 2196, 2011, 1-75, uploaded to Academia by Rachel Mairs. See more resources on this topic to the right of this page.
Etienne de la Vaissiere, "5 Central Asia and the Silk Road," in S. Johnson, ed., Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, Oxford University Press, 2012, 142-169, uploaded to Academia by Etienne de la Vaissiere.Śaka_and_Kuṣāṇa_Migration_Routes_in_Historical_Contexts?email_work_card=title
Jason Neelis, "Passages to India: Saka and Kusana Migration Routes in Historical Context," Chapter 3 in On the Cusp of an Era: Art in the Pre-Kusana World, ed. Doris M. Srinivasan, Leiden: Brill, 2007, 55-94, uploaded to Academia by Jason Neelis. Trade route, especially vibrant, during the classical era, extending from northern Iranian plateau and central steppes to South Asia.
Maria Slautina, "Telling the Sogdian Story: Sogdians the Cultural Bees of Central Asia, A Freer/Sackler Digital Exhibition Project, uploaded to Academia by Maria Slautina.
"The Glories of Sogdiana," Silk, no date. Introduction to Sogdia in Asia that existed from 6th century BCE to the 11th century CE.
Arwen R. Maier, "Empire Reimagined: Towards a New Definition-Sogdian Case Study (4th Century BCE-10th Century CE)," Thesis Paper, California State University, Long Beach, December 2019, uploaded to Academia by Arwen R. Maier. Sogdian influence in Classical world history has been ignored over time. Analysis of empires within historical scholarship had been controlled by Roman models. This thesis challenged the Roman model with a case study on central Asian Sogdians during the classical era.ākyā_an_analysis_of_Sogdian_Christianity_based_on_Archaeological_Numismatic_Epigraphic_and_
Barakatullo Ashurov, "Tarsakya an analysis of Sogdian Christianity based on Archaeological, Numismatic, Epigraphic, and Textual Sources," PhD Thesis, Department of the Study of Religions, SOAS, University of London, 2013. Late classical and early medieval Central Asian, "Persian Christianity" influence on the central steppe Sogdians. Uploaded to Academia.
Marek Jan Olbrycht, Krakow/Munster, "Parthia and Nomads of Central Asia. Elements of Steppe Origin in the Social and Military Development of Arsacid Iran," December 2003, seen in Academia. Marek Jan Olbrycht argued that Parthian cultural and military ethos made them equal to the Romans.
Christopher Berg, Sam Houston State University, Review of Erik Hildinger, "Warriors of the Steppe: A Military History of Central Asia 500 BC-1700 AD," Da Capo Press, 1997 [2001], 260 pp. seen in De Re Militari Book Reviews, page added August 2011.
Francis Henry Skrine and Edward Denison Ross, Full text of "The Heart of Asia: A History of Russian Turkestan and the Central Asian Khanates From the Earliest Times," 1899. Francis Skrine was an Indian Civil Service official and Edward Ross was Ph.D., Professor of Persian history at University College, London. Book was written in context of Russian advances in central Asia recalls central Asian military history from "earliest times" or 6th century BCE to the late 19th century.
"(PDF) Complexity of Interaction along the Eurasian steppe zone in the first millennium CE," Jan Bemmann and Michael Schmauder, eds., Bonn Contributions to Asian Archaeology, Vol. 7, 2015, 708 pages, uploaded to Academia by Jan Bemmann. See especially late Roman and Byzantine steppe interaction based on agriculture.
"Pre-Modern Swarming: Horse Archer Cases," Chapter 3, History Cases, Rand Corporation monograph part of larger study, 2000, "Swarming on the Battlefield: Past, Present and Future." This chapter introduces horse archer tactics begun in Central Asia by steppe warriors and then explains examples of successful swarming military tactics such as St. Clair's defeat 1791 North American Frontier, Ulm 1805, Boers 1888, U-boat Wolfpacks in WW I, and 1993 Somalia tactics in defeating American troops in Mogadishu. See entire monograph here:
Sean J. A. Edwards, ed., "Swarming on the Battlefield: Past, Present and Future, Rand Corporation, 2000.
Courtney Helion, "Horses in Ancient China," Asian Art Museum Blog, San Francisco, California, January 27, 2014. More information on the Heavenly Horses of the Ferghana Valley prized by the Chinese.
"Monomyth: Hero's Journey Project," ORIAS, Office of Resources for International and Area Studies, University of California, Berkeley. See esp. classical world resources for India's Ramayana and Japan's Prince Yamato from Joseph Campbell's Monomyth project which identified heroes in cultural narratives globally.
Maps. "The Mauryan and Gupta Empire Maps," Maps Catalog online blog, February 19, 2017. Many maps in power point format showing Mauryan and Gupta classical empires from 321 BCE-550 CE.
Sanujit, "Cultural links between India & the Greco-Roman world," Ancient History Encyclopedia, February 12, 2011.
Georgios T. Halkias, "When the Greeks Converted the Buddha: Asymmetrical Transfers of Knowledge in Indo-Greek Culture," in Religions and Trade-Religious Formation, Transformation and Cross-Cultural Exchange between East and West, Peter Wick and Volker Rabens, eds. Brill, 2014, 65-116. Uploaded to Academia by Georgios T. Halkias.
Bram Fauconnier, "Review: The Greek Experience of India by Richard Stoneman (Histos 13 (2019) li-lvii," Histos 13, 2019, uploaded to Academia by Bram Fauconnier. Book review of Richard Stoneman, The Greek Experience of India: From Alexander to the Indo-Greeks, Princeton University Press, 2019, 528 pages.
"Classical Era, 1000 BCE to 300 CE: Contacts and Trade Expand," Indian Ocean history. Slim page and a half 'Historical Overview' of Indian Ocean in the Classical age.
Roger Boesche, "Kautilya's Arthasastra on War and Diplomacy," The Journal of Military History, Vol. 67, No. 1, January 2003, pp. 9-37 (article), published by Society for Military History, Project MUSE. Kautilya, Indian adviser to Kings, 317-293 BCE wrote this classic work on political, military and diplomatic strategies.
"Mauryan Military System," The Indian History, ancient. Short article summarizing Mauryan India military.
59:02 Video Documentary. "Ages of Gold- Story of India," Episode 4, BBC, published on You Tube, December 20, 2013. Michael Wood explains the classical golden age of India. See PBS timeline and resources for episode 4:
"The Classical Period of Ancient India," Time Maps, no date. Classic Age of ancient India roughly corresponded to that of ancient Greece, 700 BCE-350 BCE. Slim introductory article for classical India.
Manali S. Deshpande, "History of the Indian Caste System and Its Impact on India Today," Senior Project, Social Science Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, Fall 2010, published in Digital Commons, Cal Poly education. See especially how India's caste system moved many lower caste Hindus to Buddhism in the Classical era.
Chuky Kyaping, "The Unintended Legacy of Hellenism: The Development and Dissemination of the Buddha Image," History Honors Paper, Digital Commons at Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, 2016, 81 pages. The first images of an anthropomorphic Buddha in the first and second century CE.āra_and_Beyond?
Angelo Andrea Di Castro, "Crowns, Horns, and Goddesses: Appropriation of Symbols in Gandhara and Beyond," Chapter 2 in Conceiving the Goddess Transformation and Appropriation in Indic Religions, Bhalchandra Bapat and Ian Mabbett, eds., Monash University Publishing, 2017, uploaded to Academia. Di Castro described Indian, Hellenistic, Kusana and Gupta goddesses as 'syncretic artistic language,' stretching from the Mediterranean to East Asia during the 2nd century BCE to the 6th century CE.
Lesson Module. "The Guptas and Their Successors (A.D. 300-750)," History 101., download, no date.
Rijaz Kathjoo, "Life in Gupta Period," Green Valley Educational Institute, Kashmir, ed. by Junaid Qadri, no date, 10-page summary for Class 11th, Arts History.
Gupta simulation, Teaching Materials, Stewart Gordon website. Students role play Gupta factions in conflict. South Asian and world historian Stewart Gordon simulation on Gupta factions in conflict.
Nandana Chutiwongs, "The Trade Routes and the Diffusion of Artistic Traditions in South and Southeast Asia," Silk Roads, UNESCO, 272-286, no date.
8:06 Video. "The Kushan Empire That Connected East and West," Squarespace website, published on You Tube, June 17, 2019.
Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, and Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, "A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture, Oxford University Press, 2004, 340 pages. Uploaded to
Thomas R. Martin, Ancient Greece From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times, 2nd edition, Yale University Press, 1996, updated 2000 and 2013, uploaded to Academia by Dimitry Pertsev.
Kathryn Lomas, "Beyond Magna Graecia: Greeks and Non-Greeks in France, Spain and Italy," Chapter 10 (174-196) in A Companion to the Classical World, ed. Konrad H. Kinzl, Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Entire book uploaded to Academia by Kathryn Lomas. Chapters on the Greek Classical world.
Simon Hornblower, The Greek World-479-323 BCE, 4th ed., Routledge History of the Ancient World, 2011, uploaded to Academia.
54:58 Video documentary, Episode 1, "The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization-Revolution," PBS, 2000, Top Documentary Films.
55:01 Video documentary, Episode 2, "The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization-Golden Age," PBS, 2000, published on You Tube February 15, 2014.
55:02 Video Documentary, Episode 3, "The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization-Empire of the Mind," PBS, 2000, published on You Tube, February 15, 2014. See PBS educational resources and Lessons for this documentary series below:
Lesson Plans/Educational Resources for "The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization," PBS, 2000.
Oedipus the King, BBC, 1986, 1:54:28. Published on You Tube, February 13, 2018.
Book Review. Kirk Ormand, Oberlin College, "The Ancient World in the Cinema, revised and expanded edition, by Jon Solomon," Yale University, 2001, seen in Byrn Mawr Classical Review, January 8, 2002. Heavily American and Eurocentric cinema examples.
"Greek Interaction with East Africa," World History, May 21, 2017. East African commercial interest by the Greeks had existed as early as the eighteenth-century BCE with Egypt being the middleman.
"The History of Ancient Greece Podcast," Podcast series covering Greek and Hellenistic history, politics, culture.
Gregory M. Miller, "European History to 1600: The Fall of Athens and the End of the Greek Golden Age," Euro History blog, September18, 2012. Much of this blog post described the Greek Golden Age. See more blog posts to the right of this page on Greek history.
Eleni Krikon, "Theseus and the Tyrannicides in the Persian Wars: Hero-Cult as a Linking Means between Military Might and Constitution in Early-Fifth-Century Athens," Classical and Byzantine Monographs, G. Giangrande and H. White, eds., Adolf M. Hakkert publisher, Amsterdam, 2019, 101-135, uploaded to Academia by Eleni Krikon.
Mark Kindrachuk, "Bibliography: Greek warfare," uploaded to Academia by Mark Kindrachuk, University of Saskatchewan.
"Homerica: The Battle of Frogs and Mice," translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White [1914], Sacred Texts. Short poetic parody of The Iliad attributed to Homer. See tabs at top of page for more 'sacred texts.'
John Serrati, "Warfare and the State," Chapter 14, The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare, Greece, the Hellenistic world and the rise of Rome," Philip Sabin, et. al., eds., Vol. 1, 2008. Uploaded to Academia by John Serrati. See more monographs and papers on this topic to the right of this page.
Christopher Leslie Brown and Philip D. Morgan, ed., "Arming Slaves: From Classical Times to the Modern Age," Yale University Press, 2006. Series of monographs on empires and states arming slaves over time beginning with the helots in classical Greece.
Sulochana R. Asirvatham, "Perspectives on the Macedonians From Greece, Rome and Beyond," in A Companion to Ancient Macedonia, Joseph Roisman and Ian Worthington, Blackwell Publishing, Wiley Online Library, 2010, uploaded to Academia by Sulochana R. Asirvatham.
Mads Ortving Lindhomer, "(PDF) The Assassination of Philip II: An Elusive Mastermind," Palamedes II-A Journal of Ancient History, 2016. Uploaded to Academia by Mads Lindhomer. Consideration of theories as to the assassination of Alexander the Great's father, Philip II, with a consideration toward Persian complicity.
Waldemar Heckel, University of Calgary, Canada, "The Conquests of Alexander the Great," Cambridge University Press, 2008. Entire book uploaded to Academia.
David "Alexander the Great-Lessons in Strategy," Routledge, 2007. David Lonsdale's book is part of "Strategy and History," series, eds., Colin Gray and Williamson Murray, Routledge publishing.
Jake Nabel, "Alexander between Rome and Persia: Politics, Ideology, and History," in K. Moore, ed., Brill's Companion to the Reception of Alexander the Great, 2018, Leiden: Brill, 197-232. Uploaded to Academia by Jake Nabel.
Joshua J. Mark, "The Hellenistic World: The World of Alexander the Great," Ancient History Encyclopedia, November 2018.
Glenn R. Bugh, ed., "The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World," Cambridge Collections Online @ Cambridge University Press, 2007. Uploaded to Academia. Chapters on the Hellenistic World from Alexander to Cleopatra.
Sergey Vnukov, "(PDF) Foreign Trade in the Black Sea Region and the Formation of the Pontic Market from the First Century BCE to the Third Century CE," Chapter 5 in Valeriya Kozlovskaya, ed., The Northern Black Sea in Antiquity-Networks, Connectivity, and Cultural Interactions, Cambridge University Press, 2017, uploaded to Academia by Sergey Vnukov. Note, especially Black Sea interactions with Pontic Greeks and classical Hellenistic Greece.
Gocha R. Tsetskhladze, "Greek Colonization of the Eastern Black Sea Littoral (Colchis), Dialogues d'histoire Ancienne, seen in Persee, France, 1992, 223-258.
Thucydides, "The History of the Peloponnesian War," MIT Classics, written in 431 BCE, translated by Richard Crawley. Thucydides' history is divided into eight books which can be downloaded from this MIT website.
"Xenophon: The Anabasis or march up country," Paul Halsall Ancient History Primary Sources, Fordham University. Xenophon, born 431 BCE, pupil of Socrates, exiled from Athens, moves to Sparta where he details in seven books the Spartan military expedition to aid Cyrus in Persia from 401 BCE-399 BCE. See more on Xenophon below:
"Xenophon," See a biography of Xenophon followed by links to his writings/works.
B.F. Barker, "From the Scamander to Syracuse. Studies in Ancient Logistics," Paper completed for Masters of Art with Specialization in Ancient Languages and Cultures, University of South Africa, November 2005. This 95-page master's paper discusses logistics and supply during the Persian invasion of Greece, Athenian need for timber supplies to build ships, the Syracuse assault and Alexanders march from Greece to Asia.
"Conflict in the Peloponnese: Social, Military and Intellectual," Proceedings of the 2nd CSPS PG and Early Career Conference, March 22-24, 2013, The Centre for Spartan & Peloponnesian Studies Online Publication 4, published online 2018. See short papers, many on Sparta. Uploaded to Academia by Vasiliki Brouma, University of Nottingham.
"The History of Herodotus," by Herodotus, The Internet Classic Archive, MIT. Translated by George Rawlinson. See Books I-IX.
5:29 Animated Video. Massimo Pigliucci, "The philosophy of Stoicism," Ted Ed, published on You Tube, June 19, 2017. Zeno of Cyprus 300 BCE.
18:38 Video lecture. Massimo Pigliucci, "Stoicism as a philosophy for an ordinary life," TEDxAthens, published on You Tube, September 25, 2018.
8:00 Video. "The Death of Socrates," Aeon, Video, March 2020. Can philosophy and morals be transmitted through a painting? A deconstruction/analysis of painting. See Jacque-Louis David neoclassical painting, "The Death of Socrates," (1787) portraying the 399 BCE city-state ordered 'execution' of Socrates. Students could contextualize the 1787 painting and source the image.

Ian Morris, "The Growth of Greek Cities in the first millennium BC," Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in the Classics, December 2005. &rep=rep1&type=pdf
Azar Gat, "Why City-States Existed? Riddles and Clues of Urbanization and Fortifications," published in Mogens H. Hansen, A Comparative Study of Six City-State Cultures, Copenhagen: The Danish Royal Academy, 2002, 125-138. Note focus on Classical Greek city states.
Laurialan Reitzammer, "For the Ancient Greeks, Immigrants Were Both a Boon and Threat to Homeland Security," Essay, Zocalo Public Square, April 10, 2017. For the ancient Greeks immigrants were welcome, but "Barbarians" were not.
Emily Whitmore, "Helots Vs. Slaves - Ancient Greek Society," 2014, 1-9, uploaded to Academia by Emily Whitmore.
4:51 Video. Melissa Schwartzberg, "What did democracy really mean in Athens?" Ted Ed Lessons, March 24, 2015. The Athenian 'lottery system.'
4:21 Video. "Why Socrates Hated Democracy," The School of Life, UK, November 28, 2016.
Stephen Hodkinson, "Transforming Sparta: New Approaches to the study of Spartan society (2015)," Ancient History: Resources for Teachers, Vol. 41-44, 2011-2014, Macquarie Ancient History Association, Macquarie University, 1-41. Uploaded to Academia by Stephen Hodkinson.
Syllabus. History 374, Classical Greece and Rome, King's College, Wilkes-Barre, PA., Spring 2006.
"In Ancient Greek Thought, Plagues Follow Bad Leadership," Informed Comment, March 2020.
Book Review. Elizabeth LaFray, "The Symptom and the Subject: The Emergence of the Physical Body in Ancient Greece," , Vol. 44, 2011. Review of Brooke Holmes, The Symptom and the Subject, Princeton University Press, 2010, 355 pages.
Wu Mingrew, "Doryphoros: Greek Art Imitating Ideal Form," Ancient Origins, April 23, 2018. Focus on Greek ideal form evidenced by bronze 5th century BCE sculptor Polykleitos. See embedded 5:07 video. FORM=VIRE
14:24 Documentary Video. "Phidias, Parthenon sculptures," Smart History, published on You Tube, January 20, 2018. A look at the architecture of Phidias, 490-430 BCE, including Zeus at Olympia and The Parthenon. See other Greek architecture videos below this resource.
Liam Heneghan, "A Place of Silence," Aeon, Essays, February 23, 2020. Our cities are filled by the hubbub of human-made noise. Where shall we find the quietness we need to nurture our spirit? Heneghan described ancient Athens as example for this essay.
Matthew Wills, "How do we know that epic poems were recited from memory," JSTOR Daily, February 28, 2020. In a pre-literate society could long epic poems like The Iliad and The Odyssey been memorized and passed on in oral presentations? See two other articles at end of this slim piece as to oral memory and classical epic poems. Ancient_World
Zinon Papakonstantinou, "Prologue-Sport in the Cultures of the Ancient World," The International Journal of the History of Sport, Vol. 26, no. 2, February 2009, 141-148. Uploaded to Academia by Zinon Papakonstantinou. Focus on the Greek Olympics. Papakonstantinou summarized the chapters, seen in resource below, in the Prologue for this edition of sport in classical world cultures.
Zinon Papakonstantinou, "Sport in the Cultures of the Ancient World-New Perspectives," edited by Zinon Papakonstantinou, Routledge, 2012. Uploaded to Academia by Zinon Papakonstantinou.
Zinon Papakonstantinou, "Epilogue: Fresh Perspectives on Ancient Sport," seen in Sport in the Cultures of the Ancient World-New Perspectives, Routledge, 2012. Uploaded to Academia by Zinon Papakonstantinou.
Book Review. Matthew Sears, Review of David Pritchard, Athenian Democracy at War, Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press, 2019, 287 pages, Bryn Mawr Classical Review, February 12, 2020. Athenian democracy and war, including comments on Athenian sports as training for warfare.
John Haberstroh, "Ancient Greek Long-Distance Runners: The Cross-Section of Athletics, Religion and the Military," Spring 2012, uploaded to Academia by John Haberstroh.
Mark Cartwright, "Wine in the Ancient Mediterranean," Ancient History Encyclopedia, August 21, 2016.
Book review. Enrico Medda, Review of N.J. Sewell-Rutter, Guilt by Descent: Moral Inheritance and Decision Making in Greek Tragedy, Oxford Classical Monographs, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, 202 pages. Focus of book was supernatural and human causation in Greek tragedy.

Christine A. Smith, "Plague in the Ancient World-A Study from Thucydides to Justinian," The Student History Journal, 1996-1997, Vol. XXVIII, Loyola University, New Orleans, History Department.
John Horgan, "The Plague at Athens, 430-427 BCE," Ancient Encyclopedia, August 24, 2016.
Astrid Lindenlauf, "Thrown Away Like Rubbish-Disposal of the Dead in Ancient Greece," Papers from the Institute of Archaeology, Bryn Mawr College, Issue 12, 2001, 86-99.
Jason Daley, "Did the Ancient Greeks Engage in Human Sacrifice?" Smithsonian, August 12, 2016. Remains uncovered at an altar to Zeus on Mount Lykaion may confirm legends about human sacrifice at the shrine. Podcasts. "1- In the Beginning," The History of Rome, July 27, 2007. See many other episodes above title of podcast in this case, see Episode 2, "Youthful Indiscretions."
5:59:51 podcast. "The Celtic Holocaust," Dan Carlin Hardcore History 60, August 9, 2017. Julius Caesar is travel guide through the Roman plundering of Celtic Gaul. Claudia I. Arno, "How Romans Became 'Roman': Creating Identity in an Expanding World," PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 2012, Deep Blue-University of Michigan Library.
Book Review. Marianne McDonald, University of California, San Diego, "Projecting the Past: Ancient Rome, Cinema and History, by Maria Wyke, London: Routledge, 1997, seen in Bryn Mawr Classical Review, November 16, 1997.
5:12 Video. "Daily life in Ancient Rome," Discovery Education. Comparison of wealthy and average Roman daily life.
Erlend D. MacGillivray, "The Popularity of Epicureanism in Late-Republic Roman Society," The Ancient World, XLIII, 2012, 151-172, uploaded to Academia by Erlend MacGillivray.
David John Colwill, "'Genocide' and Rome, 343-146 BCE: State expansion and the social dynamics of annihilation," PhD thesis in Ancient History, Cardiff University, 2017.
Walter Scheidel, "(PDF) Roman Wealth and Wealth Inequality in Comparative Perspective," Working Paper, Stanford University, Version 1, September 2019, uploaded to Academia by Walter Scheidel.

Walter Scheidel, "Republics between hegemony and Empire: How Ancient City States built empires and the USA doesn't (anymore),"Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in the Classics, February 2006.
Introduction/Index, "The Roman Empire: In the First Century," PBS, 2006. See those documentaries below:
Book Review. Jordan F. Slavik, "Pax Romana: War, Peace and Conquest in the Ancient World," <essays in history>, Vol. 51, 2018. Review of Adrian Goldsworthy, Pax Romana: War, Peace and Conquest in the Ancient World, Yale University Press, 2016, 528 pages.
Google Book-Patricia Southern, ""The Roman Army: A Social and Institutional History," ABC-Clio, 2006, 383 pp. See 4 short reviews of book and another below.
Book Review of Patricia Southern, ""The Roman Army: A Social and Institutional History," Oxford University Press, 2007, 330 pp., by Roman Empire UNRV History Website-Roman Empire blogger "Ursus." This reviewer gives high marks, "a gem," to Southern's book on Roman army for her analysis of sources used, bibliography and superb prose. Dr. Southern is a librarian by trade with a History and Archaeology degree from London University and then on to teach British frontier studies at University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Reviews of Southern's book in other sites, like good reads are not as sterling.
William Stuart Messer, "Mutiny in the Roman Army, The Republic," Classical Philology, XV, April 1920 seen in Internet Archives, JSTOR. Read Dartmouth's Dr. Messer's monograph like a Kindle book.
D.S. Potter, University of Michigan, Review of Ben Isaac, "The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East," Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, 492 pp., Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Dr. Isaac questions the Roman Empire having a 'grand strategy' for the defense of the empire which led to problems along the frontiers.
John Harrel, "The Nisibis War (337-363 CE): The Strategic Defense of The Roman Orient," MA Thesis, History, California State University, Northridge, December 2012. Rome versus the Sassanid empire and that war's impact on the defense of Rome's Eastern Provinces.
"Eastern Religions in the Roman World," Essay, Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, April 2007.
Octavian Bounegru, "The Black Sea Area in the Trade System of the Roman Empire," Euxeinos 14, 2014. Nine-page description of Roman Black Sea trade.
Yozan Mosig, "Propaganda and War in the Roman World: The Demonizing of Hannibal and the Carthaginians," The History Herald, December 9, 2012. Roman propaganda to support their military and demean Hannibal and Carthage during the Punic Wars.
"Polybius," Wikipedia. Greek historian, 264-146 BCE, who formed personal friendship with Roman military commander Scipio Aemilianus and accepted Roman culture, wrote "The Histories" which was a detailed account of Rome's rise to power and was eye witness to sack of Carthage. Would Polybius be an embedded military journalist?
Bill Thayer, "Roman Military History," University of Chicago, last updated November 14, 2013. See websites, resources for Roman military history.

Walter Scheidel, "The Roman Slave Supply," Version 1.0, Stanford University, May 2007. Many Roman slaves were military captives including entire city populations conquered by Roman armies.
Gregory G. Bolich, "Military Technology-Using a Cloud of Dust in Ancient Warfare," Military History Quarterly online June 12, 2006 originally published in MHQ Autumn 2004. The Romans learned from Hannibal at the 216 BCE battle of Cannae about maneuvering the enemy forces into facing sun, wind and dust.
Joshua L. Mark, "Carthage," Ancient History Encyclopedia, April 28, 2011. Military history of Carthage in North Africa. See other articles beneath this essay for more on this topic.
"A Real Letter from a Roman Soldier," Great Names in History, 100 Falcons blog, November 25, 2009. A young Alexandrian Egyptian, Apion, enlisted in the Roman army in the second century CE and survives a terrible storm in voyage to Italy to receive his uniform and pay. See his letter, in Greek, to his father back in Egypt.
See concise summary of Jugurthine War in, United Nations of Roma Victrix website. Rome vs. Carthaginians in Africa. See UNRV website home page:
LTC William T. Sorrells, "Insurgency in Ancient Times: The Jewish Revolts Against the Seleucid and Roman Empires, 163 BC-73 AD,"A Monograph, School of Advanced Military Studies US Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 26, 2005.
Andrew J. Schoenfeld, "Sons of Israel in Caesar's Service: Jewish Soldiers in the Roman Military," Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, Spring 2006, pp. 115-126, published by Purdue University Press. Seen in
Marisa Elana James, "The Jew Who Pulled Down the Walls: Tiberius Julius Between Alexandria and Jerusalem," Rabbinic Civ I Final Paper, January 19, 2012. Egyptian Jew who was a Roman Governor and General.
Merlin Miller, "Arminius: The Liberator of Europe," Barnes Review, September/October 2009. Merlin Miller contends that 2000 years ago, September 9-11, 9 CE, that Arminius and his soldiers destroyed three Roman legions and gave birth to Europe.
"Ancient Slavs" Ancient Military, 2012. Summary of ancient Slav military and their attacks into a weakened Roman empire. See links on left side of page for many other summaries of ancient militaries and weapons.
"Just War Theory," Wikipedia. First begun as philosophical discourse in Roman times.
Alexander Moseley, "Just War Theory," Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Dr. Neil Faulkner, "Overview: Roman Britain, 43-410 AD," BBC History, March 29, 2011. See Britain tribes the Romans encountered in their military "colonization:"
"Britain Tribes," BBC History. This brief description of British tribes who encountered the Romans come from Roman sources, Tacitus, Roman historian and a Roman geographer named Ptolemy.,8599,1879350,00.html
Ishaan Tharoor, "Why Chemical Warfare Is Ancient History," Time, February 13, 2009. British archaeologists find that a 256 CE battle saw Roman soldiers dying in a tunnel due to an early gas and bitumen weapon.
"Victori-The Roman Military" website developed by three 15 year old high school students in Pennsylvania for the 1998 Think Quest competition. See tabs for Tools of war, Strategy and Tactics, Military and the People, History, Teacher Resources, and Links.
Book Review. Cedric Brelaz, Policing the Roman Empire, by Christopher J. Fuhrmann, Bryn Mawr Classical Review, September 13, 2012. Roman law enforcement throughout all of the empire (27 BCE-260 CE).
Fuhrmann Full CV, updated September 2019, uploaded to Academia by Christopher Fuhrmann. Note Fuhrmann's history, "Policing the Roman Empire," 2012 with review links.
Book review. John Phillips, "Robert Knapp's Invisible Romans: Prostitutes, Outlaws, Slaves, Gladiators, Ordinary Men and Women. The Romans That History Forgot," Southern Humanities Review, December 1, 2015.
Book description, summary of Chapters, "Invisible Romans," by Robert Knapp, JSTOR. Roman history has centered on the elite. Robert Knapp brought to light the laboring men, housewives, prostitutes, freedmen, slaves, soldiers and gladiators who formed the backbone of ancient Rome. Knapp included outlaws and pirates who lay beyond it.

Walter Scheidel, "The Comparative Economics of slavery in the Greco-Roman world," Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics, Version 1.0, November 2005.
"Sacrifice in the Roman World," Eagles and Dragons Publishing, January 20, 2018.
Mark Kindrachuk, "Bibliography: Roman warfare," uploaded to Academia by Mark Kindrachuk, University of Saskatchewan.
Melissa Beck, "Review: Augustus by John Edward Williams, The Book Binders Daughter blog, August 6, 2014. An "epistolary," historical fiction about Emperor Augustus. Epistolary literature is written as a series of documents such as letters by one of the characters.
Description of "Augustus," by John Williams, The NY Review of Books. Augustus reigned from 27 BCE-14 CE and was founder of the Roman Principate.
Roy Gibson, "The mystery of the Elder Pliny's skull," Oxford University Publishing blog, March 20, 2020. The Elder Pliny, author of Rome's great encyclopedia, Natural History, was commander of the Misene fleet 19 miles from Vesuvius in 79 CE.
Barnaby Rogerson, "The Emperor from Africa," Aramco World, January 2020. Septimius Severus (193-211 CE) was Libyan born.
Joroen Wijnendaele, "Late Roman Civil War and the African Grain Supply," Journal of Late Antiquity, Vol. 12, no. 2, Fall 2019, uploaded to Academia by Joroen Wijnendaele.
Book Review. Sarah E. Phang, review of Laura K. McClure, ed., Sexuality and Gender in the Classical World: Readings and Sources, Oxford, UK/Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2002, 318 pages.'s(2003).pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
M. Masango, "Aristotle's philosophical influence on Western civilization, history and theology placed women in inferior positions," Verbum Et Ecclesia, Jrg. Vol. 24, no. 2, 2003, 417-438.
Claire Catenaccio, "Blog: Women in Classics: A Conversation with SCS President-Elect Shelley Haley: Part I," Classical Studies, January 9, 2020. See Part II which adds to women and Haley interest in race in the Classical world:
James C. Thompson, "Women in the Ancient World," site revised July 2010. Status, role and daily life of women in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Rome, Athens, Israel and Babylon.
Judy Gaughan, "Women in Classical Athens and Sparta," Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media, Women in World History Teaching Case Studies. Using primary sources to teach about women in classical Athens and Sparta.
10:37 Video. "Comparative roles of women in Rome and Han China," Khan Academy, World History. Discussion with Khan Academy World History Fellow Eman Elshaikh. Lesson module.
Gregory S. Aldrete, "The Role of Women in Ancient Rome-Piecing Together a Historical Picture," from the Lecture Series: The Rise of Rome, The Great Courses Daily, April 26, 2018.
Book Review. W. Ralph Eubanks, "How History and Hollywood Got 'Cleopatra' Wrong," NPR, November 1, 2010. Interview with Stacy Schiff on her biography, Cleopatra: A Life, 384 pages.
Yuen Ting Lee, "Ban Zhao: Scholar of Han Dynasty China," World History Connected, Vol. 9, no. 1, February 2012.
Michelle R. Pedersen, "The Powerful, Intelligent, and Capable Ancient Female Rulers: Comparing Pharaoh Cleopatra and Empress Wu Zetian," Chinese Culture, History and Society, November 2019, uploaded to Academia by Michelle Pedersen.
Marc Jason Gilbert, "When Heroism is Not Enough: Three Women Warriors of Vietnam, Their Historians and World History," World History Connected, Vol. 4, No. 3, June 2007. Dr. Gilbert, Hawaii Pacific University, portrayed Vietnamese women warriors, The Trung sisters and Trieu Thi Trinh (Lady Trieu) 225-248 CE. See Endnotes for more resources for global women warriors, African, native American, etc.
30:23 Video Lecture, Joyce E. Salisbury, "Trung Sisters of Vietnam Fight the Han," from lecture series, "Warriors, Queens, and Intellectuals: 36 Great Women before 1400," The Great Courses Daily. Vietnam's legendary Trung sisters (b. 25 CE) led fight against the expansionist Han dynasty. See summary of that series below:
Scott Rubarth, "Competing Constructions of Masculinity in Ancient Greece," Athens Journal of Humanities & Arts, Vol. 1, Issue 1, January 2014, 21-32. Three competing models of gender and what it meant to be a man in Classical and Post-Classical Greece Athenian civic, Spartan martial, and Stoic philosophical models.
Book Review. Charles Sarvan, "From Shame to Sin by Kyle Harper," Groundviews, February 13, 2016. Review of From Shame to Sin-The Christian Transformation of Sexual Morality in Late Antiquity. Change over time in sexual attitudes from the Romans to early Christians. Note reference to Mark Golden and Peter Toohey, A Cultural History of Sexuality in the Classical World, 2011.
Lin Foxhall, "Gender and the Study of Classical Antiquity," Chapter 1, Introduction to Study of Gender in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge University Press (10-page pdf) seen in Semantic Scholar. See table "Articles in American Journal of Philology, Classical Quarterly and Historia on women and gender, 1970-1985.

Bibliography. "Resources-Ancient Sexuality and Gender," University of Binghamton, Andrew Scholtz, Instructor, last updated December 11, 2013. Mostly Greek sources.
N.S. Gill, "Types of Eunuchs in the Roman Empire,", July 18, 2018.
Cheryl Morgan, "Earinus: A Roman Civil Rights Activist?" History Matters, University of Sheffield, UK, no date. Eunuchs in Rome and Byzantium.
Book Review. Dimitri Nakassis, "Review of Barbara A. Olsen, Women in Mycenaean Greece: The Linear B Tablets from Pylos and Knossos," Routledge, 2014, 380 pages, Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 2015.03.45.
Boudicca: Resistance to Roman Rule, Home page for, moderated by Daniel Osman. See primary sources, videos, film about the Celtic Iceni warrior Queen who led major rebellion against occupying Roman forces, 60 CE.
Halley Sutton, "The evolution of the femme fatale in film Noir," Crime Reads, December 5, 2019. Film Noir, according to Halley Sutton, has the best developed femme fatale characters, yet the Biblical Eve, Ishtar, the Sirens, Medusa, and Circe also qualify outside that art realm. Anywhere a hero, usually a man, needs a test or scapegoat, you'll find her.
Alan Roberts, "Confucian Patriarchy and the Allure of Communism in China," Not Even Past, posted December 5, 2018.
Barbara O'Brien, "The Historical Buddha's Disciples-The First Generation," Learn Religions, updated June 25, 2019. Note first female Buddhist nuns in early classical India.
Podcast interview. Alex Carroll, "Dr. Alice Collett, 'Lives of Early Buddhist Nuns: Biographies as History,' (Oxford UP, 2016), New Books Network, January 16, 2020. Biographies of earliest Buddhist nuns revealed gender relations in early classical India.
Lawrence Wright, "Palmyra, from Zenobia to ISIS," The New Yorker, July 12, 2015. Zenobia, Palmyran Queen and Roman empire nemesis, came to power in 267/268 CE.
Judith Weingarten, "Zenobia: Empress of the East: A Woman Will Be King," Judith Weingarten blog, July 31, 2010. Boran, Sasanian Queen. Weingarten cited Professor Haleh Emrani (University of California, Los Angeles), "Like Father, Like Daughter: Late Sasanian Imperial Ideology & the Rise of Boran to Power."
Haleh Emrani, (PDF) Like Father, Like Daughter: Late Sasanian Imperial Ideology & the Rise of Boran to Power," e-Sasanika 5, 2009, uploaded to Academia by Haleh Emrani. Boran, Sasanian Queen 628 CE.
Mehrdad Mohammadi, "(PDF) The Last Ruling Woman of Eransahr: Queen Azarmigduxt," uploaded to Academia by Mehrdad Mohammadi. Sasanian Queen 631-632 CE.
Mohadese Malekan and Yaghoub Mohammadifar, "(PDF) A Study of the Imagery and Place of Woman in Sasanian period. Sigillographic Evidence," Sasanika Archaeology 14, 2013, uploaded to Academia by Yaghoub Mohammadifar.
Irene Madreiter and Udo Hartmann, "Women at the Arsacid court (draft)," to be published in The Routledge Companion in Women and Monarchy in the Ancient Mediterranean. Arsacid court, 247 BCE, formed the Parthian empire in northeastern Iran and archenemies of Rome. Uploaded to Academia by Irene Madreiter.

Race and Ethnicity in the Classical World
"Race and Ethnicity in the Classical World-An Anthology of Primary Sources in Translation," Selected and Translated by Rebecca F. Kennedy, C. Sydnor Roy, and Max L. Goldman, Hackett Publishing, 2013.
Book Review. Tristan Samuels, "Review of Race and Ethnicity in the Classical World," Rosetta 16, 2014, 60-65. Uploaded to Academia by Tristan Samuels. Review of Rebecca Futo Kennedy, et. al., eds., Race and Ethnicity in the Classical World. An Anthology of Primary Sources in Translation, Indiana: Hackett Publishing, 2013, 405 pages.
1:55:56 Video. "Race and Ethnicity in the Ancient Mediterranean," The History of Ancient Greece Podcast, September 24, 2019. Interview with Dr. Rebecca Futo Kennedy, Denison University, Ohio, covering gender, race and identity in classical antiquity including effects on current growing white supremacist cultures.
Jyoti Mohan, "The Glory of Ancient India Stems from her Aryan Blood: French anthropologists 'construct' the racial history of India for the world," Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 50, Issue 5, September 2016, published online by Cambridge University Press, March 26, 2016, 1576-1618.
Frank Dikotter, "Nationalist Myth-making: The Construction of the Chinese Race," Human rights in China, HRIC, April 27, 2001. Han Chinese.
Sarah Emily Bond, "Hold my Mead: A Bibliography for historians hitting back at white supremacy," History from Below-Daily Life in the Ancient and Early Medieval Mediterranean website, September 10, 2017. See bibliography relating to classical antiquity race and ethnic identity and its use by a 21st century growing white supremacy.
Guillaume Durocher, "Culture and Nationhood in the World of Herodotus: An Evolutionary Analysis, Part I," The Occidental Observer, July 8, 2017.
Martin Aurelio, "The Four Elements of National Identity in Herodotus," Martin Aurelio blog, June 11, 2016. The Western identity comes from Herodotus' Histories, written in the 5th century BCE.
Vidisha Khaitan, "Medea's Didacticism," O Captain! My Captain! online literature blog, January 8, 2017. Euripides' Medea, first performed in 431 BCE has Medea portraying gender and the Other role in Athenian society. The text was lost and rediscovered in 1st Century CE Rome and adapted by many Roman dramatists.
Jon Harrison Sims, "What Race Were the Greeks and Romans?" American Renaissance, October 2010.

"Tacitus' Germania, W. Stevens, History 331, Richmond University, no date.
Emily T. Simon, "Ancient text has long and dangerous reach," Harvard Gazette, February 21, 2008. Tacitus' Germania used by Nazi propagandists in 20th century.
Brenda Marina Fields, "Sallust's Bellum Jugurthinum: Reading Jugurtha as the Other," MA thesis, University of Florida, 2007.
Book review. James E. G. Zetzel, "Renato Oniga, Sallustio e l'etnografia. Biblioteca di Materiali e discussion per I'analisi dei testi classici 12. Pisa: Giardini editori, 1995, Pp. 147," Byrn Mawr Classical Review. Ancient ethnography of north Africa by Sallust, Bellum Jugurthinum 17-19.
James Thomas Chlup, "Beyond the Foreigner: representations of non-Roman individuals and communities in Latin historiography, from Sallust to Ammianus Marcellinus," PhD Thesis, Durham University E-Theses, 2004. Click on red tab "Get PDF (13 MB)" tab to see thesis paper.

Collapse of Classical Civilizations
4:57 Video. "Comparison: Fall of empires," Khan Academy. Brief comparison of collapse of Achaemenid Persia, Mauryan, Han, and Roman Kingdom, Republic, and Empire.
Wu Mingren, "The Rise and Demise of the Seleucid Empire," Ancient Origins, September 19, 2019. Seleucid Empire reigned from 4th century to 1st century BCE stretching from Thrace in the West to the borders of India.
"The Ancient World blog," Disintegration of the Seleucid Empire podcasts, December 2019.

Mauryan and Gupta Decline/Collapse
"Decline/Collapse-The Maurya and Gupta Empires," Global Project.weebly. Slim description from this student weebly website which shows Mauryan and Gupta politics, economics, social history in more slim sections.
Kallie Szczepanski, "How Did China's Han Dynasty Collapse?" Thoughtco, updated June 25, 2019. Han Dynasty, 206 BCE- 221 CE collapse summarized.
Henry Farrell, "Classical Greece was incredibly politically innovative. Why did it rise--and then fail?" The Washington Post, September 3, 2015. Interview with historian Josiah Ober about his book, "The Rise and Fall of Classical Greece." See especially comments by Dr. Ober as to collapse of the Greek City States.
The Decline and Fall of Ancient Greece, Ancient Greece for Kids, Mr. Donn website for elementary, middle and high school students. See other resources available within this site.
11:06 Video. "Why did Sparta Collapse?" Knowledgia, published on You Tube, October 6, 2019.
Joroen Wijnendaele, "The End of the Roman Empire in the West--Attack of the Visigoths," Ancient History Magazine, 11, 2017, 24-30. Uploaded to Academia by Joroen Wijnendaele. Note more papers, articles on the Fall of Rome to the right of this page.
Lorraine Boissoneault, "Before the Fall of the Roman Republic, Income Inequality and Xenophobia Threatened Its Foundations," Smithsonian, November 16, 2017. Book by history podcaster Mike Duncan described what preceded Caesar's rise to Emperor. Duncan's podcast is "The History of Rome and Revolutions."
Excerpt. "General Observations on The Fall of The Roman Empire in The West," from Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," Edward Gibbon, seen in Christian Classical Ethereal Library. See more resources at the bottom of this excerpt.
Edward Gibbon, "The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 8," Online Library of Liberty. Volume 8 from 1776 Gibbon history.
Nicholas Vladimir Strunc, "What Role Did the Sassanid Empire Truly Play in the Fall of the Western Roman Empire? Exploring Divergences in Causal Frameworks," Honors Thesis 145, Open Access, Bates College, SCARAB, 2015, 85 pages.

"The Fall of the Roman Empire-Some (Sometimes Silly) Explanations," Strategy and Tactics Magazine #39, 1973, p. 21, original version by Albert A. Nofi designer of "Imperium Romanum."
Kyle Harper, "6 Ways climate change and disease helped topple the Roman Empire,", updated November 4, 2017.
Studia Iranica, Peeters Online Journals. See Classical Antiquity Persian, Middle East, central Asian online resources.
Mouseion - Classical Views - Echos du Monde Classique, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada, Digital Archives Initiative, Department of Classics.
Online Journals, Society for Classical Studies. Many Classical journals that have a substantial on-line presence.
Acta Classica-CASA Journal. Journal of the Classical Association of South Africa. See especially Article Index and other Index to left of this page.
Online Journals-Classical Studies, Library and Research Guides at Michigan State University Libraries. See online Classical history journals.
"Greece & Rome," Cambridge Core, Journal published for The Classical Association. Journal delivering scholarly research to a wider audience about ancient history, literature, art, archaeology, religion, philosophy, and reception of the ancient world. See other Classical Association Journals:
Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Timely, open-access, peer-reviewed reviews of current scholarly work in the field of classical studies (including archaeology).
Arethusa Journal. Literary and Cultural Studies, edited by Martha Malamud, University at Buffalo (The State University of New York).
See many Classical world history Journals, magazines in "Glen W. Bowersock-Bibliography," School of Historical Studies, 1960-2019.
Res Militares, official newsletter of the Society of Ancient Military History, Vol. 11, Issue 1, June 2011.
(PDF) Res Militares 2019, Society of Ancient Military Historians, Academia.
Palamedes: A Journal of Ancient History, Lockwood online journals. Greek and Roman antiquity philology, archaeology, jurists, epigraphist historians can meet with their Orientalist and Egyptological counterparts.

The Classical World's influence on Subsequent Societies
Cyrus Kar, "Cyrus the Great and The US Executive Branch," January 10, 2020, uploaded to Academia by Cyrus Kar. 12 page 'essay' as to Persian influence on US constitution.
Michael McCarty, "The Historical Roots of Chinese Communist Propaganda," The Pulse Undergraduate Journal of Baylor University, Vol. 3, no. 1. Note references to classical Chinese dynasties.

Josiah Ober, "What the Ancient Greeks Can Tell Us About Democracy," Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics, September 2007.
Ahmad Khoirul Fata and Pepen Irpan Fauzan, "(PDF) Hellenism in Islam: The Influence of Greek in Islamic Scientific Tradition," 408 Episteme, Vol. 13, no. 2, December 2018, seen in ResearchGate.
Paschalis M. Kitromilidesa, "The Enlightenment and the Greek cultural tradition," Institute for Neohellenic Research/National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, Greece, July 3, 2009. Sixteen-page pdf.
Victor Hanson, "'A War Like No Other,'" The New York Times, October 23, 2005. Why Sparta fought Athens, 480-431 BCE, and influence on our modern world, especially the United States.
Daniel N. Robinson, "How Stoicism Influenced Christianity," The Great Courses Daily, December 14, 2016.
"Biblical Literature-Persian and Hellenistic Influences," Britannica, no date. See topics for other influences on the left side of this page. Note Persian and Hellenistic influences on Jewish and Christian Apocrypha.
John A. Jillions, "How Roman skeptics shaped debates about God," Oxford University Publishing blog, February 23, 2020. Jillions, author of Divine Guidance: Lessons for Today from the World of Early Christianity, 2020, highlighted Roman philosophers who questioned religion in this slim article. See information on Divine Guidance:
"Traces of Ancient Rome in the Modern World," National Geographic Society, July 6, 2018. Slim article summarizing Rome's impact on art and architecture in our modern world.
Mary Beard, "Why Ancient Rome Matters to the Modern World," The Guardian, books, October 2, 2015.
Pierre Jamet, "Modernist Concerns and Greek and Latin Culture: Thomas S. Eliot's Mythical Method in Thomas C. Wolfe's Novels,", in Dialogues d'histoire ancienne, 2015, Vol. 41, no. 1, 229-244.
Babette Babich, "Who Is Nietzsche's Archilochus? Rhythm and the Problem of the Subject," Chapter 4 in Charles Bambach and Theodore George, eds., Philosophers and Their Poets, Albany: State University of New York Press, 2019, 85-114. Nietzsche and his writing style which used classical Greek poets such as Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Aeschylus and Sophocles. See resource on Archilochus, below:
"Part 1. Greece. 3. Archilochus: Sacred Obscenity and Judgement," in Todd M. Compton, Victim of the Muses: Poet as Scapegoat, Warrior and Hero in Greco-Roman and Indo-European Myth and History, Chapter 3, Center for Hellenic Studies, Harvard University. Resource described Archilochus.
Miraji, "Sappho's Ephemera," Words Without Borders, March 2020. Urdu modernist poet, Miraji (1912-1949), celebrated Greek poet Sappho (625-570 BCE) and blended his lyric voice with hers in the essay excerpted here.
Natalie Haynes, "Violence, destiny and revenge: why ancient Greeks still rule the stage," The Guardian, Stage Opinion, May 4, 2014. Slim comments on dramas of Euripides, Sophocles, 5th century BCE Athens.
Geoffrey O'Brien, "A Timon for Our Time," NY Review of Books, January 29, 2020. Shakespeare's Timon of Athens set in modern times. See entire play: _The_Spartan_paradigm_in_Prussian_military_thought_during_
Helen Roche, "'Go, tell the Prussians. ': The Spartan paradigm in Prussian military thought during the long nineteenth century," New Voices in Classical Reception Studies," e-journal, Issue 7, 2012, 25-39, uploaded to Academia by Helen Roche.
Stephen Hodkinson, "Sparta and Nazi Germany in mid-20th-century British liberal and left-wing thought," in A. Powell & S. Hodkinson (eds.), Sparta: The Body Politic, Swansea, (The Classical Press of Wales), 2010.
Emily T. Simon, "Ancient text has long and dangerous reach," Harvard Gazette, February 21, 2008. Tacitus' Germania used by Nazi propagandists in 20th century.
Paula Maher Martin, "Nazi Germany, Ancient Rome: The appropriation of classical culture for the formulation of national identity," The Gale Review, April 12, 2018.
Sarah Emily Bond, "Hold my Mead: A Bibliography for historians hitting back at white supremacy," History from Below-Daily Life in the Ancient and Early Medieval Mediterranean website, September 10, 2017. See bibliography relating to classical antiquity race and ethnic identity and its use by a 21st century growing white supremacy.
Denise Eileen McCoskey, "Beware of Greeks Bearing Gifts: How Neo-Nazis and Ancient Greeks Met in Charlottesville," Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective, Ohio State University, Vol. 11, Issue 11, August 30, 2018.
Sarah E. Bond, "The Misuse of an Ancient Roman Acronym by White Nationalist Groups," Hyperallergic, August 30, 2018. SPRQ Roman acronym been used by right groups in our modern era.
Jen Pinkowski, "Hate Groups Love Ancient Greece and Rome. Scholars Are Pushing Back," Undark, May 27, 2019. Note reference to scholar Sarah E. Bond, article above, as leading critic of white nationalist hate groups using classical Greek and Roman motifs, symbols, and language.
Golden Dawn--International Newsroom, The Program, 2013. Neo-Nazi Golden Dawn political, economic and social program for a new nationalist Greece. See especially, "National education" and history books rewritten to teach classical Greek history.
1:55:56 Video. "Race and Ethnicity in the Ancient Mediterranean," The History of Ancient Greece Podcast, September 24, 2019. Interview with Dr. Rebecca Futo Kennedy, Denison University, Ohio, covering gender, race and identity in classical antiquity including effects on current growing white supremacist cultures.
Abdelghani Chami, "The Influence of the Greek Mythology over the Modern Western Society," Paper (63 pp.) in partial fulfillment for MA in Civilization and Literature, University of Tlemcen, Algeria, English Department, 2014-15 Academic Year.
Nina Papathanasopoulou, "Blog: Black Classicisms in the Visual Arts," Society for Classical Studies, January 23, 2020.
Stefan Stenudd, "Aristotle Poetics--The Classic on Drama Theory Explained," Stenudd blog, 2001, 2006. Stenudd explained Aristotle's Poetics and their classical rules which dominated Western drama, poetry, art, literature for centuries. Note at bottom of this article more resources on Classical Greek philosophers.
Andrew S. Gilmour, "Classics Studies and Today's Middle East," Harvard Magazine, December 16, 2014. Slim article summarizing how classical studies can provide models for the modern Middle East.
"The Rediscovery of Classical Antiquity," The American Enlightenment, Exhibit, Spotlight at Stanford University Libraries. Slim article about Roman Empire's influence on Europe and America.
Peter Adamson, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Philosophy, "When philosophy needed Muslims, Jews and Christians alike," Aeon, April 21, 2017. Tenth century Baghdad philosopher's debt to Hellenic and Greek classical thought. Peter Adamson is moderator, editor of History of Philosophy without any gaps podcast.

See that website here and note "Classical" and "Late Antiquity tabs at top of page for many more Classical world resources:
Katherine J. Wu, "Researchers Recover an Early Copy of a 19th-Century Gay Rights Essay," Smart News, Smithsonian Magazine, January 3, 2020. John Addington Symonds 1873 Essay, "A Problem in Greek Ethics," noted the Greek liberal sexuality which set the stage for the Gay Rights movement.
Rod Dreher, "The Church That De-Christianizes The World," The American Conservative, September 6, 2018. Male homosexuality was common and culturally accepted in the Greco-Roman World. Note Catholic intellectual Benjamin Wiker's view on modern Church's abuse scandal roots in Greco-Roman culture.
Jason Daley, "Lessons for Decline of Democracy from the Ruined Roman Republic," Smithsonian, November 6, 2018. Daley claimed that 'violent rhetoric and disregard for political norms was beginning of Rome's end' which should be noted in the current US culture.

Travel Writing and the Classical world
"The Periplus of Hanno the Navigator," Jerry Norman's From Cave Paintings to the Internet website, History of Information, seen March 12, 2013. Carthaginian sailor and explorer Hanno of Carthage sailed the coast of West Africa around 500 BCE.
Lance Jenott, "The Voyage around the Erythraean Sea," Washington State University, 2004 Silk Road Seattle. Early guide book written by a Greek speaking Egyptian merchant (50 CE). See map of trade routes and monsoon patterns discussed in the Periplus. This travel guide is from a translation by William H. Schoff, 1912. For full commentary see Lionel Casson, "The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with Introduction, Translations, and Commentary, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.
(Google Book) Lionel Casson, "Travel in the Ancient World," Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. See many chapters of Dr. Casson's classic which includes travel narratives as evidence.
Paul Halsall's excellent primary sources on ancient travelers and travel narratives. Fordham Library.
Paul Halsall, "United World Systems," Internet Global History Sourcebook, Fordham University. See sources, links, to many letters, travel accounts from earliest times to the present focusing on World Systems theory, i.e., trade, war, religion, migration, empire, art and music.
"Ancient History Sourcebook: Xenophon: Anabasis, or March Up Country," Fordham Library, Paul Halsall curator. Xenophon (431-355 BCE), a student of Socrates, writes a narrative about his travels with Persian Prince Cyrus the Younger's expedition against his brother King Artaxerxes II and Cyrus' Greek troops travels through Asia Minor and back home to Greece. See all seven books in this site. More on Xenophon from
"Buddhism Spreads East," Silk Road Foundation. Note travel writers and narratives mentioned in this essay.

The Greeks who accompanied Alexander the Great in his Indian campaign recorded their encounters of this mystical, magical land. Although much of these works are now lost, the details have percolated into subsequent Greek literature. Special reference is to be made of the Indica by Megasthenes who lived in the court of Chandragupta Maurya, of Periplus of the Erythrean Sea by an unknown businessman (second half of 1st century A.D) and The Geography of India by Ptolemy (about 130 A.D.)

Chinese Accounts

After the spread of Buddhism, Chinese travelers came to India in big numbers to collect religious books and to visit the holy places of Buddhism. Works of Fa-Hien (5th century A.D., see Crossing of Indus), Huen-Tsang (7th century A.D.) and I-Tsing (7th century A.D.) are important historical accounts.
Richard E. Strassberg, "Inscribed Landscapes: Travel Writing From Imperial China," 1994. Strassberg has published an anthology of Chinese travelers' impressions of China from first century AD-19th century CE. Note differences in travel accounts (yu-chi) and later the travel diary (jih-chi).
(Google EBook) Alice Albina, "Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River," W.W. Norton, 2010. Alice Albina, travel writer, writes a history of Pakistan.
Jessica Crispin, "Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River," by Alice Albina, 2010 review, PBS, need to know, July 12, 2010. Ms. Crispin lauds Alice Albina patient travel writing as history saying that unlike "Anthony Bourdain who leaps from one place to another, eating his way through city after city," Albina spends time in the region she is researching.
"History of India-Memoirs of Fa-Hein," Kamat's potpourri, April 25, 2001. Chinese scholar Fa-Hein's primary source travel accounts from 399-414 CE of India. See also "India Through Foreign Eyes," Kamat's potpourri, last updated 1/11/2013.
Kamat's potpourri gives primary source accounts from Fa Hien, William Jones, Col. William H. Sleeman, Pietro Della Valle, Persian Muslim Alberuni, and Hiun-Tsing.
Takuji ABE, "The Two Orients for Greek Writers," The Kyoto Journal of Ancient Writers, Vol. 11 (2011). Scylax, Herodotus and Hecataeus works described in this 14-pp. pdf. See Notes and Cited Literature.
"Rambles, Travels, and Maps," Villanova Digital Library seen in Falvey Memorial Library. Note Travels of Anacharsis the Younger included in Jean Jacques Barthelemy's imaginary travel journal. Barthelemy, a highly esteemed classical scholar and Jesuit, published The Travels of Anacharsis the Younger in Greece, initially in French in seven physical volumes. See, also, google e-book, Vol 3 at
"Philhellenism," Note reference to Jean Jacques Barthelemy's fantastic The Travels of Anacharsis (a shadowy Scythian philosopher) published in France in 1788 which spurred philhellenism (love of Greek culture) in France and is one of the first historical novels. Anacharsis traveled from Scythia to Greece in 6th century BCE and was known as a forthright and outspoken "barbarian."
"Herodotus Project," Lost Trails website. Herodotus (485-425 BCE) left travel narratives in the fifth century BCE. Herodotus devoted his life to explaining the success of the Persian Empire in "The Histories." Historia in Greek means "inquiry" or investigations. Herodotus completed his travel narratives around 431 BCE.
Herodotus, "Inquiries, Books 1-9," translated by Shlomo Felberbaum, Lost Trails website.
"Polybius," NNDB website history of Greek statesman (200-118 BCE) sent to Rome as hostage from Macedonia. After receiving his freedom Polybius stayed in Rome traveling to Spain and Carthage. His one surviving book, The Rise of the Roman Empire, details his travels but focuses on how Rome acquired its empire. Polybius believed that the historian must do on-site research stating, "I have personally explored the country (Hannibal's Alps) and have crossed the Alps myself to obtain first-hand information and evidence." (Hansen and Curtis, Voyages, Wadsworth/Cengage, 2010, p. 180.)
Marie Parson, "Egypt: A Brief History of Early Travels to Egypt, A Feature Tour Egypt Story," Part I, II, III, Tour Egypt site. Parson begins her brief history of travelers to Egypt with Herodotus (450-440 BCE), Diodorus (60-56 BCE), Strabo (25-19 BCE) and moves on to note others.
J. W. McCrindle, "Megasthenes-Indika," Project South Asia (note original footnotes not included) seen in Greek ambassador Megasthenes (302 BCE) sent to Mauryan court at Pataliputra by Seleucus where he stayed for 14 years producing a travel narrative, Indika.
Laxman Burdak, "Jat clans as described by Megasthenes,", last updated June 27, 2012. See more on northern India/Pakistan Jat clans:
"The Story of India," PBS. Ashoka (268-232 BCE) as travel writer via stone pillars. See resources tab which include Travel writing and guide books:

Ven. S. Dhammika, "The Edicts of King Ashoka," 1993. Seen in Colorado State website. The edicts as travel narrative and propaganda.
John S. Strong, "The Legend of King Ashoka: A Study and translation of the Asokavadana," Delhi 2002, 2008. Published Princeton University Press, 1983. See more on Ashoka:
Lawrence R. Sullivan, "China's First Emperor," Archaeology-Archaeology Institute of America, January 23, 2006. Review of Discovery Channel's television program, "The First Emperor: The Man who made China." One could use Valerie Hansen and Ken Curtis, "Voyages in World History," Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010, pp.60-62 and pp. 88-90 to draw comparisons between Ashoka's and Shi Huangdi's stone tablets/pillars as travel narrative/propaganda and also see colorful maps of their "travels" on those pages.
Vol. II, Travels in India. See map of Xuan Zang's Travels to the west (10, 000 miles) in
"History of India-Memoirs of Fa-Hein," Kamat's potpourri, April 25, 2001. Chinese scholar Fa-Hein's primary source travel accounts from 399-414 CE of India. See also "India Through Foreign Eyes," Kamat's potpourri, last updated 1/2/2012. Kamat's potpourri gives primary source accounts from Fa Hien, William Jones, Col. William H. Sleeman, Pietro Della Valle, Persian Muslim Alberuni, and Hiun-Tsing.
"Silk Road Narratives: A Collection of History Texts," University of Washington Silk Road Project, Project Director Dr. Daniel C. Waugh. Travel accounts by Silk Road travelers from 91 BCE-1670's CE.
Kenneth D. Litwak (Azusa Pacific University) review of James A. Metzger, "Consumption and Wealth in Luke's Travel Narrative," Biblical Interpretation 88, Leiden: Brill, 2007.
"From Jesus to Christ: The Storytellers," PBS documentary as to Christ and the movement of his ideas. Paul of Tarsus born in Tarsus (now modern Turkey) was one of the early "message carriers."

J. Vanderspoel, "Jordanes," trans. by Charles C. Mierow, Department of Greek, Latin and Ancient History, University of Calgary, last modified April 22, 1997.
"A Real Letter From a Roman Soldier," Great Names in History blog, posted November 25, 2009. Young Egyptian recruited in Alexandria, Egypt into Roman army, survives storm as he is shipped to Italy and writes travel letter to family in small town in Egypt seen in James Henry Breasted, Ancient Times: A History of the Early World, Ginn and Company, 1944, p. 708. Note same blog (April 20, 2008) with pictures and information on Roman Travel along Roman roads:
Tziona Grossmark, Travel Narratives in Rabbinic Literature: Voyages to Imaginary Realms," 2010. An anthology of 21 Traveler's Tales examining the Talmudic tales as an inter-cultural phenomenon based on oral traditions. Travelers would tell their audience-family, companions, friends-about the adventure along the trade routes. Voyage Literature comes in two types: 1. Voyage to an imaginary realm, nether world, paradise, bottom of the seas. a fantasy. 2. Tales woven from realistic details where the traveler is on horseback or aboard ship. Rabba bar Bar Hanna would exemplify this type of imaginary Voyage Literature.
Josephine Shaya (Wooster) Review of Philip A. Harland, Travel and Religion in Antiquity. Studies in Christianity and Judaism/E'tudes sur le christianisme et le judaisme, 21. Waterloo: Wilfred Lauier University Press, 2011. Bryn Mawr Classica Review, November 24, 2011. Shaya notes that Harland describes travel in religious lives of ancient Mesopotamia, Judeans, Greeks including pilgrimages, travel narratives.
William Hutton (College of William and Mary), review of Maria Pretzler, Pausanias: Travel Writing in Ancient Greece. Classical Literature and Society," London: Duckworth, 2007 seen in Bryn Mawr Classical Review, Vol. 2, No. 24, 2009.
Brief comments on early travel writers into ancient Egypt,
"Europe-Persian Image of"," Iranica Note Persian historians and travel writers.

Early Silent Films and the Classical World (A sampling)
:37 seconds, "Cupid and Psyche," Thomas Edison, 1897, published on You Tube, November 8, 2010.
3:49 "Film 1903 Jupiter's Thunderbolts," Georges Melies Film, published on Vimeo, April 18, 2018.
"Bible Films Blog: Giuditta e Oloferne (1906/1908)," Bible Films Blog, February 18, 2013. A review of Italian film, Giuditta e Oloferne, with photo of opening scene. Story of Judith and General Holofernes, early Classical era history.
1:10:57 Silent Film, "Spartacus (1913)," directed by Giovanni Enrico Vidali, published on You Tube, November 17, 2015. Other versions produced in 1909 and 1914.
12:35 Silent Film, "Giulio Cesare (1909)," Italian, published on You Tube, July 24, 2015.
2:06:36 Film, "Cabiria (1914)," published on You Tube April 28, 2017. Of all the Italian silent Golden Age films, Cabiria best demonstrated to subsequent filmmakers how to make a successful full-length, visually crowded, narratively energetic film. Giovanni Pastrone wrote, produced and directed the film based on the 2nd Punic War, 218-202 BCE, Rome's 2nd confrontation with Carthage.
1:07:31 Film, "The Sign of the Cross," 1914 Silent Film with English subtitles, published on You Tube, May 8, 2016. Persecution of Christians in Imperial Rome.
1:24:46 Silent Film, "Jesus of Nazareth (1916)," published on You Tube, January 13, 2018.
"Pompeii in the movies," Cliomuse, no date. See especially description of 1913 and 1926 Italian Pompei films and 2:43 movie trailer, Sergio Leone 1959 film starring Steve Reeves, The Last Days of Pompeii.

The films above were seen in Jon Solomon, The Ancient World in the Cinema, Revised and Expanded Edition, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2001. These silent films are from early French, Italian and American companies.

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Political independence required cultural independence, and novels proved the best way of gaining it

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein stands at the beginning of what would come to be known as science fiction, torn between the utopian promise of science and its destructive potential. (The political dystopias of George Orwell’s 1984 and Margaret Atwood’s Handmaid’s Tale are more recent examples of that tradition.)

At the same time, the novel was used by new and emerging countries to assert their independence, as happened during the so-called ‘Latin American boom’ in the 1960s with Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude, a multi-generational novel hoping to capture an entire culture. Political independence required cultural independence, and novels proved the best way of gaining it.

While the printing press enabled mass literacy, it also made it easier to control and censor literature (Credit: Alamy)

While these and many other authors profited from the era of mass literacy, the printing press also made it easier to control and censor literature. This became a particular problem for authors living in totalitarian regimes such as Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union, where systems of underground publication developed in order to evade censorship.

Today, we are living through yet another revolution in writing technologies, one at least as important as the invention of paper and print in China or the re-invention of print in northern Europe. The internet is changing how we read and write, how literature spreads and who has access to it. We stand at the beginning of a new era of writing and literature – the written world is bound to change yet again.

Martin Puchner is professor of English and Comparative Literature at Harvard University and the author of The Written World: The Power of Stories to Shape People, History, Civilization (Random House.)

BBC Culture’s Stories that shaped the world series looks at epic poems, plays and novels from around the globe that have influenced history and changed mindsets. A poll of writers and critics, 100 stories that shaped the world, will be announced in May and discussed live on stage at the Hay Festival 2018.

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