February 25, 2017 Day 36 of the First Year - History

February 25, 2017 Day 36 of the First Year - History

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U.S. flag raised on Iwo Jima

During the bloody Battle for Iwo Jima, U.S. Marines from the 3rd Platoon, E Company, 2nd Battalion, 28th Regiment of the 5th Division take the crest of Mount Suribachi, the island’s highest peak and most strategic position, and raise the U.S. flag. Marine photographer Louis Lowery was with them and recorded the event. Americans fighting for control of Suribachi’s slopes cheered the raising of the flag, and several hours later more Marines headed up to the crest with a larger flag. Joe Rosenthal, a photographer with the Associated Press, met them along the way and recorded the raising of the second flag along with a Marine still photographer and a motion-picture cameraman.

WATCH: Pacific: The Lost Evidence on HISTORY Vault

Rosenthal took three photographs atop Suribachi. The first, which showed five Marines and one Navy corpsman struggling to hoist the heavy flag pole, became the most reproduced photograph in history and won him a Pulitzer Prize. The accompanying motion-picture footage attests to the fact that the picture was not posed. Of the other two photos, the second was similar to the first but less affecting, and the third was a group picture of 18 Marines smiling and waving for the camera. Many of these men, including three of the Marines seen raising the flag in the famous Rosenthal photo, were killed before the conclusion of the Battle for Iwo Jima in late March.

In early 1945, U.S. military command sought to gain control of the island of Iwo Jima in advance of the projected aerial campaign against the Japanese home islands. Iwo Jima, a tiny volcanic island located in the Pacific about 700 miles southeast of Japan, was to be a base for fighter aircraft and an emergency-landing site for bombers. On February 19, 1945, after three days of heavy naval and aerial bombardment, the first wave of U.S. Marines stormed onto Iwo Jima’s inhospitable shores.

The Japanese garrison on the island numbered 22,000 heavily entrenched men. Their commander, General Tadamichi Kuribayashi, had been expecting an Allied invasion for months and used the time wisely to construct an intricate and deadly system of underground tunnels, fortifications, and artillery that withstood the initial Allied bombardment. By the evening of the first day, despite incessant mortar fire, 30,000 U.S. Marines commanded by General Holland Smith managed to establish a solid beachhead.

During the next few days, the Marines advanced inch by inch under heavy fire from Japanese artillery and suffered suicidal charges from the Japanese infantry. Many of the Japanese defenders were never seen and remained underground manning artillery until they were blown apart by a grenade or rocket, or incinerated by a flame thrower.

While Japanese kamikaze flyers slammed into the Allied naval fleet around Iwo Jima, the Marines on the island continued their bloody advance across the island, responding to Kuribayashi’s lethal defenses with remarkable endurance. On February 23, the crest of 550-foot Mount Suribachi was taken, and the next day the slopes of the extinct volcano were secured.

Minimum Wage in the United States

Minimum wage in America isn’t as old as you might think: the first federal minimum wage was first introduced by Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1938. Minimum wage was set at 25 cents an hour, which works out to about $4 per hour in today’s money.

That minimum wage was introduced as part of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). The FLSA also covers things like youth employment standards, overtime pay, recordkeeping, and standards for government employees at the local, state, and federal levels.

The first federal minimum wage laws were passed in America in 1938. But prior to that, at least one state had passed its own minimum wage laws. Massachusetts passed minimum wage laws in 1912 (although they only covered women and children).

Since FDR’s first federal minimum wage in 1938, the minimum wage has been raised 22 times by 12 different presidents.

US minimum wage is purposely set up not to rise with inflation. Minimum wage can only rise with congressional action. In other words, if the 12 presidents never raised minimum wage over the years, then we would still be getting paid a minimum of 25 cents per hour for our work.

About African American History Month

The Library of Congress, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, Smithsonian Institution and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum join in paying tribute to the generations of African Americans who struggled with adversity to achieve full citizenship in American society.

As a Harvard-trained historian, Carter G. Woodson, like W. E. B. Du Bois before him, believed that truth could not be denied and that reason would prevail over prejudice. His hopes to raise awareness of African American&aposs contributions to civilization was realized when he and the organization he founded, the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (ASNLH), conceived and announced Negro History Week in 1925. The event was first celebrated during a week in February 1926 that encompassed the birthdays of both Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass. The response was overwhelming: Black history clubs sprang up teachers demanded materials to instruct their pupils and progressive whites, not simply white scholars and philanthropists, stepped forward to endorse the effort.

By the time of Woodson&aposs death in 1950, Negro History Week had become a central part of African American life and substantial progress had been made in bringing more Americans to appreciate the celebration. At mid–century, mayors of cities nationwide issued proclamations noting Negro History Week. The Black Awakening of the 1960s dramatically expanded the consciousness of African Americans about the importance of black history, and the Civil Rights movement focused Americans of all colors on the subject of the contributions of African Americans to our history and culture.

The celebration was expanded to a month in 1976, the nation&aposs bicentennial. President Gerald R. Ford urged Americans to “seize the opportunity to honor the too-often neglected accomplishments of black Americans in every area of endeavor throughout our history.” That year, fifty years after the first celebration, the association held the first African American History Month. By this time, the entire nation had come to recognize the importance of Black history in the drama of the American story. Since then each American president has issued African American History Month proclamations. And the association—now the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH)—continues to promote the study of Black history all year.

(Excerpt from an essay by Daryl Michael Scott, Howard University, for the Association for the Study of African American Life and History)


  • Current limit: Seven-day initial limit (adults) and five-day limit (minors)
  • First policy: Gov. Dan Malloy (D) signed House Bill 5053 into law on May 27, 2016. This legislation limits the first fill prescription of opioids to seven days. Prescriptions can exceed seven days if a doctor determines that the acute or chronic pain condition requires it. The legislative also limited opioid prescriptions for minors to seven days. ⎜]
  • Second policy: Gov. Dan Malloy (D) signed House Bill 7052 into law on June 30, 2017. This bill reduced opioid prescriptions for minors from seven days to five days. ⎝] At the bill's signing ceremony, Gov. Malloy made the following statement: "Opioid addiction and prescription drug abuse is a disease that is impacting nearly every community and people of every background. It is a complex crisis that does not have one root cause, nor does it have simple solution, but we need to do everything in our power to treat and prevent it. Our work on this front will not be finished until our communities and our families are no longer struggling with the grave costs of this illness." ⎝]

Mississippi River Flood History 1543-Present

This was a rather large flood event since 1927 and was dubbed "The Great Flood of 1937". The Bonnet Carre Spillway would be tested for the first time. The spillway had 285 of the 350 bays opened for 48 days, and crested at 21.9 feet from Feb 27th-Mar 1st. Red River landing 7th highest crest of record at 58.99 feet on Feb 27th Baton Rouge 5th highest crest of record at 44.48 feet on Feb 28th Donaldsonville 6th highest crest of record at 33.29 feet on Feb 27th Reserve 3rd highest crest of record at 25.60 feet on March 5th New Orleans crested at 19.29 feet on Feb 28th. [USACE AHPS]

Historically high flows with record crest of 62.30 ft at Red River Landing on March 25th 7th highest crest at Baton Rouge with 43.79 ft on March 26th 10th highest crest at Donaldsonville with 32.20 ft on March 26th 9th highest crest at Reserve at 23.99 ft on March 20th Bonnet Carre Spillway opened 298 of the350 bays on March 17th to ease a flood threat to New Orleans. The bays were closed April 18th. [AHPS Trotter et al]

The longest known flood of record on the lower Mississippi River! The Bonnet Carre Spillway is used for the 13th time in its history, and the first time in consecutive years. At peak flow of 213,000 cubic feet per second, a total of 206 gates out of 350 were opened. Baton Rouge went above flood stage of 35.0 feet the morning of Jan 6, 2019. Red River Landing went above flood stage of 48.0 feet on Dec 28, 2018. This is the fourth time the spillway was used in a single decade - the most in its history. On May 10th, and in the first time ever in its history, the Bonnet Carre Spillway was opened a second time due do excessive rainfall upriver. On May 21st, Baton Rouge experienced its longest duration flood event, surpassing the 135 days in flood in 1927. On May 28th, Red River Landing surpassed its longest duration flood event established in 1927. On May 25th, it surpassed the latest calendar day for its operation, passing the previous mark set in 1983. For the first time in the spillway's existence, it was in operation during the tropical cyclone season, as Hurricane Barry made landfall near Atchafalaya Bay. When Barry approached the Louisiana coast, it produced a surge up the river that saw a rise of 1 foot at New Orleans, briefly rose to 16.93 feet, then settling back to around 16 feet. On July 27th, the last bays of the Bonnet Carre Spillway was closed, ending a 79 day stretch of deployment. On August 4th, Baton Rouge finally fell below flood stage, a record 211 days in flood at Baton Rouge. On the morning of August 10th, Red River Landing finally fell below flood stage - a record 226 days in flood.

AHPS E-19 - Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service, Form E-19. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather Service Office of Hydrology web service.

Barry, John M., "Rising Tide: The Great Flood of 1927 and how it changed America", New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998. 524 pages.

Chin, Edwin H., J. Skelton and H.P. Guy. "The 1973 Mississippi River Basin Flood: Compilation and Analysis of Meteorologic, Streamflow and Sediment Data", Geological Survey Professional Paper 937. Washington: U.S. Govt Printing Office, 1975.

Hoyt, William G. and W.B. Langbein. "Floods". New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1955. p. 422.

Hurricane references:

New Orleans Times-Picayune articles posted on

O'Brien, Greg. "Making the Mississippi River Over Again: The Development of River Control in Mississippi". MS Historical Society Intellectual Property, 2002.

Smith, David T. and D.B. Reed, "A Centennial Survey of American Floods: Fifteen Significant Events in the United States 1890-1990" Fort Worth, TX: NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS SR-133, 1990. pp 51-57.

Trotter, Paul S. et. al. "A Review of the Mighty Mississippi River and her Associated High Water Problem", Slidell, LA: National Weather Service Southern Region Service Enhancement Project, 1997.

Trotter, Paul S., G.A. Johnson, R.J. Ricks, D.R. Smith, D. Woods. " Floods on the Lower Mississippi: An Historical Economic Overview", Fort Worth, TX: National Weather Service Southern Region Technical Attachment SR/SSD 98-9, 1998.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers web site:

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Mississippi River Commission: "Annual Highest and Lowest Stages of the Mississippi River and its Outlets and Tributaries to 1960", Vicksburg, MS: USACOE-MRC, 1961. pp 81-109.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - New Orleans District: "Flood of ྅ Post-Flood Report, Volumes 1 & 2, New Orleans, LA: USACOE-NOD, August 1974.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - New Orleans District: "Stages and Discharges of the Mississippi River and Tributaries and Other Watersheds in the New Orleans District for 1973", New Orleans, LA: USACOE-NOD, 1974.

World Meteorological Organization - Global Water Partnership: Integrated Flood Management Case Study "USA: Flood Management - Mississippi River", January 2004. 12 pages.

Flood Duration Data (1927 - Present)

Flood Duration Rankings for Red River Landing, LA
Rank Duration (Days) Year
1 226 2018-2019
2 152 1927
3 95 1973
4 94 1994
5 86 1979
6 81 1945
7 77 2008
8 74 2018
9 73 2008
10 71 1984
11 70 1997
12 68 1983
13 63 1950
14 60 1993
15 59 2011
15 59 2013
17 54 1990
17 54 1935
19 52 2015
20 51 1991
21 50 1937

Flood Duration Rankings for Baton Rouge, LA

Federal Flood Controls were erected as a result of the Flood Control Act of 1928. Flood events prior to the Great 1927 Flood were much longer in duration, at times as long as 6 months.

Baton Rouge has had flood events 30 days or longer 22 times in 92 years - a frequency of 24% or roughly once every 4 years.

Red River landing has experienced flood events greater than 30 days 35 times in 92 years - a frequency of 34.8% or roughly once every 3 years.

Power Grid Zones

There are 100s of things that can cause a small local outage, a regional power outage or even an national grid power outage.

Recent articles about power grid risks and failures:

The United States endures more blackouts than any other developed nation as the number of U.S. power outages lasting more than an hour have increased steadily for the past decade, according to federal databases at the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North American Electric Reliability Corp. (NERC).

According to federal data, the U.S. electric grid loses power 285 percent more often than in 1984, when the data collection effort on blackouts began. That’s costing American businesses as much as $150 billion per year, the DOE reported, with weather-related disruptions costing the most per event.

“The root causes” of the increasing number of blackouts are aging infrastructure and a lack of investment and clear policy to modernize the grid. The situation is worsened by gaps in the policies of federal and local commissioners. And now there are new risks to the grid from terrorism and climate change's extreme impacts, Amin said.

Also, demand for electricity has grown 10 percent over the last decade, even though there are more energy-efficient products and buildings than ever. And as Americans rely increasingly on digital devices, summers get hotter (particularly in the southern regions of the U.S.) and seasonal demand for air conditioning grows, the problem is only getting worse.

The video below shows a recent PBS special discussing just how vulnerable the grid is:

This post was written by August Neverman IV. August is the Chief Information Officer and Information Security Officer of Brown County Wisconsin. August served on several emergency preparedness teams during his tenure at a local hospital, as well as undergoing emergency response training during his time with the Air National Guard.

Originally posted in 2016, last updated in Jan 2020.

Today’s Final Jeopardy – Tuesday, June 15, 2021

Happy Tuesday! Welcome to Day 2 of Savannah Guthrie’s hosting stint. Yesterday, $11,699 was raised for the Bowery Mission. Here’s today’s Final Jeopardy (in the category American Women) for Tuesday, June 15, 2021 (Season 37, Game 187):

During her second marriage, she split her time among homes in New York, New Jersey, Paris & Greece & a yacht

(correct response beneath the contestants)

Erin Rion, a director of clinical services from Napanoch, New York
Quan Do, a catalyst development engineer originally from Annandale, Virginia
Katie Sekelsky, a graphic designer from Kent, Ohio (2-day total: $16,698)

Andy’s Pregame Thoughts: Katie has won twice now thanks to savvy wagering in Final Jeopardy! She’s above average on the signalling device, but she’s also already in the double digits in incorrect responses. If she can keep that statistic low, she’s got a better chance of win number three.

Today’s Clue of the Day for the Alexa sweepstakes: HAVING A POSITIVE ALTITUDE: At an altitude of almost 12,000 feet, the world’s highest capital, La Paz, is in this South American country

Clue of the Day correct response: What is Bolivia?

PSA: The best way to keep COVID-19 at bay (and keep Jeopardy! producing new episodes) is for everybody to get their vaccinations as soon as they are able to. When wearing a mask, ensure that your mask covers both your nose and your mouth.

Are you going on the show and looking for information about how to bet in Final Jeopardy? Check out my new Betting Strategy 101 page!

(Content continues below)

Correct response: Who is Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis?

More information about Final Jeopardy: (The following write-up is original content and is copyright 2021 The Jeopardy! Fan. It may not be copied without linked attribution back to this page.)

After the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the widowed first lady married Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis in 1968 he was one of the world’s richest men at the time. During their short marriage, ending with Aristotle’s death in 1975, the couple lived in many locations: Jackie’s penthouse apartment in the Upper East Side, Aristotle’s apartment in Paris, Jackie’s horse farm in New Jersey, his house in Athens, his private island in Greece, and his yacht, Christina O.

We have many new offerings at The Jeopardy! Fan Online Store! Proceeds from the sale of the “Doctor Oz’s Fast-Acting Snake Oil Elixir” T-shirt are being donated to The Trevor Project:

Looking to find out who won Jeopardy! today? Tonight’s results are below!

Scores going into Final:
Katie $11,600
Erin $9,600
Quan $3,600

Tonight’s results:
Quan $3,600 + $600 = $4,200 (Who is Jackie Kennedy Onassis)
Erin $9,600 + = $9,600 (Who is Jacqueline Kennedy?)
Katie $11,600 + $7,601 = $19,201 (Who is Jackie Kennedy?) (3-day total: $35,899)

Scores after the Jeopardy! Round:
Katie $7,400
Erin $3,600
Quan $3,600

Opening break taken after: 15 clues

Daily Double locations:
1) I HAVE TO GIVE YOU CREDIT $1000 (clue #23)
Katie 4400 +2000 (Quan 2400 Erin 2600)
2) THE STAGE $1600 (clue #16)
Erin 7200 +2000 (Katie 8200 Quan 3600)
3) AT FREDDY’S $1600 (clue #24, $6800 left on board)
Katie 9000 +1000 (Quan 6000 Erin 9200)
Overall Daily Double Efficiency for this game: 84

Unplayed clues:
J! Round: None!
DJ! Round: None!
Total Left On Board:
Number of clues left unrevealed this season: 192 (1.03 per episode average), 2 Daily Doubles

Game Stats:
Katie $11,200 Coryat, 17 correct, 2 incorrect, 26.32% in first on buzzer (15/57), 1/2 on rebound attempts (on 7 rebound opportunities)
Erin $9,200 Coryat, 15 correct, 5 incorrect, 33.33% in first on buzzer (19/57), 0/0 on rebound attempts (on 3 rebound opportunities)
Quan $3,600 Coryat, 11 correct, 3 incorrect, 21.05% in first on buzzer (12/57), 1/2 on rebound attempts (on 6 rebound opportunities)
Combined Coryat Score: $24,000
Lach Trash: $18,000 (on 17 Triple Stumpers)
Coryat lost to incorrect responses (less double-correct responses): $12,000

Katie Sekelsky, career statistics:
54 correct, 13 incorrect
2/3 on rebound attempts (on 13 rebound opportunities)
33.92% in first on buzzer (58/171)
2/3 on Daily Doubles (Net Earned: $1,000)
1/3 in Final Jeopardy
Average Coryat: $11,333

Quan Do, career statistics:
12 correct, 3 incorrect
1/2 on rebound attempts (on 6 rebound opportunities)
21.05% in first on buzzer (12/57)
0/0 on Daily Doubles
1/1 in Final Jeopardy
Average Coryat: $3,600

Erin Rion, career statistics:
16 correct, 5 incorrect
0/0 on rebound attempts (on 3 rebound opportunities)
33.33% in first on buzzer (19/57)
1/1 on Daily Doubles (Net Earned: $2,000)
1/1 in Final Jeopardy
Average Coryat: $9,200

Katie Sekelsky, to win:
4 games: 31.591%
5: 9.980%
6: 3.153%
7: 0.996%
8: 0.315%
Avg. streak: 3.462 games.

Andy’s Thoughts:

  • $33,900 has been donated to the Bowery Mission through 2 games. $1,728,876 has been donated from all guest hosts.

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If you are going to quote any information from this page or this website, attribution is required.


Our environment plan sets out our goals for improving the environment, within a generation, and leaving it in a better state than we found it. It details how we in government will work with communities and businesses to do this. It sets out what we will be doing over the next 25 years.

Alongside the plan, we’ve published 3 detailed, technical annexes. We’ve also published the outcome indicator framework for this plan.

We published the first annual progress report in May 2019.

The Plan sits alongside two other important government strategies: our Industrial Strategy and our Clean Growth strategy.

Added the measuring environmental change: outcome indicator framework for the 25 Year Environment Plan.

Annex 3 updated to correct an error in the introduction (missing word).

We've added an "at a glance" HTML summary of the targets in the plan.

We have corrected a missing reference on page 41 of Annex 1, the supplementary evidence report

Common Questions About the Winter Solstice

The Winter Solstice is the shortest day of the year. Is it also the coldest?

The day of the winter solstice is the shortest day of the year, which means that it’s the day in which we experience the least amount of daylight. Logically, it would make sense to assume that this is also the coldest day of the year, since we are exposed to less warmth-giving sunlight on this day than at any other time. But this is not true.

There are a lot of factors that affect the temperature of a location on any given day, including altitude, snow cover, and large-scale weather patterns. Snow cover, for example, partially blocks solar radiation from being absorbed by the Earth, which results in less heat being released and an overall drop in temperature. Because of these factors, it’s not possible to point to the same date year after year and call it the coldest day.

In the United States, the coldest days of the year tend to occur between mid-December and late January, so while it’s certainly possible that the coldest day of the year could also be the day of the winter solstice, that’s not usually the case!

Is the Winter Solstice really the start of winter?

There is not a black-and-white answer to this question—it depends on which definition of “winter” you follow:

  • Astronomical winter begins at the winter solstice and ends at the spring equinox. Astronomical seasons are based on the position of Earth in relation to the Sun.
  • Meteorological winter (in the Northern Hemisphere) starts on December 1 and ends on February 28 (or 29). Meteorological seasons are based on the annual temperature cycle and climatological patterns observed on Earth.

Because an almanac is traditionally defined as a “calendar of the heavens,” we at The Old Farmer’s Almanac follow the astronomical definition of the seasons, which states that each of the four seasons starts on a solstice or equinox.

However, that doesn’t mean that the meteorological definition is incorrect. It is important for meteorologists to be able to compare climatological statistics for a particular season from one year to the next—for agriculture, commerce, and a variety of other purposes. Thus, meteorologists break the seasons down into groupings of three months. Meteorological winter starts on December 1 and includes December, January, and February.

Did you know? For the ancient Celts, the calendar was based around the solstices and equinoxes, marking the Quarter Days, with the mid-points called Cross-Quarter Days.

Was Stonehenge Built to Celebrate the Winter Solstice?

The solstice has been celebrated since ancient times by cultures around our planet.

Thousands of people celebrate the solstices at Stonehenge in England. Due to the alignment of the stones, experts acknowledge that the design appears to correspond with the use of the solstices and possibly other solar and lunar astronomical events in some fashion.

At sunrise at Stonehenge on the summer solstice (longest day of the year), the Sun appears to balance perfectly on one of the stones.

There are several theories as to why the structure was built, including that the area was used as a temple to worship the Sun as a royal burial ground and/or as a type of astronomical observatory. However, because none of these theories has been proven correct as yet, the true reason (or reasons) for Stonehenge’s existence remains a mystery.

Winter Folklore and Verse

Here at the Almanac, we love our weather folklore. Here are just a few (of the many) proverbs that we have collected in our archives:

  • Deep snow in winter tall grain in summer. —Estonian proverb
  • Visits should be short, like a winter’s day.
  • A fair day in winter is the mother of a storm. —English proverb
  • Summer comes with a bound winter comes yawning.
  • Onion skins very thin, mild winter coming in.

What Does Winter Mean to You?

Winter inspires both joy and woe. Some people can’t wait for the cooler weather, snow, skiing and ice skating, curling up by a fire, and the holiday spirit. You’ll notice a peaceful sort of silence when you walk through the woods—a muffled kind of quiet.

Other people dislike the frigid temperatures, blizzards, and wild weather (for good reason). In colder regions, winter often means shoveling, snowblowing, dealing with bad roads, and sometimes unbearable temperatures. In warmer regions, the winter temperatures become very mild or cool, and places such as Florida fill up with people escaping the harshness of a northern winter.

What does winter mean to you? Let us know in the comments!

Winter Weather Forecast

Brrrr! What about that winter weather? Colder temperatures are due to arrive soon (if they’re not here already). At The Old Farmer’s Almanac, we’ve been forecasting the weather since the days of George Washington—over 225 years ago—so we know a thing or two about making predictions.

→ Check out our 2020-2021 Winter Weather Forecast to find out what sort of weather is in store for your area.

For 12 months of weather forecasts and so much more, pick up a copy of The 2021 Old Farmer’s Almanac.

Wishing our entire Almanac community a cozy, magical, safe, and beautiful winter season!

Watch the video: Curry Drills 12 Threes Including The Game-Winner. #NBATogetherLive Classic Game (October 2022).

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