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History of Thrush - History

History of Thrush - History


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Thrush
(Minesweeper No. 18: dp. 840, l. 187'10" b. 35'6", dr
8'10"; s. 14 k.; cpl. 86; a. 2 3"; cl. Lapwing)

The first Thrush'(Minesweeper No. 18) was laid down on 27 May 1918 at Wilmington, Del., by Pusey and Jones Co., launched on 15 September 1918, sponsored by Mrs. J. E. Taylor; and commissioned on 25 April 1919, Lt. (jg.) F. T. Mayes in command.

Following shakedown, Thrush arrived in Kirkwall Scotland, on 5 June and served with Squadron 3 of the Minesweeping Detachment which was busy clearing the North Sea Mine Barrage which had effectively contained the German Navy during World War I. Detached on 25 November, the minesweeper called at Brest France, before returning to the United States.

Subsequently assigned to Mine Division 3 Mine Squadron 4, the ship was designated AM 18 on i7 July 1920. Thrush joined the Pacific Fleet and was based at San Pedro, Calif., before her base of operations was shifted to Pearl Harbor. Engaging in peacetime exercises and maneuvers in the Hawaiian Islands into the early spring of 1922, the minesweeper was decommissioned at Pearl Harbor on 3 April and placed on the inactive list.

After over 13 years in reserve, the minesweeper was recommissioned at Pearl Harbor on 31 October 1935 and refitted at the Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo Calif There she was converted to a small seaplane tender and redesignated AVP-3 on 22 January 1936. The tender operated out of Seattle, Wash., with Aircraft Base Force through April 1937. She then proceeded to Coco Solo, Canal Zone, in October, to tend planes attached to Patrol Wing (PatWing) 3.

Operating with Aircraft Scouting Force through 1939, the seaplane tender was attached to PatWing 6 tending a brood of planes at San Juan, Puerto Rico when World War II began in Europe. In January 1940 she moved to the Virgin Islands and worked out of St Thomas until March. She then returned to San Juan and remained there through December, continuing her operations in support of the Neutrality Patrol.

Anchoring off the mouth of the St. John's River, near Jacksonville, Fla., Thrush stood plane-guard duty while tending a covey of Martin PBM Mariners through January and February of 1941. Switched to Tucker's Island, near Hamilton, Bermuda, Thrush continued her plane-tending duties through March, on occasion serving as a small cargo vessel to transport supplies from ships to docks and depots on shore.

The seaplane tender then performed similar duties at San Juan, Puerto Rico, and in the British West Indies until she departed Trinidad on 28 November bound for Brazil. She arrived at Para on 7 December 1941, the day Japanese planes swept down on the American base at Pearl Harbor in a devastating raid which plunged the United States into World War II

Thrush conducted wartime patrols out of Para before moving her base of operations to Natal, Brazil, on 20 December. Refuelling planes, carrying supplies, and serving as a seagoing "jack-of-all-trades"—even as a floating radio station upon occasion-Thrush continued operations off the Brazilian coast through the early spring of 1942.

On 18 May, Brazilian Lloyd steamer SS Commandante Lyra fell victim to a German U boat's torpedoes off Cape San Roque, Brazil. Thrush responded to the merchantman's signal requesting assistance. When she reached the burning ship, she sent over a salvage party to fight both the flames which blazed in two holds and the flooding which had already entered several compartments. The seaplane tender passed a towline to the stricken merchantman and towed her 200 miles to Fortaleza Bay.

The ship continued operations out of Natal and Recife, Brazil, through October 1942. She departed Fortaleza Bay on 14 October, bound, via Trinidad and San Juan, for Norfolk. Arriving at Hampton Roads on 1 November, the ship underwent an overhaul and upkeep period at the Norfolk Navy Yard before 12 days of gunnery training and other exercises in Chesapeake Bay through 26 December. The ship then called at Mayport and Jacksonville, Fla., before arriving at San Juan on 8 January 1943. Pressing on to Trinidad, Thrush spent one week at the British West Indian port before heading for Brazil and arriving at Belem on the 26th. She then operated off the coast of Brazil escorting coastal convoys until 4 April, when she departed Belem and proceeded homeward-via Trinidad, San Juan Guantanamo, and the Windward passage-and reached Norfolk on 22 April.

On 2 May, Thrush arrived at Quonset Point, R.I., to begin training operations which lasted through the summer. Engaged in antisubmarine drills, the seaplane tender towed targets for dive-bomber practices, retrieved practice torpedoes, and acted as an escort for "R"-type submarines engaged in training exercises with aircraft. Upon completion of this duty, the ship moved south and made port at Norfolk on 9 August for availability which lasted through 11 September.

Heading further south, Thrush took part in the dismantling of naval air bases at Almirante Bay, Panama and at Money penny Anchorage, Nicaragua. She then deployed to Baltra Island in the Galapagos group during November and returned to Panamanian waters in 'December.

Operating in the Canal Zone through January 1944, Thrush subsequently carried an Army surveying party to the Cocos Islands and to the Honduran coast in March hefore towing a Navy oil barge back to Panama. From April through September, the ship participated in submarine training exercises off Key West and towed targets for submarines and aircraft before putting into the Norfolk Navy Yard for availability.

Following repairs, she headed south, via Trinidad, to Dutch Guiana and arrived at Paramaribo on 19 November. She anchored off the mouth of the Surinam River and commenced tending Martin PBM's-a duty which lasted through March of 1945, punctuated briefly by an inspection at Trinidad. Subsequently, Thrush returned to the routine operations of beaching and repairing aircraft, fueling them, and feeding their crews. Acting also as a floating radio station, the seaplane tender continued these duties from her return from Trinidad on 24 March to 4 June.

After making port at San Juan on 12 June, Thrush commenced a month-long repair period before getting underway for the Hawaiian Islands. She transited the Panama Canal and called at Manzanillo, Mexico, and San Diego en route, and reached Pearl Harbor on 26 August. The tender remained in Hawaiian waters through 20 September and then returned to the west coast at San Pedro, Calif., on 30 September. She next returned to the Atlantic-via Manzanillo, Mexico, and the Panama Canal-and arrived at Norfolk on 1 November.

The following day, she set out for Massachusetts waters, via New York City and the Cape Cod Canal, and arrived in Boston on 4 November 1946. There, the Navy decided that the venerable seaplane tender was beyond economical repair. Thrush was decommissioned on 13 December 1945 and struck from the Navy list on 8 January 1946. Transferred to the Maritime Commission on 19 August, she was sold to John A. Pohl, of Haworth, N.J., on 21 August.


Thrush

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Thrush, any of the numerous species belonging to the songbird family Turdidae, treated by some authorities as a subfamily of the Old World insect eaters, family Muscicapidae. Thrushes are widely considered closely related to the Old World warblers (Sylviidae) and flycatchers (Muscicapidae), with which they intergrade through several genera.

Generally, thrushes are slender-billed songbirds with the tarsus (lower leg) “booted”—i.e., covered in front with a single long scale instead of many short ones. The young are usually spotted in the first plumage, and there is a single annual molt.

The chat-thrushes, e.g., the western bluebird (Sialia mexicanus), are generally smaller, with slenderer legs, thinner bill with fewer bristles at its base, and more colourful plumage (see chat-thrush).

Thrushes vary from 13 to 30 cm (5 to 12 inches) in length. They are usually not brightly coloured, but many have patches of bright yellow, red, or blue on otherwise plain plumage.

Thrushes occur virtually worldwide but are most diverse in the Old World, especially in Africa. The northern species are strong migrants. Occupying a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial habitats, thrushes eat insects and fruit a few take snails or earthworms. They build open cup-shaped nests (or, in the case of a few of the chat-thrushes, occupy cavities), in which they lay three to six pale, often bluish eggs.

Representative true thrushes are species of the genus Turdus, which include the blackbird, fieldfare, ouzel, and redwing of Europe, as well as the American robin. Other true thrush groups are called ground thrush and nightingale thrush.

A number of unrelated birds are called thrushes by reason of resemblance to turdids, including the antthrush (see antbird) babbling thrush jay thrush and Chinese thrush jewelthrush (see pitta) and wrenthrush.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Richard Pallardy, Research Editor.


What Thrush family records will you find?

There are 16,000 census records available for the last name Thrush. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Thrush census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 1,000 immigration records available for the last name Thrush. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Thrush. For the veterans among your Thrush ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 16,000 census records available for the last name Thrush. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Thrush census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 1,000 immigration records available for the last name Thrush. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Thrush. For the veterans among your Thrush ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


Behavior

When foraging on the ground, the American Robin runs a few steps, then stops abruptly. In long grass, robins may hop or fly just above the ground powered by slow, powerful wingbeats. American Robins often find worms by staring, motionless, at the ground with the head cocked to one side. Robins sometimes fight over worms that others have caught. During fall and winter robins often roost in large flocks and spend much more time in trees. In spring, males attract females by singing, raising and spreading their tails, shaking their wings and inflating their white-striped throats. When pairs are forming in spring, you may see a display in which a male and female approach each other holding their bills wide open and touching them. American Robins are strong, straight, and fast fliers.Back to top


Publications

C. Thrush. Indigenous London: Native Travellers at the Heart of Empire. : Yale University Press, 2016.

C.E. Boyd C. Thrush. Phantom Past, Indigenous Presence: Native Ghosts in North American Culture and History. : UNP – Nebraska Paperback, 2011.

C. Thrush. Native Seattle: Histories from the Crossing-Over Place. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2007.

Articles/Book Chapters

C. Thrush, “Meere Strangers: Indigenous and Urban Performances in Algonquian London, 1580-1630”, in Urban Identity and the Atlantic World, E. Fay and von Morze, L. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

C. Thrush, “Urban Indigenous Histories”, in Oxford Handbook of American Indian History, F. E. Hoxie Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

C. Thrush, “How Many Worlds? Unsettling Places and Incommensurable Arguments”, in Beyond Two Worlds, J. C. Genetin-Pilawa and Buss, J. J. Albany: SUNY Press, 2013.

C. Thrush, “The Iceberg and the Cathedral: Encounter, Entanglement, and Isuma in Inuit London”, Journal of British Studies, 2013.

C. Thrush, “The Sachem of Southwark: Monument and Memory in Indigenous-Settler Histories”, special issue of Ethnohistory featuring Jean M. O’Brien and Lisa Blee, Chris Andersen, Alice Te Punga Somerville, and Patrick McNamara, 2013.


Treatment and Prevention

The most important first step to either treating or preventing candidiasis in people living with HIV is to reconstitute the person's immune function by ​starting ART.   Treating the Candida infection alone does little to prevent recurrences should the immune response not be adequately restored.

The Candida infection itself is most commonly treated with antifungal drugs such as fluconazole, topical clotrimazole, topical nystatin, and topical ketoconazole.   Oral candidiasis usually responds well to topical treatments, although oral drugs can also be prescribed. (For people living with HIV, oral medications are recommended, especially if they have AIDS.)

Candidal esophagitis can be treated either orally or intravenously, depending on severity, often with the use of amphotericin B in more severe cases.

A newer class of antifungal called echinocandins are also being employed in the treatment of advanced candidiasis.   All three types (anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin) are administered intravenously.

Generally speaking, echinocandins offer lower toxicity and fewer drug-drug interactions, although they are more often prescribed to patients with intolerance to other antifungal drugs.

Systemic and disseminated candidiasis affecting the bones, central nervous system, eyes, kidneys, liver, muscles, or spleen are typically treated more aggressively, with oral and/or intravenous administration of antifungal drugs. Amphoterin B is another possible option.

Thrush Doctor Discussion Guide

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Nesting

Nest Placement

Females apparently select the nest site and build the nest, usually near the trunk of a tree in dense stands of short or stunted (“krummholz”) balsam fir, often near a gap or edge in the forest. Nests average about 5 feet off the ground.

Nest Description

Cup nest made of balsam fir or spruce twigs and moss, sometimes with grasses, sedges, ferns, leaves, bark, hair, or lichen as well. Lined with grasses or horsehair fungus. Nest dimensions average about 4.8 inches across and 3.4 inches tall, with interior cup 2.7 inches across and 1.8 inches deep.

Nesting Facts

Bluish green with light brown speckling.


Publications

C. Thrush. Indigenous London: Native Travellers at the Heart of Empire. : Yale University Press, 2016.

C.E. Boyd C. Thrush. Phantom Past, Indigenous Presence: Native Ghosts in North American Culture and History. : UNP – Nebraska Paperback, 2011.

C. Thrush. Native Seattle: Histories from the Crossing-Over Place. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2007.

Articles/Book Chapters

C. Thrush, “Meere Strangers: Indigenous and Urban Performances in Algonquian London, 1580-1630”, in Urban Identity and the Atlantic World, E. Fay and von Morze, L. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

C. Thrush, “Urban Indigenous Histories”, in Oxford Handbook of American Indian History, F. E. Hoxie Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

C. Thrush, “How Many Worlds? Unsettling Places and Incommensurable Arguments”, in Beyond Two Worlds, J. C. Genetin-Pilawa and Buss, J. J. Albany: SUNY Press, 2013.

C. Thrush, “The Iceberg and the Cathedral: Encounter, Entanglement, and Isuma in Inuit London”, Journal of British Studies, 2013.

C. Thrush, “The Sachem of Southwark: Monument and Memory in Indigenous-Settler Histories”, special issue of Ethnohistory featuring Jean M. O’Brien and Lisa Blee, Chris Andersen, Alice Te Punga Somerville, and Patrick McNamara, 2013.


Relief, drainage, and soils

With the notable exception of the fertile plain of the Kolkhida Lowland—ancient Colchis, where the legendary Argonauts sought the Golden Fleece—the Georgian terrain is largely mountainous, and more than a third is covered by forest or brushwood. There is a remarkable variety of landscape, ranging from the subtropical Black Sea shores to the ice and snow of the crest line of the Caucasus. Such contrasts are made more noteworthy by the country’s relatively small area.

The rugged Georgia terrain may be divided into three bands, all running from east to west.

To the north lies the wall of the Greater Caucasus range, consisting of a series of parallel and transverse mountain belts rising eastward and often separated by deep, wild gorges. Spectacular crest-line peaks include those of Mount Shkhara, which at 16,627 feet (5,068 metres) is the highest point in Georgia, and Mounts Rustaveli, Tetnuld, and Ushba, all of which are above 15,000 feet. The cone of the extinct Mkinvari (Kazbek) volcano dominates the northernmost Bokovoy range from a height of 16,512 feet. A number of important spurs extend in a southward direction from the central range, including those of the Lomis and Kartli (Kartalinian) ranges at right angles to the general Caucasian trend. From the ice-clad flanks of these desolately beautiful high regions flow many streams and rivers.

The southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus merge into a second band, consisting of central lowlands formed on a great structural depression. The Kolkhida Lowland, near the shores of the Black Sea, is covered by a thick layer of river-borne deposits accumulated over thousands of years. Rushing down from the Greater Caucasus, the major rivers of western Georgia, the Inguri, Rioni, and Kodori, flow over a broad area to the sea. The Kolkhida Lowland was formerly an almost continually stagnant swamp. In a great development program, drainage canals and embankments along the rivers were constructed and afforestation plans introduced the region has become of prime importance through the cultivation of subtropical and other commercial crops.

To the east the structural trough is crossed by the Meskhet and Likh ranges, linking the Greater and Lesser Caucasus and marking the watershed between the basins of the Black and Caspian seas. In central Georgia, between the cities of Khashuri and Mtsʿkhetʿa (the ancient capital), lies the inner high plateau known as the Kartli (Kartalinian) Plain. Surrounded by mountains to the north, south, east, and west and covered for the most part by deposits of the loess type, this plateau extends along the Kura (Mtkvari) River and its tributaries.

The southern band of Georgian territory is marked by the ranges and plateaus of the Lesser Caucasus, which rise beyond a narrow, swampy coastal plain to reach 10,830 feet in the peak of Didi-Abuli.

A variety of soils are found in Georgia, ranging from gray-brown and saline semidesert types to richer red earths and podzols. Artificial improvements add to the diversity.


Native Seattle: Histories from the Crossing-Over Place

In traditional scholarship, Native Americans have been conspicuously absent from urban history. Indians appear at the time of contact, are involved in fighting or treaties, and then seem to vanish, usually onto reservations. In Native Seattle, Coll Thrush explodes the commonly accepted notion that Indians Winner of the 2008 Washington State Book Award for History/Biography

In traditional scholarship, Native Americans have been conspicuously absent from urban history. Indians appear at the time of contact, are involved in fighting or treaties, and then seem to vanish, usually onto reservations. In Native Seattle, Coll Thrush explodes the commonly accepted notion that Indians and cities-and thus Indian and urban histories-are mutually exclusive, that Indians and cities cannot coexist, and that one must necessarily be eclipsed by the other. Native people and places played a vital part in the founding of Seattle and in what the city is today, just as urban changes transformed what it meant to be Native.

On the urban indigenous frontier of the 1850s, 1860s, and 1870s, Indians were central to town life. Native Americans literally made Seattle possible through their labor and their participation, even as they were made scapegoats for urban disorder. As late as 1880, Seattle was still very much a Native place. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, however, Seattle's urban and Indian histories were transformed as the town turned into a metropolis. Massive changes in the urban environment dramatically affected indigenous people's abilities to survive in traditional places. The movement of Native people and their material culture to Seattle from all across the region inspired new identities both for the migrants and for the city itself. As boosters, historians, and pioneers tried to explain Seattle's historical trajectory, they told stories about Indians: as hostile enemies, as exotic Others, and as noble symbols of a vanished wilderness. But by the beginning of World War II, a new multitribal urban Native community had begun to take shape in Seattle, even as it was overshadowed by the city's appropriation of Indian images to understand and sell itself.

After World War II, more changes in the city, combined with the agency of Native people, led to a new visibility and authority for Indians in Seattle. The descendants of Seattle's indigenous peoples capitalized on broader historical revisionism to claim new authority over urban places and narratives. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Native people have returned to the center of civic life, not as contrived symbols of a whitewashed past but on their own terms.

In Seattle, the strands of urban and Indian history have always been intertwined. Including an atlas of indigenous Seattle created with linguist Nile Thompson, Native Seattle is a new kind of urban Indian history, a book with implications that reach far beyond the region.


Watch the video: Coll Thrush at Beyond the Frame Symposium (September 2022).

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