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Hawker Indian Sea Hawk
The third and final over-seas customer for the Sea Hawk was the Indian Navy, which ordered a mix of ex-Fleet Air Arm aircraft, new build and former German aircraft over a ten year period. The first order, for nine Mk.3s rebuilt to F.G.A.6 standard, was placed in May 1959, and deliveries began in January 1960. This was flowed by an order for fourteen newly built Mk.6s, the last Sea Hawks to be build. These aircraft made their maiden flights between 2 January and 20 July 1961.
Before these aircraft were completed another order for seven refurbished Mk.6s which were delivered in 1963-66. A final sixteen refurbished aircraft were ordered in 1963, and were delivered by 1965.
In August 1965 India ordered ten Mk.100s and eighteen Mk.101s from Germany, taking advantage of the type's withdrawal from front line service. These aircraft were ordered through a German arms dealer, but in September an arms embargo was imposed because of the Indo-Pakistan War. The sanctions lasted well into 1966, but were eventually bypassed by passing the aircraft to a third party in Italy.
The first Indian squadron to receive the Sea Hawk was No.300 'White Tiger' Squadron (INAS 300), which was commissioned on 6 July 1960 at RNAS Brawdy, after the Indian air and ground crew had undergone three months of conversion training. In the summer of 1961 the squadron embarked on INS Vikrant, a former RN carrier. The Sea Hawk was also used by INAS 511 at INS Hansa, in Goa. Fifty Sea Hawks were still in service in the late 1970s, and the last was not withdrawn until 1984, thirty years after the type first entered Fleet Air Arm service. The Sea Hawks were replaced by the Harrier.
The Indian Sea Hawks were used in combat during the 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pakistan Wars, seeing most service over the Bay of Bengal in 1971. Two hundred sorties were flown between 4-12 December, concentrating on Pakistani airfields, naval facilities and ships.
Indian Naval Air Squadron (INAS ) 303, the ‘Black Panthers’ commissioned on 11 May 2013 at INS Hansa, Goa. The Defence Minister, Shri A K Antony commissioned the squadron in the presence of the Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral D K Joshi.
The Commissioning of the Black Panthers - INAS 330. Over 180+ Photographs of the event.
Hawkers and Peddlers
A hawker is an individual who sells wares by carrying them through the streets. The person's ordinary methods of attracting attention include addressing the public, using placards, labels, and signs, or displaying merchandise in a public place. A peddler is defined as a retail dealer who brings goods from place to place, exhibiting them for sale. The terms are frequently defined in state statutes or city ordinances and are often used interchangeably.
An individual is ordinarily considered to be a peddler in the legal sense if he or she does not have a fixed place of conducting business, but regularly carries the goods for sale with himself or herself. The wares must be offered for immediate sale and delivery and must be sold to customers as opposed to dealers who sell such wares. The goods may be bartered rather than sold for cash.
A single act of selling is generally insufficient to make the salesperson a peddler. Such individual must be engaged in this type of selling as a regular occupation or business, although it need not be the person's sole or main business. In addition, the individual, in order to be considered a hawker or peddler, need not earn sufficient funds for support from the business, nor does the business need to gain a profit in order for the individual to be considered a hawker or peddler.
The business of peddling has traditionally been distinguished from the service delivery of perishable goods, such as eggs, milk, or bakery products. An individual who delivers this type of perishable goods to regular customers is not considered a peddler. When, however, an individual travels from house to house, and sells goods to different persons in small quantities, the person is a peddler, even though he or she might make daily sales to somewhat regular customers. For example, a person who sharpens knives or an ice cream truck driver might fall into this category.
The individual who actually engages in the solicitation, makes the sale, and delivers the goods is the peddler, irrespective of whether the person owns the goods or is an agent or employee of the owner. An agent who sells his or her principal's merchandise can be considered a peddler however, a principal who does not make sales calls or deliver merchandise is not. Ordinarily, an individual who merely solicits orders or sells by sample but does not deliver the goods sold is not considered a peddler.
Municipalities are permitted to set forth reasonable regulations concerning hawking and peddling within their borders. It may be required for such salespeople to obtain licenses however, municipalities cannot prohibit the business through the requirement of an excessive fee.
In situations where a license is required, a peddler or hawker must obtain it prior to the time when he or she begins to sell wares and it must be issued to the individual who is actually engaged in the peddling. It is not transferrable. In order for an applicant to obtain a license, the person must establish certain facts, such as acceptable moral character. Some statutes and ordinances require a person seeking a license to take a prescribed oath, give a bond, or deposit a particular amount of money.
Licensing statutes and ordinances often exempt certain individuals from their requirements persons within the exempt classes need not obtain licenses. Such exemptions include persons selling goods or articles they have made themselves, honorably discharged or disabled veterans, poor or generally disabled persons , and clergy. The exemption is personal and cannot be extended to agents or employees of the licensed person.
All Aircraft Carriers Of Indian Navy: Past To Future
An aircraft carrier is a vessel that carries aircraft and serves as an airbase in the sea. In today’s article, we are going to look at all the aircraft carriers of the Indian navy starting from the old INS Vikrant to the new INS Vikrant.
Types Of Aircraft Carrier
Aircraft carriers are widely categorized into four broad categories depending upon the type of launch and recovery systems as stated below:
- CATOBAR: Catapult-assisted take-off barrier arrested-recovery. As the name suggests, this type of aircraft carriers has a catapult which helps the aircraft to take off and have arresting wires for recovery of aircraft. The catapult is usually powered by the steam produced in the boilers. However new technologies like the Electromagnetic launch system is under development or being implemented on a small scale. These aircraft carriers are also known as flat deck carriers. For example-Old IND Vikrant, Nimitz class, Charles de Gaulle, etc.
- STOBAR: Short take-off barrier arrested-recovery. This is similar to CATOBAR but has only one difference. Instead of the catapult, these have a ski jump which helps aircraft to take-off. Heavier aircrafts having a low thrust to weight ratio cannot take off from this setup. For example- INS Vikramaditya
- STOVL: Short take-off vertical-landing: This type of carrier has a similar launch mechanism to STOBAR. The aircraft which are operated on this type (e.g. F 35, sea harrier, and Yak 38) have vertical landing capability. E.g.- INS Viraat, Centaur Class, etc.
- Helicopter carrier: This particular type carries only helicopters for amphibious assault roles. E.g. Wasp-class.
INS Vikrant (R11)
INS Vikrant was the first aircraft carrier of the Indian Navy. She was bought from the British Navy in 1957 and was delivered in 1970. During the 1971 Bangladesh liberation war, she played a vital role. Her aircrafts bombed several cities in Bangladesh. Admiral SM Nanda used her wisely in the eastern fleet due to the submarine threat from Pakistan. PNS Ghazi attempted to sink her but was outwitted by the Indian Navy. She had the capacity to carry almost 20 fixed-wing aircraft. She had a maximum displacement of 19000 tons. During 1971 she operated Hawker Sea Hawk and Breguet Alizé.
Initially, she was a CATOBAR aircraft carrier. She was modified in 1989 with a ski jump ramp. She also received new Sea Harrier Jump jets. She was decommissioned in 1997 after three decades of glorious service. She was preserved as a museum but was scrapped in 2014. Her steel was used to produce Bajaj Vikrant bikes.
INS Viraat is the second aircraft carrier of the Indian navy. Previously she had served in the Royal Navy as HMS Hermes. She had a significant contribution to the Falkland War. She was transferred to the Indian Navy in 1987 where she served for almost three decades. She has the world record in the Guinness Book for being the longest-serving military vessel in the world. Perhaps, for this reason, she has earned the nickname of The Grand Old Lady. She has a maximum displacement of 28700 tons and can carry up to 26 aircraft including 16 harriers. She was decommissioned in 2017. Sadly, this majestic ship would be scrapped.
INS Vikramaditya is the Flagship of the Indian Navy. She is the lone aircraft carrier of the navy as of now. She is the largest ship in the fleet having a displacement of 45000 tons. She was a Kiev class carrier which was modified and then sold to India by Russia. She was commissioned in 2013 into the Indian Navy. She is a STOBAR carrier that carries 36 aircraft including 26 Mig 29 k fighters. She has a complement of 110 officers and 1500 sailors. She is a city of steel in the ocean.
The Mig 29 K onboard INS Vikramaditya is a mighty platform. Compared to its other Russian counterparts such as Su 33, it possesses a high thrust to weight ratio which enables it to takeoff with full fuel and payload from the ski jump.
The Indian navy has the tradition to name ships after its legendary ships. INS Vikrant follows the same tradition. It is the first indigenous aircraft carrier being developed and built in the country. She has a displacement of 40,000 tons and would carry 36 aircraft. She is expected to start her basin trials this month and expected to be commissioned by the end of 2021.
How India’s Aircraft Carrier Vikrant Went to War Against Pakistan
In the wake of the commissioning of China’s second aircraft carrier, it’s worth remembering that the People’s Republic of China is actually only the third Asian state to operate its own aircraft carrier—or fourth if you count a Thai carrier used primarily for show. The first was Japan, which after a long hiatus following its World War II misadventures, is only just getting back into carrier operations.
Meanwhile, not only has the Indian Navy operated the powerful vessels for nearly sixty years, it also used them effectively in a map-changing war in 1971.
Back in 1957, New Delhi purchased the British Royal Navy’s Hercules, a Majestic-class light fleet carrier that was 75 percent complete when her construction was frozen in May 1946.
Hercules was towed to Belfast, Northern Ireland, where shipbuilder Harland and Wolff completed her in a configuration modernized for jet fighter operations with an angled flight deck and steam catapults. She was finally commissioned as the Vikrant (“Courageous”) in Indian Navy service on March 4, 1961.
As a light carrier, Vikrant was considerably smaller compared to her contemporaries, measuring only 210 meters long and displacing 17,600 tons. But her limited deck space was fine, as the Indian Navy was also busy building its naval air arm from scratch, procuring the first of 66 Hawker Sea Hawk jet fighters—mostly second-hand British and German aircraft—as well as 17 tubby piston-engine Breguet Alize anti-submarine aircraft.
After receiving training in the UK, an Indian Sea Hawk pilot performed the service’s first carrier landing on May 18, 1961. However, Vikrant subsequently sat out a 1965 conflict with Pakistan as she was undergoing a refit.
Conflict in the Bay of Bengal
By 1971, war clouds were again on the horizon between India and Pakistan due to Islamabad’s brutal repression of East Pakistan. This prompted millions of refugees to flee into India, leading New Delhi to support insurgents fighting for independence from West Pakistan
By late 1971, the government of Indra Ghandi was set on supporting Bengali revolutionaries seeking to eject the Pakistani military entirely.
Though only three of Vikrant’s four boilers were functional at the time, limiting maximum speed to just 17 knots, naval command insisted she must participate in the coming conflict, lest a second no-show deal a blow to the Navy’s morale.
The Vikrant’s role was to maintain a naval blockade of East Pakistan—preventing the Pakistani Army from dispatching reinforcements or evacuating by sea. Once the ground campaign began—a lightning offensive in which helicopters and amphibious tanks were used to leap-frog across Bangladesh’s many rivers—the Vikrant’s air wing would focus on hammering Pakistani naval assets and port facilities.
The air wing’s main combat strength came from INAS 300 “White Tiger” squadron, equipped with eighteen Sea Hawk fighter bombers. With a maximum speed of 600 miles per hour, these would have been outclassed had they encountered the handful of F-86 Sabre’s the Pakistani Air Force had deployed to East Pakistan, but their true potential lay as stable ground-attack platforms armed with four 20-millimeter Hispano cannons, and up to four 500-pound bombs or sixteen 5” rockets.
The lumpy three-ma Alize patrol planes of INAS 310 “Cobra” Squadron were foremost designed to search for submarines using air-dropped sonobuoys and surface-search radar (to catch subs that were surfaced or snorkeling to recharge batteries) and then sink them with depth charges and homing torpedoes. However, they also could be adapted to a more conventional attack role carrying 68-millimeter rockets and bombs.
The Alizes could fly long distances with their range of 1,000 miles, but would take a while doing so: though there maximum speed was 290 miles per hour, they frequently cruised at only half that. Their radars also proved useful for maintaining the blockade by monitoring shipping traffic in lengthy patrols.
A third unit, INAS 321 “Angels” Squadron, operated Alouette III helicopters in the search-and-rescue and resupply role.
Ghazi Hunts Vikrant Vikrant Hunts Ghazi
The Pakistani Navy concluded a lack of facilities and geographic vulnerability made it impractical to deploy major warships to East Pakistan, so its presence there was limited to a squadron of four gunboats as well as smaller armed boats capable of navigating Bangladesh’s many rivers. Thus, the major naval battles of the Indo-Pakistani war were fought on India’s western flank.
However, the Pakistani Navy had one joker up its sleeve: the submarine PNS Ghazi, a former U.S. Tench-class submarine from World War II. Pakistan hoped that a lucky torpedo or two from Ghazi might sink Vikant, turning its losing hand in the Bay of Bengal into a winning one—or at least constraining Vikrant’s operations.
The Indian Navy was also aware of Ghazi’s presence in the sector and made sinking her a priority.
The website Mission Vikrant 71 collects numerous fascinating anecdotes that convey the experience of the sailors and aviators onboard the Vikrant—including one account by pilot Richard Clarke describing Indian anti-submarine operations.
On the second day of the war on December 4, the Vikrat was cruising off the Andaman islands when her lookouts reported spotting a periscope. Clarke scrambled his Alize into the sky loaded with depth charges and headed towards a “distinct ripple.” He released the depth charges on target and was received by jubilant crew upon landing on deck.
But Clarke recalled that upon being summoned for debriefing, “I very sheepishly had to tell the Fleet Commander that there in fact there was no submarine in the crystal clear blue waters below the ripple when I flew over it. But I realized this only seconds before the depth charges exploded”
In fact, on December 3 Ghazi failed to locate Vikrant and instead moved to deploy mines at the entrance of Visakhapatnam port, the site of the Indian naval HQ. Around midnight on December 3-4 mysterious circumstances caused the submarine to sink with the loss of all 92 aboard.
Whether this was a result of depth charges launched by the Indian destroyer Rajput, a collision with the sea floor while attempting to dodge those depth charges, or due to a mishap during minelaying remains controversial.
Either way, the sinking left Vikrant with a free hand. Starting December 4, her Sea Hawks and Alizes flew nearly 300 sorties hammering Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar and Khulna, sinking numerous small ships and setting fuel stores on fire. One tanker in Chittagong was blasted into three segments.
The carrier also used electronic warfare to locate Pakistani gun boats and dispatch air strikes to sink them.
The carrier-based warplanes encountered heavy anti-aircraft fire, and often returned pocked with shrapnel and bullet holes—though none were lost in the fourteen-day war.
As the Indian Navy began dispatching small amphibious landing forces to cut off retreating Pakistani troops, it also needed intelligence to determine appropriate landing zones. Therefore, Alizes also flew low and slow photo reconnaissance missions with a crewmember using a hand operated F24 camera to obtain the necessary intelligence.
Cut off from reinforcements, with riverine assets largely sunk from the air (and even one occasion, by amphibious tanks), and unable to evacuate by sea, Pakistani army forces in East Pakistan surrendered on December 16, resulting in the creation of present-day Bangladesh.
Afterwards, according to 300 squadron officer Gurnham Singh, when one of the carrier’s Alouette helicopters was dispatched ashore on a resupply mission. Pilots from 300 squadron requested the chopper crew return with some war booty: spicy Chittagong pickles. This wish was granted when the chopper returned bearing 30 kilos of the spicy pickles plus paratha flat breads.
To this day, the Vikrant’s combat operations in the Bay of Bengal remain the only carrier-based combat operations undertaken by an Asian state since World War II.
Sébastien Roblin holds a Master’s Degree in Conflict Resolution from Georgetown University and served as a university instructor for the Peace Corps in China. He has also worked in education, editing, and refugee resettlement in France and the United States.
Tag: Hawker Sea Hawk
Having explored the dismantling of US aircraft carriers in a recent post and more detailed page, we thought we would provide a recent comparative example: the scrapping of India’s first aircraft carrier, the former INS Vikrant (R-11). Check out this slideshow for satellite views of the dismantling:
ex-INS Vikrant being scrapped in Mumbai, from top deck down bow to stern. Adam Cohn / CC BY-SA
Some of the US carriers scrapped around the same time had been on donation hold for possible transfer to a museum organization. The disposal of Vikrant represents a different category of scrapping – museum ships that were deemed not worth the effort or money to continue to preserve. It is not all a sad story, though: At the same time as this Vikrant was taken apart, the name and traditions will live on in a new, larger ship. When commissioned, this will also be a first for India – the first domestically built carrier.
Travelling hawkers or itinerant hawkers were a common sight in Singapore during the 19th century to mid-20th century. They were frequently found along busy streets and intersections, peddling food, drinks, vegetables, poultry and sundries. Street hawking was a popular occupation for many new immigrants to Singapore as it gave the unemployed and the unskilled a way to make a living with little costs. Though there were many issues associated with street hawking, such as traffic obstruction and hygiene, street hawkers played an important role in providing the working classes with easy access to affordable meals. 1
As early as the mid-19th century, there were already many itinerant hawkers eking out a living on the streets of Singapore. Street hawking was a popular occupation among the unemployed and the unskilled because it required little capital to start. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, artisans and coolies (unskilled labourers) who had lost their jobs turned to hawking. Even children were part of the hawking trade, selling items such as cigarettes, cakes, kacang goreng (roasted peanuts), goreng pisang (banana fritters) and apom berkuah (pancakes made from rice flour) to supplement meagre household incomes. 2
Among the many types of hawkers, food hawkers formed the largest group. As there were insufficient eating houses in the city, these roadside vendors performed an important function of providing quick and cheap meals to the coolies labouring at the docks and godowns, and the local clerks and messengers working in offices. They also served the large population of city dwellers who did not cook in their quarters. Another class of hawkers were small local producers of vegetables, fruit, eggs and poultry. They generally sold their crops at the markets but would peddle their unsold stocks of the day. Yet another class of hawkers were street vendors commissioned by wholesalers to market their merchandise. Importers of perishable goods like vegetables and fruit, and Chinese sauce manufacturers were some wholesalers who relied heavily on hawkers to sell and distribute their goods. Lastly, there were street hawkers who peddled sundries such as sandals, brooms, towels, tea cups and needles, or those who peddled services such as street barbers, cobblers, lock menders and tin workers. 3
In the suburbs, hawkers plied food and other necessities to residents, bringing convenience to the doorsteps of many households. These travelling hawkers typically followed established routines and routes with which regular customers were familiar. They would also sometimes alert customers to their presence by playing sound implements such as bamboo sticks or bells. 4
Hawkers transported their goods in different ways. Some walked the streets in search of customers, carrying their goods around in baskets attached to a shoulder yoke, or in trays balanced on heads. Others used barrows, bicycles, tricycles or carts fitted with cooking equipment to move around. Soup noodle carts were typically customised with a glass cupboard that displayed the ingredients and a boiling cauldron that had separate compartments for the soup and boiling water. From time to time, the hawkers would also station themselves at busy thoroughfares to solicit business. 5
Types of hawkers
In the 1930s, there were about 6,000 licensed itinerant hawkers and an estimated 4,000 unlicensed hawkers on the streets, comprising Chinese, Malay and Indian vendors. The Hokkiens were the largest in numbers and were found throughout the city, especially Chinatown. They typically sold coffee and cooked food, though some also sold vegetables that they had cultivated in the outlying districts. Teochews formed a quarter of the Chinese hawkers. They peddled cooked food, fresh fish and pork, but their niche was in the sale of fruits and vegetables. Operating as a collective of wholesalers and peddlers, the Teochews dominated the trade of fruits and vegetables between China and Singapore, and had their own association which was headquartered near Ellenborough Market. 6
Cantonese hawkers congregated around the areas of People&rsquos Park, Kreta Ayer and Jalan Besar and sold a variety of products such as food stuffs, vegetables, apparel, toys and cigarettes. They also controlled the supply of vegetables from the farms in Balestier, and durian and mangosteen from Malaya. The Hockchias and Hockchius mostly operated night stalls in Queen Street and Johore Road where scores of rickshaw pullers lived. They were well-organised and had their own association known as the Hockchia Coffee Stall Keepers Guild that regulated the trade. The Shanghainese were largely nomadic traders who purchased silk from China ports and sold them to markets in Singapore, Indonesia and India. 7
Malay and Javanese hawkers generally clustered around the lanes and by-ways around Middle Road and sold satay (skewered grilled meat), curios and cloth. Indian food hawkers gathered at street corners, schools, football grounds and toddy shops during mid-day and tiffin hours. They sold food and drinks such as Indian rojak (fried fritters), mee goreng (fried yellow noodles), vadai (a fried snack made from flour and lentils), muruku (a savoury and crispy snack made from urad dal flour), kachang puteh (assorted nuts), goats&rsquo milk and yoghurt. North Indian Muslim hawkers were known for their tea, ginger water and buns that were transported in high tin cans. The ice-water man, who sold syrup-coated ice balls, was especially popular with school children. 8
Regulation of the hawking trade
Though hawkers were seen as a necessity, the colonial government was compelled to intervene and control the trade due to problems of food contamination, improper disposal of refuse, traffic obstruction and exploitations by secret societies. The licensing of hawkers was first proposed in 1903 but it was not until 1906 to 1907 that the first laws were passed and enforced. The legislation initially covered only night stall hawkers but was later expanded in 1915 (but brought into force only in 1919) to include itinerant and day hawkers. Through licensing, the government sought to limit the growth of hawkers as well as the hours and locales where they could operate. 9
In 1927, the police were further empowered to impound goods for second offences. The government also attempted to re-locate some vendors from the streets to hawker shelters. However, hawker troubles persisted, leading to the appointment of two committees in 1931 and 1950 to investigate and address the problems, and the formation of a Markets and Hawkers Department in 1957 to oversee the trade. The hawking situation only saw major improvements in the 1960s through the &rsquo80s when the government carried out an island-wide registration exercise, relocated hawkers from the main streets to the side or back lanes, stepped up enforcements against illegal hawking, and embarked on a programme to construct more markets and hawker centres. 10
Naidu Ratnala Thulaja
1. Iskandar Mydin. (1989). Pioneers of the streets. Singapore: Art, Antiques and Antiquities, pp. 14&ndash15, 17. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 ISK-[HIS]) Bartley, W., & Singapore. Committee Appointed to Investigate the Hawker Question in Singapore. (1932). Report [Microfilm no: NL 7596]. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, pp. 2&ndash3, 5, 23.
2. Iskandar Mydin. (1989). Pioneers of the streets. Singapore: Art, Antiques and Antiquities, pp. 14&ndash17. (Call no.: RSING 959.57 ISK-[HIS]) Bartley, W., & Singapore. Committee Appointed to Investigate the Hawker Question in Singapore. (1932). Report [Microfilm no.: NL 7596]. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, p. 17 Singapore. Hawkers Inquiry Commission. (1950). Report. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, pp. 62&ndash63. (Call no.: RCLOS 331.798095957 SIN)
3. Bartley, W., & Singapore. Committee Appointed to Investigate the Hawker Question in Singapore. (1932). Report [Microfilm no.: NL 7596]. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, pp. 3&ndash4, 41, 89 Our street hawkers. (1905, November 6). Eastern Daily Mail and Straits Morning Advertiser, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG Singapore. Hawkers Inquiry Commission. (1950). Report. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, p. 11. (Call no.: RCLOS 331.798095957 SIN)
4. Bartley, W., & Singapore. Committee Appointed to Investigate the Hawker Question in Singapore. (1932). Report [Microfilm no.: NL 7596]. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, pp. 3, 7, 33 Chua, B. H. (2015). Taking the street out of street food. In L. Kong, & V. Sinha (Eds.), Food, foodways and foodscapes: Culture, community and consumption in post-colonial Singapore (pp. 23&ndash40). Singapore New Jersey: World Scientific, pp. 24&ndash27. (Call no.: RSING 394.12095957 FOO) Gwee, T. H. (2013). The tradesmen. In A nyona mosaic: Memoirs of a Peranakan childhood. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, pp. 132&ndash149. (Call no.: RSING 959.57030922 GWE-[HIS])
5. Kong, L. (2007). Singapore hawker centres: People, places, food. Singapore: National Environment Agency, p. 21. (Call no.: RSING 381.18095957 KON) Bartley, W., & Singapore. Committee Appointed to Investigate the Hawker Question in Singapore. (1932). Report [Microfilm no.: NL 7596]. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, pp. 17, 72, 79, 82, 86, 89 Singapore. Hawkers Inquiry Commission. (1950). Report. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, pp. 14, 55. (Call no.: RCLOS 331.798095957 SIN) Chua, B. H. (2015). Taking the street out of street food. In L. Kong, & V. Sinha (Eds.), Food, foodways and foodscapes: Culture, community and consumption in post-colonial Singapore (pp. 23&ndash40). Singapore New Jersey: World Scientific, pp. 24&ndash27. (Call no.: RSING 394.12095957 FOO)
6. Bartley, W., & Singapore. Committee Appointed to Investigate the Hawker Question in Singapore. (1932). Report [Microfilm no.: NL 7596]. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, pp. 1&ndash3 Gwee, T. H. (2013). The tradesmen. In A nyona mosaic: Memoirs of a Peranakan childhood. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, pp. 132&ndash149. (Call no.: RSING 959.57030922 GWE)
7. Bartley, W., & Singapore. Committee Appointed to Investigate the Hawker Question in Singapore. (1932). Report [Microfilm: NL 7596]. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, pp. 1&ndash3 Gwee, T. H. (2013). The tradesmen. In A nyona mosaic: Memoirs of a Peranakan childhood. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, pp. 132&ndash149. (Call no.: RSING 959.57030922 GWE)
8. Bartley, W., & Singapore. Committee Appointed to Investigate the Hawker Question in Singapore. (1932). Report [Microfilm no.: NL 7596]. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, pp. 1&ndash3 Gwee, T. H. (2013). The tradesmen. In A nyona mosaic: Memoirs of a Peranakan childhood. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, pp. 132&ndash149. (Call no.: RSING 959.57030922 GWE)
9. Singapore. Hawkers Inquiry Commission. (1950). Report. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, pp. 5&ndash8, 14, 35&ndash43, 46&ndash47. (Call no.: RCLOS 331.798095957 SIN) Annual report of the Markets and Hawkers Department 1957. (1957). Singapore: The Council, p. 1. (Call no.: RCLOS 388.31 SIN-[RFL]) Kong, L. (2007). Singapore hawker centres: People, places, food. Singapore: National Environment Agency, pp. 19&ndash31. (Call no.: RSING 381.18095957 KON) Yeoh, B. (2003). Contesting space in colonial Singapore: Power relations and the urban built environment. Singapore: Singapore University Press, pp. 262&ndash266. (Call no.: RSING 307.76095957 YEO)
10. Singapore. Hawkers Inquiry Commission. (1950). Report. Singapore: Printed at the Government Printing Office, pp. 5&ndash8, 14, 35&ndash43, 46&ndash47. (Call no.: RCLOS 331.798095957 SIN) Annual report of the Markets and Hawkers Department 1957. (1957). Singapore: The Council, p. 1. (Call no.: RCLOS 388.31 SIN-[RFL]) Kong, L. (2007). Singapore hawker centres: People, places, food. Singapore: National Environment Agency, pp. 19&ndash31. (Call no.: RSING 381.18095957 KON) Yeoh, B. (2003). Contesting space in colonial Singapore: Power relations and the urban built environment. Singapore: Singapore University Press, pp. 262&ndash266. (Call no.: RSING 307.76095957 YEO)
Duruz, J., & Khoo, G. C. (2015). Growing up transnational: Travelling through Singapore&rsquos hawker centres. In Eating together: Food, space, and identity in Malaysia and Singapore. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 95&ndash122.
(Call no.: RSING 394.1209595 DUR-[CUS])
Lim, T. S. (2013, October&ndashDecember). Hawkers: From public nuisance to national icons. BiblioAsia, 9(3), 10&ndash17. Retrieved from National Library Board website: http://www.nlb.gov.sg/Browse/BiblioAsia.aspx
Ong, C. S., & Tan, B. L. (Eds.). (1985). Five-foot-way traders. Singapore: Archives and Oral History Department, pp. 37&ndash76.
(Call no.: RSING 779.9658870095957 FIV)
The information in this article is valid as at 2016 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.
HAWKER SEA HAWK
It was during the final years of the Second World War when Hawker’s Sydney Camm and his team developed the prototype P1040 as a private venture. Intended as an interceptor, it displayed little by way of improved performance over the existing Meteor and Vampire and was thus rejected by the RAF. It was then offered to the Royal Navy as a fleet support fighter and re-developed as the Hawker N7/46. The prototype first flew on 2nd September 1947 with Bill Humble at the controls. A fully ‘navalised’ version, complete with folding wings, arrester hook and armament flew in 1948 and the first carrier trials began later that year on HMS Illustrious.
The first production machine, now called the Sea Hawk, flew in 1951 and the aircraft entered service two years later with No 806 Squadron at RNAS Brawdy. The Sea Hawk F1 was armed with 4 x 20 mm Hispano Mk V cannon and powered by a single Rolls Royce Nene turbojet engine developing 5,000 thrust. Further marks followed, the most important advance being the introduction of fighter ground attack variants capable of carrying 16 x 3 in rocket projectiles and 2 x 500 lb bombs.
As an element of the Fleet Air Arm, the Sea Hawk saw service during the Suez Crisis (Op Musketeer) in 1956 with six squadrons embarked, two on each of HMS Eagle, HMS Albion and HMS Bulwark. The aircraft were highly successful in their ground attack role, destroying a wide range of Egyptian targets. Sea Hawks also saw extensive combat with the Indian Navy during the Indo-Pakistani wars of 1965 and 1971 and also served with the Royal Netherlands Navy and West Germany’s Bundesmarine.
The Sea Hawk was replaced in the Fleet Air Arm from 1958 with the last front line squadron disbanding in 1960. A total of 542 were built and a fair number survive on display at museums in the UK and further afield. A single airworthy Sea Hawk serves with the Royal Navy Historic Aircraft Flight at RNAS Yeovilton.
Indian Navy Sea Hawks
I recall that the Indian Navy operated Sea Hawks from ex RN carriers, did any of these jets enter preservation? Or are they lurking waiting to be re discovered,or worse case melted down.
By: Jagan - 5th December 2005 at 12:10 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
The Indian Navy had acquired 74 Sea Hawks. 46 from UK, 28 ex Germany. There are 12 known survivors in India. One more gifted to Germany. Atleast 20 have been written off in accidents - perhaps many more. Remaining have entered the Twilight Zone (no idea where they are)
-NA- National Defence Academy. Parade Ground Pune
-NA- Derelict at INAS Garuda Cochin
-NA- Prserved Dabolim NAS Goa
IN-172 Cochin Flying Position Cochin
IN-174 Front of RBI Building Kowdiar. Trivandrum
IN-188 Vikrant Maritime Museum Bombay
IN-234 Naval Air Museum, Dabolim Goa
IN-235 IIT Chennai, Adyar. Chennai
IN-240 Victory at Sea Memorial Vizag
IN-244 Gate Gaurdian, Marmagoa Goa
IN-246 Vikrant Maritime Museum Bombay
IN-252 Madras Institute of Technology, Chromepet Chennai
By: setter - 5th December 2005 at 12:15 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
Didn't one come up in a fishing net recently ?
By: Jagan - 5th December 2005 at 12:31 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
Ah yes IN-189, salvaged by the US and Indian Navies in a joint exercise. However I dont think it will survive long. Its just the center section and wings.
By: andrewman - 5th December 2005 at 13:34 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
Was IN240 the last Sea Hawk to fly in India before being put on a pole at Vizag, or has another one flown since then ?
By: mike currill - 5th December 2005 at 21:27 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
That's interesting information. I did not know that India flew Sea Hawks. Who else used them apart from the Fleet Air Arm and German Navy?
By: Merlinmagic - 5th December 2005 at 21:54 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
By: mike currill - 5th December 2005 at 21:59 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
Don't think so, at least not to my knowledge, maybe South Africa. Did the French navy not take a few on as well? Come on folks, where are all the guys who know these things when you need them?
By: Chris B - 5th December 2005 at 22:18 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
Per the Putnam Hawker p324 ". a small number of ex-Fleet Air Arm Sea Hawks passed to the Royal Australian Navy. ". No details given of how they were used.
Other users were the West Germans, India and 32 Mark 50s, similar to FGA Mk6, supplied new to the Dutch.
By: mike currill - 5th December 2005 at 22:27 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
Thanks for that Chris. Nice to add to my store of knowledge.
By: Guzzineil - 5th December 2005 at 22:42 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
one at Goa a couple of years ago.
By: Flood - 6th December 2005 at 00:39 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
Per the Putnam Hawker p324 ". a small number of ex-Fleet Air Arm Sea Hawks passed to the Royal Australian Navy. ". No details given of how they were used.
By: Caz - 6th December 2005 at 22:18 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
On display at Nordholz, Germany is this example. This one has also seen service in India as IN238.
By: XN923 - 7th December 2005 at 09:41 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
Try www.thunder-and-lightnings.co.uk for more info on the Sea Hawk and other users. There's a great story about an Indian Sea Hawk pilot who crashed into the sea shortly after take off, and calmly waited for the aircraft carrier to pass over his head before ejecting. Some nerve!
By: Jagan - 7th December 2005 at 18:47 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
XN923 , then you will probably like this - a more detailed first person account of someone who saw the incident.
By: alertken - 7th December 2005 at 21:50 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
There's a pic of the Squadron Commander splashing a failed bolter on the first embarkation of Scimitar - ?1958. IIRC he was seen looking up thro the canopy, unable to bang out because the SAR chopper was overhead. Skill and training were there in the Indian case. and plumb luck.
By: Flood - 7th December 2005 at 23:04 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
Cdr JD Russell of 803NAS, 25/9/1958, in XD240.
It could have been that the Scimitar was not then equiped with a zero/zero seat I don't know and haven't searched to find out, but there are several pictures out there of ejections from Scimitars after the wires have been missed or after sluggish catapult launches. just a little later than 1958, though! But considering that third prototype WW134 conducted underwater ejection trials for Martin Baker in the Mediterranean off the south of France in June 1962 then maybe it was not possible for Cdr Russell to get out in this manner two years previously.
As an aside, I used to work with someone who claimed to have been, whilst under training at Yeovilton, the last person to speak (or maybe shout) face to face with Russell, prior to sliding and locking the canopy closed and checking that all the personal luggage was safely stowed. He got extensively questioned for a while just to confirm that everything had been fine with the aircraft, that the canopy hadn't given any cause for concern, and that there was nothing loose that might have prevented the canopy from opening: the impression being given to him that the SAR crewman hadn't been able to get the canopy open.
By: Vega ECM - 8th December 2005 at 06:49 Permalink - Edited 1st January 1970 at 01:00
The reason for the underwater ejection trials in 1962 were at least in no small part due to the circumstances of Cdr Russells death. I understand that underwater ejections have also been done from at least a Wyvern and F8 Crusauder.
Note with Cdr Russells incident the canopy was open when the SAR arrived. Russell took his helment off and throw it away. The SAR prepared to winch someone down but before this could happen the aircraft pitched forward, which closed the canopy and the arcraft went down nose first. No divers were present on the SAR so they could not follow the sinking A/C. Both A/C and Russell were recovered some time later. The final report bamed a failure of some of the seat straps to release. There should be some film of the whole thing around somewhere.
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MALTA AVIATION MUSEUM
In 1999 the Malta Aviation Museum Foundation acquired Sea Hawk FGA.2, WV826 from Phoenix Aviation Museum. It is the first ship-borne jet aircraft on display and reflects part of Malta's long and historical links with the Fleet Air Arm in the post war years. WV826 has been painted to represent a No.804 Squadron FGA.6 aircraft coded 161 of the Suez Crisis period, hence the black and yellow identification stripes. Operating from HMS Bulwark, the squadron made attacks on Egyptian airfields and provided support for ground troops. On returning home early in 1957 (following a brief stop at Hal Far) the squadron transferred to HMS Ark Royal, and its fin code changed from B to O, but evidently the Suez markings were not immediately painted out.
This aircraft is in the Romney exhibition hangar.
At the end of 1944 Sydney Camm, Hawker's famous chief designer, produced an original design for a jet fighter designated the P.1040 built around Rolls Royce's new B.41 turbojet engine. After both the Air Ministry and the Admiralty remained sceptical, in October 1945 Hawker and Rolls Royce decided to proceed on their own with a prototype. Towards the end of 1945 the Navy decided that Camm's fighter and the new jet engine looked promising and an order to proceed to construct three prototypes was given in May 1946.
The first flight of VP401 was made at Boscombe Down on September 2, 1947. VP413 was the first of the naval prototypes and flew on September 3rd 1948. Deck landings were made in 1949 on H.M.S. Illustrious, as a result of which certain improvements were made. In 1949 VP401 piloted by Neville Duke won the National Air Races at Elmdon, achieving a speed of 508 mph. It then won the SBAC Trophy at an average speed of 510 mph.
Hawkers received the first production contract from the Royal Navy for a total of 151 aircraft named Sea Hawk. It entered service with the Fleet Air Arm with No.806 Naval Air Squadron in March 1953, embarking in February 1954 on H.M.S. Eagle. The carrier then moved to the Mediterranean and its aircraft also operated from Royal Naval Air Station Hal Far (H.M.S. Falcon).
During the Suez Campaign of 1956 six squadrons of Sea Hawks took an active part from the carriers Eagle, Albion and Bulwark. The aircraft here proved its effectiveness in the ground attack role. The Royal Netherlands Naval Air service, the West German Navy and the Indian Navy were the other foreign countries which purchased and operated the Sea Hawk. The Indian Navy Sea Hawks were carried on the aircraft carrier Vikrant, in 1961 when it called at Malta. The aircraft operated from Hal Far during this period.