Utah Valley State College

Utah Valley State College

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Utah Valley State College, located in Orem, Utah, is a fully accredited, four-year state college. Apart from offering numerous comprehensive degree programs, it guides entrepreneurs and business owners during the early phases of business development by providing detailed business plans and strategies.Utah Valley State College’s beginning can be traced to World War II, which brought jobs and opportunity through federal work programs. These new jobs led to the need for better training among the talent pool.Vocational classes were held at various shops and business throughout Utah and Heber Valley. In 1941, these training courses were moved to a central location in south Provo, leading to the establishment of the Central Utah Vocational School.In 1947, the school was converted to a permanent state institution. The name was changed to Utah Trade Technical Institute.In 1967, the college was renamed Utah Technical College at Provo. With the increasing notoriety of the college, a new name of Utah Valley Community College was adopted in 1987, to reflect its broader scope.Today, Utah Valley State College enrolls more than 23,600 students. The college offers 41 bachelor's degrees and a range of associate degrees.The college encompasses the schools of business, computer science and engineering; continuing education, education, general academics, humanities, arts, and social sciences; science and health, and technology, trades, and industry.The college library features a wide array of books, journals, and periodicals, housed in a four-story building. The whole library collection is available online for easier access.One of the more interesting buildings on campus is the Pope Science building. The building houses many science models and displays, designed to aid in the students in their studies and projects.Another interesting venue is the Hall of Flags. states, as well as other nations, representing the diverse locations from which students have arrived.


A map noting the different Native American sites near Mendon, Utah. [click to enlarge]
(Utah State University Special Collections & Archives, Folk Collection 67)

The Northwestern Band of Shoshone (or Newe, meaning, &ldquothe people&rdquo) and their ancestors have a deep connection with the lands in northern Utah and southeastern Idaho. The first remembrances of the area around modern-day Mendon begin with those from members of this band.

The Band of Northwestern Shoshone located in Cache Valley were known as the Pangwiduka (fish eaters). When Mormon settlers came to Cache Valley, they encountered two bands of the Pangwiduka. One, under Sanpits, included 124 members, and the other, under Sagwich, included 158. Chief Bear Hunter was a cousin of Chief Sagwitch and a longtime companion. These two chiefs and their bands traveled together most of the time and they counseled and made decisions together. In difficult times, they shared their provisions with each other.

Sagwich, Beawoachee (Sagwich&rsquos last wife), the widow of Bear Hunter, Lehi, Pocatello, and Sanpitch are all important Shoshone historical figures. They were involved in the U.S. military action against the Shoshone known as the Bear River Massacre or the Battle of Bear River. All but seven of Bear Hunter&rsquos band died.

In 1938, anthropologist Julian Steward (1970) interviewed Ray Diamond, a member of the Northwestern Band of Shoshone. Diamond told Steward that Kwa&rsquogunogoi was a historic Newe settlement along the Logan River above its junction with the Little Bear River (Wuda = bear + ogwa = flowing river). Artifacts have been found within a five-mile radius&mdashroughly drawn from the Logan-Little Bear confluence on the north, south to Pelican Pond, and west to the Mendon foothills. See the map to the left for the locations of these artifacts.

Cattail root, Typha
(Utah State University Special Collections & Archives, Folk Collection 67)

Willow Creek or Willow River

The Shoshone referred to Cache Valley as Sihiviogoi, which means Willow Creek or Willow River (Sihivi=willow + ogoi=river). Viewed from the mountain pass, Cache Valley is one of the most beautiful vales of the Rocky Mountain range. The land along the Bear River and its tributaries has an abundance of willows that the Shoshone used as wind and snowbreaks during winter. The Newe found Cache Valley richly fertile, producing excellent grass while the valley&rsquos many marshes provided rich food resources. One acre of Typha latifolia (cattail) yields 10,792 pounds of harvestable roots and tubers which, when dried, can be ground into 5,500 pounds of flour. The nutritional value of this flour exceeds that of rice, wheat, and corn (Watkins and Timbimboo-Madsen 2019, 51).

Butterfly on goldenrod, Solidago, a member of the sunflower family.
(Utah State University Special Collections & Archives, Folk Collection 67)

Goldenrod, Solidago, a member of the sunflower family, on the road to Mendon.
(Utah State University Special Collections & Archives, Folk Collection 67)

Mendon, Utah (Locally Known Newe Encampment)

Old-timers in Mendon have found arrowheads in several areas in or near Mendon. The Fred Taylor family found arrowheads between 1930 and 1960 on the hill at the northeast entrance to Mendon, which today hosts a ninety-plus housing development called Pheasant Hollow. A collection of arrowheads, including a large projectile point, is in the possession of Laverna Taylor of Mendon.

The William Barrett family collected arrowheads from the foothills near First Cattle Guard on the National Forest Road south of town. Near a spring and creek, the area could have been an early spring greens, summer sunflower (aken), and rye grass (piasonippe) harvesting center (Watkins and Timbimboo-Madsen 2019, 52).

Written with the assistance of Paula Watkins, community scholar, and Patti Timbimboo-Madsen, cultural/natural resource manager for the Northwestern Band of Shoshone.

The Impact of Foreigners on the Shoshone

Through contact with the Spanish and through trade with neighboring tribes to the south and east, the Shoshone acquired horses, which greatly increased their foraging range. Horses quickly became a vital part of Shoshone culture, requiring them to adopt new techniques, such as slashing and burning the valley&rsquos grasslands to better feed their livestock. When American explorers and trappers came to the area in the early 1800s, the Shoshone &ldquoactively sought and incorporated new goods and technology&rdquo (Heaton 1993, 28). The Shoshone and trappers in Cache Valley largely coexisted, building a prosperous relationship of trading arms and pelts. Albeit mutually beneficial, trapping significantly altered the valley&rsquos environment, decreasing local animal populations and, eventually, driving them from the area. After the market for furs crashed in the 1830s, trappers left a much-depleted Cache Valley, which weakened the local Shoshone (Heaton 1993, 68).

Similarly, when Mormon settlers arrived in the 1850s, they further &ldquoeroded the dwindling resource base and homeland of the Shoshones and led to a deterioration of Indian/white relations&rdquo (Heaton 1993, 75). Brigham Young&mdashprophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 to 1877&mdashtold the settlers that it was cheaper and easier to &ldquofeed the Indians than to fight them&rdquo (Heaton 1993, 80). The settlers indeed assisted the Shoshone by providing food. It was a heavy yet necessary burden. Despite Young&rsquos overtures for peace, small-scale violence and conflict still erupted, forcing settlers to move into better-protected forts to safeguard their crops and livestock (Peterson 1997, 41&ndash45).

Utah Valley State College - History

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Utah Valley State College - History

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Financial Aid Resources

UHEAA provides financial assistance to Utah residents and students attending Utah postsecondary institutions. UHEAA has one of the best Borrower Benefits programs in the country.

The Utah Educational Savings Plan is the official 529 education savings plan sponsored by the State of Utah. It is a "direct-sold" 529 plan, which means that an account can be set up and contributions can be made by dealing directly with UESP. A financial advisor or broker-dealer does not need to be involved.

Why the Mormons Settled in Utah

In 1844, reeling from the murder of their founder and prophet, Joseph Smith, and facing continued mob violence in their settlement in Illinois, thousands of Latter Day Saints (better known as Mormons) threw their support behind a new leader, Brigham Young. Two years later, Young led the Mormons on their great trek westward through the wilderness some 1,300 miles to the Rocky Mountains𠅊 rite of passage they saw as necessary in order to find their promised land.

Young, and 148 Mormons, crossed into the Great Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. For the next two decades, wagon trains bearing thousands of Mormon immigrants followed Young’s westward trail. By 1896, when Utah was granted statehood, the church had more than 250,000 members, most living in Utah. Today, according to official LDS statistics, Utah is home to more than 2 million Mormons, or about one-third of the total number of Mormons in the United States.

U.S. Mormon leader and founder of Salt Lake City in Utah, Brigham Young. (Credit: Culture Club/Getty Images)

Joseph Smith is jailed and killed by an angry mob.
Forced to flee anti-Mormon hostility in New York, Ohio and Missouri, in 1839 Smith and other church members arrived in Nauvoo, Illinois, on the banks of the Mississippi River. Jailed in Missouri, Smith was allowed to escape to Illinois, where he helped build Nauvoo into a thriving city. Then in mid-1843, after Missouri’s governor blamed a failed assassination attempt on Mormon agitators, the governor of Illinois, Thomas Ford, agreed to extradite Smith to face trial.

Why all the hostility against Smith and his fellow Mormons? “The Mormons were fairly clannish, you might say,” Matthew Bowman, professor of history at Henderson State University and author of The Mormon People: The Making of an American Faith, explains. “They tended to vote in blocs, they tended to consolidate all their economic activity within their own communities. These kinds of things generated suspicion from people around them.”

Smith evaded extradition for a while, and even began planning a run for president of the United States in 1844. But when a local newspaper, the Nauvoo Expositor, published a front page article criticizing the Mormon doctrine of polygamy, Smith ordered its printing press smashed. In the ensuing uproar, Smith was convinced to turn himself in at the county seat in Carthage to face a hearing.

On June 27, 1844, a mob gathered at the jail and killed Smith and his brother Hyrum. Though the Mormons had been considering migrating West, beyond the reach of the United States government, before their founder’s murder, the crime solidified this intention. And Brigham Young, who emerged as de facto leader after Smith’s death, had just the place in mind.

The murder of Joseph Smith. (Credit: Bettmann Archive/Getty Images)

Relying on reports of Western explorers and the low population, the Mormons set their eyes on Utah.
Young and his fellow apostles considered options such as Texas (during its brief period as an independent republic), California and Canada. But relying on the reports of Western explorers like John C. Frémont, they decided on the Great Salt Lake Valley in the Rocky Mountains. At the time, the region was part of Mexico, with limited oversight by the Mexican government. They set out from Nauvoo in April 1846, but were forced to spend several months camped along the Missouri River between Iowa and Nebraska. When spring came, Young and an advance group of 143 men, three women and two children left the winter camp and headed for their final destination.

Despite warnings about the region’s unsuitability for agriculture and the hostile Native Americans living near the smaller, freshwater Utah Lake, the Mormons were drawn to the low population of the Salt Lake Valley. And the mountains ringing the valley were stocked with freshwater streams and creeks that could nourish crops, despite the saltiness of the Great Salt Lake itself. “It didn’t seem to be wanted by any other white people,” Bowman says of Young’s chosen spot. “There was not a large Native American presence, but there was the potential for agriculture, and for supporting a large population.”

In a later account of their arrival, the future LDS leader Wilford Woodruff wrote that Young paused and gazed down at the valley for several minutes when they first arrived, and “he saw the future glory of Zion and of Israel, as they would be, planted in the valleys of these mountains.”

Sheet music cover for a song titled “If You Saw What I Saw, You𠆝 Go To Utah!” by Howard Patrick, 1917. (Credit: Sheridan Libraries/Levy/Gado/Getty Images)

When Utah becomes part of the U.S., Young sees an opportunity to control a state government.
When Young and his followers first arrived in the Great Salt Lake, the region was still part of Mexican territory. But in early 1848, Mexico ceded some 525,000 square miles of its territory to the United States at the end of the Mexican-American War, including all or parts of present-day Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming𠅊nd Utah.

Young saw an opportunity in this turn of events: State governments had a lot of power, and controlling one could give the Mormons considerable autonomy. In 1849, he sent representatives to Congress with a proposed map of the state of Deseret (a word from the Book of Mormon meaning “honeybee”.) The state would have been massive, encompassing present-day Utah, most of Nevada, good chunks of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and Idaho, and even the city of San Diego.

Instead, as part of the Compromise of 1850, Congress greatly reduced Deseret’s size and renamed it the Utah Territory. President Millard Fillmore appointed Young as territorial governor, a decision made “largely as a matter of practicality,” Bowman points out, as Young had essentially been governing Deseret (as he called it) and the Mormon Church as one entity for three years already.

A colorized photograph of a 19th century polygamous Mormon family with two wives and nine children. (Credit: Bettmann Archive/Getty Images)

In Utah, Young is able to ignore the federal government, until the practice of polygamy prevents Utah’s statehood.
Young largely ignored the federal agents the Fillmore administration sent to Utah, and did what he wanted. Federal courtrooms sat empty, while Mormon leaders filled the territorial legislature. Suspicions of theocracy, and particularly of the Mormon practice of polygamy, which the church made public in 1852, “really inflamed the animus of Americans—particularly Protestants𠅊gainst the Mormons,” Bowman says. It also made the Mormons a useful political foil for Washington politicians, some of whom likened the religion to another highly divisive institution: slavery.

In 1857, President James Buchanan declared the Utah Territory to be in rebellion, and ordered federal troops to Salt Lake City to force Young to step down in favor of a non-Mormon governor. Though Young eventually agreed to be replaced as territorial governor, the Mormon practice of plural marriage would delay Utah’s statehood for nearly four more decades.

Congress began passing laws trying to get rid of polygamy (or bigamy, as it was then called) in the early 1860s. Though during the Civil War these laws were not pursued, Bowman says, this changed in the decade after that conflict. In the 1874 case Reynolds v. United States, in which Young’s secretary, George Reynolds, tested the constitutionality of an 1862 anti-bigamy law, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Constitution does not protect polygamy.

In the 1880s and early 1890s, more than 1,000 Mormon men would be convicted of charges relating to plural marriage. In 1887, the Edmunds-Tucker Act took square aim at the Mormon church itself, disincorporating it and authorizing the federal government to seize much of its property. Again the Mormons brought suit, but in 1890 the Supreme Court ruled the Edmunds-Tucker Act constitutional. “When that happens, the president of the church, Wilford Woodruff, issues what Mormons call the Manifesto,” Bowman explains. “It’s a proclamation saying that for the good of the church, for the survival of the church, we have to abandon plural marriage.”

Utah becomes the 45th state.
Once Woodruff had formally renounced polygamy on behalf of the LDS, Congress’ attitude changed greatly, and the path to statehood became considerably clearer. On January 4, 1896, Utah became a state. A year later, when the church celebrated the 50th anniversary of Brigham Young’s arrival in the Salt Lake Valley—Young himself died in 1877—the newly completed Mormon temple in Salt Lake City was draped in American flags.

Utah is now home to more than 2 million Mormons, or about one-third of the total number of Mormons in the United States.

Financial Aid Resources

UHEAA provides financial assistance to Utah residents and students attending Utah postsecondary institutions. UHEAA has one of the best Borrower Benefits programs in the country.

The Utah Educational Savings Plan is the official 529 education savings plan sponsored by the State of Utah. It is a "direct-sold" 529 plan, which means that an account can be set up and contributions can be made by dealing directly with UESP. A financial advisor or broker-dealer does not need to be involved.

Historic Provo

Just an hour south of Salt Lake City on Interstate 15 there is a section of the state called Utah Valley. Although the Ute Indians anciently inhabited this area, today the valley is home to Provo, Utah's second largest city. To the west of Provo lies Utah Lake, and to the east of the city stand a towering range of mountains called the Wasatch Front. The history of Provo is an interesting page in the history of the Beehive State. Visitors who come to Provo will find several historic sites. These historic sites are cultural resources worthy of preservation as landmarks of the community.

Utah Valley was the traditional home of the Ute Indians. This people were known also as the Yuta Indians, or the Uta Indians. Looking at the names of the native people of the state, it becomes obvious from whence Utah got its name. These Indians called Utah Valley home because Utah Lake was full of fish that kept the tribe fed and they were protected from bellicose groups of Indians that lived to the Northeast. The Wasatch Front acted as a natural barrier to the enemies of the Ute Indians.

Two Spanish Franciscan priests named Escalante and Dominguez led a group of what is believed to be the first white visitors to come into Utah Valley. They kept an excellent written record of their journey and the places that they visited. This group came from Santa Fe, New Mexico along a route that was called The Old Spanish Trail. They came to this area to meet with the Ute Indians. They had been doing business with the Utes for some time. In their written record, the Franciscan monks recorded that they were so impressed with the beautiful, green valley that they made plans to set up a settlement in Utah Valley as soon as possible. However, there was a retrenchment in Spanish new-world colonization, this kept the Franciscans from setting up their settlement in Utah Valley. All that remains of their visits to the area are their written records.

Utah County Courthouse Caucasian fur trappers were familiar with central Utah and specifically Utah Valley. They frequented the area through the nineteenth and early twentieth century. In fact, the city Provo was given its name in honor of an early trapper, Etienne Provost. Provost was a well-known fur trader and explorer from Quebec. In historical documents his name is recorded in different ways. He is mentioned under the name Provost, Proveau, and Provot. All three are variations of the same name. Provost was a well-known and respected mountain man. Many records have him recorded as the first white man to go far enough north to see the Great Salt Lake. He established a trading post on the shores of Utah Lake. The Provo River and the city of Provo were both named after this man.

Provo was settle by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in 1849. It was the first Latter-day Saint colony in Utah outside of the Salt Lake Valley. The Latter-day Saint settlers had problems with the Indians that lived in the area. The Ute Indians were very aggressive toward groups of people who tried to move in and take over their land. The new settlers built the town into a defensive fort called Fort Utah. It was built as a stockade with exterior walls that were fourteen feet high. They had to live in a manner that was close to a state of war from the time that the settlers first came to Provo. Peace came slowly between the Latter-day Saints and the Ute Indians, but after the first year, the settlers had to set up homes outside of Fort Utah and make Provo a more comfortable city in which they could live.

Provo was built up quickly as many members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints moved there from different parts of the world. They set up farms and industrial centers. Provo soon became known as the "Garden City" because of its extensive fruit orchards, trees, and gardens. In the late 1860s, industrialization began with the creation of The Provo Woolen Mills. In the 1920s, the Ironton Steel Mill was established, and later the much larger Geneva Steel Plant was built in the city. These industries were a success. Provo quickly became the second largest city in Utah.

Visitors of Provo can see several sites today that have a great historic significance. These locations are landmarks of the community.

The Brigham Young Academy was founded in Provo in 1875. This school grew into what is now Brigham Young University (BYU). It is the largest church-affiliated university in the United States. BYU's students quickly outgrew the Brigham Young Academy Building, and the campus moved to its present location. The Academy today stands restored in its original location, but now as a beautiful public city library.

In 1919 the citizens of Utah County and of Provo City voted bonds for the erection of a new joint building. The cornerstone was laid December 14, 1920. On December 15, 1926, the building was dedicated with prayer, speeches and music. Although most Utah buildings carry very little sculpture of any kind, the Utah County Building pediment is decorated with sculpture designed by the architect and sculpted by Joseph Conradi. The Utah County Building, formerly known as the Provo City and County Building, is located in the center of town at the intersection of University Avenue and Center Street.

The Provo City Center Temple (formerly Provo Tabernacle) is another of Provo's historic landmarks. It was originally constructed from 1883 to 1898 at a cost of $100,000. The building has octagonal towers at each of its four corners. When it was first constructed, it had a central tower rising 147 feet into the air from the roof. Unfortunately, the roof was not able to support the weight of the central tower the building was partly condemned in 1918 because the roof was under such great stress. The Tabernacle was renovated at this time, but the tower was allowed to stay until 1949 when the building was again condemned for the same problem. The weight of the tower was causing the roof to sag. At that time, a local carpenter and contractor named Charles Miller designed a method to remove the central tower. He was hired and completed the project in 1950. The Provo Tabernacle burned in 2010. After years of renovation, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints transformed the tabernacle into a temple (completed in 2016). Visitors can enjoy walking the beautiful grounds. It is located on University Avenue between Center Street and First South.

Provo is worth a visit for anyone interested in the state of Utah. While there, visitors should see the historic sites that the city has to offer, including Brigham Young University, the Provo City Center Temple and the Utah County Building.


About A.D. 400, the Fremont Culture began to emerge in northern and eastern Utah out of this Desert tradition. The Fremont peoples retained many Desert hunting-gathering characteristics yet also incorporated a maize-bean-squash horticultural component by A.D. 800-900. They lived in masonry structures and made sophisticated basketry, pottery, and clay figurines for ceremonial purposes. Intrusive Numic peoples displaced or absorbed the Fremont sometime after A.D. 1000.

Beginning in A.D. 400, the Anasazi, with their Basketmaker Pueblo Culture traditions, moved into southeastern Utah from south of the Colorado River. Like the Fremont to the north the Anasazi (a Navajo word meaning "the ancient ones") were relatively sedentary peoples who had developed a maize-bean-squash-based agriculture. The Anasazi built rectangular masonry dwellings and large apartment complexes that were tucked into cliff faces or situated on valley floors like the structures at Grand Gulch and Hovenweep National Monument. They constructed pithouse granaries, made coiled and twined basketry, clay figurines, and a fine gray-black pottery. The Anasazi prospered until A.D. 1200-1400 when climactic changes, crop failures, and the intrusion of Numic hunter-gatherers forced a southward migration and reintegration with the Pueblo peoples of Arizona and New Mexico.

In Utah, the Numic- (or Shoshonean) speaking peoples of the Uto-Aztecan language family evolved into four distinct groups in the historic period: the Northern Shoshone, Goshute or Western Shoshone, Southern Paiute, and Ute peoples. The Northern Shoshone, including the Bannock, Fort Hall, and Wind River Shoshone (Nimi), were hunter-gatherers who rapidly adopted many Plains Indian traits through trade. They occupied an area mainly north and east of the state, yet periodically utilized subsistence ranges in Utah. The Goshute (Kusiutta) inhabited the inhospitable western deserts of Utah. Derogatorily labeled "Digger Indians" by early white observers, the Goshute were supremely adaptive hunter-gatherers living in small nomadic family bands. They constructed wickiups or brush shelters, gathered seasonal seeds, grasses, and roots, collected insects, larvae, and small reptiles, and hunted antelope, deer, rabbits and other small mammals. The Southern Paiute (Nuwuvi) lived in southwestern Utah, where they combined their hunting-gathering subsistence system with some flood-plain gardening--an adaptation attributable to Anasazi influences. The Southern Paiute were non-warlike and suffered at the hands of their more aggressive Ute neighbors in the historic period.

The Ute (Nuciu) people can be divided into eastern and western groups. The eastern Utes inhabited the high plateaus and Rocky Mountain parks of Colorado and northern New Mexico, and consisted of the Yamparka and Parianuc (White River Utes), the Taviwac (Uncompahgre Utes), the Wiminuc, Kapota, and Muwac (Southern and Ute Mountain Utes). The western or Utah Utes inhabited the central and eastern two-thirds of the state. Utah Ute bands included the Cumumba or Weber Utes, the Tumpanuwac, Uinta-ats, Pahvant, San Pitch, and Sheberetch (Uintah Utes). The Ute were hunter-gatherers who quickly adopted the horse and buffalo culture of the Plains Indians. They became noted raiders and traded horses between the Spanish Southwest and the northern plains. Utes actively participated in Spanish campaigns against Navajo and Apache raiders, and conducted their own slave trade with the Spanish against the Southern Paiute and Navajo. Utes lived in brush wickiups or skin tepees and traveled in extended family units with seasonal band congregations. There was only a general sense of "tribal" identity with the other Ute bands, based on a common language and shared beliefs.

By the year 1700 Navajos began to move into the San Juan River drainage area of Utah in search of pasture for their herds of Spanish sheep and goats. The Navajo (Dine) were recent immigrants to the Southwest--migrant Athabaskan-speaking peoples from the subarctic who arrived sometime between A.D. 1300 and 1400. The Navajo were highly adaptive hunter-gatherers who incorporated domestic livestock and agriculture into their subsistence system. They lived in dispersed extended family units in northern Arizona, New Mexico, and southeastern Utah, dwelling in hogans. While maintaining fair relations with the Spanish and Pueblo peoples, Navajos came under intense pressure from raiding Utes from the 1720s through the 1740s, forcing many to retreat from Utah.

Numerous explorers and trappers--Rivera, Dominguez and Escalante, Provost, Robidoux, Ashley, Ogden, Smith, Carson, Bridger, and Goodyear--ventured through Utah between 1776 and 1847, making contact and trading with the Native American peoples. They established economic relations but exerted little if any political control over the native peoples of Utah. When the Mormon migration began there were more than 20,000 Indians living in Utah proper.

The Mormons settled in the Salt Lake Valley in 1847--a neutral or buffer zone between the Shoshone and Ute peoples. Conflict between Mormons and Indians did not really begin until Mormons extended their settlements south into Utah Valley--a major trade crossroads and subsistence area for the Ute people. Brigham Young espoused a moderate Indian policy in line with Mormon theological beliefs that Indians were "Lamanites," with an ancestry in the tribes of Israel. Young counseled that it was cheaper to feed than to fight the Indians, and he instituted some token missionary efforts among them. Yet, as Mormon settlement expanded north and south along the front range, conflict increased with Indians displaced from traditional subsistence areas. Young countered Ute raiding with an iron fist. The Walker War (1853-54) and the Black Hawk War (1863-68) revolved around Indian subsistence raiding to avoid starvation.

During this period the Indian Bureau and the Mormon Church operated reservation farms for the benefit of Indian peoples, but they either proved inadequate or failed completely. Weakened by disease and starvation, Ute Indians faced annihilation or retreat. In 1861 President Abraham Lincoln set aside the Uintah Valley Indian Reservation for the Utah Ute people. In 1881-82 the federal government removed the White River and Uncompahgre Ute from Colorado to the Uintah and Ouray Reservations in eastern Utah. Today these three bands are collectively called the Northern Ute Tribe.

In a series of treaties with the Shoshone, Bannock, and Goshute in 1863 and with the Ute and Southern Paiute in 1865, the federal government moved to extinguish Indian land claims in Utah and to confine all Indians on reservations. The Goshutes refused to leave their lands for either the Fort Hall or Uintah reservations. They lived on in the west desert until granted a reservation in the 1910s. Likewise, the Southern Paiute refused to go to the Uintah Reservation and eventually settled in the uninhabited hills and desert areas of southern Utah. In the early twentieth century the Kaibab, Shivwits, Cedar City, Indian Peaks, Kanosh, and Koosharem groups of Southern Paiutes finally received tracts of reserved land. The small number of Navajo living in Utah increased dramatically following the conquest and imprisonment of the Navajo at the Bosque Redondo in New Mexico between 1862 and 1868. Many moved to the San Juan and Monument Valley regions of Utah, which became part of the Navajo Reservation in 1884.

In 1871 the federal government ended the practice of making treaties and instituted a legislative approach to administering Indian affairs. In 1887 Congress passed the Dawes General Allotment (or Severalty) Act, aimed at breaking up Indian reservations into individual farms for tribal members and opening the rest for public sale. Policy makers intended to detribalize native peoples and turn them into yeoman farmers and citizens but the policy was largely a failure. Indians resisted farming and most reservation environments limited agrarian success. Allotment did, however, break up the Indian estate. In 1897 and 1904 the Indian Bureau allotted the Uintah and Ouray reservations. Tribal land holdings fell from nearly four million acres to 360,000 acres, and individual sale of Indian allotments further reduced Northern Ute lands. Nationwide, Indians lost more than eighty percent of their lands by 1930. Poverty, unemployment, underdevelopment, and health problems plagued most reservations, and Native Americans became ever more dependent on the federal government.

In 1934, as part of the legislative activity known as the New Deal, Congress passed the Wheeler-Howard, or Indian Reorganization, Act, aimed at promoting Indian self-determination. Most Utah Indian groups accepted the IRA and elected tribal governments or business committees, passed laws, and began planning strategies for reservation economic development. Federal conservation jobs and relief were important factors in seeing Utah Indian groups through the Great Depression era.

During World War II a number of Utah Indians distinguished themselves in the armed forces and many more learned trades useful on and off their reservations. In 1948 the Indian Bureau began a relocation program to place Indians in off-reservation jobs in urban America. Many Navajos in particular took advantage of the program which, nationally, was only partially successful at best. Ties to family, culture, and land drew many back to underdeveloped reservations.

Indian policy made a radical swing backwards in the 1950s when Utah Senator Arthur V. Watkins, chairman of the Senate Indian Affairs Subcommittee, promoted passage of an act to terminate all federal responsibility toward Indian tribes. To set an example, Watkins pushed for termination of Utah Indian groups, including the Shivwits, Kanosh, Koorsharem, and Indian Peaks Paiutes, as well as the Skull Valley and Washakie Shoshone. Following termination, these groups rapidly lost control of what little land they had. In 1954, following a long-standing internal dispute, the Northern Ute tribe accepted the termination of mixed-blood Utes who became known as the Affiliated Ute Citizens.

In the late 1950s and 1960s federal Indian policy once again moved back to a more liberal self-determination stance. Native Americans received assistance from the Public Health Service, the Office of Economic Employment, and other federal and state agencies. One major factor in promoting Indian self-determination has been the success of Indian claims against the United States government for violations of treaty agreements. In 1909 the Utes received a settlement of more than $3,500,000. In a 1962 comprehensive claims settlement, the Ute people were awarded nearly $47,700,000, of which the Northern Ute tribe received $30,500,000. In 1986 the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the tribal right to exercise "legal jurisdiction" over all pre-allotment reservation lands. In the 1970s the Southern Paiutes and Goshutes each won settlements of more than seven million dollars. Other important factors in Utah Indian self-determination have been the development of mineral deposits on reservation lands, utilization of water resources, development of recreation and tourism, and industrial development to provide employment for tribal members.

In 1970 the Indian population of Utah was 11,273--an increase from 6,961 in 1960. In 1980 there were 19,158 Native Americans, who were finally approaching the estimated 20,000 Indians inhabiting the state at the time of Mormon settlement. Navajos are the most populous group in the state, followed by the Northern Ute. Today, a significant proportion of Utah's Indians live and work in urban centers and represent tribal groups from throughout North America.

Disclaimer: Information on this site was converted from a hard cover book published by University of Utah Press in 1994.

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CertificateAssociatesBachelors MastersDoctorate Post-Graduate
Online Programs659 1 NOT OFFERED NOT OFFERED
Overall Programs636391 7 NOT OFFERED 3

The next tables list each online program with offered degrees. The number on each column denotes the conferred degree of the program. It includes the completers through on-campus classes and hybrid on/offline classes as well as completely online classes. Only in Classroom means that the program is offered only on-site classes and not offered denotes that the school does not offer the program.

You may want to see all online schools offering a major program by following the link on the title of the program.


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