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U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.
USS Chew (DD-106), Union Iron Works, 1918 - History
Born in Virginia about 1750 Samuel Chew, a resident of Connecticut, was appointed by the Marine Committee 17 June 1777 to command the Continental Brigantine Resistance with which he had much success against British commerce. The brigantine, carrying ten fourpounders, fell in with a British Letter-of-Marque (20 guns) on 4 March 1778. In the hand-to-hand struggle which ensued, Captain Chew, fighting gallantly, was killed but his ship managed to break off the battle with its superior opponent and return safely to Boston.
(DD-106: dp. 1,060 1. 314'6" b. 31'9" dr. 8'6" s. 35 k. cpl. 113 a. 4 4", 12 21" tt. cl. Wickes)
Chew (DD-106) was launched 26 May 1918 by Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Calif, sponsored by Mrs. F. X. Gygax and commissioned 12 December 1918, Commander J. H. Klein, Jr., in command.
Chew sailed for the east coast on 21 December 1918 arriving at Newport 10 January 1919. After repairs at New York and refresher training at Guantanamo Bay, she cleared New York 28 April to patrol during the first historic transatlantic seaplane flight, made by Navy craft, then made visits to the Azores, Gibraltar, Malta, and Constantinople before returning to New York 6 June. After repairs, she cleared 17 September for San Diego, which she reached 12 October. From 19 November 1919 she was in reduced commission, operating only infrequently with Reserve Division 10 until placed out of commission i June 1922.
Recommissioned 14 October 1940, Chew was assigned to Defense Force, 14th Naval District, and arrived at Pearl Harbor 17 December 1940. Chew conducted patrols and had training duty from her home port until the outbreak of hostilities. When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941, she was moored in port and opened fire at the enemy planes, aiding in splashing one and hitting two more. She got underway for patrol immediately, making depth charge attacks on eight different contacts. Two of her crew were killed wbile on board Pennsylvania (BB-38) assisting in rescue work.
Chew remained at Pearl Harbor throughout the war on patrol, inter-island escort, and submarine training duty. She also made occasional voyages as a convoy escort and screening vessel to San Francisco and Seattle. She departed Pearl Harbor 21 August 1945 for the east coast, arriving at Philadelphia 13 September. She was decommissioned there 15 October 1945, and sold 4 October 1946.
Contents [ edit | edit source ]
Chew sailed for the east coast on 21 December 1918, arriving at Newport 10 January 1919. After repairs at New York and refresher training at Guantanamo Bay, she cleared New York 28 April to patrol during the first historic transatlantic seaplane flight, made by Navy craft, then made visits to the Azores, Gibraltar, Malta, and Constantinople before returning to New York 5 June. After repairs, she cleared 17 September for San Diego, which she reached 12 October. From 19 November 1919 she was in reduced commission, operating only infrequently with Reserve Division 10 until placed out of commission 1 June 1922.
World War II [ edit | edit source ]
Recommissioned 14 October 1940, Chew was assigned to Defense Force, 14th Naval District, and arrived at Pearl Harbor 17 December 1940. Chew conducted patrols and had training duty from her home port until the outbreak of hostilities. When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941, she was moored in port and opened fire at the enemy planes, aiding in shooting down one and hitting two more. She got underway for patrol immediately, making depth charge attacks on eight different contacts. Two of her crew was killed while on board Pennsylvania assisting in rescue work.
Chew remained at Pearl Harbor throughout the war on patrol, inter-island escort, and submarine training duty. She also made occasional voyages as a convoy escort and screening vessel to San Francisco and Seattle. She departed Pearl Harbor 21 August 1945 for the east coast, arriving at Philadelphia 13 September. She was decommissioned there 10 October 1945, and sold 4 October 1946.
Following shakedown and training, Ward cleared the West Coaston 2 December 1918. As flagship of Destroyer Division (DesDiv) 18, the ship took part in the annual winter maneuvers in the Guantánamo Bay area. In May 1919, Ward provided navigational aids and lifeguard station services as NC-1, NC-3, and NC-4 set out on their transatlantic flight. Ward served on station off Newfoundland and supported the first leg of the passage from Newfoundland to the Azores, while stationed 50 miles from sister ships, Boggs (Destroyer No. 136) and Palmer (Destroyer No. 161).
In July 1919, Ward was among the first &ldquonest&rdquo of destroyers which passed through the Panama Canal locks as the Fleet took passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Following this canal transit, Ward proceeded north and called at Acapulco, Mexico. For the remainder of July and into August, she visited such California ports as San Diego, San Pedro, San Luis Obispo, Monterey, San Francisco, and Eureka, before heading north to Portland, Oreg. On 13 September 1919, Ward was among the ships of the Fleet reviewed by President Woodrow Wilson at Seattle, Wash.
The destroyer then returned south to San Diego to operate off the West Coastfor the remainder of 1919 and into 1920. On 17 July 1920, during the sweeping Navy-wide assignment of hull numbers, Ward was assigned the designation DD-139. With DesDiv 18 through the late spring of 1921, Ward subsequently joined many of her sisters in reserve when she was decommissioned on 21 July 1921 and placed in &ldquoRed Lead Row&rdquo at San Diego.
As the Axis challenge of Germany, Italy, and Japan threatened peace and the security of the democratic nations in the latter half of the 1930&rsquos, the United States Navy began to rearm. While new ships joined the fleet, a number of older ones&mdashWard among them&mdash were recommissioned. Some went to the Atlantic to take part in the de facto war with German U-boats as the year 1941 progressed. Others went to local district defense duties, and the latter role was Ward&rsquos new assignment.
Ward was recommissioned on 15 January 1941 at the Naval Destroyer Base, San Diego, Lt. Comdr. Hunter Wood, Jr., in command. After provisioning and fueling, the warship set out into the Pacific, bound for Hawaii, and rolled and pitched heavily as soon as she hit the open sea on 28 February. She managed to struggle through and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 9 March and joined the 14th Naval District local defense forces and DesDiv 80. Consisting of four destroyers&mdashtwo of Ward&rsquos sisters and a World War I veteran, Allen (DD-66)&mdashDesDiv 80&rsquos job was to patrol the channel entrance off Pearl Harbor&mdasha large job for such a small and antiquated force and an important one since the Pacific Fleet was to base at Pearl Harbor as a deterrent to the rising imperialistic ambitions of Japan in the Far East.
Throughout 1941, Ward conducted routine antisubmarine patrols in the Hawaiian area, as did Chew (DD-106), Schley (DD-103), and Allen, and the three Coast Guard cutters and a handful of coastal minecraft that made up the rest of Comdr. John B. Wooley&rsquos Inshore Patrol command. As tensions with Japan increased following the oil embargo in July 1941 and again at the accession of the Tojo cabinet in October, Washington, late in November 1941, dispatched a &ldquowar warning&rdquo to the force commanders in the Hawaiian and Philippine Island areas to be on the alert for possible Japanese hostile action.
Accordingly, Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, ordered his inshore patrol to depth-charge suspicious submarine contacts operating in the defensive sea areas. Given orders, in effect to &ldquoshoot to kill,&rdquo Ward and her consorts continued as before, with the exception that they were now to be on a wartime footing. Equipped with listening gear, Ward continued vigilant patrols in the inshore operating zones, cutting routine figure-eights back and forth within a two-mile radius of the channel-entrance buoys.
One of the old four-pipers had the duty each weekend. Soon it came to be Ward&rsquos turn&mdashbut she went to sea this particular weekend with a new commanding officer. Lt. William W. Outerbridge took command from Lt. Comdr. Wood on B December and, at 0628 on the 6th, Outerbridge took his first sea command out for a routine entrance patrol.
At 0408 on 7 December, the old destroyer went to general quarters to search for a suspected submarine detected by Condor (AMc-14), but came up with nothing. Meanwhile, Antares (AKS-14), flagship of Training Squadron 8, plodded back from Palmyra Island with a target raft in tow. She anchored off the harbor entrance to await a favorable tide and the opening of the boom-net defenses. Exchanging calls with Antares as she subsequently headed for the channel, at 0506, Ward continued her early morning vigil until lookouts on the destroyer&rsquos bridge noticed a small feather wake astern of the auxiliary, between Antares and the raft.
Within moments, Ward was a ship alive&mdashthe general quarters alarm routed the men from their bunks and sent them on the double to their action stations. Outer-bridge, who had retired to a makeshift bunk rigged up in the charthouse, was on the bridge in seconds, pulling a life jacket on over a kimono and pajamas, and a World War I style &ldquotin helmet&rdquo on his head.
Ward charged at the submarine like a terrier and, for a moment, Outerbridge thought it looked like his ship was going to run down the little intruder. Number one four-inch mount trained around, and her gunners tried to draw a bead on the elusive target. The first shot of the Pacific war barked from Ward&rsquos gun at 0645 and splashed harmlessly beyond the small conning tower. As Ward pounded past at 25 knots, number three gun atop the galley deckhouse amidships commenced fire&mdashits round passed squarely through the submersible&rsquos conning tower. As the Japanese midget wallowed lower in the water and started to sink, the destroyer swiftly dropped four depth charges&mdashsignaled by four blasts on the ship&rsquos whistle. Black water gushed upwards in the ship&rsquos boiling wake as the bombs went off&mdashsealing the submarine&rsquos doom.
Outerbridge radioed a terse action report to Commandant, 14th Naval District headquarters, and to distinguish this attack from the numerous sightings that had plagued local patrol forces, added that he had sighted and fired upon an unidentified submarine in the defensive sea area. Delays in seeking confirmation and a reluctance to heed the warning resulted in the message&rsquos slow transmission through tortuously slow communication channels. Ward echo-ranged for further contacts&mdashand soon latched on to another one, dropping depth charges but not coming up with concrete results.
Subsequently, as the day dawned upon the purple and verdant hillsides of Oahu, Ward headed for home&mdashher date with destiny kept. She soon spotted a Japanese fishing sampan&mdashone of many that were a familiar sight in the waters in the Hawaiian archipelago. A fisherman suddenly started waving a white flag&mdashperhaps he had seen the determined depth-charge attacks and thought that the Americans would bomb anything that moved. Ward slowed and closed to investigate and took the small craft in tow to turn her over to the Coast Guard for disposition.
Nearing the harbor entrance around 0800, those on deck heard the sound of gunfire and explosions, as smoke began to boil into the skies over Pearl Harbor. Soon a strafing Japanese plane convinced the doubters that there indeed was a war on.
On that Sunday morning, Ward had the distinction of firing the first American gun in anger during the Pacific war. For the remainder of the year, the venerable destroyer continued her routine district patrols and&mdashfor a time&mdashanything that moved beneath the waters was fair game. As Outerbridge recalled years later, Ward and her sisters must have killed a lot of fish. But as newer and more modern destroyers began joining the fleet, as well as built-for-the purpose sub-chasing craft, some of the old &ldquoflush-decked, four-pipers&rdquo began to be assigned to other duties: tending seaplanes, laying or sweeping mines, or&mdashfor a newer innovation in modern warfare&mdashcarrying fully equipped troops for assault landings as fast transports.
Accordingly, Ward sailed to Bremerton, Wash., for conversion to a high-speed transport at the Puget Sound Navy Yard. During the ensuing months, the old &ldquofour-piper&rdquo began to take on an altered appearance. Her forward funnels were removed, as the forward boiler and fire rooms were converted to accommodate troops. Antiaircraft guns&mdash3-inch/50s and 20-millimeter Oerlikons&mdashreplaced the antiquated &ldquoiron-sighted&rdquo single-purpose 4-inch guns and the .50-caliber machine guns, and she acquired four sets of davits and four 36-foot landing craft to put her embarked troops ashore. Thus outfitted, Ward was designated APD-16 and got underway for the South Pacific on 6 February 1943.
Based at Espiritu Santo, Ward performed a variety of duties&mdashantisubmarine patrols, escort duties, and transport service&mdashwhile she worked up as a fast transport. Soon after completing a run to the Russell Islands, Ward neared Tulagi on the afternoon of 7 April 1943, as Japanese aircraft swept overhead in Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto&rsquos last planned Operation &ldquoI&rdquo&mdashthe air strike designed to cripple American seapower in the Solomons in the wake of Japan&rsquos evacuation from Guadalcanal.
At 1510, Ward went to general quarters and opened fire, charging out of the harbor, eager for action. In the confused melee of gunfire, the ship helped splash two Japanese planes. When the final score was tallied on the American side, the Navy had lost Aaron Ward (DD-483) and Kanawha (AO-9), while Adhara (AK-71) and Tappahannock (AO-43) had suffered damage.
The following day, Ward headed for Espiritu Santo&mdash as escort for five merchantmen and in company with Taylor (DD-468), Farenholt (DD-491), and Sterett (DD-407)&mdashand arrived there on 10 April. The fast transport then underwent a tender overhaul through the 17th. She then embarked men of the 4th Marine Battalion, 1st Marine Raider Regiment, for a practice landing at Powell Point, New Hebrides, and for night landing exercises. Upon the conclusion of these maneuvers, she reembarked troops and conducted antisubmarine screening.
Continuing her escort and transport operations into June, Ward helped to beat off a Japanese air attack in the Guadalcanal area on the 16th, her gunners claiming four attacking aircraft. Seven days later, on 23 June, Ward steamed in the screen of a convoy on escort duty. On that day, Japanese submarine RO-103, commanded by Lt. Rikinosuke Ichimura, slipped past the screen and torpedoed and sank two cargo ships&mdashAludra (AK-72) and Deimos (AK-78), which proved to be Ichimura&rsquos only &ldquokills&rdquo of the war.
Ward arrived at Milne Bay, New Guinea, on 17 December for duty with Task Force (TF) 76. She engaged in practice exercises off Cape Sudest, British New Guinea, with Companies &ldquoI&rdquo and &ldquoL&rdquo of the 3d Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, from 22 to 23 December. On the 24th, she embarked 140 officers and men of Companies &ldquoI&rdquo and &ldquoM&rdquo of the 3d Battalion, 7th Regiment, and set out for Cape Gloucester, New Britain, as part of TU 76.1.21 with the eight-ship formation in double column order.
The group approached the landing area on the 26th, in a single column and at a speed of five knots. At 0600, a cruiser bombardment heralded the Americans&rsquo approach and Ward disembarked her troops at 0653, launching her Higgins boats off beach &ldquoYellow One&rdquo and then retiring to wait the return of her brood. Army heavy bombers droned over enemy positions at 0705, and Army medium bombers then commenced both bombing and strafing enemy defenses some 19 minutes later. Ward&rsquos boats returned by 0845 and, an hour later, the ship got underway for Buna, British New Guinea. After what her war diary termed an &ldquouneventful return trip,&rdquo Ward dropped anchor off Buna at 2259 on 26 December.
Two days later, at 1140, Ward embarked 200 officers and men of Company &ldquoB,&rdquo 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, bound for Cape Gloucester as a part of TU 76.1.21. Underway at 1427, the ship went to general quarters at 1933 as numerous planes were reported in the vicinity. However, none came near and the ship stood down from quarters at 2018 that night.
The following day, 29 December, Ward and her sister fast transports approached the landing area at 15 knots and disembarked marines at 0655, standing put to await the return of her boats. During the landings, Army medium bombers pounded the airfield and other targets of opportunity while the destroyer transports stood out to sea to recover landing craft later. All Ward&rsquos boats had returned by 0815, and all the other transports except Noa (APD-24) had recovered theirs by 0900. Soon thereafter, the warships returned to Buna.
Operating as part of Transport Division 22, Ward got underway at 0601 on 1 January 1944 for Cape Sudest. That afternoon, she joined up with the Western Assault Group bound for Saidor, New Guinea, and got underway for British New Guinea. At 0615 the following day, Ward approached the transport area, while escorting destroyers opened fire on beach targets and enemy defenses 30 minutes later. Disembarking Company &ldquoL,&rdquo 126th Army Infantry Regiment, 32d Division, Ward stood by off shore. Destroyer bombardment ceased at 0717 and, one minute later, the landing craft approaching the beach strafed the beach-front jungle with machine guns and automatic weapons fire. Those off shore in Ward were unable to see the actual landing due to the heavy pall of smoke and dust caused by the bombardment.
After returning from the Cape Sudest landings to Buna, Ward conducted local operations out of Espiritu Santo into February 1944. She then carried out practice landing exercises with embarked marines and New Zealand troops off Juno River, Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, before getting underway late on 14 February to take part in the Nissan Island landings.
Screened by Fullam (DD-474), Halford (DD-480), in which Commander, Task Unit (CTU) 31.1.4 rode, Guest (DD-472), Hudson (DD-475), and Bennett (DD-473), Ward arrived in the vicinity of Nissan Island as several enemy aircraft were reported flying nearby. Approaching the transport area at 0512, she disembarked her landing craft at beach &ldquoBlue One&rdquo and soon noted Japanese aircraft attacking LCI and LST formations. During the melee, Ward counted six Japanese aircraft, but friendly fighters took care of the enemy formations&mdashdowning two, while &ldquoheavy and moderately accurate&rdquo gunfire from the surface ships below helped to drive away the others. Ashore, the troops encountered no opposition and soon took their objective. Ward, her job completed, headed for the Russell Islands to embark men of the 33d Navy Construction Battalion on the 20th for passage to Nissan Island.
Upon landing her embarked seabees on &ldquoBeach Red,&rdquo Ward patrolled offshore, screening a dozen LST&rsquos as they got underway for Guadalcanal, before she headed for Espiritu Santo to dock in ARD-5 to repair sound gear damaged during the second phase of the ship&rsquos Nissan Island operations.
The following month, the durable fast transport took part in the landings at Emirau Island, with &ldquoB&rdquo Company, 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, embarked. She disembarked 208 troops and 22 tons of stores in four hours and subsequently joined the antisubmarine screen protecting the still-unloading transports and dock-landing ships. Refueling soon thereafter en route to Purvis Bay, Ward anchored at her destination on 23 February to undergo a needed upkeep period for the remainder of the month.
Conducting practice landings at Cape Cretin, with officers and men of the 163d Army Regimental Combat Team in early April, Ward embarked these troops for transportation to Aitape, New Guinea, and got underway at 1617 on 18 April with TG 77.1. Going to general quarters at 0430 on 22 April, the transport lay to at 0537 off the landing area and, after disembarking her troops, proceeded to a fire support station off Tumleo Island. For one-half hour, Ward conducted a shore bombardment with her 3-inch main battery before shifting gunfire to what initially appeared to be a beached Japanese landing craft, but which later investigation proved to be a small reef.
Subsequently screening off the transport area, Ward transferred a wounded man from a landing craft to Kilty (APD-15) for evacuation and medical treatment. After picking up her landing boats, Ward later escorted reinforcements to Aitape on the 22d. The following day saw a continuation of her troop-carrying and fire-support duties, as her boats embarked troops from Ormsby (APA-49) to transport them to the beach, while Ward&rsquos 3-inch gunfire again aided the troops ashore.
Shifting to Cape Cretin on the 25th and to Buna on the 26th, Ward conducted antisubmarine screening duties with transports headed to Saidor, New Guinea, before returning to Aitape. She screened and patrolled near the unloading transports and, after refueling, escorted Henry T. Allen (AP-30) and Australian transports Kanimbla, Manoora, and Westralia to Humboldt Bay where they unloaded their embarked troops. Steaming back to Cape Sudest and Cape Cretin, Ward provisioned ship on 10 May and underwent a tender overhaul alongside Dobbin (AD-3) at Port Harvey, British New Guinea, on the 14th. Subsequently returning to Humboldt Bay in company with Herbert (APD-22), Ward anchored at Humboldt Bay on 24 May and embarked troops of the Army 186th Infantry Regiment for transport to Bosnik, Biak Island, in the Schoetens. The operation, commencing on the 27th, went off without a hitch and all troops landed without opposition on the beaches. Forming up in open column order, Ward and her sister fast transports sailed for Hollandia and Humboldt Bay.
Ward conducted routine antisubmarine patrol operations off Humboldt Bay and in the New Guinea area into late June. She underwent a tender overhaul with Dobbin at Manus, in the Admiralties, from 24 June to 4 July, before proceeding to Cape Cretin where she exchanged her landing boats with those from sister ship Schley (APD-14). Sailing later for Milne Bay, the ship conducted local transport duties in the New Guinea area through July. Ward subsequently served as picket ship and navigational guide for a Humboldt Bay-to-Maffin Bay convoy, in local New Guinean waters, before conducting a practice landing east of Toem, New Guinea.
Embarking troops of Companies &ldquoE&rdquo and &ldquoF&rdquo of the 1st Army Infantry Regiment, 6th Division, as well as a combat photographic unit and three Australian war correspondents, Ward got underway on 27 July for Cape Sansapor. She arrived at the transport area off Warsai at 0626 on the 30th and immediately commenced disembarkation. The first wave of troops to land encountered no opposition, and the ships returned to Humboldt Bay.
During August, Ward conducted local transport operations and then sailed to Australia for an overhaul. En route, on the morning of 9 August, heavy seas ripped a 3-inch ready-use locker from the deck forward and tore a small hole in the main deck. After completing temporary repairs later that day, Ward arrived at Port Jackson, Sydney, on the 12th and remained there for 10 days. While steaming for Milne Bay, the ship and her companions&mdashHerbert, Schley, Crosby, and Kilty&mdashreduced speed to five knots due to an emergency appendectomy being performed in Schley but eventually resumed their normal speed and made Milne Bay at 0800 on 27 August.
Ward conducted transport and practice landing exercises early in September before getting underway on 10 September for Morotai, as part of TU 77.3.2. She landed six officers and 151 enlisted men from Company &ldquoA,&rdquo 124th Infantry Regiment, 31st Division, 6th Army, United States Army, and then recovered all of her landing craft and screened an LCI flotilla before commencing antisubmarine patrol.
The high-speed transport anchored off Cape Sansapor on the 16th and, three days later, got underway for Humboldt Bay as part of the screen for LCI Flotilla 8. At 1143 that day, she observed an Army Air Force Lockheed P-38 Lightning crash and sent a landing boat to rescue the pilot, 1st Lt. Edgar B. Scott. Ward arrived at Humboldt Bay at 0512 on the 22d and immediately commenced repairs alongside Dobbin to correct a defective reduction gear.
With that work completed by 1 October, Ward shifted to Cape Cretin where she loaded stores, ammunition, and seven officers and 140 enlisted men of the Companies &ldquoE&rdquo and &ldquoF&rdquo of the 6th Army Ranger Battalion for transportation to the Philippines. She got underway on the 12th with British minelayer-transport HMS Ariadne as fleet guide proceeded via Humboldt Bay and, as they approached Dinagat Island on the 17th, went to general quarters at 0558, when a Japanese aircraft dropped a white flare&mdashwhich vividly outlined every ship in the formation in the ghostly white glare. Commencing evasive action, the fast transport headed for the troop disembarkation points while Lang (DD-399) and Bisbee (PF-46) commenced shore bombardment.
Once they had been launched, the boats encountered difficulties. High winds and seas and dangerous coral reefs all presented obstacles for their crews, as there was no lee behind which to lie and the winds blew directly towards the beach. After landing, all boats from Ward returned to Ariadne to embark troops, while Schley&rsquos boats came alongside to be filled with Ranger Company &ldquoF&rdquo from Ward. Meanwhile, Ward was having difficulty remaining in the swept channel, as strong tidal currents, with high winds and seas, frequently almost caused the ship to drag anchor.
All but one of Ward&rsquos boats then became stranded on the beach. One of these three was pulled off by boats from Schley but the others remained there overnight. The fourth of Ward&rsquos boat group, unable to get back to her own ship, was hoisted on board Schley before night retirement and Schley&rsquos boat&mdashwhich had helped to refloat one of Ward&rsquos boats, was taken on board Ward. Returning to the troop transport area the next morning, Ward continued unloading supplies for Army rangers. While engaged in this task, the ship sighted two Japanese &ldquoVals&rdquo coming over the hills of Dinagat Island. The ship quickly went to general quarters and commenced firing. One plane made a strafing run on the transports but was driven off, while the second plane remained at 3,000 feet and, upon seeing his comrade&rsquos failure, soon withdrew without making an attack.
While proceeding to Kossol Roads, in the Palaus, tragedy struck Ward when a lifeline gave way, and two men fell overboard. Turning to starboard, Ward heeled about to make the rescue, as men on deck threw life-jackets to the men in the water. Herbert, steaming in company, drew near, and one of her men dove over the side and rescued one of the Ward sailors. The other Ward bluejacket vanished. As Ward&rsquos war diary noted ominously: &ldquosharks were seen in the vicinity.&rdquo Giving up the search at 1645, Ward sailed on, listing the man as &ldquopresumed lost.&rdquo
While refueling at Kossol Roads, Ward was assigned to join Kilty in escorting three LST&rsquos to the Philippines. Proceeding via Morotai, Ward, her sister ship, and their charges arrived in Leyte Gulf at 0045 on 12 November. The ship went to general quarters at 0454, detached the LST&rsquos which proceeded to Dulag Bay anchorage, and observed antiaircraft fire over San Pedro Bay, as a Japanese air attack swept in upon the invading American fleet.
As yet disengaged, Ward watched as a Japanese plane was hit by antiaircraft fire from an LST and, trailing a column of smoke, plunged into the sea, nearly in the path of the recently detached and now beach-bound LST&rsquos. The retaliatory strikes tapered off for a time but Ward&mdashin response to a report that 50 to 60 Japanese aircraft were winging their way towards the transport area&mdashreturned to general quarters from 0708 to 0750. After an &ldquoall clear&rdquo sounded, Ward stood down from general quarters but returned to that condition at 1335, as several Japanese aircraft returned to attack American shipping.
Intense antiaircraft fire downed two enemy planes almost instantly two more crashed into repair ships&mdashEgeria (ARL-8) and Achilles (ARL-41). That evening, Ward was ordered to escort a convoy to Hollandia, and she left the area.
Returning to San Pedro Bay in a five-column, 15-ship convoy on 28 November, Ward remained at anchor on the 29th and 30th of the month in Leyte Gulf preparing to take part in the scheduled landings at Mindoro. Although there were numerous air raid alerts signaled, Ward&rsquos log records that she saw no enemy planes.
Continual air raid alerts during this period made life difficult for men of the Fleet engaged in the landing operations, with nearly round-the-clock watches. Ward embarked four officers and 104 enlisted men of the Army&rsquos 77th Division on 6 December and sortied for Ormoc Bay, Leyte Island, at 1237 with TG 78.3. Since enemy aircraft had been reported in the area, Ward went to general quarters while en route to Ormoc Bay.
At 0153, the ship observed a large group of flares west of Himuquitan Island on the west coast of Leyte. At 0445, they sighted another flare, ahead of the convoy. Antiaircraft fire criss-crossed the sky as what appeared to be a Japanese floatplane passed down the starboard side of the group and emerged unscathed despite heavy fire. More flares which were dropped around the convoy just before sunrise pointed to the possibility of an attack, but no Japanese planes came over. At 0630, the escorting destroyers left the screen to commence shore bombardment and, 12 minutes later, Ward began disembarking her troops for the beach into her LCP(R)s.
On screening patrol between Pomson Island and Leyte from 0825, Ward sighted a formation of nine twin-engined &ldquoBetties&rdquo coming in from the north over Leyte at an altitude between 4,000 and 5,000 feet. Commencing high-speed evasive maneuvers, the ship went into action with guns blazing but did not make any observable hits. Shortly before 1000, Mahan (DD-364) came under attack from another group of planes and Ward&rsquos lookouts noted that the unfortunate destroyer was emitting large quantities of grey and black smoke.
Ward now came under a concentrated attack by &ldquoBetties&rdquo and &ldquoOscars,&rdquo and both Mohan and the fast transport fought for their lives against the onslaught. Army P-38&rsquos and Curtiss P-40&rsquos streaked over to intercept the attackers and engaged the Japanese over the unfortunate Mahan. The formation of nine &ldquoBetties,&rdquo again flying over the destroyer, soon broke, as three headed for Ward in a loose vee formation. Ward&rsquos gunners opened fire with 3-inch and 20-millimeter batteries, sprinkling the sky with puffs of flak. The center plane was hit by the barrage, wavered, and crashed the ship at the waterline at 0956, entering the forward part of the boiler room and the after part of the lower troop space. One of the plane&rsquos two engines continued on through the ship, exiting at the waterline on the starboard side. An instant later, a &ldquoBetty&rdquo passed low over Ward&rsquos forecastle, strafing the ship en route, and crashed into the water 200 yards off the starboard bow, slapped into the sea by Ward&rsquos gunfire.
The third attacker which had singled the transport out also joined her partners, splashing 600 yards off the starboard quarter. In the meantime, the bomber which had crashed the ship had blown up, starting uncontrollable fires in the troop spaces&mdashfortunately unoccupied at the time&mdashand in the fireroom. Boiler fires flared back and the forced draft blower, dislodged from its mounting, fell into the fireroom.
Ceasing fire at 0957, all hands started to fight the fires as the air attack abruptly ended. In the distance, Mahan, too, burned fiercely&mdashthe victim of a heavy and devastating attack. Men in the forward part of Ward could not contact those in the aft, since the fires amidships had severed all communications. Thick smoke boiled out of the mortal wound in the fast transport amidships.
Several minutes after the explosion, water pressure dropped to below 100 pounds, making it nearly impossible to train water on the fires to attempt to put them out. The ship soon lost way as the fire amidships burned fiercely. The thick smoke boiling from the damaged troop space and fireroom area made the suction hoses for the gasoline-driven handy billies as well as asbestos suit stowage&mdashlocated amidships&mdashinaccessible. In an effort to dissipate the smoke, the awning over the well-deck was cut away. This reduced the density of the smoke but did not make the area amidships any more accessible. Two boats were lowered in an attempt to fight the fires through the holes in the hull made by the entrance and exit of the &ldquoBetty&rdquo on its death run. The handy billies carried in the LCP(R)&rsquos unfortunately proved inadequate to deal with the raging gasoline-fed fires.
At 1015, O&rsquoBrien (DD-725), Saunter (AM-295), Scout (AM-296), and Crosby stood towards Ward. Scout and Crosby lowered boats to pick up survivors. In the meantime, with main communications systems out of commission, a report was made via battery-powered radio to the other ships. Ward&rsquos commanding officer, Lt. R. E. Parwell, USNR, announced the intention of abandoning if the fires could not be brought under control. O&rsquoBrien&mdashcommanded by Lt. Comdr. Outerbridge, the same man who had commanded Ward during her historic encounter with the Japanese midget submarine three years to the day before&mdashmoved close aboard to port and commenced fire fighting operations 1018.
By this time, however, fires raged in the troop spaces&mdashigniting both fuel tanks and the diesel oil storage the fireroom filled with black smoke, and it proved impossible to regain steam pressure to get underway. Flames rose and extended along the main deck in the vicinity of the 20-millimeter ready use ammunition lockers. The danger posed by the explosion of fuel tanks, ready-use ammunition and magazines, at 1024 caused Farwell to order &ldquoabandon ship&rdquo&mdashless than one-half hour after the Japanese plane had crashed into the ship. Almost miraculously, only one man had been injured, and all hands left the ship to board other vessels.
Saunders joined O&rsquoBrien in trying to put out the blaze, but the fire defied all attempts to extinguish it. Commander, TG 78.3, ordered O&rsquoBrien to sink the blazing fast transport with gunfire. Accordingly, the ships stood away, and O&rsquoBrien commenced firing. From the bridge of O&rsquoBrien, Lt. Comdr. Outerbridge watched as that destroyer&rsquos guns sank Ward, his first sea command. Years later, he recalled that there was little emotion involved in the task: &ldquoit just was something that had to be done.&rdquo Ward sank at 1130 on 7 December 1944, in Ormoc Bay between Poro Island and Apali Point. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 20 January 1945.
Ward earned one battle star for World War II services as a destroyer and eight as a fast transport.
USS Olympia: The Oldest Floating Steel 'Battleship' Afloat
Here's What You Need to Remember: Interim efforts have the Olympia looking better than she has in years, while new monitors and sensors can alert the museum’s staff to potential dangers including breaches in the hull. A cofferdam was also instituted to help pump the water out from some particularly weak sections of the hull, and allow it to be dried and repaired.
The oldest steel warship afloat has survived wars, economic downturns and even the harsh passage of time, but there was one battle that the USS Olympia (C-6), flagship of the American Asiatic Fleet during the Spanish-American War (1898), almost was unable to win. The future of the ship remained very much in jeopardy for several years due to the rising costs of maintaining the protected cruiser.
Today the Olympia is at home at the Independence Seaport Museum on the Delaware River near downtown Philadelphia, where it has been since 1957. Interim repairs were made on the ship over the years but following some mismanagement at the museum, there hasn’t been the money for a much needed full restoration. As a result, for a while, it looked like the once majestic vessel would meet a fate that no great warship deserves. She would be sunk and converted to an artificial reef!
The Modernization of the U.S. Navy
The USS Olympia was launched in 1892 as part of American efforts to modernize its navy and to have a military presence in the Pacific Ocean. The Olympia, under Commodore George Dewey steamed into Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, to engage the Spanish Navy at the start of the Spanish-American War. It was from Olympia’s bridge that Dewey made his famous command to the ship’s captain, “You may fire when you are ready, Gridely.”
Those words might have never have been said and the (now) apparent one-sidedness of the battle not been so had it not been for a sudden American interest in overseas trade—and to a lesser extent an overseas “empire.” William Henry Seward, who had been secretary of state during the American Civil War and early reconstruction, had made the proclamation that “the empire of the seas alone is real empire.”
This was not to be another “Seward’s folly” but rather a prophecy that would very soon come to pass, as America joined the European powers in looking to a newly opened Asia with trade opportunities in mind, while backing it with the very nineteenth-century notion of “gunboat diplomacy.” To pull that off, however, required real gunboats and American’s obsolescent Civil War-era fleet of the 1860s was certainly no match for the modern British or French naval squadrons.
When President James A. Garfield took office in 1881, the new Secretary of the Navy William H. Hunt found that of the 140 vessels on the active list only fifty-two were actually in an operational state, and only seventeen of those were even iron-hulled ships. In fact, fourteen of those seventeen ships were aging Civil War-style ironclads. Most military historians agree that at the time the United States would have been incapable of fighting a naval war with a European power and probably would have faced difficulties with many of the Latin American powers such as Peru or Chile! If the United States was to be a player in world trade, it needed a world-class navy.
In March 1883, the United States Congress appropriated $1.3 million for the construction of four new vessels known as the “ABCDs”—Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, and Dolphin. Unlike the ironclad warships of the Civil War, these were to be fabricated not from wood and iron but steel. It would truly be a first-rate, modern navy.
The ABCD experiment was followed by the next step in naval modernization, which included the construction of the battleships Texas and Maine as well as six-light, or so-called “protected,” cruisers. These cruisers would feature an armored deck but still be able to maintain an impressive speed faster than most warships of the day. Protected cruisers actually formed a new category that fell between the unprotected versions of the warships with no armor and those later stylized as “armored cruisers” that were almost as heavily armored as true battleships of the era.
These efforts to modernize the navy paid off. By 1889 the United States Navy ranked second only to Great Britain in terms of warships that could exceed 19-knot speeds while displacing 3,000 tons or more. The British had a total of ten ships and a total of 56,000 tons, while America’s eight ships displaced 32,010 tons. That exceeded the French Navy’s five ships and 24,630 tons and notably Spain’s three ships and 14,400 tons.
More importantly, this was a paradigm shift from the “commerce destroyer” type of ships that were used during the American Civil War to a fleet that had a true offensive spirit.
The Olympia actually began life as Cruiser Number 6, a 20-knot warship that was designed to cost no more than $1,800,000. The newly formed Board on the Design of Ships (originally the “Board on Construction”) first began the design process in 1889, and less than a year later the navy solicited bids for the construction of the ship. Yet it actually found only a single bidder, the Union Iron Works in San Francisco—where it remained the largest ship ever built on the western coast of the United States until it was surpassed by the construction of the battleship Oregon a few years later.
The keel of Cruiser Number 6 was laid in June 1891 and the ship was launched in November 1892. While the primary construction occurred in San Francisco, the heavy armor plate was constructed back east. The Bethlehem Steel Company of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, was tasked to provide the steel but ran into difficulties, so Andrew Carnegie’s Carnegie Steel Company was called in to help provide the material for the ship’s armor.
In December 1891 sea trials were conducted in the Santa Barbara Channel, and in February 1895 the ship was commissioned the USS Olympia and departed the Union Iron Works yard in San Francisco for the last time. It steamed to the U.S. Navy’s Mare Island Naval Shipyard at Vallejo for outfitting.
It was in April 1895 that the ship conducted its first gunnery practice, and sadly it was during this shakedown that a crew member was killed. Coxswain John Jonson lost his life in an accident while firing one of the 5-inch guns. Fortunately, it was not a portent of things to come.
In July 1895 the Olympia was assigned to replace the USS Baltimore as the flagship of the Asiatic Squadron, and it departed in August of that year for Chinese waters. However, due to an outbreak of cholera amongst the crew, the ship was forced to remain in Hawaii until October, and didn’t arrive in Shanghai until November.
She spent three mostly peaceful years in the Far Eastern waters, where Olympia made visits to British Hong Kong, Kobe and Nagasaki in Japan performed humanitarian service at Woosung in China when two steamers collided and needed assistance and even headed to Vladivostok in Russia for the coronation celebrations of Czar Nicholas II. During this time the crew’s baseball team even played against a Japanese team, with the Americans coming out on top in this unofficial “world series.”
On January 3, 1898, Commodore George Dewey raised his flag on Olympia and assumed command of the U.S. Navy’s Asiatic Squadron. Dewey, along with the newly assigned Captain Charles Vernon Gridley, was about to sail into history.
From Manila Bay to Philadelphia
Tensions had been simmering between the United States and Spain for nearly a decade over the latter’s rule of Cuba, which sought independence from the mother country. The USS Maine, which had been sent to Havana, Cuba by President William McKinley to ensure the safety of American citizens and interests, suffered a sudden and massive explosion on February 15, 1898. While McKinley tried to preach patience—especially as the cause of the explosion was not known and there was no evidence of an attack—the news of the event stirred popular opinion, and by the end of April the United States was at war with Spain.
The Olympia had been in Hong Kong preparing for action, and following the declaration of war, the Asiatic Squadron was ordered to Manila. Dewey was given the order to sink or capture the Spanish fleet and open the way for a subsequent invasion by American forces.
Dewey, in command aboard the Olympia, steamed into Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, to face the Spanish flotilla commanded by Rear Admiral Patricio Montojo y Pasarón. Montojo had anchored his ships close to the shore and under the protection of coastal artillery. However, the shore batteries along with the fleet were to prove no match for Dewey’s squadron.
Dewey must have felt confident, for while desks and cabinets were ordered to be removed from the ship—as these could create splinters and endanger the crew should it take a direct hit—the Commodore opted not to have the fine wooden paneling inside the ship removed. The ornate panels were part of the ship’s opulence and thus were spared.
Schwab of Bethlehem Steel Buys the Union Iron Works
At the turn of the 20th century, Union Iron Works was sold to the United States Shipbuilding Corporation, a shadowy combine that had bought several U.S. shipyards. It soon went into receivership in what one observer called “one of the most amazing and disgraceful chapters in American Business History.” The assets of the combine, including Union Iron Works, were put up for sale.
The Union Iron Works was sold to Charles M. Schwab of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation in 1905 for $1 million. The sale took place in a public auction held on 20th Street. Schwab was widely believed to have engineered the demise of the U.S. Shipbuilding Corp. Whether or not that was true, he certainly benefitted from its collapse.
Shipyard Damage from 1906 Earthquake.
Source: San Francisco Maritime Museum Library
Shortly after the purchase of the shipyard, the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake struck, doing considerable damage to the plant. The biggest loss was the destruction of a specially constructed hydraulic drydock that had been the pride of the shipyard: a large ship, the S.S. Columbia, was in the drydock when the earthquake struck and was knocked off its supports&mdash the drydock was irreparably damaged.
Charles Schwab was a brilliant steel man who had gone from being a mill hand to president of a major steel company in a few short years. He loved gambling, receiving great notoriety for his escapades in Monte Carlo. But he was also a serious and hard-driving businessman who intended to dominate west coast shipbuilding. In 1908, Bethlehem bought the Hunters Point drydocks, and eight years later purchased the 90 acre Alameda shipyard. In 1910, major improvements began on the Potrero yard that continued until World War I.
In 1911, Bethlehem's bought out its adjacent competition, the Risdon Iron Company, acquiring Risdon's drawings, patents, patterns, and hardware. Particularly valuable were Risdon's gold dredge designs and patents. (Risdon's land was sold to the United States Steel Corporation for a storage yard, though it was later acquired by the U.S. government and operated by Bethlehem as a shipyard.)
World War I
World War I was a great opportunity for Bethlehem: Its Bay Area shipyards were among the biggest producers of ships during the war. (Coincidentally, during the war Charles Schwab took a leave from Bethlehem and served as the head of the U.S. agency that managed naval production.)
Bethlehem Workers - World War I. Photo: UIW/Bethlehem
The Potrero yard launched an average of three destroyers a month, and Bethlehem built a total of 66 destroyers and 18 submarines during the first world war.
The shipyard specialized in destroyers and subs in World War I.
After WWI shipbuilding continued but at a much slower pace. By the late 1930s, though, with war looming, Bethlehem began to modernize and upgrade the Potrero Yard. A number of new buildings were constructed, and by the time World War II began Potrero was one of most productive shipyards in the country.
Shipfitters, 1923. Photo: Potrero Hill Archives Project
World War II
During the war, approximately 18,500 men and women were employed here, working three shifts a day, seven days a week. Finding skilled workers during war time was a huge challenge, and much was done to train new workers, and to organize shipbuilding so that less skilled people could do what the highly skilled people had done before.
Destroyer Escort U.S.S. Fieberling - built in 24 days!
At the height of the war effort productivity was tremendous: the destroyer escort Fieberling was built in 24 days, start to finish. Though Liberty ships and other simpler ships could be built faster, to build a modern warship in that amount of time was an incredible achievement.
During the war, Bethlehem's Potrero yard produced 72 vessels (52 for combat) and repaired over 2500 navy and commercial craft.
World War II was the most productive time in the shipyard's history.
Bethlehem Shipyards at Pier 70 (along with Alameda and Hunters Point, both also managed by Bethlehem) was one of several major yards that made the San Francisco Bay Area the most productive shipbuilding area in the U.S. during World War II, and probably the most productive in world history. Other sites included Marinship in Marin, the Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, and Mare Island in Vallejo. Many smaller yards were active as well, producing smaller craft.
Labor Organizing at the Shipyard
Machinists' Strike, 1941. Photo: San Francisco Public Libary
The labor history of the shipyards at Potrero is not well-documented. Bethlehem Shipbuilding, like the Union Iron Works, fought hard to keep unionization out of the shipyards. Strikes, some of them protracted, occurred periodically throughout the active shipbuilding period, including during the war years and immediately after. One important strike in the spring of 1941 halted major naval shipbuilding for a month and a half, leading to the intervention of President Roosevelt in efforts to end the strike. Members of the machinist union's local resisted the federal government and their own national leaders and persisted in the strike. They succeeded for the first time in achieving a closed shop at Bethlehem.
USS Chew (DD-106), Union Iron Works, 1918 - History
315' 5" x 31' 8" x 8' 6"
4 x 5" guns
2 x 40mm AA
5 x 20mm AA
4 x LCP Landing Craft
Built by Union Iron Works in San Francisco, California. Laid down on February 12, 1918. Launched July 4, 1918, sponsored by Miss Helen La Monte Ely. Named in honor of William Wister McKean. Comissioned February 20, 1919 with Lieutenant Commander Raleigh C. Williams in command.
Served in the Atlantic during 1919 to 1922, making a cruise to Europe between May and July 1919, operated primarily out of New York and Charleston. Decommissioned at Philadelphia June 19, 1922.
On August 2, 1940 reclassified as a High Speed Transport designated APD-5. On December 11, 1940 recommissioned at Norfolk with Lieutenant Commander Thomas Burrows in command.
Assigned to captain Lieutenant Commander Ralph L. Ramey.
On May 10, 1942 departed the eastern United States for the South Pacific, arriving on July 20, 1942 to prepare for the invasion of the Solomons.
On August 7, 1942 landed troops at Tulagi at the start of the Guadalcanal campaign. Afterwards, McKean made escort and supply runs from New Caledonia and the New Hebrides to the Solomons, departing January 31, 1943 for overhaul on the west coast.
Returning to the South Pacific, she conducted escort and patrol duties between the New Hebrides and Solomons during June 1943.
During July, McKean landed troops on New Georgia and Rendova and patrolled off Guadalcanal and in "The Slot" northwards to New Georgia. Next on October 27, landed troops including a including a team that installed a search radar in less than a week on the Island.
On November 6, McKean was part of a reinforcement convoy that landed Marine reinforcements near Torokina on Bougainville. Five days later on November 11 she landed more Marines and proceeded to Guadalcanal to embark more Marines for delivery to Torokina.
On November 17, 1943 during the early morning hours, McKean was approaching Empress Augusta Bay off Bougainville aboard were 185 U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) reinforcements bound for Torokina. This destroyer was spotted by G4M1 Betty piloted by SFPO Kobayashi Gintaro from the 702 Kokutai which released its aerial torpedo off the destroyer's starboard quarter.
McKean turned to avoid the torpedo, but was hit at 3:50am on the starboard side causing the after magazine, depth charge spaces to explode, ruptured her fuel oil tanks causing a fire around the aft area and no. 1 exhaust. McKean suffered a complete loss of power and the order to abandon ship was issued at 3:55am. Five minutes later, she began to sink stern first and sank twelve minutes later with her forward magazine and oil tank exploding. In total, 64 crew and 52 troops aboard died during the explosion and sinking at roughly Lat 6° 31′ 0″ S, Long 154° 52′ 0″ E.
In total, McKean received four battle stars for World War II service. The "McKean" received the Navy Unit Commendation award.
Afterwards, the surviving crew and Marines were rescued by other destroyers.
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Consisting of a revolving turret mounted on a low armored deck, the design was likened to a "cheese box on a raft." Possessing a low freeboard, only the ship's turret, stacks, and small armored pilot house projected above the hull. This almost non-existent profile made the ship very difficult to hit, though it also meant that it performed badly on the open sea and was prone to swamping. Highly impressed by Ericsson's innovative design, Bushnell traveled to Washington and convinced the Navy Department to authorize its construction. The contract for the ship was given to Ericsson and work began in New York.
Luovutetut alukset olivat ensimmäisen maailmansodan lopulla ja loputtua palvelukseen otettuja Wickes-, Caldwell- ja Clemson-luokkien hävittäjiä, joita oli reservivarastoissa kaikkiaan noin 70 kappaletta. Ne vastasivat Kuninkaallisen laivaston V- ja W-luokkien aluksia, mutta ulkoisesti ne näyttivät huomattavasti vanhemmilta neljine savuhormeineen. Vaikka alukset kuuluivat kolmeen luokkaan ne kuitenkin oli ominaisuuksiensa puolesta jaettavissa neljään luokkaan. 
Alusten aseistuksena oli luovutushetkellä neljä nelituumaista tykkiä sekä neljä kolmiputkista 21 tuumaista torpedoputkea. Tykeistä oli täyslaidallisessa käytettävissä kuitenkin vain kolme kerrallaan, koska kaksi niistä oli asennettu kyljille. Torpedoputket veivät runsaasti kansitilaa ja ne samalla kasvattivat alusten kansipainoisuutta. 
Ensimmäinen alus (USS Aaron Ward) lähti jo 4. syyskuuta Bostonista Halifaxiin, jossa se nimettiin HMS Castletoniksi. Jo pari päivää myöhemmin seurasivat seuraavat alukset. 
|Nimi USN||Nimi RN||Telakka||Kölinlasku||Vesille||Valmis||siirretty||Kohtalo|
|USS Conner||HMS Leeds||Cramp||16. lokakuuta 1916||21. elokuuta 1917||21. tammikuuta 1918||23. lokakuuta 1940||myyty romutettavaksi 19. tammikuuta 1949|
|USS Conway (ex-USS Craven)||HMS Lewes||Norfolk||20. marraskuuta 1917||29. kesäkuuta 1918||19. lokakuuta 1918||23. lokakuuta 1940||myyty romutettavaksi 25. toukokuuta 1946|
|USS Stockton||HMS Ludlow||Cramp||16. lokakuuta 1916||17. heinäkuuta 1917||26. marraskuuta 1917||23. lokakuuta 1940||myyty romutettavaksi 5. heinäkuuta 1945|
|Nimi USN||Nimi RN||Telakka||Kölinlasku||Vesille||Valmis||siirretty||Kohtalo|
|USS Aaron Ward||HMS Castleton||Bath Iron Works||1. elokuuta 1918||10. huhtikuuta 1918||21. huhtikuuta 1919||9. syyskuuta 1940||myyty romutettavaksi 2. tammikuuta 1948|
|USS Abbot||HMS Charlestown||Newport News||5. huhtikuuta 1918||4. heinäkuuta 1919||18. heinäkuuta 1919||23. syyskuuta 1940||myyty romutettavaksi 3. joulukuuta 1948|
|USS Buchanan||HMS Campbeltown||Bath Iron Works||29. kesäkuuta 1918||2. tammikuuta 1919||20. tammikuuta 1919||9. syyskuuta 1940||tuhoutunut 29. maaliskuuta 1942|
|USS Claxton||HMS Salisbury||Mare Island||25. huhtikuuta 1918||15. tammikuuta 1919||13. syyskuuta 1919||5. joulukuuta 1940||romutettu huhtikuussa 1945|
|USS Cowell||HMS Brighton||Bethlehem Steel, Fore River||15. heinäkuuta 1918||23. marraskuuta 1918||17. maaliskuuta 1919||23. syyskuuta 1940||Neuvostoliitolle Zharki 16. heinäkuuta 1944|
romutettu 18. toukokuuta 1949
|USS Crowninshield||HMS Chelsea||Bath Iron Works||5. marraskuuta 1918||24. heinäkuuta 1919||6. elokuuta 1919||9. syyskuuta 1940||Neuvostoliitolle Dzerki 16. heinäkuuta 1944|
romutettu 27. heinäkuuta 1949
|USS Doran||HMS St. Marys||Newport News||11. toukokuuta 1918||19. lokakuuta 1918||26. elokuuta 1919||23. syyskuuta 1940||romutettu joulukuussa 1945|
|USS Evans||HMS Mansfield||Bath Iron Works||28. joulukuuta 1917||30. lokakuuta 1918||11. marraskuuta 1918||23. lokakuuta 1940||Norjan laivastolla joulukuusta 1940 maaliskuuhun 1942 nimellä KNM Mansfield|
myyty romutettavaksi 4. lokakuuta 1944
|USS Fairfax||HMS Richmond||Mare Island||10. heinäkuuta 1917||15. joulukuuta 1917||6. huhtikuuta 1918||26. marraskuuta 1940||Neuvostoliitolle Zhivuchi 16. kesäkuuta 1944|
romutettu 29. kesäkuuta 1949
|USS Foote||HMS Roxborough||Bethlehem Steel, Fore River||7. elokuuta 1918||14. joulukuuta 1918||21. maaliskuuta 1919||23. syyskuuta 1940||NeuvostoliitolleDoblestnyi 10. elokuuta 1944|
romutettu 14. toukokuuta 1949
|USS Hale||HMS Caldwell||Bath Iron Works||7. lokakuuta 1918||8. maaliskuuta 1919||28. helmikuuta 1920||9. syyskuuta 1940||romutettu 7. kesäkuuta 1945|
|USS Haraden||HMCS Columbia||Seattle||30. maaliskuuta 1918||4. heinäkuuta 1918||6. kesäkuuta 1919||24. syyskuuta 1940||romutettu 7. elokuuta 1945|
|USS Hopewell||HMS Bath||Newport News||19. tammikuuta 1918||8. kesäkuuta 1918||21. maaliskuuta 1919||23. syyskuuta 1940||Norjan laivastolle 8. huhtikuuta 1941 nimellä KNM Bath|
upotettu 19. elokuuta 1941
|USS Kalk||HMCS Hamilton||Bethlehem Steel, Fore River||17. elokuuta 1918||21. joulukuuta 1918||29. maaliskuuta 1919||23. syyskuuta 1940||uponnut 1945|
|USS MacKenzie||HMCS Annapolis||Union Iron Works||4. heinäkuuta 1918||29. syyskuuta 1918||25. heinäkuuta 1919||29. syyskuuta 1940||romutettavaksi 22. kesäkuuta 1945|
|USS Maddox||HMS Georgetown||Bethlehem Steel, Fore River||20. heinäkuuta 1918||27. lokakuuta 1918||10. maaliskuuta 1919||23. syyskuuta 1940||Neuvostoliitolle Zhostki elokuussa 1944|
romutettu 16. syyskuuta 1952
|USS Philip||HMS Lancaster||Bath Iron Works||1. syyskuuta 1917||25. heinäkuuta 1918||25. elokuuta 1918||23. lokakuuta 1940||romutettu 30. toukokuuta 1947|
|USS Ringgold||HMS Newark||Union Iron Works||20. lokakuuta 1917||14. huhtikuuta 1918||14. marraskuuta 1918||5. joulukuuta 1940||romutettavaksi 18. helmikuuta 1947|
|USS Robinson||HMS Newmarket||Union Iron Works||31. lokakuuta 1917||28. maaliskuuta 1918||19. lokakuuta 1918||5. joulukuuta 1940||romutettu 21. syyskuuta 1945|
|USS Sigourney||HMS Newport||Bethlehem Steel, Fore River||25. elokuuta 1917||16. joulukuuta 1917||14. toukokuuta 1918||5. joulukuuta 1940||Norjan laivastolla maaliskuusta 1941 kesäkuuhun 1942 nimellä KNM Newport|
romutettu 18. helmikuuta 1947
|USS Thatcher||HMCS Niagara||Bethlehem Steel, Fore River||8. kesäkuuta 1918||31. elokuuta 1918||14. tammikuuta 1919||26. syyskuuta 1940||romutettu 1947|
|USS Thomas||HMS St. Albans||Newport News||23. maaliskuuta 1918||4. heinäkuuta 1918||25. huhtikuuta 1919||23. syyskuuta 1940||Norjan laivastolle 14. huhtikuuta 1941 nimellä KNM St. Albans|
Neuvostoliiton laivastolle 16. heinäkuuta 1944 nimellä Dostoinyi
romutettavaksi 18. toukokuuta 1949
|USS Tillman||HMS Wells||Charleston||29. heinäkuuta 1918||7. heinäkuuta 1919||30. huhtikuuta 1921||5. joulukuuta 1940||romutettu helmikuussa 1946|
|USS Twiggs||HMS Leamington||New York||23. tammikuuta 1918||28. syyskuuta 1918||28. heinäkuuta 1919||23. lokakuuta 1940||Neuvostoliitolle Zhguchi 17. heinäkuuta 1944|
romutettu 3. joulukuuta 1951
|USS Wickes||HMS Montgomery||Bath Iron Works||26. kesäkuuta 1917||25. kesäkuuta 1918||31. heinäkuuta 1918||25. lokakuuta 1940||romutettu 10. huhtikuuta 1945|
|USS Williams||HMCS St. Clair||Union Iron Works||25. maaliskuuta 1918||4. heinäkuuta 1918||1. maaliskuuta 1919||29. syyskuuta 1940||romutettu 5. maaliskuuta 1946|
|USS Yarnall||HMS Lincoln||Cramp||12. helmikuuta 1918||19. kesäkuuta 1918||29. marraskuuta 1918||23. syyskuuta 1940||Norjan laivastolle huhtikuussa 1941 nimellä KNM Lincoln|
Kanadan laivastolle heinäkuussa 1942 nimellä HMCS Lincoln
Neuvostoliiton laivastolle 26. elokuuta 1944 nimellä Druzhny
romutettu 3. syyskuuta 1952
|Nimi USN||Nimi RN||Telakka||Kölinlasku||Vesille||Valmis||siirretty||Kohtalo|
|USS Abel P. Upshur||HMS Clare||Newport News||20. elokuuta 1918||14. helmikuuta 1920||21. toukokuuta 1920||9. syyskuuta 1940||myyty romutettavaksi 18. helmikuuta 1947|
|USS Aulick||HMS Burnham||Bethlehem Steel, Quincy||3. helmikuuta 1918||11. huhtikuuta 1919||26. heinäkuuta 1919||8. lokakuuta 1940||myyty romutettavaksi 2. joulukuuta 1948|
|USS Bailey||HMS Reading||Bethlehem Steel, Squantum||3. kesäkuuta 1918||5. helmikuuta 1919||27. kesäkuuta 1919||26. marraskuuta 1940||myyty romutettavaksi 24. heinäkuuta 1945|
|USS Bancroft||HMCS St. Francis||Bethlehem Steel, Quincy||4. marraskuuta 1918||21. maaliskuuta 1919||30. kesäkuuta 1919||24. syyskuuta 1940||tuhoutunut 14. heinäkuuta 1945|
|USS Branch||HMS Beverley||Newport News||25. lokakuuta 1918||19. huhtikuuta 1919||3. huhtikuuta 1920||8. lokakuuta 1940||upotettu 11. huhtikuuta 1943|
|USS Edwards||HMS Buxton||Bethlehem Steel, Squantum||20. huhtikuuta 1918||10. lokakuuta 1918||24. huhtikuuta 1919||8. lokakuuta 1940||romutettu 21. maaliskuuta 1946|
|USS Herndon||HMS Churchill||Newport News||25. marraskuuta 1918||31. toukokuuta 1919||17. huhtikuuta 1920||9. syyskuuta 1940||siirretty 30. toukokuuta 1944 Neuvostoliitolle Dyatelnyi|
upotettu 16. tammikuuta 1945
|USS Hunt||HMS Broadway||Newport News||20. elokuuta 1918||14. helmikuuta 1920||8. kesäkuuta 1920||8. lokakuuta 1940||romutettu maaliskuu 1948|
|USS Laub||HMS Burwell||-||-||-||-||8. lokakuuta 1940||romutettavaksi maaliskuu 1947|
|USS Mason||HMS Broadwater||-||-||-||-||2. lokakuuta 1940||upotettu 19. lokakuuta 1941|
|USS McCalla||HMS Stanley||-||-||-||-||23. lokakuuta 1940||upotettu 19. joulukuuta 1941|
|USS McCook||HMCS St. Croix||-||-||-||-||24. syyskuuta 1940||upotettu 20. syyskuuta 1940|
|USS McLanahan||HMS Bradford||-||-||-||-||8. lokakuuta 1940||romutettavaksi elokuu 1946|
|USS Meade||HMS Ramsey||-||-||-||-||26. marraskuuta 1940||romutettu heinäkuu 1947|
|USS Rodgers||HMS Sherwood||-||-||-||-||23. lokakuuta 1940||ajettu rantaan maaliksi 3. lokakuuta 1943|
|USS Satterlee||HMS Belmont||-||-||-||-||8. lokakuuta 1940||upotettu 31. huhtikuuta 1942 selvennä|
|USS Shubrick||HMS Ripley||-||-||-||-||26. marraskuuta 1940||romutettavaksi 10. maaliskuuta 1945|
|USS Swasey||HMS Rockingham||-||-||-||-||26. marraskuuta 1940||uponnut ajettuaan miinaan 27. syyskuuta 1944|
|USS Welborn C. Wood||HMS Chesterfield||-||-||-||-||9. syyskuuta 1940||romutettu 3. joulukuuta 1948|
|USS Welles||HMS Cameron||-||-||-||-||9. syyskuuta 1940||tuhoutunut 5. joulukuuta 1940|
romutettu 1. joulukuuta 1944
Luovutetut alukset eivät olleet kuitenkaan sopivia suunniteltuun tehtäväänsä saattamaan saattueita pohjoisella Atlantilla. Ne olivat tarpeettoman nopeita ja niiden aseistus oli sopimaton sukellusveneiden torjuntaan. Lisäksi ne olivat vaikeasti käsiteltäviä Atlantin aallokossa. 
Amiraliteetti teki päätöksen muuttaa alukset tehtävään paremmin sopiviksi. Alusten suuren määrän vuoksi niihin tehtiin eriasteisia muutostöitä suurehko määrä, mutta yhteisenä muutoksena aluksilta poistettiin X-tykki sekä puolet torpedoputkista. Yhdysvaltalainen kolmituumainen ilmatorjuntatykki Y-asemassa vaihdettiin brittiläiseen kolmituumaiseen tai kaksitoistanaulaiseen X-tornin paikalle. 
Aluksille asennettiin tutkat tyyppiä 271 sillalle heti, kun niitä oli saatavilla, samoin kuin mastonhuippuun tutka 286. Mastonhuipussa ollut tutka vaihdettiin tyypin 290 tai 291 tutkiin myöhemmin. Alusten syvyyspommien lukumäärää lisättiin ja niihin asennettiin kaikuluotaimet. 
Just over six years before the Imperial Japanese Navy launched its devastating attack on Pearl Harbor, USS Blue (DD-387), a Bagley-class destroyer, was laid down at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. She was launched in May of 1937 and was commissioned into service on August.
Though the attack on Pearl Harbor only lasted about two hours, the number of books and other writings, TV shows, and movies about the events of December 7, 1941 is extensive and varied. The experiences of a sailor who just barely survived the sinking of USS Oklahoma.