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(ScStr: t. 948, 1. 195', b. 32', dr. 13'6", dph. 12', s. 13 k. cpl. 92; a. 2 24-pdrs., 2 12-pdrs.)
Screw steamer, United States, built at New York in 1862 was purchased by the Navy at New York 27 June 1863 from Wakeman, Dimon .5c Co., and commissioned at New York Navy Yard 15 August 1863, Aeting Vol. Lt. Thomas A. Harris in command.
Designated a supply ship, New Berne departed New York 1 September 1863 to join the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. For the remainder of the war she carried mail supplies, officers, and seamen from Nortiern ports to an] from the ships and stations of her squadron.
From time to time her performance of this vital but unspeetaeular duty was enlivened by pursuit of a blockade runner. She departed Newport News, Va., before dawn 11 December hunting a "steamer burning soft coal" reportedly attempting to run the blockade near the entrance to Chesaneake Bay. She did not eateh this elusive steamer but had better luck the following spring when she chased steamer pereMey aground near Beaufort, N.C., 9 June 1864. Shortly thereafter the blockade runner, carrying arms, lead, bacon, and uniforms for Lee's army, exploded.
She scored again 16 December 1864 when, with Mount Vernon, she captured and burned schooner G. O. Bigelow in ballast at Bear Inlet, N.C.
After the war, New Berne continued setviee as a supply ship, but for two periods in ordinary, 5 December 1866 to 8 February 1867 and 5 April to 26 November 1867, until deeommissioning 29 March 1868. She was transferred to the War Department at Washington 1 December 1868.
This volume contains transcribed records of the First Lutheran Church in the City of Albany.
This volume is text searchable – searches entered from this page will query this volume. The images can also be browsed by clicking the links below, which will take you to the beginning of the section you are interested in reading.
Along with names and dates, useful information about the church is provided for readers.
These records were transcribed and edited by Royden Woodward Vosburgh in 1917.
War of the Rebellion: Serial 060 Page 0101 Chapter XLV. EXPEDITION AGAINST NEW BERNE, N. C.
Numbers 15. Report of Brigadier General Thomas L. Clingman, C. S. Army, commanding brigade.
HDQRS. CLINGMAN'S BRIGADE, March 17, 1864.
MAJOR: I have been prevented from complying with the order in the circular of the 21st ultimo from the fact that at the time it was received by me one of the regiments (the Eighth) was detached from my command, and it was not until this morning that I was able to obtain the statement of its casualties required. As I was compelled to give a full report of casualties, and state particularly whether I lost any prisoners, I was compelled to delay the report. In obedience to orders received during the previous night, on the morning of the 29th of January last I, with two regiments of my brigade (the Eighth, commanded by Colonel H. M. Shaw, and the Fifty-first, by Colonel H. McKethan), took the railroad trains for Kinston, N. C., at which place I arrived on the evening of the 30th, and advanced 5 miles toward New Berne.
In obedience to orders from Major-General Pickett, on the next day I followed with my command General Hoke's brigade, which was in the advance of the column, and rest for a part of the night about 12 miles this side of New Berne.
Having been ordered to follow immediately General Hoke's command and support him, on the morning of February 1, I moved forward with my command. Owing to the delay at Batchelder's Creek and to the darkness of the night, I, with the front of my command, passed the rear of General Hoke's, which was resting on the right side of the road. While in this position, within 200 or 300 yards of the creek, Colonel Shaw, who was with me at the head of his regiment, was instantly killed by one of the enemy's shots from the opposite side of the stream. This most unfortunate casualty rendered it necessary that Lieutenant Colonel J. M. Whitson should assume the command of the regiment. When at a late hour the passage of Batchelder's Creek had been effected, my command followed General Hoke's closely until we reached the point where the railroad was intersected by the road along which we had been advancing. I them received orders from Major-General Pickett to take the advance and move along the road, to be followed and supported by General Hoke's brigade. I was merely instructed to be particularly on my guard against any attack that might be made on my left from the direction of the town of New Berne, and General Hoke, having been previously acquainted with the localities there, was instructed to accompany me. After moving along the road until within nearly a mile of the town, my brigade merged to the right, keeping a direction nearly parallel to the line of the enemy' fortifications on the front of the town. The enemy were not encountered until we had advanced to a position within 600 or 800 yards of the Trent road. There they were in position with a regiment of cavalry and some field artillery, supported also by what appeared to be a small infantry force ont heir rear to the city. Their cavalry dashed forward to charge us, but were repulsed by my skirmishers without getting near enough to receive the volley of the brigade. Their field pieces then opened upon us, chiefly with spherical case-shot, but the men were directed to lie down, and there being a little swell in the ground in front, little or no injury was sustained by us. Their cavalry started forward several times, but whenever our line rose to its feet
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New Bern Genealogy (in Craven County, NC)
NOTE: Additional records that apply to New Bern are also found through the Craven County and North Carolina pages.
New Bern Birth Records
New Bern Cemetery Records
Bethany Christian Church Cemetry Billion Graves
Brown Cemetery Billion Graves
Cedar Grove Cemetery Cemetery Census
Cedar Grove Cemetery Billion Graves
Gethsemane F.W.B. Church Billion Graves
Gravestone Records US Gen Web Archives
Greenleaf Memorial Park Cemetery Census
Macedonia Church Cemetery Billion Graves
National Cemetery New Bern Cemetery Cemetery Census
New Bern National Cemetery US Gen Web Archives
New Bern National Cemetery Billion Graves
Spring Garden Baptist Church Cemetery Billion Graves
White Family Cemetery Cemetery Census
New Bern Census Records
United States Federal Census, 1790-1940 Family Search
New Bern Church Records
History of the Presbyterian church in New Bern, N.C. : with a resumi of early ecclesiastical affairs in eastern North Carolina and a sketch of the early days of New Bern, N.C. Genealogy Gophers
New Bern City Directories
Baldwin's New Bern, North Carolina, city directory  Internet Archive
Hill Directory Co.'s (Incorporated) New Bern, N.C., city directory [serial] 1920-21 Internet Archive
Hill Directory Co.'s (Incorporated) New Bern, N.C., city directory [serial] 1926 Internet Archive
Hill's New Bern City Directory  Internet Archive
Hill's New Bern City Directory  Internet Archive
Hill's New Bern City Directory  Internet Archive
Hill's New Bern, Craven County, N.C., City Directory  Internet Archive
Hill's New Bern, Craven County, N.C., City Directory [1962-1963] Internet Archive
Miller's New Bern, N.C., City Directory [1947-1948] Internet Archive
Miller's New Bern, N.C., City Directory [1951-1952] Internet Archive
New Bern City Directory [1904-1905] Internet Archive
New Bern City Directory [1911-1912] Internet Archive
New Bern City Directory [1914-1915] Internet Archive
New Bern North Carolina City Directory  Internet Archive
New Bern North Carolina Con Survey City Directory Supplement Edition  Internet Archive
New Bern North Carolina Con Survey City Directory  Internet Archive
New Bern North Carolina Con Survey City Directory  Internet Archive
Official directory, city of New Bern, N.C. [serial] 1916-1917 Internet Archive
New Bern Death Records
New Bern Histories and Genealogies
New Bern Immigration Records
New Bern Land Records
New Bern Map Records
General map in the vicinity of New Bern, North Carolina, May, 1969. Library of Congress
Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from New Bern, Craven County, North Carolina, April 1885 Library of Congress
Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from New Bern, Craven County, North Carolina, August 1893 Library of Congress
Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from New Bern, Craven County, North Carolina, January 1898 Library of Congress
Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from New Bern, Craven County, North Carolina, May 1888 Library of Congress
New Bern Marriage Records
New Bern Military Records
New Bern Minority Records
New Bern Miscellaneous Records
New Bern Newspapers and Obituaries
Atlantic 1854-1854 Newspapers.com
Campaign Anti-Radical 1868-1872 Newspapers.com
Carolina Federal Republican 01/12/1809 to 04/25/1818 Genealogy Bank
Carolina Federal Republican 1809-1818 Newspapers.com
Carolinian 1811-1815 Newspapers.com
Chronicle 1897-1897 Newspapers.com
Courier 1894-1894 Newspapers.com
Daily Commercial News 1881-1882 Newspapers.com
Daily Delta 1859-1859 Newspapers.com
Daily Herald 1868-1868 Newspapers.com
Daily Journal 1882-1914 Newspapers.com
Daily Liberal 1872-1872 Newspapers.com
Daily Newbernian 1874-1880 Newspapers.com
Daily Nut Shell 1875-1883 Newspapers.com
Eastern Carolina Republican 1847-1851 Newspapers.com
Free Will Baptist 1885-1886 Newspapers.com
Hornet's Nest 1847-1847 Newspapers.com
Morning Herald 09/17/1807 to 12/30/1808 Genealogy Bank
Morning New Bernian 1916-1924 Newspapers.com
New Bern Democrat 1879-1900 Newspapers.com
New Bern Republican 1867-1868 Newspapers.com
New Bern Sun 1908-1914 Newspapers.com
New Bern Sun Journal 1920-1922 Newspapers.com
New Bern Sun Journal 1987, 1993-1996, 2000, 2003-2005, 2010-2014 Newspaper Archive at FindMyPast
New Berne Daily Times 04/28/1865 to 03/27/1873 Genealogy Bank
New Berne Times 1864-1874 Newspapers.com
New Berne Weekly Journal 1882-1915 Newspapers.com
New Berne Weekly Times 1873-1873 Newspapers.com
New Era and Commercial Advertiser 1858-1859 Newspapers.com
Newbern Daily Progress 1858-1863 Newspapers.com
Newbern Enquirer 1809-1860 Newspapers.com
Newbern Gazette 1764-1804 Newspapers.com
Newbern Herald 01/20/1809 to 02/26/1810 Genealogy Bank
Newbern Herald 1807-1810 Newspapers.com
Newbern Journal 1854-1856 Newspapers.com
Newbern Journal of Commerce 1866-1869 Newspapers.com
Newbern Sentinel 03/21/1818 to 12/21/1836 Genealogy Bank
Newbern Sentinel 1818-1837 Newspapers.com
Newbern Spectator 1828-1842 Newspapers.com
Newbern Weekly Journal of Commerce 1866-1876 Newspapers.com
Newbern Weekly Progress 1858-1863 Newspapers.com
Newbern Weekly Times 1866-1866 Newspapers.com
Newbern progress 01/21/1863 to 02/04/1863 Genealogy Bank
Newbern progress. (Newbern, N.C.) (from Jan. 21, 1863 to Feb. 4, 1863) Chronicling America
Newbern weekly progress 10/28/1858 to 01/17/1863 Genealogy Bank
Newbern weekly progress. (Newbern, N.C.) (from Oct. 28, 1858 to Jan. 17, 1863) Chronicling America
Newbernian 1874-1883 Newspapers.com
Newbernian and North Carolina Advocate 1843-1853 Newspapers.com
North Carolina Circular and Newbern Weekly Advertiser 1803-1805 Newspapers.com
North-Carolina Gazette 03/24/1775 to 07/14/1775 Genealogy Bank
North-Carolina Gazette 1784-1797 Newspapers.com
North-Carolina Weekly Gazette 1768-1778 Newspapers.com
North. Carolina Gazette 1751-1759 Newspapers.com
Our Living and Our Dead 1873-1874 Newspapers.com
Our living and our dead 09/03/1873 to 08/05/1874 Genealogy Bank
Our living and our dead or, Testimony from the battlefields 07/02/1873 to 08/27/1873 Genealogy Bank
Our living and our dead or, Testimony from the battlefields. (Newbern [i.e. New Bern], N.C.) (from July 2, 1873 to Aug. 27, 1873) Chronicling America
Our living and our dead. (Newbern [i.e. New Bern], N.C.) (from Sept. 3, 1873 to Aug. 5, 1874) Chronicling America
Peoples' Advocate 1886-1886 Newspapers.com
Republic and Courier 1871-1874 Newspapers.com
State Gazette of North Carolina 08/09/1787 to 02/07/1788 Genealogy Bank
State Gazette of North-Carolina 1787-1799 Newspapers.com
Sun Journal 10/17/2007 to Current Genealogy Bank
Sun Journal 1993, 1994, 2003, 2011-2014 Newspaper Archive at FindMyPast
True Republican and Newbern Weekly Advertiser 1810-1811 Newspapers.com
True Republican, and Newbern Weekly Advertiser 04/02/1810 to 08/07/1811 Genealogy Bank
Weekly News 1853-1853 Newspapers.com
Offline Newspapers for New Bern
According to the US Newspaper Directory, the following newspapers were printed, so there may be paper or microfilm copies available. For more information on how to locate offline newspapers, see our article on Locating Offline Newspapers.
Atlantic. (Newbern, N.C.) 1853-1854
Biblical Recorder. (Newbern, N.C.) 1835-1838
Carolina Centinel [Microform]. (Newbern, N.C.) 1818-1822
Carolina Centinel. (Newbern, N.C.) 1818-1822
Carolina Federal Republican. (Newbern, N.C.) 1809-1818
Carolina Sentinel. (Newbern, N.C.) 1822-1828
Daily Commercial News. (New Berne, N.C.) 1881-1882
Daily Journal. (New Bern, N.C.) 1913-1915
Daily Journal. (New Berne, N.C.) 1882-1894
Daily Nut Shell. (Newbern, N.C.) 1874-1883
Daily Progress. (Newbern, N.C.) 1858-1862
Eastern Carolina Republican. (New-Berne, N.C.) 1850-1851
Martin's North-Carolina Gazette [Microform]. (Newbern, N.C.) 1786-1789
Martin's North-Carolina Gazette. (Newbern, N.C.) 1786-1789
Morning Herald. (Newbern, N.C.) 1807-1809
Morning New Bernian. (New Bern [N.C.]) 1916-1921
New Bern Republican [Microform]. (New Bern, N.C.) 1867-1868
New Bern Republican. (New Bern, N.C.) 1867-1868
New Bern Semi-Weekly Journal. (New Bern, N.C.) 1914-1915
New Bern Sun Journal. (New Bern, N.C.) 1915-1930
New Bern Sun. (New Bern, N.C.) 1912-1915
New Bern Tribune. (New Bern, N.C.) 1933-1941
New Berne Daily Journal. (New Berne, N.C.) 1894-1913
New Berne Daily Times [Microform]. (New Berne, N.C.) 1865-1873
New Berne Daily Times. (New Berne, N.C.) 1865-1873
New Berne Times [Microform]. (New Berne, N.C.) 1873-1875
New Berne Times. (New Berne, N.C.) 1873-1875
New Berne Weekly Journal. (New Berne, Craven County, N.C.) 1882-1914
New Berne Weekly Times and Republic-Courier. (New Berne, N.C.) 1874-1876
New Bernian. (New Bern, N.C.) 1921-1932
New Era, and Commercial Advertiser. (Newbern, N.C.) 1858-1859
New-Berne Daily Republican [Microform]. (New Berne, N.C.) 1868-1869
New-Berne Daily Republican. (New Berne, N.C.) 1868-1860s
Newbern Daily Journal of Commerce [Microform]. (Newbern, N.C.) 1866-1867
Newbern Daily Journal of Commerce. (Newbern, N.C.) 1866-1867
Newbern Daily Progress. (Newbern, N.C.) 1862-1863
Newbern Gazette, and Political and Miscellaneous Register. (Newbern, N.C.) 1800-1803
Newbern Gazette. (Newbern [N.C.]) 1803-1804
Newbern Gazette. (Newbern, N.C.) 1798-1800
Newbern Herald [Microform]. (Newbern, N.C.) 1809-1810
Newbern Herald. (Newbern, N.C.) 1809-1810
Newbern Journal of Commerce [Microform]. (Newbern, N.C.) 1867-1881
Newbern Journal of Commerce. (Newbern, N.C.) 1867-1881
Newbern Journal of Commerce. (Newbern, N.C.) 1872-1876
Newbern Journal. (Newbern, N.C.) 1854-1856
Newbern Progress. (Newbern, N.C.) 1863-1860s
Newbern Spectator, and Literary Journal. (Newbern, N.C.) 1828-1834
Newbern Spectator, and Political Register. (Newbern, N.C.) 1834-1836
Newbern Times. (Newbern, N.C.) 1862-1860s
Newbern Tri-Weekly Journal of Commerce. (Newbern, N.C.) 1872-1870s
Newbern Weekly Journal of Commerce. (Newbern, N.C.) 1866-1870s
Newbern Weekly Progress. (Newbern, N.C.) 1858-1863
Newbernian, and North Carolina Advocate. (Newbern, N.C.) 1850-1853
Newbernian. (Newbern, N.C.) 1843-1850
Newbernian. (Newbern, N.C.) 1870s-1876
Newbernian. (Newbern, N.C.) 1874-1883
North Carolina Circular, and Newbern Weekly Advertiser. (Newbern, N.C.) 1803-1805
North Carolina Gazette, Or, Impartial Intelligencer, and Weekly General Advertiser. (Newbern, N.C.) 1783-1784
North Carolina Gazette, or Impartial Intelligencer, and Weekly General Advertiser [Microform]. (Newbern, N.C.) 1783-1784
North Carolina Sentinel. (Newbern, N.C.) 1828-1836
North Carolina Times. (New Berne, N.C.) 1864-1865
North-Carolina Gazette [Microform]. (Newbern, N.C.) 1789-1798
North-Carolina Gazette. (Newbern [I.E. New Bern], N.C.) 1768-1778
North-Carolina Gazette. (Newbern, N.C.) 1789-1798
North-Carolina Magazine Or, Universal Intelligencer. (Newbern, N.C.) 1764-1768
North-Carolina Magazine, Or, Universal Intelligencer [Microform]. ([Newbern, N.C.) 1764-1765
Noticiero Obrero Norteamericano. (Washington) 1944-Current
Our Living and Our Dead. (Newbern [I.E. New Bern], N.C.) 1873-1870s
Peoples' Advocate. (New-Berne [New Bern], N.C.) 1886-1880s
Republic and Courier. (New-Berne, N.C.) 1872-1873
Republic-Courier. (New-Berne, N.C.) 1873-1874
Republican and Courier. (New-Berne, N.C.) 1860s-1871
Republican. (Newbern, N.C.) 1847-1850
Semi-Weekly Sun. (New Bern, N.C.) 1911-1915
State Gazette of North-Carolina. (Newbern, N.C.) 1780s-1799
Sun Journal. (New Bern, N.C.) 1930-Current
True Republican, and Newbern Weekly Advertiser [Microform]. (Newbern [N.C.]) 1810-1811
True Republican, and Newbern Weekly Advertiser. (Newbern, N.C.) 1810-1811
Union. (Newbern, N.C.) 1856-1857
Weekly Journal of Commerce. (Newbern, N.C.) 1871-1870s
Weekly Sun. (New Bern, N.C.) 1900s-1911
New Bern Probate Records
New Bern School Records
New Bern High School, The Bruin, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958 Internet Archive
New Bern Tax Records
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War of the Rebellion: Serial 026 Page 0189 Chapter XXX. ATTACK ON NEW BERNE, N. C.
Yankees at Deep Gully I would have pursued them to their next strong-hold, at Rocky Run, 3 miles nearer New Berne, but as Pettigrew had been silenced, and there were three shorter roads to Kinston than the one I was on, I fell back to a point opposite Trenton. Remained there Sunday and until noon to-day. No pursuit by the Yankees. Our loss has been slight.
General Pettigrew reports:
The absence of the Whitworth ruined us. The 20-pounder Parrotts are worse than useless. One burst, killing 4 men and wounding 4 another broke its axle. The shells of all them burst just at the mouth of the gun. I hope never to see them again.
Robertson sent me out a lieutenant, who partly cut the railroad. He sent out a colonel, who saw some Yankees and came back. Robertson did not go himself. We must have a better man. Garnett did not start until Sunday. I have sent Pettigrew to Greenville to protect him if necessary. I propose to go over there myself in a few days. I fear Garnett has seriously compromised himself by his long delay. If it be true, as your scout reports, that the Yankees have been so heavily re-enforced at New Berne they may attempt to cut Garnett off. Had the Whitworth been sent the gunboat would have been beaten and New Berne would have been at Pettigrew's mercy. Then if my original plan had been carried out of moving Ransom on the Sound road to the rear of New Berne I think we would have gained the town, or at least have caused a very salutary alarm. The spirit manifested by Whiting has spoiled everything. My order of assignment says: "General D. H. Hill is assigned to the command of all the troops in North Carolina." If I am to cut down to two brigades I will not submit to the swindle.
So far as I can judge there will be no movement at Charleston until Hooked gets out of the mud. The there will be a general movement on Fredericksburg, Petersburg, the North Carolina Railroad, and Wilmington. We ought to have been clearing out North Carolina while Hooker was mud-bound. This I urged three months ago, but I was unheeded. It is not yet too late to do something and I am anxious to go to work. I started out with my throat in a terrible fix and thought it might cost me my life. Thank God, I am no worse.
Foster ought to be ashamed of letting one brigade run him into his rat-hole.
I have received nothing but contemptuous treatment from Richmond from the very beginning of the war, but I hope they will not carry matters so far as to perpetuate a swindle.
You were greatly mistaken in supposing that I was indifferent about the Whitworth. I told you that it was too late to get it, but that it was worth all the guns I had. I had tried the Parrotts, and their shells all burst prematurely.
If the Yankee re-enforcements are as large as your scout represent them they will establish an inland communication between New Berne, Washington, and Plymouth, and thus have their cordon of forts complete from Suffolk down. A glance at the map will show how seriously this would embarrass us. For my part I could get no information from New Berne.
With great respect,
D. H. HILL,
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New Berne ScStr - History
New Bern, North Carolina
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( April 8, 2012 ) Enlarge New Bern Battlefield Park
This battlefield park is just off HWY 70 about 5 miles from New Bern, North Carolina. The Battlefield park has a pavilion, trails, earthworks, a cannon, and markers/monument. The park can be hard to find because there is a subdivision next to it. Look for large signs advertising the entrance to Taberna (Housing estates) to find the park
( January 2008 ) Enlarge New Bern Civil War Trails interpretive marker
( January 2008 ) During the Battle of New Bern the 26th and 33rd NC regiments held a line here at the railroad tracks. The view is looking toward the Union advance
( January 2008 ) The wetland area where the Union army crossed to attack the Confederates behind their earthworks. View looking toward the Union advance
( January 2008 ) Confederate earthworks and the 26th North Carolina monument
New Berne ScStr - History
Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside [US] Brig. Gen. Lawrence O’B. Branch [CS]
Forces Engaged: Expeditionary Force and Foster’s, Reno’s, and Parke’s Brigades [US] 5 regiments, militia [CS]
|Civil War Battle of New Bern, NC|
|New Bern Civil War Historical Marker|
Description: On March 11, Brig. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s command embarked from Roanoke Island to rendezvous with Union gunboats at Hatteras Inlet for an expedition against New Bern.
On March 13, the fleet sailed up the Neuse River and disembarked infantry on the river’s south bank to approach the New Bern defenses. The Confederate defense was commanded by Brig. Gen. Lawrence Branch.
On March 14, John G. Foster’s, Jesse Reno’s, and John G. Parke’s brigades attacked along the railroad and after four hours of fighting drove the Confederates out of their fortifications. The Federals captured nine forts and 41 heavy guns and occupied a base which they would hold to the end of the war, in spite of several Confederate attempts to recover the town. The capture of New Bern reflected another accomplishment towards the fulfillment of General Winfield Scott's " Anaconda Plan ." (See Battle of New Bern: Detailed History )
|Battle of New Bern|
|North Carolina Civil War Battlefields Map|
|Battle of New Bern Map|
|Civil War Battle of New Bern|
Source: National Park Service
Recommended Reading: The Civil War on the Outer Banks: A History of the Late Rebellion Along the Coast of North Carolina from Carteret to Currituck With Comments on Prewar Conditions and an Account of (251 pages). Description: The ports at Beaufort, Wilmington, New Bern and Ocracoke, part of the Outer Banks (a chain of barrier islands that sweeps down the North Carolina coast from the Virginia Capes to Oregon Inlet), were strategically vital for the import of war materiel and the export of cash producing crops. From official records, contemporary newspaper accounts, personal journals of the soldiers, and many unpublished manuscripts and memoirs, this is a full accounting of the Civil War along the North Carolina coast.
Recommended Reading : The Civil War in the Carolinas (Hardcover). Description: Dan Morrill relates the experience of two quite different states bound together in the defense of the Confederacy, using letters, diaries, memoirs, and reports. He shows how the innovative operations of the Union army and navy along the coast and in the bays and rivers of the Carolinas affected the general course of the war as well as the daily lives of all Carolinians. He demonstrates the "total war" for North Carolina 's vital coastal railroads and ports. In the latter part of the war, he describes how Sherman 's operation cut out the heart of the last stronghold of the South. Continued below.
The author offers fascinating sketches of major and minor personalities, including the new president and state governors, Generals Lee, Beauregard, Pickett, Sherman, D.H. Hill, and Joseph E. Johnston. Rebels and abolitionists, pacifists and unionists, slaves and freed men and women, all influential, all placed in their context with clear-eyed precision. If he were wielding a needle instead of a pen, his tapestry would offer us a complete picture of a people at war. Midwest Book Review: The Civil War in the Carolinas by civil war expert and historian Dan Morrill (History Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and Director of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Historical Society) is a dramatically presented and extensively researched survey and analysis of the impact the American Civil War had upon the states of North Carolina and South Carolina, and the people who called these states their home. A meticulous, scholarly, and thoroughly engaging examination of the details of history and the sweeping change that the war wrought for everyone, The Civil War In The Carolinas is a welcome and informative addition to American Civil War Studies reference collections.
Recommended Reading : Storm over Carolina : The Confederate Navy's Struggle for Eastern North Carolina . Description: The struggle for control of the eastern waters of North Carolina during the War Between the States was a bitter, painful, and sometimes humiliating one for the Confederate navy. No better example exists of the classic adage, "Too little, too late." Burdened by the lack of adequate warships, construction facilities, and even ammunition, the South's naval arm fought bravely and even recklessly to stem the tide of the Federal invasion of North Carolina from the raging Atlantic . Storm Over Carolina is the account of the Southern navy's struggle in North Carolina waters and it is a saga of crushing defeats interspersed with moments of brilliant and even spectacular victories. It is also the story of dogged Southern determination and incredible perseverance in the face of overwhelming odds. Continued below.
For most of the Civil War, the navigable portions of the Roanoke , Tar, Neuse , Chowan, and Pasquotank rivers were occupied by Federal forces. The Albemarle and Pamlico sounds, as well as most of the coastal towns and counties, were also under Union control. With the building of the river ironclads, the Confederate navy at last could strike a telling blow against the invaders, but they were slowly overtaken by events elsewhere. With the war grinding to a close, the last Confederate vessel in North Carolina waters was destroyed. William T. Sherman was approaching from the south, Wilmington was lost, and the Confederacy reeled as if from a mortal blow. For the Confederate navy, and even more so for the besieged citizens of eastern North Carolina , these were stormy days indeed. Storm Over Carolina describes their story, their struggle, their history.
Recommended Reading : Ironclads and Columbiads: The Coast (The Civil War in North Carolina ) (456 pages). Description: Ironclads and Columbiads covers some of the most important battles and campaigns in the state. In January 1862, Union forces began in earnest to occupy crucial points on the North Carolina coast. Within six months, Union army and naval forces effectively controlled coastal North Carolina from the Virginia line south to present-day Morehead City . Union setbacks in Virginia, however, led to the withdrawal of many federal soldiers from North Carolina, leaving only enough Union troops to hold a few coastal strongholds—the vital ports and railroad junctions. The South during the Civil War, moreover, hotly contested the North’s ability to maintain its grip on these key coastal strongholds.
Recommended Reading : Lifeline of the Confederacy: Blockade Running During the Civil War (Studies in Maritime History Series). From Library Journal: From the profusion of books about Confederate blockade running, this one will stand out for a long time as the most complete and exhaustively researched. Though not unaware of the romantic aspects of his subject, Wise sets out to provide a detailed study, giving particular attention to the blockade runners' effects on the Confederate war effort. It was, he finds, tapping hitherto unused sources, absolutely essential, affording the South a virtual lifeline of military necessities until the war's last days. This book covers it all: from cargoes to ship outfitting, from individuals and companies to financing at both ends. An indispensable addition to Civil War literature.
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Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC05111.01.1251 Author/Creator: Photograph Date: Pagination: 1 photograph 8.6 x 8.3 cm
The image shows a wooden cabin with two windows, a chimney and a wreath above the door, which is open. Inscription on verso: "Officers Quarters Newberne [sic]."
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The New St. Regis Hotel Officially Opens
[Updated] St. Regis Hotel & Resort is set to officially open today [May 22] in the east end, with a small event set to be held to mark the occasion.
Their website describes the hotel by saying, “A haven of oceanfront elegance situated in the historic town of St. George’s, The St. Regis Bermuda Resort is just steps from the soft white sands of St. Catherine’s Beach. The calm turquoise water and stunning views create an iconic setting where lavishly appointed accommodations, exceptional amenities and impeccable service meets effortless luxury.
“Immerse in unparalleled leisure and wellness facilities. Overlooking azure waters, the pool deck area features two swimming pools, luxuriant loungers and private cabanas for an exclusive retreat. Enjoy state of the art cuisine at the flavorful all-day restaurant. Refined relaxation awaits at Iridium Spa, offering a comprehensive menu of unique personalized treatments using natural and precious elements. Younger guests are invited to enjoy unique amenities and enriching activities at The St. Regis Kids Club, while also creating lasting memories through meaningful family excursions and experiences.”
The event was granted a large group exemption, with the official notice stating: “Whereas the Minister of National Security considers that the proposed Opening of the St. Regis Hotel & Resort is justifying an exemption from the prohibition in section 5  and  of the Public Health [Covid-19 Emergency Powers] [Phased Re-Opening] Regulations 2021 on groups of more than ten persons assembling
“Now, therefore, the Minister grants an exemption under section 5  of those Regulations to Laura Purroy, permitting a group of more than 10 persons to assemble on Saturday, May 22, 2021, between 10:00 am and 12:00 pm, at the St Regis Resort, 34 Coot Pond Road, St. Georges GE 03 with the following conditions:
“All persons attending the Opening of the St. Regis Resort must be in possession of a valid SafeKey QR Code issued by the Ministry of Health which will denote that persons have been fully immunised or have tested negative for the coronavirus in the last 72 hours.
“Maximum number of attendees – 30 persons. Duration of Exemption: 9:30am – 12:00pm Venue: St Regis Resort, 34 Coot Pond Road, St. Georges GE 03.’
Update 9.08pm: Premier David Burt tweeted the photo below and said, “Cut the ribbon at today’s opening of the St. Regis Hotel & Resort in St. George’s. It’s an exciting time for our tourism industry and it was great to see so many young Bermudians ready to welcome guests to this brand new luxury hotel which has created 140 new jobs in Bermuda.”
Why Did the United States Wait 103 Years to Join the Berne Convention?
The Berne Convention is the oldest and most widely adopted international copyright treaty. However, for more than a century, the Berne Convention was missing an important signatory: The United States.
Originally signed in Berne, Switzerland on September 9, 1886, the treaty aimed to create an “International union for the protection of literary and artistic works” and included the original signatories, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Haiti, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, and Tunisia.
Though the treaty would grow, change and expand in the decades that followed, the United States refused to become a signatory. This included through the early and mid-20th century as the nation’s military and economic might positioned it as a superpower.
It wasn’t until 1989 that the United States became a signatory to the treaty. That same year, the USSR announced its intentions to do the same though the USSR was dissolved before it could happen (The Russian Federation would join in 1994).
This raises a pair of simple questions: Why did the United States wait over a century to sign the Berne Convention and why did it change its mind in the 1980s? To understand that, we have to look at how U.S. Copyright Law worked for much of the 20th century to see why the country felt it was better off going it (relatively) alone.
A Brief History of the Berne Convention
In the late 19th century, the appetite for printed works was growing. Though most nations had some form of copyright law (the Statute of Anne being passed in 1710), those laws did not work across national borders. A printer in one country could print the work of an author from another without permission or payment.
Though countries would sometimes sign copyright treaties, a broader approach was needed. This process was spearheaded by author Victor Hugo, which gives the treaty much of its French influence.
The treaty itself had three basic principles, all of which still apply today:
- Lack of Formalities/Simplicity: Signatories cannot force creators to register their work or include specific notices to qualify for copyright protection. The protection applies once a work is created.
- Minimal Standards for Copyright: Though the treaty does not dictate specific local laws for copyright protection, it requires countries to meet a specific minimum. This includes both the protections offered and the term of those protections.
- Countries Treat Foreign Creators the Same: Finally, that signatories agree to extend the same protections they offer their citizens to foreign creators. As such, a French author filing a lawsuit in the UK would have the same rights as a UK author.
The treaty would go on to be revised some 7 times (IN 1896, 1908, 1914, 1928, 1948 1967 and 1971) and it was amended in 1979. However, more importantly, the treaty grew in terms of signatories. By 1989, well over 120 nations signed the treaty.
However, the United States wasn’t among them. Though the Berne Convention was well on its way to becoming the most important international treaty on copyright, the U.S. was not a part of it. To understand why, you must look at the nature of U.S. copyright law for the bulk of the 20th century.
An Incompatible Law and an Incompatible Ideology
The Copyright Act of 1909 was the first major copyright act the United States enacted after the original signing of the Berne Convention. Theoretically, it was an opportunity for the United States to bring its laws in alignment with the Berne Convention and set the stage for becoming a signatory. However, that was not the route the country went.
Instead, the Copyright Act of 1909 was wholly incompatible with the Berne Convention, providing a much more limited copyright term (28 years plus a 28-year extension), requiring formalities (including both registration and a copyright notice) and did not apply to unpublished works, leaving those matters to state law.
Furthermore, it only applied to certain types of work listed in the law itself. Sound recordings, for example, were not added into the law until 1972. Though it certainly expanded rights when compared to the 1790 act it replaced, it was still a very limited copyright law that represented a country still wanting states, not the federal government, to take much of the lead.
Still, the United States wanted and needed copyright protection on an international scale and it entered into a variety of other treaties, including the Buenos Aires Convention in 1910, which brought together nations from North and South America and the Universal Copyright Convention in 1952, which was similar to the Berne Convention its reach and extension of mutual copyright, but allowed the U.S. to keep its current requirements and terms.
As a result of these efforts, the United States enjoyed many of the benefits of being a member of the Berne Convention but kept its limited term and formality requirements. So, why did it change its mind? That process begins in the 1970s.
Coming On Board
Cracks in this system began to show by the 1970s as new technologies kept requiring revisions and addition to U.S. copyright law. To make matters worse, the United States was struggling to keep up with changes to the Universal Copyright Convention and copyright modernization was necessary.
The United States passed the Copyright Act of 1976, which was the first major copyright act since the 1909 one and was an attempt to modernize U.S. copyright law. The act extended the term to bring it in compliance with the Berne Convention, it relaxed formalities (but kept registration requirements for certain protections) and applied to all works as they were fixed into a tangible medium of expression.
But, as much closer as this was to the Berne Convention standards, it wasn’t perfect. The law did not recognize moral rights, non-commercial rights of the author recognized in other nations, and the registration requirements were a problem. The country wasn’t ready to join the Berne Convention yet.
However, that work began in earnest in 1986, the centennial of the original Berne Convention signing. It was then that President Regan expressed support for joining the Berne Convention. However, it was also acknowledged that doing so would require new legislation.
As such, the country passed the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988, which took effect in March 1989. The act took a minimalist approach to compliance with the Berne Convention standards and implemented only the most basic elements of moral rights and maintained the registration requirement for the country’s citizens (foreign nationals can file a lawsuit in the U.S. without a copyright registration, though are limited in the damages they can collect).
With that law passed, the United States was finally able to join the Berne Convention in 1989, ending a 103-year absence.
To answer the question the title of this articles asks: The United States didn’t join the Berne Convention because its copyright was inherently incompatible with the convention, and it didn’t have enough motivation to overhaul its laws to bring it into compliance. That was especially true since, through other treaties, the nation was able to enjoy many of the benefits of being a Berne member but keep its unique laws.
However, technology changes made that approach untenable, and the United States passed its own copyright act with many Berne elements in it. After that, joining the act was merely a matter of legislating the remaining elements and passing them into law.
But that really isn’t the end of the story. Though the U.S. is a signatory of the Berne Convention now, it still has a registration requirement if you want to enforce your rights in court, making its own citizens jump through hoops other creators don’t, and its application of moral rights is extremely limited. The United States is still very much a nation that wants to enjoy the benefits of the Berne Convention but is wanting to keep its quirks and oddities, no matter how much they harm local creators.
The United States didn’t change its mind and join the Berne Convention, it was forced to by a practical reality and its method of compliance is proof of that. Even today, the United States is dragging its feet on these issues, refusing to ditch antiquated and harmful approaches to copyright, even as the rest of the world moves forward.
This is simply one area where the United States is lagging behind even as it is trying to lead.