Treaty of Wereloe, 15th August 1790

Treaty of Wereloe, 15th August 1790

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Treaty of Wereloe, 15th August 1790

Treaty ending the Russo-Swedish War of 1788-90, restoring the pre-war situation.

Napoleonic Home Page | Books on the Napoleonic Wars | Subject Index: Napoleonic Wars

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848, ended the Mexican-American War in favor of the United States. The war had begun almost two years earlier, in May 1846, over a territorial dispute involving Texas. The treaty added an additional 525,000 square miles to United States territory, including the land that makes up all or parts of present-day Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. Mexico also gave up all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as America’s southern boundary.

Historical Events on August 4

Event of Interest

1772 English poet and artist William Blake aged 14 is first apprenticed to engraver James Basire in London

    Retired British cavalry officer Philip Astley establishes his riding school with performances in London, precursor of the circus French Revolution: The National Constituent Assembly meets and issues the first decrees that abolish centuries of feudalism in France United States Revenue Cutter Service is established to serve as an armed customs enforcement service (becoming the US Coast Guard in 1915) The Treaty of Sistova is signed, ending the Ottoman-Habsburg wars 1st edition of American magazine "The Saturday Evening Post"

Russian Antarctic Expedition

1821 Russian Antarctic expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen returns to Kronshtadt after becoming the 1st to circumnavigate Antarctica

    Battle of Kos is fought between Turks and Greeks Plans for city of Chicago laid out Emigrant ship Cataraqui wrecks in Bass Strait with the loss of 400 lives, only nine survive, Australia's deadliest maritime civil disaster [1] The Hinomaru is established as the official flag to be flown from Japanese ships John Bartlett publishes "Familiar Quotations" US government collects its 1st income tax Land & naval action new Brazos Santiago, Texas British Red Cross Society forms

Event of Interest

1873 Indian Wars: whilst protecting a railroad survey party in Montana, US 7th Cavalry, under Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer, clashes for the 1st time with the Sioux near the Tongue River. 1 man killed on each side.

Catholic Encyclical

1879 Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Aeterni Patris

Event of Interest

1892 Queen Wilhelmina and Emma open Merwede Canal between Amsterdam and the Rhine

Murder of Interest

1892 Sunday school teacher Lizzie Borden's father and stepmother are murdered with an axe in Fall River, Massachusetts Borden is later arrested, tried and acquitted

    Henry A Rucker appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for Georgia An allied expeditionary force, made up of Japanese, Russian, British, French and American troops, sets off from Tientsin for Peking, China, to put down Boxer rebellion The Greenwich foot tunnel under the River Thames opens Giuseppe Sarto elected Pope Pius X, known as the 'pope of the poor and humble' Cardinal Giuseppe Sarto of Venice elected Pope Pius X Tour de France: Lucien Petit-Breton of France beats countryman Gustave Garrigou to win first of 2 Tour victories MLB pitching duel Philadelphia A's Jack Coombs and White Sox Ed Walsh pitch a 0-0 tie in 16 innings WWI: German army shoots Belgian priests and burns down village of Battice German fleet under admiral Souchon fire on Algerian coast WWI: Germany declares war on Belgium Britain declares war on Germany WWI: King Albert I becomes Supreme Commander of Belgian army after German declaration of war

Declaration of War

1914 WWI: Field Marshal Lord Kitchener becomes British Minister of War after British declaration of war on Germany

    US declares neutrality on the outbreak of WWI Denmark and the United States sign a treaty whereby the Danish West Indies, including the Virgin Islands, are to be ceded to the US in 1917 for $25 million The Turks attack the British line at Romani in the northern Sinai (WWI) Pravda calls for the killing of all capitalists, priests and officers

Event of Interest

1918 Adolf Hitler receives the Iron Cross first class for bravery on the recommendation of his Jewish superior, Lieutenant Hugo Gutmann

Event of Interest

1919 Rodin Museum opens in Paris in The hôtel Biron containing works left to the state by the sculptor Auguste Rodin

    Hungarian communist leader Béla Kun flees to Vienna after the Hungarian Soviet Republic is overthrown by the Romanian Army Lizzie Murphy becomes the first female to play against MLB players in a charity exhibition all-stars from New England and AL v Boston Red Sox at Fenway Park

Olympic Gold

1936 American athlete Jesse Owens wins his 2nd gold medal at the Berlin Olympics beats German Luz Long in the long jump final with an Olympic record

    American Helen Stephens runs 11.5 to win the 100m at the Berlin Olympics, beating controversial intersex athlete Stanisława Walasiewicz of Poland Brooklyn Dodgers catcher Mickey Owens becomes 1st MLB player to take 3 foul pop-ups in one inning (3rd) in 11-6 win v NY Giants

Event of Interest

1941 Winston Churchill departs on Prince of Wales to US

Event of Interest

1942 Colonel general Jeremenko arrives in Stalingrad and welcomed by Nikita Khrushchev

    German occupier orders all Dutch homing pigeons killed British premier Winston Churchill travels on the Queen Mary to Canada Soviet units reach suburbs of Orel USAAF bombs Germans in Troina

Event of Interest

1944 Anne Frank arrested in Amsterdam by German Security Police (Grüne Polizei) following a tip-off from an informer who was never identified

Golf Tournament

1945 American golfer Byron Nelson wins Canadian Open at Uplands & Thornhill CC for a record 11th consecutive PGA victory, on way to record season tally of 18

    Red Sox outfielder Tom McBride drives in MLB record tying 6 runs in an inning (4th) during 15-4 win v Washington An earthquake of magnitude 8.0 hits northern Dominican Republic. 100 are killed and 20,000 are left homeless. The Supreme Court of Japan is established American boxer Ike Williams knocks out Bob Montgomery in 6 rounds in Philadelphia to unify the world lightweight title 5 day Southern States filibuster succeeds in maintaining America's poll tax Fanny Blankers-Koen of the Netherlands wins the 80m hurdles in Olympic record 11.2 at the London Olympics 2nd of unprecedented 3 individual track & field gold medals Hungary's Olga Gyarmati wins the first ever Olympic women's long jump competition at the London Games The women's shot put introduced to track & field program at the London Olympics inaugural gold medallist Micheline Ostermeyer of France who also won the women's discus gold An American sweep of the medals in the 110m hurdles at the London Olympics with William Porter taking gold, ahead of Clyde Scott and Craig Dixon

Murder of Interest

1952 Gambling boss Theodore Roe is murdered by the crew of Sam Giancana

    Black families move into Trumbull Park housing project in Chicago New York Yankees Vic Raschi sets MLB record for a pitcher by driving in 7 runs in a 15-0 win v Detroit Boscombe Down 1st flight of supersonic P-1 Lightning The Government of Pakistan approves the National Anthem, written by Hafeez Jullundhry and composed by Ahmed G. Chagla

Event of Interest

1955 Eisenhower authorizes $46 million for construction of CIA headquarters

Native American Policy

Near the beginning of his first term as President, George Washington declared that a just Indian policy was one of his highest priorities, explaining that "The Government of the United States are determined that their Administration of Indian Affairs shall be directed entirely by the great principles of Justice and humanity." 1 The Washington administration's initial policy toward Native Americans was enunciated in June of 1789. Secretary of War Henry Knox explained that the Continental Congress had needlessly provoked Native Americans following the Revolution by insisting on American possession of all territory east of the Mississippi River. Congress had previously argued that by supporting the British during the war Native Americans had forfeited any claim to territory on the western frontier of American settlement. However, this perspective ignored the fact that only a portion of tribes had actually supported the British.

In 1787, the Confederation Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance, opening the Ohio Valley to new American settlement. Members of the Western Lakes Confederacy reacted by utilizing armed resistance to protect their land. These events increased the urgency for Washington to develop a formal method for managing Indian affairs. In referring to the constitutional grant of treaty-making powers to the chief executive&mdashwith the "advice and consent" of the Senate&mdashWashington declared that a similar practice should also apply to agreements with Native Americans. The Senate acceded to the President's wishes and accepted treaties as the basis for conducting Indian relations.

In response, Congress proceeded to approve a treaty with seven northern tribes (the Shawnee, Miami, Ottawa, Chippewa, Iroquois, Sauk, and Fox). This agreement, however, lacked meaningful protection of tribal land. To the northern tribes this ineffectual treaty and the constant intrusion into their lands by droves of settlers meant that the American government had little control over its own citizens. Members of the northern tribes believed it was necessary to deploy force to prevent further incursions.

Washington's desire to protect American citizens led to an American military response. In 1790 and 1791, Washington dispatched armies to confront native forces, and in both instances the Americans were soundly defeated. Responding to these two embarrassing setbacks, Congress authorized a five-thousand man regular army to quell resistance. Led by General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, the Legion inflicted a crushing defeat on the Indian confederation in the Summer of 1794. This decisive battle and the ensuing Treaty of Greenville brought a tentative peace to the northwest in 1795.

Simultaneously, as momentous events in the north unfolded, Washington also faced challenges from the four southern tribes. For the Cherokees and the more distant Choctaws and Chickasaws, Washington sought messages of assurance, friendship, and plans for trade. The formidable Creeks were the fourth southern tribe. Washington regarded the Creek with considerable apprehension because of their disagreement with the state of Georgia's interpretation of three treaties that had been negotiated by that state during the 1780s. These treaties included significant cessions of land from the Creeks to Georgia that the tribe did not recognize.

The Creeks' leader was Alexander McGillivray, a mixed-race chief who spoke fluent English and was a shrewd negotiator. Twenty-eight Creek chiefs led by McGillivray accepted Washington's invitation to travel to New York in the summer of 1790 to negotiate a new treaty. The result was the Treaty of New York which restored to the Creeks some of the lands ceded in the treaties with Georgia, and provided generous annuities for the rest of the land. It also established a policy and process of assimilation called "civilization," aiming to attach tribes to permanent land settlements. Under the policy tribal members would be given "useful domestic animals and implements of husbandry" to encourage them to become "herdsman and cultivators" instead of "remaining in a state as hunters." 2

In August 1790 the Creek chiefs formally approved the Treaty of New York. The Creek chiefs agreed to place themselves under the protection of the United States. In return the United States confirmed the sanctity of the Creek land lying within the boundaries defined by the treaty. However, the Treaty of New York failed to achieve its goals, as the federal government could not stem the relentless incursion of American settlers onto "protected" Indian lands. In a letter to Washington, Knox agonized over the possibility of Indian extermination. He observed that in the most populous areas of the United States, some tribes had already become extinct. "If the same causes continue," he explained, "the same effects will happen and in a short period the idea of an Indian on this side of the Mississippi will only be found in the page of the historian." 3

Washington and Knox sought to provide safe havens for native tribes while also assimilating them into American society. Washington and Knox believed that if they failed to at least make an effort to secure Indian land, their chances of convincing Native Americans to transform their hunting culture to one of farming and herding would be undermined. As the two reluctantly came to recognize, however, it was the settlers pouring into the western frontier that controlled the national agenda regarding Native Americans and their land. By 1796 even Washington had concluded that holding back the avalanche of settlers had become nearly impossible, writing that "I believe scarcely anything short of a Chinese wall, or a line troops, will restrain Land jobbers, and the encroachment of settlers upon the Indian territory." 4

Richard Harless
George Mason University

2. Charles J. Kappler, Indians Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, Treaties (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904), 2:28.

3. "Henry Knox to George Washington, 7 July 1789," The Papers of George Washington: Presidential Series, eds. W. W. Abbot and Dorothy Twohig, 2:139.

1790 to 1799

February 23. Jefferson's daughter Martha (Patsy) marries her second cousin Thomas Mann Randolph at Monticello. They live at Edgehill, an estate two miles from Monticello.

March 21, 1790

Jefferson assumes the duties of secretary of state in New York City, where the federal government is located. At first he works cordially with Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, helping to reduce Southern opposition to Hamilton's plan for federal assumption of state debts in return for the selection of a site on the Potomac River for the proposed capital city.

Detail of Alexander Hamilton. created/published c[between 1900 and 1912]. Photograph of painting by John Trumbull at Yale School of Fine Arts.

July 4, 1790

Jefferson submits to Congress his Report on the Subject of Measures, Weights, and Coins, an effort to establish uniform standards for coinage and weight measures. Jefferson is particularly excited by the discovery that the established weight for the American version of the Spanish dollar equals an ounce. He develops an ideal system of equivalencies between money and weight standards, but it is at odds with that of Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton, whose proposal is based on current business practices.

February 15, 1791

Jefferson sends President George Washington, his Opinion of the Constitutionality of the Bill for Establishing a National Bank. Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton argues that the Constitution provides implied powers to establish a Bank. Jefferson disagrees, and he sees Hamilton's plans for a national bank, the development of manufactures, and other related financial policies as creating conditions for the accumulation of the kind of power and corruption identified with the courts and monarchies of Europe.

May 8, 1791

Jefferson explains to President Washington his involvement in the publication of Thomas Paine's new book The Rights of Man. Jefferson had written an endorsement published in the preface, describing current "heresies" against true republicanism, and readers correctly assume that the remarks are aimed at John Adams. In the fall, newspaper wars ensue from the incident.

May-June 1791

Jefferson and James Madison embark from New York on a botanical tour of the northern states. Hamilton and his allies interpret the trip as a politically motivated journey for sounding out and recruiting potential allies in the growing conflict between Republicans and Federalists.

October 31, 1791

Philip Freneau publishes the first issue of the National Gazette in the current capital city, Philadelphia. He has established the newspaper at the urging of Jefferson, who also gives him a clerkship in the State Department. The newspaper will represent the views of Jefferson and his supporters, who oppose the Federalist policies of a national bank, an alliance with Great Britain, and the encouragement of manufactures. Hamilton and his supporters write for the pro-Federalist Gazette of the United States.

May 23, 1792

Jefferson sends President Washington a lengthy letter detailing his objections to Treasury Secretary Hamilton's programs. Washington recopies the letter himself and sends it to Hamilton for his response without disclosing its author. Dismayed at the political factions organizing around Jefferson and Hamilton, Washington writes each a letter urging cooperation and reconciliation. To Jefferson, Washington writes, "How unfortunate, and how much is it to be regretted then, that whilst we are encompassed on all sides with avowed enemies and insidious friends, that internal dissensions should be harrowing and tearing our vitals." He writes similarly to Hamilton. George Washington to Thomas Jefferson, August 23, 1792 | George Washington to Alexander Hamilton, August 26, 1792

Fall 1792

In one of the first openly partisan electoral contests, George Clinton is supported by Jefferson's allies for the office of governor of New York, while Hamiltonians support John Jay. Clinton wins. Officials canvassing votes void some of those for Jay.

January 3, 1793

Jefferson writes to William Short, who is now United States chargé d'affaires in Paris, reproving him for expressing dismay at the increasing violence of the French Revolution. Lafayette has been arrested for treason and will spend five years in jail, and others of Jefferson's Paris acquaintance have been beheaded. While expressing sorrow at the losses, Jefferson argues that such sacrifices of "innocent blood" are a small price to pay for the liberty he believes will follow the excesses of the Revolution. Thomas Jefferson to William Short, January 3, 1793.

April 28, 1793

As Secretary of State, Jefferson writes an opinion for President Washington arguing that acceptance of the new French minister to the United States, Edmond Genet, is an acceptance of the new revolutionary government in Paris, led by the Girondins. Jefferson argues that the current French government is continuous with that of Louis XVI, with which the United States made a formal treaty of alliance in 1778 during the American Revolution. Hamilton argues that the treaty and diplomatic relationship were with the monarchy of Louis XVI and ended when Louis was dethroned, imprisoned, and executed on January 21, 1793, and that the relationship must be renegotiated.

Mid-August 1793

Jefferson becomes disillusioned with Genet. As Secretary of State, he writes a justification for the U. S. government to request his recall as minister from France. Since his arrival in Philadelphia on May 16, Genet has compromised U. S. neutrality in the conflict between France and Great Britain. He has recruited American seamen and ships in privateering ventures and has attempted to organize a land expedition against Spanish-held territories in the Southwest. Washington strongly opposes any involvement in the European conflict and criticizes private political societies, the Democratic-Republican clubs, that have sprung up in the United States in support of France. Genet plans to appeal to Americans over the head of President Washington. Jefferson concludes that he has gone too far. In mid-August, the Jacobins gain control of the French government and many Girondists are imprisoned. Although recalled, Genet, a Girondin, dares not return to France, and he eventually receives asylum in the United States, settles on a farm in upstate New York, and marries Cornelia Clinton, the daughter of Governor George Clinton.

November 16, 1793

Jefferson writes to Eli Whitney, telling him that he approves of his efforts to win a patent for his cotton gin. Jefferson to Eli Whitney, November 16, 1793.

December 1793

After a visit home to Monticello, Jefferson returns to Philadelphia, where one of the worst yellow fever epidemics of the century is raging. Jefferson resigns his position as secretary of state, effective December 31.

Winter-Summer 1794

Jefferson returns to Monticello and introduces a seven-step crop rotation plan to restore the soil, long depleted by tobacco, on his lands in Albemarle and Bedford Counties, Virginia. He begins borrowing money from William Short to maintain a nailery on Mulberry Row at Monticello. There he supervises the manufacture of nails by his teenage slaves, among whom are Wormley Hughes, Burwell Colbert, and Joe Fossett. He establishes a sawmill and devotes himself to the renovation of Monticello. In 1799, Jefferson will return to the cultivation of the cash crop, tobacco, because of his mounting debts. Thomas Jefferson's design for a plow, ca. 1794.

July 1794

Jefferson learns of the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania against the excise tax on whiskey, the area's main form of grain export. The excise tax is part of Treasury Secretary Hamilton's plans for funding the federal assumption of state debts from the American Revolution. George Washington and Hamilton march with the federal and militia armies against the rebellion, which soon dissolves.

October 1795

James Madison visits Monticello to discuss the Jay Treaty with Jefferson. They are both opposed to its ratification. The treaty, negotiated with Great Britain by John Jay, addresses issues left unresolved since the 1783 Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolution. The Jay Treaty provides for compensation to British creditors from American debtors, many of whom are Virginians, and it arranges for the evacuation of British troops still occupying northwestern posts in the United States. However, it fails to address the all-important issue of American trading rights, especially in the British West Indies, and leaves the problem of the impressment of American seamen by the British navy unresolved. The treaty is immensely unpopular and furthers the development of party politics. The Senate narrowly ratifies it in April 1796.

February 5, 1796

Jefferson frees James Hemings, as promised in a written agreement made September 15, 1793. The agreement promised Hemings his freedom if he trained a replacement in the art of French cooking. Having gained his freedom, Hemings moves to Philadelphia, but returns to Monticello in 1801 to work for wages as Jefferson's chef. He stays only briefly, however, and several months later apparently commits suicide at the age of thirty-six. The September 15, 1793, agreement can be found in Jefferson's papers at the Massachusetts Historical Society.

April 24, 1796

Jefferson writes to Philip Mazzei in Tuscany. Mazzei is an Italian merchant, physician, and writer, and a former neighbor in Virginia, who had advised him on how to grow grapes and olives on his land in Virginia. In this letter Jefferson writes that an "Anglican monarchical & aristocratical party has sprung up" in the United States whose aim is to return the country to "forms" of British government. He refers to great heroes of the Revolution, "Samsons in the field & Solomons in the council," who have "gone over to these heresies." A newspaper in Florence obtains a transcription of the letter, which is translated back into English and published in the United States on May 2, 1797 in Noah Webster's Federalist newspaper Minerva. George Washington assumes that Jefferson includes him among the "Samsons" and ends all correspondence with him.

December 7, 1796

Jefferson is elected vice president, having received the second largest number of electoral votes. John Adams is elected president.

March 4, 1797

Jefferson is inaugurated as vice president of the United States and begins gathering information on rules of parliamentary practice. As vice president, Jefferson presides over the Senate.

October 13, 1797

Jefferson's daughter Mary (Polly) marries her cousin John Wayles Eppes.

June-July 1798

Congress passes what are collectively known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. These acts, the Naturalization Act, the Alien Act, the Sedition Act, and the Alien Enemies Act, are passed in the midst of a quasi-war with France and heightened public criticism of foreign policy. Americans learn of the "XYZ Affair," in which the French foreign minister Talleyrand attempts to extort money from American envoys sent to negotiate a reduction in hostilities between the United States and the French government under Napoleon Bonaparte. Popular outcry focuses on inaction by the Adams administration, which is striving to avoid a costly war. The Sedition Act, making it illegal to criticize the government or its officials publicly, is the most controversial of the Acts.

September- October 1798

Jefferson and James Madison consult on how to block the Alien and Sedition Acts at the state level. Jefferson, who is still vice president, privately drafts resolutions against the Acts and has them introduced into the Kentucky legislature. Madison drafts similar resolutions for the Virginia legislature. In November the Kentucky legislature passes Jefferson's resolutions declaring the Acts void, and in December the Virginia legislature passes Madison's, declaring the Acts unconstitutional.

History of the Courts – The Ellsworth Court, 1796-1800

Rutledge was rejected and Washington named Patrick Henry to the Court. Now an old man, Henry declined to serve. Finally, Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut accepted Washington’s offer to become Chief Justice.

The Jay Treaty continued to infuriate Americans who thought it too favorable to Britain. Feeling still ran high in 1796 as the Court reviewed the case of Ware v. Hylton. Many British subjects had claims against Americans from contracts made before the revolution, and treaty provisions required their payment.

In his only argument before the Supreme Court, John Marshall defended a Virginia law abolishing payments to British creditors he lost. A treaty of the United States must override the law of any state, ruled the Justices. The Nation pledged its word — it must keep faith — a landmark decision that has held for two centuries.

But two raucous choruses were shouting abuse at each other when the Court met at Philadelphia for the last time, in August 1800. The government was moving to a new site by the Potomac, where no one had ever planned a judiciary building. In 1801 Congress loaned the Court a little ground-floor room in the unfinished Capitol it crowded the Justices for seven years.

Changing capitals was easier than changing the government. With vast excitement, the people were tussling over an issue the Constitution ignored painfully, nervously, they were working out a two-party system.

Against the Federalists, “the good, the wise, and the rich,” the party of Washington and Adams, stood the admirers of Vice President Thomas Jefferson — “the Man of the People.” Calling themselves Republicans, the Jeffersonians wanted to give the people more of a voice in government they praised the ideals of the French Revolution, and they had nothing but distrust for Britain.

During John Adams’s term as President, the French insulted the administration from abroad and the Republicans criticized it at home. Federalists had run the new government from the first. They feared attacks on themselves as attacks on the new Constitution. Hearing French accents in every critical sentence, they passed the Sedition Act of 1798.

The law endangered anyone who spreads “false, scandalous and malicious” words against the government or its officers, to bring them “into contempt or disrepute.” It would expire with Adams’ term of office on March 3, 1801.

Finding fault with men in office was already an old American custom, writes one historian “indeed, it had become an essential part of the pursuit of happiness.” Supreme Court Justices presided at trials on circuit and sent Republican journalists to jail for sedition. But the Republicans kept on criticizing, and shouting “Tyranny!” The Federalist answered with furious cries of “Treason!”

In the 1800 elections the “Lock Jaw” Federalists were routed — “Mad Tom” Jefferson would be President, and his followers would control Congress.

Gloomily, the Federalists hoped that judges could save the Constitution from these “radicals.” Chief Justice Ellsworth was ailing he resigned. Jay refused to serve again. So Adams gave his Secretary of State, John Marshall, to the Supreme Court. He forced a reluctant Senate to confirm the appointment.

Representative Matthew Lyon of Vermont, arrested under the Sedition Act of
1798, attacking a fellow congressman

General Records of the Department of Justice [DOJ]

Established: Effective July 1, 1870, by an act of June 22, 1870 (16 Stat. 162).

Predecessor Agencies:

Finding Aids: Marion Johnson, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the General Records of the Department of Justice, PI 194 (1981) updated version in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.

Related Records:
Record copies of publications of the Department of Justice in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
Records of the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, RG 10.
Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, RG 65.
Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, RG 85.
Records of U.S. Attorneys and Marshals, RG 118.
Records of the Bureau of Prisons, RG 129.
Records of the Office of Alien Property, RG 131.
Records of the Drug Enforcement Administration, RG 170.
Records of the Bureau of War Risk Litigation, RG 190.
Records of the Office of the Pardon Attorney, RG 204.
Records of the Solicitor of the Treasury, RG 206.
Records of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, RG 423.
Records of Independent Counsels, RG 449.
Records of the Watergate Special Prosecution Force, RG 460.

60.2 Records of the Office of the Attorney General

History: Established by the Judiciary Act (1 Stat. 73), September 24, 1789. Named to head the Justice Department upon its creation, 1870. See 60.1.

60.2.1 General records

Textual Records: Legal opinions, 1790-1870. Land title opinions, 1841-70. Letters received, 1813-70, with registers, 1809-70. General letter books, 1818-70. Letters sent, 1793-1870. Instruction books, 1867-70. Reports to the President, 1853-58. Supreme Court case papers, ca. 1809-70. Accounting records, 1833- 70. Personal papers of attorneys general, 1832-68.

Microfilm Publications: M699, M701, T326, T412.

60.2.2 Records relating to California land claims

History: By terms of the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848 (9 Stat. 922), title to all public land in California passed from Mexico to the United States. By an act of March 3, 1851 (9 Stat. 631), a three-member Board of Commissioners was appointed to settle California land claims. The board completed its work in March 1856, after which time contested claims were litigated in federal courts.

Textual Records: Dockets, 1854-58. Case files, 1853-70. Transcripts of proceedings before the Board of Commissioners, 1851-56. Correspondence, 1853-70. Accounting records, 1851-70.

Photographs (105 images): Photographic exhibits of documents in the Mexican archives relating to certain land claims, n.d. See Also 60.22.

Related Records: Claims records of the Board of Commissioners in the Records of the Bureau of Land Management, RG 49.

Subject Access Terms: Hartman, Isaac Jouan, Auguste.

60.2.3 Records of the Solicitor of the Court of Claims

History: Position of Solicitor established by an act of February 24, 1855 (10 Stat. 612). Abolished by act of June 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 75), and functions transferred to the Attorney General. Responsibility for representing the government before the Court of Claims has been exercised since 1937 by the Court of Claims Section, Claims Division.

Textual Records: Letters received, 1855-69. Letters sent, 1857- 62. Case files, 1855-70.

Related Records: Records of the Court of Claims Section (Justice), RG 205.

60.3 General Records of the Department of Justice
1849-1989 (bulk 1870-1981)

History: Established under the Attorney General by an act of June 22, 1870 (16 Stat. 162). To it were transferred the Solicitor of the Treasury, and law officers of the State and Navy Departments and the Bureau of Internal Revenue and functions formerly vested in the Department of the Interior, including supervision of the accounts of U.S. attorneys and marshals, and control of the judiciary fund.

60.3.1 Dockets, lists, and opinions

Textual Records: Miscellaneous dockets, 1885-1925. Criminal case dockets for Wyoming and Arkansas, 1910-28. List of "closed bank cases," 1919-23. Letters requesting opinions, 1871-97. Opinion books, 1870-1934. Title opinion books, 1870-1937. Land title letter opinions, 1937.

60.3.2 Letters received

Textual Records: Letters received from the President, Executive departments, Congress, judicial districts, state officials, and the general public ("Source-Chronological Files"), 1871-84 (312 ft.), with registers and indexes. Letters received and filed numerically by subject ("Year Files"), 1884-1904 (649 ft.), with registers and indexes. Letters received relating to judiciary accounts, 1849-89, with registers. Index to records relating to the administration of judicial districts, 1884-1912. Card indexes, 1886-1912. Letters received concerning the Columbian Exposition, 1893.

Maps (100 items): Exhibits and other enclosures to Year Files, 1884-1903. See Also 60.18.

Microfilm Publications: M940, M947, M970, M996, M1250, M1345.

Subject Access Terms: Bell telephone patent case Chinese Exclusion Act Civil Rights Act of 1875 Credit Mobilier customs cases Enforcement Act of 1870 Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 neutrality legislation peonage polygamy Reconstruction Star Route manipulators Walker, William Whiskey Ring.

60.3.3 Letters sent

Textual Records: General and miscellaneous letter books, 1870- 1913 (74 ft.). Instruction books, 1870-1904. Letters concerning judiciary expenses, 1849-84 and internal revenue compromise cases, 1870-1903. Executive and congressional letter books, 1871- 1904. Telegrams, 1882-87. Letters concerning expositions, 1882- 1900 circuit and district court suits, 1889-1905 French spoliation claims, 1899-1902 and bankruptcy, 1904-5. Letters sent to judges and clerks, 1874-1904 and to marshals, 1918-19.

Microfilm Publications: M699-M703.

60.3.4 Central files and related records

Textual Records: Straight numerical files, 1904-74 (2,772 ft.). Classified subject files, 1914-43, 1945-65, 1968-71, 1974-89 (14,109 ft., including subject class 23, liquor violations, classes 26, 31, and 130, violations of the Dyer Act, Mann Act, and Federal Housing Act, and litigation case files concerning Nazi saboteurs and efforts to deport Harry Bridges). General index, 1928-51 (2,424 ft.). "Old Subject Index," 1918-76. "New Subject Index," 1930-81. Index to case files of individuals who renounced U.S. citizenship, 1942-60. Miscellaneous card indexes, 1908-21. Record slips, 1910- 67 (3,623 ft.). Microfilm copy of indexes, 1917-40 (344 rolls). Telegrams, 1930-53. Judicial district administration files, 1910- 69.

Maps (5,000 items): Enclosures to straight numerical files, 1904- 37 (1,000 items) and to classified subject files, 1908-49 (4,000 items). See Also 60.18.

Sound Recordings (592 items): English-language radio broadcasts from Berlin over German Radio Broadcasting Corp., 1941-45, by Herbert John Bergman, Douglas Chandler, Frederick Wilhelm Kaltenbach, and Robert Best, used during their trials, 1947-49. See Also 60.21.

Subject Access Terms: Anchorage Joint Operating Agreement Red Cross White Slave Act.

60.3.5 Miscellaneous records

Textual Records: Administrative orders, circulars, and memorandums, 1856-1977. Records relating to a study of the use of federal force in strikes, race riots, and other internal disturbances ("Glasser File"), ca. 1938. Source material and drafts relating to the preparation of an administrative history of the DOJ during the Johnson Administration, 1963-68. Microfilm copy of evidence ("Pumpkin Papers") used in U.S. v. Alger Hiss, 1948-51 (5 rolls). Miscellaneous reference materials and working papers, 1870-1930. Planning, program, and budget files, 1965-70.

Microfilm Publications: M1491.

Photographs (263 images): Documents reproduced from the "Pumpkin Papers," and used in U.S. v. Alger Hiss, 1948-51. See Also 60.22.

60.4 Records of Department of Justice Officials

60.4.1 Records of the Attorney General

Textual Records: Confidential and semiofficial letters sent, 1877-1901. Reports and exhibits of judgments in circuit and district court cases, 1890-1914. Letters sent by the Attorney General's private secretary, 1895-1900.

60.4.2 Records of the Special Executive Assistant

Textual Records: Subject files, 1933-40. Speeches, 1933-39. Correspondence and other records relating to a conference on crime, 1934 and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1935-39. "Decisions on Federal Rules of Civil Procedures," 1938-40. Miscellaneous records, 1924-39. Personal papers of department official Justin Miller, 1923-36 and Special Executive Assistant Gordon Dean, 1934-37.

60.4.3 Records of the Deputy Attorney General

Textual Records: Appointment files, Supreme Court Justices, ca. 1930-71. Endorsements, protests, and related papers concerning candidates for the Supreme Court, 1967-70. Federal judgeship candidates' files, 1960-72.

Related Records: Additional records relating to appointments under 60.17.

Subject Access Terms: Black, Hugo L. Burton, Harold H. Cardozo, Benjamin N. Frankfurter, Felix Goldberg, Arthur J. Harlan, John M. Jackson, Robert H. Hinton, Sherman Murphy, Frank Rutledge, Wiley N. Vinson, Fred M., Warren, Earl Whittaker, Charles E.

60.4.4 Records of the Assistant Attorney General for the Spanish
Treaty Claims Commission

History: An Assistant Attorney General in charge of Spanish treaty claims was established by the act creating the Spanish Treaty Claims Commission (31 Stat. 877), March 2, 1901. The commission received and adjudicated claims of U.S. citizens against Spain resulting from the Spanish-American War. The Assistant Attorney General defended the claims, and the interests of the United States, before the commission. Upon submission of a final report, May 2, 1910, the commission ceased to exist.

Textual Records: Dockets, 1901-2. Order books, 1901-9. Record of pleadings, 1903-7. Record of proceedings, 1910. Correspondence with the Department of State, 1901-4. Letters received and sent by the Assistant Attorney General, 1901-10. Correspondence of special agent Maddin Summers, 1902-6. Letters received from attorneys and agents in Cuba and Spain, 1902-10. Lists of cases, 1902-9. Reference materials, 1870-1910. "Final Report of William Wallace Brown, Assistant Attorney General," 1910.

Subject Access Terms: Cuban insurrection Fuller, William E. Maine, U.S.S., destruction of Taylor, Hannis.

60.4.5 Records of the Solicitor General

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1909-10. Desk file of Assistant Attorney General La Rue Brown, 1918.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Solicitor General and the Solicitor of the Treasury in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

60.4.6 Records of the Legal Counsel

Textual Records: Selected records relating to the John F. Kennedy assassination, 1963-78.

60.4.7 Records of other officials

Textual Records: Records of Special Assistant David D. Caldwell, 1894-1948. Subject files of executive assistants to the Attorney General relating to U.S. judicial districts, 1930-79.

60.5 Records of the Administrative Division

60.5.1 Records of the Chief Clerk

Textual Records: Administrative correspondence, 1882-1917.

60.5.2 Records of the Disbursing Clerk

Textual Records: Appropriation books, 1870-80, 1905-24. Payrolls, 1870-1907. Record of disbursements and appropriations, 1898-1907. Record of vouchers, 1872-79. Record of salary payments to court officials in Alaska, 1902-9. Quarterly and monthly accounts current, 1870-1907.

60.5.3 Records of the General Agent

History: Appointed in 1877 to administer funds for the prosecution of federal crimes, including violations of statutes concerning trade with Indians. By 1882, duties included conducting investigations, administering prisons and prisoners, and supervising federal agents and examiners. In 1895, became responsible for constructing and maintaining federal prisons. Departmental accounting functions centralized in the Division of Accounts, established under the General Agent, October 1, 1894. By order of the Attorney General, October 1, 1907, position of General Agent abolished, with functions divided among Chief Examiner, Superintendent of Prisons and Prisoners, and Division of Accounts. Offices of Chief Examiner and Superintendent of Prisons and Prisoners evolved into Federal Bureau of Investigation and Bureau of Prisons, respectively. Title "General Agent" revived in 1922 for the head of the Division of Accounts, which became the Accounts Branch, pursuant to DOJ Circular 4036, August 5, 1948.

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1877-1901, 1922-23. Letters to the Attorney General, 1882-93. Letters sent relating to prisoners ("The Criminal Record"), 1881-85. Miscellaneous letters sent, 1882-1907. Records relating to examiners, including instructions, 1882-1907, and reports and correspondence, 1877-1907. Letters from the general agent, 1904-7. Letters received concerning accounts of U.S. attorneys, 1883-86. Documents relating to post office contracts, 1878-82. Records concerning charges against U.S. marshals in Alabama, 1883 and against court officers, 1887- 89. Records relating to prisons, 1879-81, and prisoners, 1879-84, 1899-1906. Records of the Division of Accounts, including register of "leases approved," 1872-94 returns of fees and expenses of U.S. marshals, 1896-1912 letters sent to U.S. attorneys and marshals, 1896-1907 and reports, correspondence, and administrative files of the Examiners' Unit, 1907-34.

Photographs (41 images): U.S. penitentiaries in Atlanta, GA, and Leavenworth, KS, n.d. See Also 60.22.

Subject Access Terms: Albany Penitentiary California State Prison Cameron, Brewster Detroit House of Correction Kings County Penitentiary (NY) New York Insane Asylum New York State Prison Nightingale, J.W. Onandaga County Jail (Syracuse, NY) Star Route fraud cases Utah Penitentiary Wiegard, E.B.

60.5.4 Records of the Statistical Section

Textual Records: Correspondence concerning submission of docket reports, 1932-34. Reports on judicial statistics, 1931-39.

60.6 Records of the Antitrust Division

Textual Records: Records of Special Assistant to the Attorney General Blackburn Esterline, including commerce court case files, 1911-23 case files relating to interstate commerce, 1914-22 miscellaneous papers on interstate commerce cases, 1916-17 letter books, 1911-16, including a personal letter book, 1913-14 and a grand jury docket for the western district of New York, 1922-26. Miscellaneous case exhibits, 1910-39. Files of special assistant David D. L'Esperance, 1922-25, relating to the railway strike of 1922 and of special assistant R. McDonald Gray, 1938- 42, relating to an investigation of the Philadelphia baking industry.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Antitrust Division in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

60.7 Records of the Patent Section, Civil Division

Textual Records: Claims files relating to patent interchange agreements, 1942-51, with index. Minutes of the British-American Joint Patent Interchange Committee, 1942-46. Subject files, 1942- 48.

Related Records: Records of the Joint British-American Patent Interchange Committee in RG 43, Records of International Conferences, Commissions, and Expositions. Records of the Interdepartmental Patent Interchange Committee in RG 353, Records of Interdepartmental and Intradepartmental Committees (State Department).

60.8 Records of the Civil Rights Division

History: Established by order of the Attorney General, December 9, 1957. Enforces provisions of civil rights and voting rights statutes.

Textual Records: Records of Assistant Attorney General W. Wilson White, 1958-59 Acting Assistant Attorney General Joseph M.F. Ryan, Jr., 1958-60 Assistant Attorney General Burke Marshall, 1961-65 Deputy Assistant Attorney General St. John Barrett, 1965-67 and Deputy Assistant Attorney General David L. Norman, 1969-73. Docket cards of the Criminal Section, 1969-87. Indexes to litigation case files, 1946-84 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission case files, 1979-80 and election law violation case files, 1928-72.

60.9 Records of the Claims Division

60.9.1 Records relating to the defense of patent claims before
the War Claims Arbiter

History: Office of War Claims Arbiter established by an act of March 10, 1928 (45 Stat. 254), to determine fair compensation due German, Austrian, and Hungarian nationals whose patents or applications for patents had been seized during World War I by the Alien Property Custodian.

Textual Records: Minutes, memorandums, orders, and decisions, 1928-31. Letters to claimants' attorneys and others, 1928-30. Correspondence with the War and Navy Departments concerning patents, 1929-31. Correspondence concerning settlements, 1930-31, and policy questions, 1930 and with claimants' counsel, 1929-31. Requests for alien property custodian reports, 1928-29. Staff memorandums, 1929-31. Records relating to settlements and awards, 1929-31. Legal files and exhibits, 1928-31. Lists and other records concerning claimants' representatives, 1929. List of cases, 1928-29. Case files, 1928-31 (72 ft.).

Finding Aids: F. Hardee Allen and Thayer Boardman, comps., "Preliminary Checklist of the Records of the Claims Division of the Department of Justice, 1928-31, relating to the Defense of Patent Claims Before the War Claims Arbiter under the Settlement of the War Claims Act of 1928," PC 24 (1945).

60.9.2 Other records

Textual Records: Records of special assistant Howard W. Ameli, 1920-28. Files of special assistant W.S. Ward, 1918-35, relating primarily to U.S. v. J.L. Phillips et al. Files of attorney Brice Toole, ca. 1915-47, relating to the Albert Jensen German ships cases. Files of special assistant Alexander Holtzoff, 1920-30, relating to the Textile Allowance, C.P. Goerz American Optical Company, and Atlantic Communication Company cases. Files of attorney William W. Scott relating to the sale of surplus government supplies and equipment after World War I, 1929-32. Miscellaneous case records, 1902-25.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Assistant Attorney General for the Court of Claims in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

60.10 Records of the Criminal Division
1925-30, 1963, 1968-87

60.10.1 General records

Textual Records: Indexes to litigation case files, 1930-87. Employee clearances index, 1940-85. Records of Special Assistant to the Attorney General Forrest A. Harness, relating primarily to the American Bond and Mortgage Company cases, 1925-30. Records relating to investigations of the Carter Warehouse and Billy Carter Gas Station, 1976-79.

60.10.2 Records of the General Litigation and Legal Advice

Textual Records: Records relating to custody of the original photograph by Mary A. Moorman (November 22, 1963) of President John F. Kennedy's limousine and the "Grassy Knoll," Dallas, TX and of sound recordings of the assassination (described below), during the House Select Committee on Assassinations investigation and while being analyzed by a scientific panel headed by Norman F. Ramsey, Harvard University, 1979-82.

Sound Recordings (26 items): Assassination of President Kennedy, consisting of Dallas Police Department Channel I and Channel II recordings, November 22, 1963 (15 items). Murder of Lee Harvey Oswald by Jack Ruby, consisting of Dallas Police Department Channel II recordings (10 items) and radio station WFAA sound tape of the shooting (1 item), November 24, 1963. See Also 60.21.

60.10.3 Records of the Organized Crime and Racketeering Section

Textual Records: Typescript of Joseph Valachi's handwritten autobiography, "The Real Thing," 1963.

60.10.4 Records of the Internal Security Section

Textual Records: Records of the Inter-Divisional Information Unit, including organizational records, 1968-76 correspondence, 1968-76 weekly summary incident reports, 1968-74 and subject files, 1969-76.

60.11 Records of the High Cost of Living Division

History: Established 1919, pursuant to amendments to the Food Control Act (Lever Act) of 1917. Terminated 1921, after the Lever Act had been declared unconstitutional.

60.11.1 General records

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1919-20. Memorandums, 1917-20. Lists of special assistants, 1920. Records relating to the validity of the Food Control Act, 1919-20 and to Food Control Act cases, 1920-21. Reports, 1919-20. Circulars, 1919-20. General correspondence, 1920. Minutes of meetings with businessmen, 1920. Press statements, 1919-20. Miscellaneous information file, 1919- 20. General office file of J.G. Weatherly, Special Food Control Accountant, 1919.

Finding Aids: F. Hardee Allen, comp., "Preliminary Checklist of the High Cost of Living Records of the Department of Justice," PC 11 (1943).

Subject Access Terms: Figg, Howard E.

60.11.2 Records relating to the District of Columbia

Textual Records: Correspondence of the Fair Price Committee, 1919-20. Minutes of the Fair Price Advisory Board, 1920. Meat campaign and price files, 1920. Commodity price file, 1920. Profiteering file, 1920. Letters sent concerning profiteering charges, 1920. Meat reports, 1920. Reports on prices, 1920.

60.12 Records of the Lands Division
1917-26, 1936-40

60.12.1 General records

Textual Records: Office files of Assistant Attorney General Stephen W. Williams concerning land cases, 1917-26.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Land and Natural Resources Division in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

60.12.2 Records of the Birmingham, AL, Field Office

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Administrative file, reports, correspondence, and an attorney's file, 1936-40. Correspondence and other records concerning land acquisition for New Deal projects in Alabama ("Projects File"), 1936-40. Records concerning settlements of land purchases ("Settlements File"), and condemnations ("Condemnation File"), 1936-40. Records relating to proceeds of land sales ("Distribution File"), 1936- 40, and to the payment of taxes on land purchased by the government ("Tax File"), 1936-40. Forest Service and War Department case files, 1936-40. Final opinions, 1936-40. Index to cases, 1936-40. Bulletins, 1938-39.

60.13 Records of the Tax Division

Textual Records: Records of Assistant Attorney General Louis Oberdorfer, 1961-75.

60.14 Records of the War Division

History: Established by Attorney General's Order 2507, suppl. 14, May 19, 1942, to facilitate departmental work in areas of war planning, alien enemy control, and alien property control. Consisted initially of Special War Policies Unit (SWPU), Alien Enemy Control Unit, and Alien Property Unit, supplemented shortly thereafter by a War Frauds Unit. In reorganization of August 28, 1943, War Frauds Unit transferred to Criminal Division SWPU abolished and functions transferred to Criminal Division, except for Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense (retained in Latin American Section), administration of Foreign Agents Registration Act (in Foreign Agents Registration Section), and federal-state relations work (in Federal-State Relations Section) and Economic Warfare Section created to handle newly assigned responsibility for collecting industrial information for the Office of Economic Warfare. Division abolished December 28, 1945.

60.14.1 General records of the Special War Policies Unit

History: Neutrality Laws Unit established in Office of the Attorney General, April 1940, and subsequently redesignated Special Defense Unit. Further redesignated SWPU and assigned to newly established War Division, 1942. Abolished in divisional reorganization of August 28, 1943, and superseded by Latin American, Alien Enemy Control, and Alien Property Sections.

Textual Records: Subject file, 1940-45. War policy miscellaneous file, 1940-46. Office files, 1940-44.

60.14.2 Records of the Latin American Section

History: Established as a partial successor to SWPU, August 28, 1943. Acted as the technical legal staff of U.S. representatives on the Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense (also known as the Inter-American Advisory Committee for Political Defense), an advisory body to the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics. Terminated with War Division, December 28, 1945.

Textual Records: Reports and other records relating to the consultative visit to the United States, 1943-44. Country file, 1943-45 (384 ft.). Subject file, 1942-45 (555 ft.). Reference materials, 1940-45. Resolutions of the Emergency Advisory Committee for Political Defense, 1942-43. Administrative file, 1942-45. Records relating to the Inter-Departmental Security Service Committee, 1942-45.

Related Records: Records relating to the Inter-American Advisory Committee for Political Defense in RG 43, Records of International Conferences, Commissions, and Expositions. Committee reports, included with Pan American Union Governing Board minutes and Director General annual reports, in Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

Subject Access Terms: De Caprilles, Miguel A. Knapp, Lawrence A. Sanders, William Spaeth, Carl B.

60.14.3 Records of the Economic Warfare Section

History: Economic Warfare Unit established in Antitrust Division, 1942, to collect and disseminate information on enemy-controlled industrial operations. Transferred to War Division pursuant to DOJ reorganization, August 28, 1943, and redesignated Economic Warfare Section. Abolished June 30, 1945.

Textual Records: Central correspondence, 1940-44. Subject files, 1942-45 (94 ft.), including reports, intercepted messages, and copies of business records of foreign and domestic firms.

Subject Access Terms: Bata Shoe Company I.G. Farben-industrie International Business Machines Mitsubishi Group Mitsui Group Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc. Universal Oil Products Company.

60.15 Records of Other Department of Justice Organizations
1918-27, 1930-43, 1964-88

60.15.1 Records of the War Emergency Division

History: Established informally to conduct DOJ wartime activities, including control of enemy aliens, trading, sabotage, treason and sedition, conscription, and protection of factories and communication facilities. Abolished May 31, 1919.

Textual Records: Dockets relating to Presidential warrants for the arrest of enemy aliens, 1918-19.

60.15.2 Records of the War Transactions Section

History: Established July 20, 1922, by order of the Attorney General, retroactive to May 22, 1922. Investigated and prosecuted alleged frauds committed against the United States in connection with war contracts. Abolished June 30, 1926.

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1922-24. Section historical report, 1923-24. Records of Director Paul Shipman Andrews, including an office file, 1924-25, and a case book, 1924. Legal files relating to the prosecution of war contract cases, 1923-25. Minutes and other records of the Joint Board of Survey, 1923-25. General records of the Quartermaster Survey Unit, 1923-25.

Related Records: Records of the War Transactions Board in RG 153, Records of the Office of the Judge Advocate General (Army).

Subject Access Terms: Charleston Industrial Corporation, Nitro, WV ordnance contracts.

60.15.3 Records of the Board of Parole

History: A board of parole established in each federal prison pursuant to the Parole Act (36 Stat. 819), June 25, 1910. Superseded by single Board of Parole pursuant to amendments to the Parole Act (46 Stat. 272), May 12, 1930. Abolished, with functions to U.S. Parole Commission, by an act of March 15, 1976 (90 Stat. 219).

Textual Records: Dockets of meetings, 1930-43.

Related Records: Records of boards of parole in RG 129, Records of the Bureau of Prisons.

60.15.4 Records of the Bureau of Prohibition

History: Prohibition Unit established in Bureau of Internal Revenue, Department of the Treasury, 1919. Redesignated Bureau of Prohibition, effective April 1, 1927, by an act of March 3, 1927 (44 Stat. 1381).

By the Prohibition Reorganization Act of 1930 (46 Stat. 427), May 27, 1930, effective July 1, 1930, Bureau of Prohibition (Treasury) redesignated Bureau of Industrial Alcohol and a new Bureau of Prohibition established in DOJ, to include Enforcement Division, transferred from Treasury.

Bureau of Prohibition abolished, effective March 2, 1934, by EO 6166, June 10, 1933, with investigative functions merged with those of Bureau of Investigation to form Division of Investigation, DOJ. Residual functions transferred to Bureau of Internal Revenue by EO 6639, March 10, 1934.

Textual Records: Dockets of ship seizures in prohibition cases, 1923-27. Letters sent to members of Congress, 1930-34.

Related Records: Records of the Narcotics Division, Bureau of Prohibition, in RG 170, Records of the Drug Enforcement Administration. Records of the Bureau of Investigation in RG 65, Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

60.15.5 Records of the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys

Textual Records: Caseload tracking system, 1964-88 (800 microfiche).

Related Records: Records of U.S. Attorneys and Marshals, RG 118.

60.16 Personnel Records

60.16.1 General records

Textual Records: Records of commissions transmitted, 1849-50. Bonds of clerks of U.S. courts, 1875-94. Miscellaneous letters received on appointment and disbursement matters, 1884-97. Letters sent, 1882-85. Appointment letter books, 1884-1934. Senate resolutions confirming appointments, 1884-1941. Correspondence, 1902-47. Letters and memorandums concerning appointments, 1920-25. Correspondence with the White House concerning appointment of judges and department employees, 1920- 40. Order books, 1860-1900. Copies of Executive orders relating to appointments, 1905-20. Orders and circulars, 1909-24. Registers of applications for appointment, 1853-57, 1871-1901. Lists of officials including judges, clerks of court, attorneys, and marshals, 1844-1910. Indexes to applications for positions, 1889-1909. Lists of appointees, 1907-13. Lists of endorsers of protesters against candidates for appointments, 1929-33. Card record of nomination and commissioning of Presidential appointees, 1936-41. Microfilm copy of card index (1789-1960) to U.S. marshals, n.d. (1 roll).

Microfilm Publications: T577.

Subject Access Terms: President's Commission on Economy and Efficiency (Taft Commission).

60.16.2 Records relating to appointments and applications for
appointment in the Department of Justice and in federal courts
and judicial districts

Textual Records: Appointment papers, 1850-1913 (53 ft.). Records relating to members of the Supreme Court, 1853-1932 and Supreme Court candidates, 1853-1924. Appointment files for positions in judicial districts, 1853-1933 (725 ft.) circuit court judges, 1855-1901 judges and personnel of the U.S. Court of Claims, 1855-1928 Circuit Court of Appeals, 1903-29 U.S. Customs Court, 1909-37 U.S. Commerce Court, 1910-13 and U.S. Court of Customs Appeals and U.S. Court of Customs and Patent Appeals, 1929-30. Endorsements and other records relating to appointment of judges of the Court of Private Land Claims, 1889-1901. Application files, 1891-1902. Commissions of deputy marshals, 1896-1937. Correspondence concerning appointments, 1921-35.

Microfilm Publications: M198, M224, M680, M681.

60.16.3 Records relating to appointments and applications for
appointment in the District of Columbia and in other federal
departments and agencies

Textual Records: Records relating to appointments to positions in the District of Columbia, including justice of the peace, 1888- 1907 commissioner of deeds, 1888-1943 notary public, 1888-1926 and trustee of reform schools, 1895-1938. Records relating to applications for positions on the Interstate Commerce Commission, 1904-10, and the Wickersham Commission, 1929 and in other departments and agencies, 1881-1932.

60.17 Records Relating to Special Investigations and Surveys

60.17.1 Records of the Attorney General's Committee of
Administrative Procedure (Acheson Committee)

History: Appointed February 16, 1939, in response to a Presidential request, to examine procedural practices of administrative agencies that made decisions directly affecting private rights and property. Terminated upon submission of final report, 1941, published as Administrative Procedure in Government Agencies.

Textual Records: Subject file, 1939-40. Correspondence with departments and agencies, 1939-40. Records relating to administrative procedures in federal departments and agencies, 1939-40. Reference materials received from The Brookings Institution, 1939-40. General comments file, 1940. Transcripts of conferences, 1939 and public hearings, 1940. Monographs, 1940. Study of the Bureau of Internal Revenue, 1939-40. Progress reports, 1940.

Related Records: Final report published as S. Doc. 10, U.S. Senate, 77th Congress, 1st Session (Serial Set 10563).

60.17.2 Records of the Attorney General's Advisory Committee on

History: Established following a conference on crime held in December 1934. Studied issues relating to the criminal justice system and crime prevention, and acted as a clearinghouse for information on criminal questions.

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1934-37. Correspondence of the chairman, 1935-37. Subject file, 1934-38. Records relating to speeches, meetings, and programs, 1935-37. State information file, 1935-38. Reference file, 1934-38.

Finding Aids: Helen Beach, comp., "Preliminary Checklist of the Records of the Attorney General's Advisory Committee on Crime, 1934-38," PC 38 (1946).

60.17.3 Records of the Aircraft Investigation Office

History: Investigation of aircraft production initiated in 1918 at the request of the President. Conducted by Charles E. Hughes with DOJ cooperation.

Textual Records: General records, 1918-19. Transcripts of testimony, 1918. Office file of Assistant Attorney General William L. Frierson, 1918-19. Report of Committee on Aircraft Investigation, May 2, 1918. Reports on aircraft production, and aviation training and equipment, 1918. Transcripts of proceedings, Senate and House committees on military affairs, 1918. Third annual report, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 1918. History of the Liberty airplane motor by the Packard Motor Company, 1918.

60.17.4 Records of the Commission to Investigate the Title of the
United States to Lands in the District of Columbia

History: Established by an act of May 30, 1908 (35 Stat. 543). Also known as the Commission on Government Lands in the District of Columbia. Terminated following submission of report, 1916.

Textual Records: Miscellaneous indexes, 1908-12, to maps, statutes, acts of Congress, streets, and general subjects.

Related Records: Records of the Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital, RG 42.

60.17.5 Records relating to the Naval Oil Reserve ("Teapot Dome")

Textual Records: Records of special counsels Atlee Pomerene, 1917-35, and Owen Roberts, 1924-35. Records relating to U.S. v. Pan American Petroleum Co., 1927-35. Government oil case files, 1927-35. File of attorney Owen Roberts, 1924-30.

Subject Access Terms: Blackmer, Harry M. Buena Vista Hills, CA Continental Trading Company of Canada Dohney, Edward L. Elk Hills, CA Fall, Albert B. Mammoth Oil Co. Midwest Refining Co. Richfield Oil Co. Sinclair Crude Oil Purchasing Co. Sinclair, Harry F. Teapot Dome, WY.

60.17.6 Records relating to the Attorney General's Patent Policy

History: Initiated by a letter of February 5, 1943, from President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Attorney General Francis Biddle. Objective was to determine need for a uniform policy with respect to ownership, use, and control of inventions made by employees of federal government contractors. Terminated 1947, following submission of final report, "Investigation of Government Patent Practices and Policies," issued in 1947.

Textual Records: Subject file, 1939-47. Reference material and supporting documents relating to patent policies and practices, 1942-46. Monographs, 1945-46. First report of the Attorney General, 1945.

60.17.7 Records relating to the Pueblo Lands Board

History: Established by an act of June 7, 1924 (43 Stat. 636) to investigate title disputes concerning lands of the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico.

Textual Records: Files of the Attorney General's representative, Charles H. Jennings, 1920-30.

60.17.8 Records of the Attorney General's Survey of Release

History: Established as a Works Progress Administration project, 1935. Investigated federal and state policies concerning the probation, parole, and pardon of federal and state convicts. Terminated 1938.

Textual Records: Records of the administrative director, including correspondence, 1935-38 and reference material, 1936- 37. Records of the technical director, including correspondence, 1935-37 probation commentaries, 1936-37 and addresses and papers, 1935-37. State reports, 1936. Correspondence and other records concerning state parole and probation policies ("Parole File" and "Probation File"), 1935-37. Reference material, 1934- 37. Records concerning the Association of States Signatory to the Interstate Prison Compact, 1934-37.

Subject Access Terms: Bennett, James V. Gill, Howard B.

60.17.9 Records relating to the Attorney General's Task Force on
Violent Crime

History: Appointed by the Attorney General, April 10, 1981, to recommend ways for the Federal Government to combat violent crime. Terminated following submission of final report, August 17, 1981.

Textual Records: Subject file, 1981. Chronological file, 1981 (298 ft.).

60.17.10 Records of the Attorney General's Commission on

History: Established February 22, 1985, at the request of President Ronald Reagan, pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (86 Stat. 770), October 6, 1972. Last meeting held May 2, 1986. Final report issued, July 1986.

Textual Records: Transcripts of commission hearings, June 1985- May 1986. Citizens' mail, subject, and publicity files, 1985-86. Pornography surveys, 1985-86. Reports, 1986.

Charts (9 items, in Washington Area): Commission exhibits, 1985- 86. See Also 60.18.

Motion Pictures (8 reels): Exhibit items, consisting of examples of commercial pornographic films, submitted as supplementary material to testimony in public hearings before the commission in Los Angeles and Miami, 1985-86.

Video Recordings (15 items): Exhibit items and supplementary materials submitted with testimony in public hearings of the commission in Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, DC, 1985-86, including a compilation of excerpts from Hollywood feature films dealing with sex and violence and pornographic film clips from 1930 to the 1960s a lecture presentation by behavioral consultant Frank O'Sanka on child abuse and pornography (July 25, 1985) a Florida television documentary, "Our Little Secret," examining pedophilia and child abuse and examples of commercially available pornographic and erotic sex films.

Sound Recordings (6 items): Supplementary exhibit materials submitted with testimony in public hearings of the commission in Chicago, Miami, Memphis, and Scottsdale (AZ), 1985-86, including Frank O'Sanka discussing pornography as a cause of criminal acts (July 23, 1985) telephone conversations with a pedophile (September 12, 1985) Elizabeth Holland, pediatrician and member of the Memphis Child Abuse Committee, discussing the treatment of child victims of pornographers (1985) and examples of "Dial-A- Porn" telephone messages (1985-86). See Also 60.21.

Color Slides (103 images): Copies of commission documents and exhibits, prepared to permit simultaneous review, 1985-86. See Also 60.22.

60.18 Cartographic Records (General)

Maps (8 items): United States and its regions, showing railroad systems, oil company lands, and locations of oil refineries and pipelines, some bearing stamps identifying them as court case exhibits, 1911-14 (5 items). New York Harbor, showing sugar refineries, 1913 (1 item). Plan of a lock and dam on the Yamhill River, OR, 1915 (1 item). Plan of Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, DC, 1922 (1 item).

Graphs (2 items): Oil production graphs, 1890-1906.

See Maps under 60.3.2 and 60.3.4.
See Charts under 60.17.10.

60.19 Motion Pictures (General)

60.20 Video Recordings (General)

60.21 Sound Recordings (General)

See Under 60.3.4, 60.10.2, and 60.17.10.

60.22 Still Pictures (General)

Photographs: Attorneys general (1871-1991), including photographs of paintings and photographic portraits, 1991 (AG, 73 images).

See Photographs under 60.2.2, 60.3.5, and 60.5.3.
See Color Slides under 60.17.10.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.

This page was last reviewed on August 15, 2016.
Contact us with questions or comments.

Pirates: An Early Test for the New Country

Richard O’Bryen’s letter to Thomas Jefferson, first page, July 12, 1790. (Records of the U.S. Senate, National Archives)

When Richard O’Bryen, captain of the Philadelphia ship Dauphin, penned his July 12, 1790, letter to Thomas Jefferson, he had been a captive of the Barbary pirates in Algeria for almost five years.

This letter, and others, helped bring attention to an unexpected problem the Federal Government inherited from the government under the Articles of Confederation: pirates.

The new nation was faced with the questions: What could be done about the Barbary pirates? And what could be done for the American prisoners held for ransom in Algeria?

In the late 18th century, the Barbary pirates were a well-known problem in Europe. These pirates—who came from Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunisia—captured vessels sailing in the Mediterranean Sea and held their crews for ransom.

To free a captured vessel, European nations were forced to pay the ransom. Some European nations signed treaties with the four Barbary nations and paid tribute for safe passage of their vessels.

The Barbary pirates were not an issue for the American colonies while they were under the protection of the British Empire or during the Revolutionary War while they were under the protection of France. However, those protections effectively ended in September 1783 when the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Revolutionary War and freeing the United States from British rule.

Richard O’Bryen’s letter to Thomas Jefferson, last page, July 12, 1790. (Records of the U.S. Senate, National Archives)

In October 1784, the Boston brig Betsey was captured by Moroccan pirates. On July 25, 1785, Algerian pirates captured the Boston schooner Maria. Less than a week later, the Algerians also captured Captain O’Bryen’s ship, the Dauphin. Americans had a rude awakening to their hopes of free trade throughout the world.

Morocco released the crew of the Betsey and concluded a peace treaty with the United States that the Confederation Congress ratified in July 1787.

Peace with Algiers, however, was much harder to achieve. The Dey (ruler) of Algiers refused to negotiate a peace treaty and demanded $59,496 in ransom to release the crews of the Maria and Dauphin. Since that amount of money was not available, the 21 captives remained enslaved in Algiers.

The Algerian situation highlighted the weaknesses of the government under the Articles of Confederation. The Confederation Congress did not have the money to build a navy that would protect American vessels, or pay any tribute or ransom to the Barbary States because they could not levy taxes. In fact, this was one of the motivating factors in creating the Constitution, ratified in 1788, which gave the new Federal Government significantly more power.

Even after the Constitution was ratified, the Federal Government did not address the situation with Algeria right away.

Captives and their family members were hardly quiet while they awaited action from the new government.

Richard O’Bryen’s letter to Thomas Jefferson, page showing ransom rates, July 12, 1790. (Records of the U.S. Senate, National Archives)

One of the more prolific writers was Captain O’Bryen. The document featured here was one such missive, penned by O’Bryen to Thomas Jefferson on July 12, 1790. Secretary of State Jefferson sent a copy of this and other letters to the First Federal Congress in order to keep Congress up to date on the situation with the captives in Algiers.

O’Bryen’s 11-page letter outlined both the plight of the remaining 14 captives and the status of current negotiations.

It also explained the price set for the captives’ release, which was a total of 17,225 sequins (each sequin was worth 8 shillings sterling at the time).

The price for O’Bryen and Isaac Stephens, the captain of the Maria, was set at 3,000 sequins apiece. O’Bryen closed the letter by expressing his faith that the government would immediately see the necessity of paying the price for its citizens’ freedom.

In this case his faith was misplaced and Congress didn’t approved a treaty with Algiers until September 1795. The final cost of the return of all 119 captives (other ships were captured after the Maria and Dauphin), and peace with Algiers was $642,000, plus $21,000 in annual tribute.

In addition, the United States provided four naval vessels to Algiers, including a 36-gun frigate.

President George Washington was unhappy with the arrangement, but realized the United States had little choice in the matter.

The long wait for freedom did nothing to dim Captain O’Bryen’s loyalty to his country. Upon his release in 1796, he was appointed consul general to Algiers, a position he held until 1803.

The Center for Legislative Archives is marking the 225th anniversary of the First Congress by sharing documents on Tumblr and Twitter use #Congress225 to see all the postings.

Thomas Jefferson’s message to the Senate transmitting O’Bryen’s letter, January 20, 1791. (Records of the U.S. Senate, National Archives)

Treaty of Wereloe, 15th August 1790 - History

The history of the Trail of Tears refers to the forceful removal on the Cherokee Indians in 1838. The Cherokees were driven out of their homes in Georgia and forced to the Western region of the United States. This unfair emigration resulted in the deaths of over 4,000 Native Americans. Let&rsquos take a look at the time line of events that led to this tragic moment in U.S. history.

The history of the Trail of Tears started prior to the actual event itself. Between the years of 1790 and 1830 the population of the Georgia area where the Cherokee Indians dwelled had been flooded with settlers. The Georgia government signed the Compact of 1802 agreeing to give up a portion of its land to the national government in exchange for help with the removal of the Native Americans.

The Cherokee Indians refused to be moved out. In fact, the history of the Trail of Tears points out that they instead built a capital city of New Echota in 1825 in an effort to maintain their right to land. However, the discovery of gold followed by the Georgia Gold Rush of 1829 added to the tensions between the Cherokees and the Georgians.

In 1831 the matter went to the U.S. Supreme court. The court decided that the Cherokees were entitled to their land. However, the state of Georgia ignored the ruling, and President Andrew Jackson refused to enforce it. Instead President Jackson used the Indian Removal Act of 1830 to try to get the Cherokees to agree to leave.

The history of the trail of Tears continued when in 1835 the U.S government offered the Cherokee Indians 4.5 million dollars to relocate in the West. The Indians declined this offer. At this time the Treaty of New Echota was drafted and despite the fact that no official member of the Cherokee Council signed the document Congress ratified the document in 1836.

The deadline for removal was May 23, 1838. At that time 7,000 soldiers forced over 17,000 Cherokee Indian to the west. Over a three week period the Indians were marched out of their homes and forced to head west in one of the greatest injustices in our countries history.

Historical Note Return to Top

The Northwest Ethnohistory collection consists of the records generated through the research and academic efforts of several generations of Western Washington University anthropology professors. Creators of the collection included Dr. Daniel L. Boxberger and Dr. Herbert Cecil Taylor. Before its transfer to the Center for Pacific Northwest Studies, the collection served as the anthropology department's archive of source material.

Content Description Return to Top

The Northwest Ethnohistory collection includes oral histories, manuscripts, correspondence, maps, bibliographies, publications and photographs relating to various Native American tribes in the Pacific Northwest. Native American tribes documented in the collection include Chehalis, Shoalwater, Chinook, Clallam, Clatsop, Cowlitz, Duwamish, Haida, Klamath, Klickitat, Kwakiutl, Lummi, Makah, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, Nooksack, Puyallup, Quileute, Quinault, Salish, Semiahmoo, Skagit, Snohomish, Squaxin, Steilacoom, Suiattle-Sauk, Swinomish, and Suquamish. The records contain information about the various tribes' art, ethnic identity, family relationships, and indigenous languages. The collection also documents fishing, hunting, and whaling practices, and the social conditions and material culture of these indigenous people. The records provide insight into the tribes' social life and customs, including their legends, religious rites and ceremonies. There are also a large number of documents related to politics and government relations including the legal status of tribes, and laws regarding land tenures and treaties.

Much of the collection consists of duplicates of primary and secondary materials available in other repositories and is not archival in composition. The value of the collection lies in the research convenience of having these unique and difficult to find materials located in one source. The collection has not been processed and the collection inventory provides only file level inventory of the collection. The records were initially "reorganized" into classification system based on Native American tribal associations by a staff member in the Anthropology Department. That system was abandoned about halfway through the collection and final files represent the filing system used by the creators.

Use of the Collection Return to Top

Preferred Citation

Northwest Ethnohistory collection, Center for Pacific Northwest Studies, Heritage Resources, Western Washington University, Bellingham WA 98225-9123.

Administrative Information Return to Top


The Northwest Ethnohistory collection was initially "reorganized" by a staff member in the WWU's anthropology department into a classification system based on Native American tribal associations. However, that system was abandoned part of the way through the collection, and the remaining organizational scheme represents the filing system used by the creators. In order to find relevant materials, researchers are strongly encouraged to explore the entire Northwest Ethnohistory finding aid.

Custodial History

The Northwest Ethnohistory collection was donated to the Center for Pacific Northwest Studies by Dr. Daniel Boxberger of the Anthropology Department at Western Washington University in 1999.

Detailed Description of the Collection Return to Top

The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in the collection.

Series I : Chehalis, Shoalwater, circa 1953-1989 Return to Top

Series II : Chehalis, Chinook, circa 1953-1983 Return to Top

Series III : Chinook , circa 1911-1984 Return to Top

NOTE: On 2/5/2014, CPNWS staff noted that the html online finding aid for this collection included a listing for "Fishing sites - Lower Chinook" (appearing on the online inventory between 3/8 and 3/9). Staff could not find an empty folder or resource in Box 3 matching this description - it is unknown if it was ever part of the collection and/or if/when it may have been removed.

Watch the video: Russia Saint Petersburg Cathedral aug 2017 (May 2022).

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