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|1954 Four Power meeting Berlin A meeting of the foreign ministers of the US, the Soviet Union, France and Great Britain was held in Berlin. The conference lasted for three weeks, but ended in a deadlock. No substantial progress could be made on any subject separating the Eastern and Western powers.|
|1954 Dien Bien Puh Falls French forces, under the command of General Navarre, decided that holding Dien Bien Phu, a valley post in Western Vietnam, was a major strategic objective. The French fortified the position with over 30,000 soldiers. On March 15, the Viet Minh began their assault. On May 7, Dien Bien Phu fell, and with it so did French hopes of victory in Vietnam.|
|1954 Geneva Accords The Geneva Accords ended the war in Vietnam, for the time being. Under the terms of the Accords, the country was divided into a Communist North and Non-Communist South. Elections under international supervision were to be held in both the North and South two years after the signing of the Accords.|
|1954 SEATO Formed In an additional collective security alliance, modeled on N.A.T.O., eight nations formed the South East Asia Treaty Organization. The nations were: the United States, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Pakistan and Thailand. Members of S.E.A.T.O. are pledged to their mutual defense.|
|1954 Revolt breaks Out in Algeria The National Liberation Front (FLN) began a revolt against French rule. The FLN wished to establish an independent Algerian state.|
|1954 Nautilus Submarine Launched Before a crowd of 12,000, First Lady Mamie Eisenhower christened the nation's first atomic-powered submarine, the "Nautilus." Atomic powered submarines would revolutionize the Navy and warfare.|
|1954 Army McCarthy Hearing Senator Joe McCarthy finally went too far in his Communist witch–hunt, when his investigating committee attempted to investigate the US Army. The hearings, which were televised, showed to the American people the true nature of McCarthy's investigation. McCarthy soon went into decline.|
|1954 Gunfire in Capital On March 1, three men and a women, all Puerto Rican nationalists, fired gunshots from the gallery of the House of Representatives, wounding five Congressmen.|
|1954 Segregation Ruled Illegal The US Supreme Court, in the case of Brown v. the Board of Education, ruled that segregation was unconstitutional. The opinion was written by Chief Justice Earl Warren. The decision was a landmark case, and eventually resulted in the desegregation of all public institutions.|
|1954 US Backed Coup In Guatemala The Guatemalan Government of Jacobo Arbenz Guzman was overthrown by military forces led by Col Carlos Castillo Armas. Armas received direct support from the United States Central Intelligence Agency. The Guzman government supported a Communist-authored land reform bill that expropriated most of the land holdings of United Fruit Company. The Guatemalan action led to a U.S. arms embargo. The Guatemalans then purchased arms from Czechoslovakia thereby providing the excuse for the coup.|
|1954 F- 104 Makes Debut Lockheed unveiled its new fighter, the "F–104 Starfighter." The F–104 represents a new level of air performance, capable of reaching Mach 2, twice the speed of sound.|
|1954 Boeing Unveils the 707 On July 15, Boeing unveiled the "707." It was taken on a maiden flight of 90 minutes. The 707 was the first jet aircraft to be commercially successful. It heralded the true entry of the jet age in commercial aviation. Over 3,000 707s were sold by Boeing.|
|1954 Lockheed intriduces the YC-130 " Hercules"On August 23, Lockheed tested its first "Hercules" turbo prop aircraft. The Hercules is a highly agile transport craft that can carry 90 troops over 2,000 miles. Its ability to land and take off from short runways made it a favorite of airforces the world over. More than 1,900 Hercules planes have been produced, making it one of the most successful transport planes of all time.|
|1954 First kidney Transplant A team from Harvard Medical School successfully completed the first kidney transplant operation.|
|1954 Soviets Introduce the MIG- 19 The Soviets introduced the MIG–19. The MIG–19 was the first Soviet fighter that could fly at supersonic speeds. It was a simple, but highly maneuverable plane.|
A timeline of events in 1954-1955 - History
Jan 7 Marian Anderson sings at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, the first black to do so.
Jan 22 The US announces its plan to develop Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles armed with nuclear weapons.
Jan 25 Scientists at Columbia University develop an atomic clock accurate to within one second in 300 years.
Jan 28 Congress authorizes President Eisenhower to use force to protect Taiwan from China.
Feb 8 In the Soviet Union, Premier Malenkov is still associated with Beria. He is forced to resign and is replaced by Marshal Bulganin, the former defense minister. Malenkov remains in the politburo, now called the presidium.
Feb 8 The last Vietminh troops are scheduled to leave South Vietnam, in accordance with the Geneva Accords of 1954. They are leaving areas they have controlled for the last eight years.
Feb 12 President Eisenhower sends the first US military advisors to South Vietnam, to train an army under Ngo Dinh Diem.
Feb 13 Israelis discover more Dead Sea scroll fragments.
Feb 25 An Israeli cyclist is ambushed by "Arab infiltrators."
Feb 28 An Israeli army unit is attacked and pursues the attackers into Egypt-controlled Gaza.
Feb 1-28 Sometime during this month or the following month, a few sailors create a disturbance at a small Polynesian nightclub in Honolulu. The bouncer throws the leader out and the others follow. The bouncer is a full Polynesian and former Marine whom I knew since 1951. On the sidewalk outside the club the sailors hurl insults at Hawaii, not yet a state and not deserving to be a state according to the sailors. With my friend and me on the sidewalk are a couple of local Asian males. The leader asks me (a white guy) what I am doing among them, a common racial attitude for 1955 &ndash the point of this entry. The leader attacks my friend violently. Within one minute the sailors are fleeing down the street racism on the run. (I met a lot of great individual US sailors aboard ships, and every Marine I knew had the greatest respect for US Navy Corpsmen (medical guys serving with the Marines).
Mar 1 The Israeli retaliation in Gaza is reported as having killed 37 Egyptians and wounded 29 others. Palestinians stone the United Nations Gaza office.
Mar 3 Egypt warns Israel that it will meet force with force. In the UN, Israel complains of "continuous violations" by Egypt.
Mar 4 The UN Security Council urges Egypt and Israel to desist from violence and provocations.
Mar 15 Secretary of State Dulles indicates that Israel's invasion of the Gaza strip would delay new United States guarantees of Israel's integrity.
Mar 25 The Israeli Army reports that in an Israeli village, ten miles from the Egyptian/Gaza armistice line, armed Egyptians threw bombs at wedding revelers, killing a young woman and wounding eighteen others.
Apr 6 Winston Churchill, 80, steps down and Anthony Eden becomes Britain's Prime Minister.
Apr 12 The Salk Polio vaccine is declared safe and effective, and vaccine shots for polio begin to be given to children.
Apr 18 In Hungary the Communist premier Imre Nagy, an former Stalinist executioner, has been advocating a "new course" and is ousted from power by comrades who dislike his moderation.
Apr 18 Albert Einstein dies, at the age of seventy-six, in Princeton, New Jersey.
Apr 18-24 The Bandung Conference takes place in Indonesia. It promotes neutralism, hostility toward colonialism and imperialism. It is attended by representatives from 29 African and Asian nations. Nasser of Egypt, Tito of Yugoslavia, Nehru of India and Chou Enlai of China are among those attending.
May 5 West Germany becomes the Federal Republic of Germany, a sovereign state.
May 9 West Germany joins NATO.
May 14 In Warsaw, the "Warsaw Pact" is formed, a response to what is claimed to be a threat from NATO and the re-militarization of Germany. Member states are the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania.
May 15 In Vienna, the Soviet Union and other major victors of World War II sign the Austrian State Treaty. Austria becomes sovereign and democratic and is to be unaligned.
May 20 In accord with Juan Perón's attitude toward the Catholic Church, Argentina's parliament accepts the separation of church and state.
May 31 The US Supreme Court orders that states must end racial segregation "with all deliberate speed."
Jun 1-30 Universal studios is filming "The Conqueror" in Snow Canyon State Park in Utah, an area unknowlingly contaminated by the testing of eleven nuclear bombs in nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada in 1953. Of the 220 persons working on the film on location, 46 will be have died from cancer and 91 others will have contracted cancer by the 1980s. "Experts" calculate that only 30 persons should have gotten cancer from a group that size. Among the 46 who will die by the early 80s: the stars, John Wayne, Susan Hayward and Agnes Moorehead, and the director, Dick Powell.
Jun 9 Secretary of State Dulles, at Iowa State College, says "neutrality has increasingly become an obsolete and, except under very exceptional circumstances, it is an immoral and shortsighted conception."
Jun 16 The Perón regime has legalized divorce, prostitution and accorded full civil rights to those born out of wedlock. Police have suppressed anti-government religious processions. The government has deported two high-ranking bishops. The Vatican retaliates against the latter by excommunicating Perón, and, on this day, members of the navy and airforce revolt against the Perón regime, but the coup fails.
Jun 27 Automobile seat belt legislation is enacted in Illinois.
Jun 30 A United Nations report describes the United States as facing increased competition in Latin American markets from the Soviet Union and nations of the Soviet bloc.
Jul 17 Disneyland opens in what was recently a small town and an old German settlement, Anaheim, California.
Jul 18 At Geneva Switzerland, a "summit" meeting between the leaders of the Soviet Union, Britain, France and the United States begins &ndash the first such meeting since Potsdam. Prime Minister Eden of Britain had a lot to do with creating the meeting.
Jul 23 The summit meeting has been carefully planned and staged, with leaders flanked by their advisors, reading prepared statements &ndash not the kind of spontaneous personal exchanges favored by Winston Churchill. The summit has produced little more than propaganda opportunities for both sides and ends without accomplishment.
Aug 8 Fidel Castro, after serving two years in prison, has received amnesty from Batista. Castro is in Mexico and there with other Cuban exiles he forms his "July 26th Movement."
Aug 31 Algerian revolutionaries (the FLN) have moved from attacking government and military targets to attacking civilians &ndash 123 including old women and children. France's governor in Algeria, Jacques Soustelle, a reformer, is shocked and supports sterner measures against the rebels. The government claims it has killed 1,273 guerrillas in retaliation. According to the FLN, French forces, police and colonist (colon) gangs have killed 12,000 Muslims.
Aug 25 In accordance with its international commitments, the last of Soviet forces leaves Austria.
Aug 28 Emmett Till, a black teenager from Chicago visiting in Mississippi, is lynched.
Sep 6-7 Greeks riot in Istanbul. Retaliation includes attacks upon Greek churches, shops, cemeteries and some killing. The Greek community in Istanbul is destroyed.
Sep 7 Peru gives its women the right to vote.
Sept 19 Argentina's military leaders are unhappy about Perón's sixteen year-old live-in companion and unhappy about Perón creating a workers' militia. They want no competing military force. They overthrow Perón and confiscate the body of Eva Perón to prevent it from being used to rally the masses. Perón flees to the Embassy of Paraguay and then into exile and eventually to Spain.
Sep 20 Rocky Marciano knocks out Archie Moore in the 9th round in New York City.
Sep 27 Egypt buys arms from Czechoslovakia, agreeing to receive financing from the Soviet Union for building the Aswan dam across the Nile.
Oct 15 China's Communist Party decides to speed moving from private ownership of farmlands to "agricultural producers' cooperatives."
Oct 17 The Vatican commends the Archbishop of New Orleans for his measures against racial discrimination practiced by some Roman Catholics in Louisiana.
Oct 19 Mao Zedong is reported to have said that he would be willing to visit the United States but that he does not expect to be invited.
Oct 26 Ignoring the Geneva agreement of 1954, Ngo Dinh Diem proclaims Vietnam a republic with himself as president.
Oct 29 The Fifth international Conference on Planned Parenthood has been meeting in Tokyo. The Communist government in China has send a representative. The conference asks the United Nations to address the problems of overpopulation.
Nov 7 Racial segregation in public parks, playgrounds and golf courses is outlawed by the US Supreme Court.
Nov 19 William F. Buckley Jr. publishes his first issue of the National Review, a conservative political journal. Buckley is unhappy with middle-of-the road Republicanism, represented by the Eisenhower administration. Buckley's first issue proclaims the "middle-of-the-road politically, intellectually, and morally repugnant."
Nov 25 The United States Interstate Commerce Commission decrees that racial segregation on trains and buses that cross state lines will end by Jan. 10. This includes public waiting rooms in railway and bus terminals.
Dec 1 In Montgomery, Alabama, a tired seamstress, Rosa Parks, refuses to give up her bus seat to a white man. She is arrested by police.
Dec 5 Black ministers in Montgomery form the Montgomery Improvement Association. They choose as their leading spokesperson the young Martin Luther King Jr., and they start a boycott of Montgomery buses.
Dec 31 Communist (Hukbalahap) guerrillas north of Manila have been diminishing through the year. They now number around 1,000. The government's success against the Communists is attributed to its moderation and reforms in the area where the guerillas have operated, rather than to bloody repression.
1865: Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau,was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865. Its main mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self-sufficient in all areas of life.
Significance: The first Black schools were set up under the direction of the Freedmen’s Bureau. One of those schools – Howard University – would eventually train and graduate the majority of the legal team that overturned Plessy, including Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall.
A timeline of events in 1954-1955 - History
On December 5, 1955, just days after Rosa Park's historic arrest for refusing to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and his wife Coretta watched tensely from their living room window as the first moments of the Montomery Bus Boycott unfolded. Dr. King recounts those anxious early minutes in his book Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story, part of our King Legacy Series:
My wife and i awoke earlier than usual on Monday morning. We were up and fully dressed by five-thirty. The day for the protest had arrived, and we were determined to see the first act of this unfolding drama. I was still saying that if we could get 60 percent cooperation the venture would be a success.
Fortunately, a bus stop was just five feet from our house. This meant that we could observe the opening stages from our front window. The first bus was to pass around six o’clock. And so we waited through an interminable half hour. I was in the kitchen drinking my coffee when I heard Coretta cry, “Martin, Martin, come quickly!” I put down my cup and ran toward the living room. As I approached the front window Coretta pointed joyfully to a slowly moving bus: “Darling, it’s empty!” I could hardly believe what I saw. I knew that the South Jackson line, which ran past our house, carried more Negro passengers than any other line in Montgomery, and that this first bus was usually filled with domestic workers going to their jobs. Would all of the other buses follow the pattern that had been set by the first? Eagerly we waited for the next bus. In fifteen minutes it rolled down the street, and, like the first, it was empty. A third bus appeared, and it too was empty of all but two white passengers.
I jumped in my car and for almost an hour I cruised down every major street and examined every passing bus. During this hour, at the peak of the morning traffic, I saw no more than eight Negro passengers riding the buses. By this time I was jubilant. Instead of the 60 percent cooperation we had hoped for, it was becoming apparent that we had reached almost 100 percent. A miracle had taken place. The once dormant and quiescent Negro community was now fully awake.
More than a half century later, it's easy to forget the raw, simple moments like these, how the events that shape a full historical narrative compress into simple phrases in our textbooks. In reality, the Montomery Bus Boycott was long in the making, and lasted almost a year before the Supreme Court's decision to uphold a lower court ruling to integrate the Montgomery bus system, a stark reversal of its 1892 decision Plessy v. Ferguson allowing for segregation on public transit. And it was another five weeks before the Supreme Court's order was implemented and the boycott officially called off. With that in mind, we ask that you consider those small, human moments, the less visible constructs of history, as we present a timeline of the larger, more cumulative ones:
Timeline of the Montgomery Bus Boycott:
March 1954 - The Women's Political Council (WPC) meets with Montgomery mayor W. A. Gayle to outline their recommended changes for the Montgomery bus system.
March 2, 1955 - Claudette Colvin arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white woman.
March 1955 - Black leaders in Montgomery, including E. D. Nixon, Rosa Parks, and Martin Luther King Jr., meet with city officials to discuss bus seating requirements.
October 21, 1955 - Mary Louise Smith arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white woman.
December 1, 1955 - Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger.
December 2, 1955 - The WPC calls for a one-day bus boycott on December 5.
December 5, 1955 - Instead of the expected 60% turnout, an estimated 90%-100% of the black community in Montgomery choose to participate in the boycott. Black leaders meet to dicuss the possibility of extending the boycott. The Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) is created at this meeting, and Dr. King elected its president. The MIA votes to extend the boycott.
December 8, 1955 - The MIA issues a formal list of demands. The city refuses to comply.
December 13, 1955 - The MIA implements a carpool system to support citizens taking part in the boycott.
January 30, 1956 - Dr. King's home is bombed. In response, Dr. King calls for peaceful protest rather than violent action.
February 1, 1956 - E. D. Nixon's home is bombed.
February 21, 1956 - Over 80 boycott leaders are indicted by the city under Alabama's anti-conspiracy laws.
March 19, 1956 - Dr. King is indicted as a leader of the boycott and ordered to pay $500 or serve 386 days in jail.
June 5, 1956 - A federal district court rules that bus segregation is unconstitutional.
November 13, 1956 - The Supreme Court upholds the district court ruling, and strikes down laws requiring racial segregation on buses. The MIA resolves to end the boycott only when the order to desegregate is officially implemented.
December 20, 1956 - The Supreme Court's orders of injuction against segregation on city buses are delivered to the Montgomery City Hall.
December 21, 1956 - Montgomery's buses are officially desegregated. The MIA ends the boycott.
Further reading on the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Rosa Parks, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.:
The King Legacy Series, a partnership between the estate of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Beacon Press
Paul Laurence Dunbar High School, the high school for African American students, opens. The school costs $400,000 - the Rosenwald Foundation donates $67,500 and $30,000 comes from the Rockefeller General Education Fund.
May 17, 1954
The United States Supreme Court rules racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Five days later, the Little Rock School Board issues a policy statement saying it will comply with the Supreme Court’s decision. In May 1955, The Supreme Court further defines the standard of implementation for integration as being “with all deliberate speed,” in Brown II and charges the federal courts with establishing guidelines for compliance.
May 22, 1954
Superintendent Virgil Blossom and the Little Rock School District (LRSD) board announce their intention to comply with the Brown decision, but only after the courts have outlined an implementation decree.
August 23, 1954
Under the direction of Pine Bluff attorney Wiley Branton, chairman of the state’s NAACP Legal Redress Committee, the NAACP petitions the Little Rock School Board for immediate integration.
May 24, 1955
The LRSD board adopts a phased plan of integration called the Blossom Plan. After several changes, the Blossom Plan would develop into a quite limited approach that would begin only at Central High in 1957 after the construction of two new high schools for the growing urban population of Little Rock. One of the new high schools, Hall High, would be for white-only in the well-to-do western edges of Little Rock. The other, Horace Mann High in eastern Little Rock, would become an African American-only high school. The plan would be “fully implemented” over six years.
May 31, 1955
The U.S. Supreme Court issues its Brown II implementation order which directs school districts across America to proceed with desegregation with "all deliberate speed." Chief Justice Earl Warren writes the Court’s unanimous decision which in reality sets no specific deadlines. Southern school boards interpret this decision as a chance for delay.
January 24, 1956
Twenty-seven African American students in Little Rock attempt to enroll for the second semester at Central High, Little Rock Technical High, Forest Heights Junior High, and Forest Park Elementary School. They are refused enrollment by the LRSD Board of Education.
February 6, 1956
Twelve African American parents, on behalf of thirty-three African American students, file a federal lawsuit (Aaron v. Cooper) asking for immediate desegregation of Little Rock schools. The case uses the names of William Cooper, president of the LRSD board, and John Aaron, the first listed student. The suit is sponsored by the NAACP in its varied forms, this case would extend integration in Little Rock and across the South.
March 11, 1956
All eight of Arkansas's U.S. senators and congressmen demonstrate resistance by joining other southern legislators in signing the "Southern Manifesto” - a document that denounces the U.S. Supreme Court's decision on desegregation and encourages the southern states to resist it. They are joined by ninety-two other southern members of Congress.
April 6, 1956
Horace Mann High School for blacks opens on McAlmont, replacing overcrowded Dunbar High which becomes a junior high for blacks.
August 28, 1956
U.S. district court judge John E. Miller upholds the LRSD board's gradual desegregation plan in the case of Aaron v. Cooper, declaring that the Little Rock School Board has acted in “utmost good faith” in setting up its plan of gradual integration.
November 6, 1956
Orval Faubus wins reelection for a second term as governor after defeating the Democratic candidate Jim Johnson in the summer primary and the Republican Roy Mitchell in the November general election.
February 26, 1957
Faubus signs into law four bills previously approved by a majority vote of Arkansans in a General Election:
- Act 83 – creates a State Sovereignty Commission
- Act 84 – relieves school children of compulsory attendance in mixed public schools
- Act 85 – requires persons involved in certain activities to register with and make periodic reports to SSC
- Act 86 – authorizes school districts to employ legal counsel for certain purposes
April 29, 1957
An appeal of Aaron v. Cooper to a federal appellate court results in the upholding of the LRSD board's gradual desegregation plan. Judge John Miller had approved this plan at a lower level in federal district court the previous August. The federal district court retained jurisdiction over the case, however, making the School Board’s implementation of the Blossom Plan a court mandate.
June 27, 1957
Members of the Capital Citizens' Council, Reverend Wesley Pruden, and the lawyer Amis Guthridge submit a set of public questions to the LRSD board regarding plans for the social interaction of black and white students. They also inquire about opportunities for white and black students to attend segregated schools should their schools be integrated. This follows letters from the same organization to Governor Faubus asking that white and black students attend segregated schools.
July 27, 1957
The LRSD board responds to the questions of the Capital Citizens' Council, saying that providing only separate schools for whites and blacks will violate the court order to proceed with integration. It assures the public, however, that social interaction of the races will not occur and uses this opportunity to explain that the only Little Rock high school to be integrated is Central.
A variety of constituents file a series of suits in federal and chancery courts to either delay integration or declare some state segregation laws unconstitutional. Mary (Mrs. Clyde) Thomason, recording secretary of the newly formed Mothers' League of Little Rock Central High School, files one such suit. The Mother's League is a segregationist group supported by the Capital Citizens' Council. The League wishes to prevent integration at the high school, where some of the women have children. 10 African American ministers contest the validity of the February 1957 four acts in federal court.
August 22, 1957
Georgia Governor Marvin Griffin holds a meeting in Little Rock and attacks the 1954 Brown decision. He praises the courage of Arkansans who were fighting to preserve states' rights. While in Little Rock, he stays at the Governor's Mansion and dines with Governor Orval Faubus. Griffin says constitutional government would be dead "if the South surrenders her schools to the operation of the federal government."
August 23, 1957
Preregistration of students for all Little Rock schools begins. High school students pick up schedules, textbook lists, and an instruction sheet with first-day directions and school rules. Administrators at Central High expect as many as twenty African American students whom higher school authorities might assign to their building, but no African American students appear on this day.
August 26-27, 1957
Preregistration at Central High continues with sixty new students coming from Scott High School in Scott, Arkansas. The Pulaski County superintendent agrees to transport and pay tuition for these rural students so they might have more academic offerings than the small rural high school can provide. Some students are Japanese Americans who live and work on a produce farm near Scott.
August 27, 1957
The Mother’s League holds its first public meeting. The topic of their discussion: “inter-racial marriages and the diseases which might arise.” As a result of their conversations, the League draws up a petition against school integration behind which Governor Faubus throws his support. F or the League, Mary Thomason files a motion seeking a temporary reprieve from school integration and clarification of the ‘segregation’ laws. Several African American students attempt to enroll at Central High, but are turned away by the registrar and told they must go to the superintendent's office to obtain transfers for registration. Neither of the vice principals - J.O. Powell and Elizabeth Huckaby - nor principal Jess Matthews sees the students.
August 29, 1957
Pulaski County Chancellor Murray Reed grants a reprieve from school integration that was requested two days prior by the Mother’s League on the grounds that school integration could lead to violence. In May 1955, the Little Rock school board had adopted the Phase Program Plan of gradual desegregation that became known as the Blossom Plan, after its author and superintendent of Little Rock public schools, Virgil T. Blossom. Only Little Rock Central High was to be integrated. Integration in Little Rock would be achieved in phases - high school students integrated first in 1957, followed by junior high school students, and finally elementary school students. No dates were specified for the latter two phases.
August 30, 1957
Federal District Judge Ronald Davies nullifies the reprieve to school integration that had previously been granted by the Pulaski County Chancellor additionally, he orders the Little Rock School Board to proceed with its gradual integration plan.
September 2, 1957 – (Labor Day)
Labor Day is the final day of summer vacation for all Little Rock students. Governor Orval Faubus interrupts the “I Love Lucy Show” on local television to announce that he has received reports detailing “caravans” of white supremacists bound for Little Rock with the intention of preventing integration at Central High School. In order to prevent “blood in the streets,” he has called out the Arkansas National Guard (ANG) to preserve order at Central High. He says that the state militia will act not as segregationists or integrationists, but as "soldiers called to active duty to carry out their assigned tasks."
"Now that a federal court has ruled that no further litigation is possible before the forcible integration of Negroes and whites in Central High School tomorrow, the evidence of discord, anger, and resentment has come to me from so many sources as to become a deluge. There is evidence of disorder and threats of disorder which could have but one inevitable result— that is, violence which can lead to injury and the doing of harm to persons and property."
September 3, 1957
Hall High opens for white students in western Little Rock on a segregated basis. Teachers and white students attend Central High despite ANG soldiers around its perimeter. ANG lines prevent African American janitors, maids, and cafeteria cooks from entering. No African American students appear as Superintendent Blossom has requested that they stay away for their own safety.
The LRSD board petitions the federal district court asking for instructions. The board maintains that in light of the governor's actions in calling out the Arkansas National Guard, the board should be exempt from any charge of contempt. It asks that "no Negro students attempt to attend Central or any white high school until this dilemma is legally resolved."
The Mother’s League holds a “sunrise service” at Central High which is attended by members of the citizens’ council, disgruntled parents, students, and pastors. The crowd sings “Dixie” as the sun rises, illuminating Confederate Battle Flags flying over the scene. Despite this protest by the segregationists, Federal District Judge Ronald Davies orders that desegregation shall begin the next day. Meanwhile, Governor Orval Faubus orders the ANG to remain on guard at Central High.
September 4, 1957
10 African American students attempt to enter Central High for the first time. Late Tuesday evening, the principals of Dunbar and Horace Mann had informed the students that they would be going to Central the next day. Daisy Bates had then called the families of the students to inform them of the logistics for that Wednesday morning: do not come to Central High alone, but meet near the school around 8:30 a.m. where a group of local African American and white ministers would escort the students to the high school.
Elizabeth Eckford does not receive notice about this plan of action - the Eckfords do not have a telephone. Mrs. Bates intends to try to reach the Eckfords on Wednesday morning, but forgets in the hurried pace of the morning. Elizabeth rides a bus to Central, approaches the school just before 8:00 a.m. and sees the soldiers of the Arkansas National Guard surrounding the school. Barred by the soldiers in several failed attempts to be allowed past their ranks, Elizabeth finds herself in the throes of an angry mob of protesters numbering over 300+ on Park Street. Chants ["Two, four, six, eight! We don't want to integrate!"], racial epithets, terroristic threats and spit descend down on this fifteen-year old student as she attempts to make her way to the end of Park Street where perceived safety awaits her at another bus stop. After arriving at the bus stop, Elizabeth waits for 35 minutes in the interim, she is denied entrance to Ponder's Drug and supported by Benjamin Fine and Grace Lorch.
"The mob of twisted whites, galvanized into vengeful action by the inaction of the heroic state militia, was not willing that the young school girl should get off so easily. Elizabeth Eckford had walked into the wolf's lair, and now that they felt she was fair game, the drooling wolves took off after their prey. The hate mongers, who look exactly like other, normal white men and women, took off down the street after the girl." - Buddy Lonesome, St. Louis Argus
"Here she is this little girl, this tender little thing, walking with this whole mob baying at her like a pack of wolves seeking to destroy a little lamb." - Benjamin Fine, New York Times
The remaining nine students arrive after 8:00 a.m. at the corner of Park and 13th Streets as originally planned by Daisy Bates (Terrence Roberts and Melba Pattillo walk separately to Central) joining them as scheduled are local African American and white ministers there to escort the students safely to the school.
As the group approaches Central High School, they hear the crowds that had previously accosted Elizabeth Eckford and witness the Arkansas National Guard (ANG) standing their ground surrounding the high school. When one of the ministers leading the students approaches the Guard, he is met by Lt. Colonel Marion Johnson, the commanding officer of the ANG. Johnson tells the group that on the orders of Governor Faubus, the students are not to be permitted to enter the school. 10 students have come for an education that day - 10 students have been denied entry in direct violation of federal law.
"The officer repeated his order for us to leave. His men stood resolutely in formation, still blocking us out, their rifles slung across their chest. Our group stood there for a moment, not quite sure what to do. And then the ministers turned and led us silently away. The mob continued yelling in the distance, but this time, I barely heard any of it. I was completely stunned. I'd never missed a day of school in my life. I still could not believe that I was standing just steps from the schoolhouse door, wanting desperately just to go to class, and the powers that be wouldn't let me in. The highest court in the land had said I had a right to be at that school, to learn, just like the white children. What would it take to open those closed ears and change their hardened hearts?" - Carlotta Walls LaNier, one of the Little Rock Nine
Governor Orval Faubus reveals in an evening press conference that he had ordered the National Guardsmen surrounding Central High School to not permit the 10 students to enter. He tells newsmen that he does not consider this a violation of federal court orders to proceed with integration. Faubus also states that the command was issued from him to maintain peace and order, a responsibility of his as the chief executive of the state of Arkansas. Immediately after the press conference, Governor Faubus leaves his office - his aides will not tell the press where he has gone.
"The new order was based on the situation as it existed, the tension and unrest and in my judgment the real danger of disorder and violence and bodily harm to persons in the area." - Orval Faubus, Arkansas Democrat newspaper
September 6, 1957
Two major broadcasting networks, CBS and NBC offer to sit down with Governor Orval Faubus and give him a chance to tell his side of the Central High story thus far. Faubus has telegrammed President Dwight D Eisenhower with a willingness to provide evidence to the federal government justifying his use of the National Guard to “preserve the public peace." Eisenhower's response indicates, among other issues, that there is "no basis of fact" that federal authorities have considered taking Governor Faubus into custody.
September 7, 1957
Federal District Judge Ronald Davies denies a petition from the Little Rock School Board to delay integration at Central High School his ruling orders that desegregation begin on Monday, September 9.
Davies: “The testimony and arguments this morning were, in my judgment, as anemic as the petition itself." "In an organized society, there can be nothing but ultimate confusion and chaos if court decrees are flaunted, whatever the pretext."
While Virgil Blossom testified on behalf of the petition, Pine Bluff attorney Wiley Branton argued against the delay. Less than a decade earlier, Wiley Branton had helped integrate the University of Arkansas School of Law, assisting Silas Hunt in becoming the first African-American student admitted to the university since Reconstruction. Admitted in 1950, Branton would be the third African-American student to graduate with a law degree. One year before the desegregation crisis at Central High, Branton had filed suit against the Little Rock School Board for failing to integrate after the Brown v. Board of Education decision this lawsuit would ultimately be heard by the SCOTUS in 1958 as Cooper v. Aaron, a unanimous verdict that rejected the contention that the Arkansas legislature and Governor were not bound by the Brown decision and denied the Arkansas School Board the right to delay desegregation for 2.5 years.
President Dwight Eisenhower telegrams a defiant Governor Orval Faubus, “The only assurance I can give you is that the federal constitution will be upheld by me by every legal means at my command.”
September 8, 1957
Governor Orval Faubus conducts a televised press conference and re-affirms his stance on integration and insists that the federal government cease its demands for integration.
Question to Faubus: "You have called this a legal checker game, I believe. Whose move is it?"
Orval Faubus: "It is a little bit hard to tell at this time."
Faubus says that he has evidence that violence would happen if the Arkansas National Guard had not been called out, but declines to produce it. He is hopeful that the dispute over entering Central High can be over within a week.
Former President Harry Truman is asked by close friends to intervene with Governor Faubus, but he declines.
President Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1957 - the first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
- Creates the Civil Rights Division in the Justice Department
- Empowers federal officials to prosecute individuals who conspired to deny or abridge another citizen’s right to vote
- Establishes a six-member U.S. Civil Rights Commission charged with investigating allegations of voter infringement.
September 10, 1957
Federal District Judge Ronald Davies begins injunction proceedings against Governor Orval Faubus and two National Guardsmen for interfering with integration. The hearing is scheduled for September 20th.
Governor Orval Faubus, accompanied by Congressman Brooks Hays, meets with President Eisenhower at Newport, Rhode Island to discuss the unfolding integration crisis at Central High.
The private, twenty-minute meeting between Faubus and Eisenhower yields these statements:
Eisenhower - "The governor stated his intention to respect the decision of the U.S. District Court and to give his full cooperation in carrying out his responsibilities in respect to these decisions."
Faubus - "When I assure the President, as I have already done, that I expect to accept the decisions of the court, I entertain the hope that the Department of Justice and the federal judiciary will act with understanding and patience in discharging their duties."
Although Faubus and President Eisenhower walk away from the meeting cordially, no real progress is made towards an agreement.
Attorney General Brownell, Vice President Richard M. Nixon, and FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover all had advised against this meeting.
September 15, 1957
On this day 62 years ago, Governor Orval Faubus sits down for an interview with Mike Wallace from the Governor's Mansion in Little Rock - a day after his conference with President Eisenhower in Rhode Island.
Governor Faubus: "The Guard was not called out to prevent integration, but to keep the peace and order of the community. "
Faubus: "In fact, in a poll of the Little Rock area, eighty-two percent of the people agreed that disorder and violence would have occurred, had not I taken the action which I did."
Mike Wallace: "You and I, all of us, have seen photographs, Governor, of Negro children been turned away from Little Rock High school, and behind them white people jeering and cursing at them. Let me read to you what communist propaganda is to make of this several days ago, Radio Moscow said this, "The shameful spectacle of Negro children confronted by guns and ugly mobs, as they tried to enter schools, which racist elements are determined shall remain all white." Does it not give you pause to know that communist propagandists leap upon your actions to try to discredit the United States in the eyes of the world? In the eyes of the world which is composed of a majority of colored peoples?"
Faubus: "And that is why I want it to occur peacefully, with general acceptance, so that there will never be any such incidents as that. Sure you're quite willing now as others to point out the occurrence in Little Rock, but have you thought of the other occurrences across the land? Can I change the hearts of the people?"
September 16, 1957
Daisy Bates expresses concern at the "double talk" that comes out of the Faubus/Eisenhower conference in Rhode Island, noting that she was "very disappointed" that these two politicians laid out no "straightforward" explanations.
Eisenhower is strongly criticized by the Democratic Advisory Council, the policy-making arm of the Democratic National Committee. This 24-member group whose members include former President Harry S Truman and twice defeated presidential candidate Adlai E. Stevenson (both losses to Eisenhower, 1952/1956) said that Eisenhower "failed in his duty to make the principle clear to all of the country that the first responsibility of a Governor is to uphold the Federal Constitution." - Washington Post and Times Herald
An Associated Press report in the Arkansas Gazette describes an interview with African American students who are "marking time" until the Central High dispute is settled. Included among student names is sophomore Jane Hill. Her name will also appear in Elizabeth Huckaby's book Crisis at Central High, as Huckaby gathers class assignments for the African American students waiting to enter the school.
September 20, 1957
Federal District Judge Ronald Davies, during an injunction hearing, rules that Governor Orval Faubus had not used Arkansas National Guard troops to prevent violence.
"The petition of the United States of America as amicus curiae for a preliminary injunction against Governor Faubus, General Clinger and Colonel Johnson, and all others named in the petition is granted and such injunction shall issue without delay, enjoining those respondents from obstructing or preventing, by use of the National Guard or otherwise, the attendance of Negro students at Little Rock Central High School under the plan of integration approved by this Court and from otherwise obstructing or interfering with orders of this Court in connection with the plan of integration."
After being notified that the four attorneys representing him had walked out of the injunction hearing, Governor Faubus says, "Now begins the crucifixion. There will be no cross-examination, no evidence presented for the other side."
Three hours after the hearing ends, Faubus goes on television to announce the removal of the Arkansas National Guard from Central High School as members of the Little Rock Police Department assume duties around the high school campus. He leaves for the Southern Governor's Conference in Sea Island, Georgia.
Faubus tells the press: "I wouldn't think the parents of the Negro children would want their children in school with the situation that prevails now." Daisy Bates says she does not know yet when the students will return and try to enter Central High School.
September 23, 1957
An angry mob of over 1,000 whites gathers in front of Central High School, while nine African American students are escorted inside. The students enter Central High under protection of the Little Rock police and state troopers armed with riot guns and tear gas. The crowd outside becomes very threatening and attacks three out-of-state news reporters.
Four African American journalists - reporters Alex Wilson of the Memphis Tri-State Defender, James Hicks of the Amsterdam News, Moses J, Newsom of the Afro-American newspapers and photographer Earl Davy of Little Rock - are attacked outside Central High School after providing cover for the Little Rock Nine to enter through a side entrance under police escort.
Shortly after the attack near the school, Alex Wilson wrote about what happened to him on the morning and the choice he made that day:
"The disgraceful incident .. , occurred about 8:20 a.m. Monday, near the 16th and Park Street entrance of Central High. I parked my car about two blocks from the intersection. Newsom and I were in front with Hicks and Davy following, when we began the long, apprehensive walk. We had firsthand knowledge of where the nine stout-hearted Negro students were to enter and we set off at a fast clip to be on hand when they arrived at the campus entrance. About midway of the final block, we picked up a tail of two whites. They made no comment. We kept moving forward. A crowd of about one hundred faced the school (away from us), waiting for the nine students to appear. Then, someone in the crowd of whites spotted us advancing.
Suddenly the angry eyes of the entire pack were upon us. We moved forward to within ten feet of the mob, Two men spread their arms in eagle fashion, One shouted: "'You'll not pass!"
I tried to move to the left of the mob, but my efforts were thwarted. I made a half-turn left from the sidewalk and went over to a Little Rock policeman, who was standing mid-center of the street.
"What is your business?" he asked. I presented my press card. He took his time checking it. Then he said: "You better leave. Go on across the sidewalk" (away from the mob at my heels).
I followed his suggestion. After taking several steps, I looked back. The officer was near the opposite sidewalk, leaving the angry pack to track me.
The mob struck. I saw Davy being roughed up. Hicks and Newsom were retreating from kicks and blows. I stopped momentarily, as the boots and jeers behind me increased.
Strangely the vision of Elizabeth Eckford, one of the nine students, flashed before me as she with dignity strode through a jeering, hooting gauntlet of segregationists several days ago. Maybe, too, my training as a U.S. Marine in World War II and my experience as a war correspondent in Korea, and work on the Emmett Till case [a young African American boy who was lynched in Money, Mississippi, for whistling at a white woman] influenced my decision during that moment of crisis.
I decided not to run. If I were to be beaten, I'd take it walking if I could - not running."
Three and one-half hours after their entrance, school authorities and police remove the African American students through a side door and speed away in police cars. Reporters describe the crowds outside as "hysterical."
Little Rock Mayor Woodrow Mann sends an afternoon telegram to the White House in which he says that the "mob that gathered was no spontaneous assembly" and that it was "agitated, aroused, assembled by a concerted plan of action."
President Eisenhower addresses the "disgraceful occurrences" at Central High School and issues Presidential Proclamation 3204 which commands "all persons engaged in such obstruction of justice to cease and desist therefrom and to disperse forthwith."
Governor Faubus tells the press that he is keeping touch by phone with Lt. Governor Nathan Gordon and that he has "no plans at the moment to return to Little Rock" from Georgia.
September 24, 1957
Mayor Woodrow Mann telegrams the President "pleading..in the interest of humanity, law and order, and the cause of democracy worldwide to provide the necessary federal troops" to as the "mob is armed and engaging in fisticuffs and other acts of violence." He says the "situation is out of control and police cannot disperse the mob."
A release from the Governors' Conference in Georgia asks that President Eisenhower "notify the Governor of Arkansas that the maintenance of law and order in that State is considered to be the responsibility of the Governor of Arkansas, and that the Federal government will not attempt to exercise Federal responsibility in this matter so long as State and local authorities are able properly to perform this function."
President Eisenhower, informed of another mob at Central High after his cease-and-desist directive, federalizes the Arkansas National Guard, thus removing it from Governor Faubus's authority, and orders federal troops into Little Rock. One thousand members of the 327th Airborne Battle Group of the 101st Airborne Division are flown from Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to Little Rock and in place around Central High School by 7:00 p.m.
At 9:00 p.m. EDT, President Eisenhower addresses the nation from the White House indicating his decision and stating that “mob rule cannot be allowed to override the decisions of our courts.”
September 25, 1957
At 9:22 a.m., the Little Rock Nine are escorted through the front doors of Little Rock Central High School by more than 20 members of the 101st Airborne Infantry Division. As the Nine enter the main entrance under the care of 22 men, an Army helicopter circles overhead, 350+ paratroopers are surrounding the school's perimeter, and a crowd of students outside the building chant "2, 4, 6, 8, we ain't gonna integrate" in protest.
The area around the school has been cordoned off from spectators and protesters with only the press allowed inside a three-block perimeter this is the first occasion since school began three weeks prior that crowds had been prevented from gathering outside Central High School.
Before the Nine arrive at Central, Major General Edwin Walker, head of the Little Rock military district, addresses the student body in Central High's auditorium, telling them that "no one will interfere with coming, going, or your peaceful pursuit of your studies." Meanwhile, Federal Judge Ronald Davies calls for all four high schools in Little Rock to be integrated - Hall, Horace Mann, Little Rock Tech and Central, but only Central will see this take place.
Governor Faubus, silent since returning the previous night from the Southern Governors Conference, releases a statement saying he will go on television and radio the following night to discuss the "naked force being employed by the federal government against the people of my state."
Some 750 of Central High School's 2,000 students are absent.
September 26, 1957
Vice principals at Central bar from class the eighty boys and girls who signed out and left school on Wednesday, when the 101st escorted the African American s into school. Administrators require a conference with school authorities before returning to the building.
Governor Orval Faubus appears on television to address the people of Arkansas. He declares that “We are now in an occupied territory. Evidence of the naked force of the Federal Government is here apparent, in these unsheathed bayonets in the back of school girls.”
October 1, 1957
Federalized National Guard troops begin to take over responsibility from the 101st. School administrators ask them to "stay as much as possible in the background," a technique that Vice Principal Elizabeth Huckaby describes as "an error in judgment."
The 101st Airborne turns over control of the majority of their duties to the federalized Arkansas National Guard. At this point, emboldened by the marginalization of federal troops, those opposed to integration begin to harass the Little Rock Nine within the walls of Central High School.
October 2, 1957
Twenty-five community leaders call for peaceful compliance with the court ordered school integration. Alternatively, the Mother’s League petitions the Federal District Court to remove the 101st Airborne from Central High School on the grounds that their presence violated the state and federal constitution. The petition will be dismissed by Federal Judge Ronald Davies 15 days later.
October 3, 1957
Elizabeth Huckaby, alone, faces down a large group of white students who are confronting the Little Rock Nine outside the building, while other administrators and military officers attend a closed meeting in the principal's office. The student walkout planned for nine A.M. materializes, but many seniors, scheduled for college entrance exams, do not participate. Approximately 150 students walk out, some returning to the building by a side door. Those who remain outside go across the street and bum an African American effigy. Huckaby collects seventy names and school authorities suspend all of these students, pending conferences with their parents and Superintendent Blossom.
October 7, 1957
The sixth week of school and third of integration begins. A new system of assigning two guards per African American student begins for their individual protection. Appealing to segregationist fears, Faubus announces that members of the 101st Airborne Division troops invaded the girls' dressing rooms at Central High. Federal government spokespersons deny this charge.
Faubus says that 101st Airborne Division troops patrolling Central High School have invaded the privacy of girls' dressing rooms. Presidential press secretary James C. Hagerty calls the charge "completely untrue and also completely vulgar."
October 9, 1957
President Eisenhower is asked by a reporter about his opinion on Faubus' decision and the prospect of peaceful integration. In Little Rock, Governor Faubus says he does not think a "cooling off" period is possible at Central High School as long as the Little Rock Nine continue to attend classes. He defines "cooling off" as "a chance for tenseness to be allayed, time for litigation and time for the people to accept peacefully what is being crammed down their throats at bayonet point."
October 12, 1957
A mass prayer with 6,000-7,000 participants was held at churches and synagogues in the city of Little Rock for a peaceful resolution of the integration crisis at Central High School. Those involved did not favor either side of the integration dispute.
October 17, 1957
U.S. District Judge Ronald N. Davies dismisses a petition filed by an officer of the Mothers League of Central High School, which asked that a three-judge court be convened to order federal troops removed from the school.
October 24, 1957
The nine African American students enter Central High's front door for the first time without escort by federal troops.
November 8, 1957
Daisy Bates, President of the Arkansas Chapter of the NAACP, declared in the Arkansas State Press that “We believe that what is happening in Little Rock transcends the question of segregation versus integration. It is a question of right vs wrong, a question of respect against defiance of laws, a question of democracy against tyranny.”
November 14, 1957
Jeﬀerson Thomas, a member of the Little Rock Nine, is struck by a white student so hard that he falls to the ground. Another member of the Nine, Gloria Ray, is
insulted by a white student and pushed as the students are exiting an assembly. With the hopes of preserving the illusion that life was fine inside of Central High School, neither incident was made public.
November 18, 1957
The last 101st Airborne Division troops depart Little Rock, leaving federalized National Guardsmen on duty at Central High, still under the overall command of the 101st's Gen. Edwin A. Walker.
November 20, 1957
Despite constant incursions by “troublemakers” onto school grounds, the Justice Department decided not to prosecute these individuals as long as there was no further trouble.
November 27, 1957
The “last elements” of the 101 st Airborne departed Little Rock. Inside LRCHS, a rock is thrown at a hall guard by an unidentified student.
December 12, 1957
Businesses in the downtown area of Little Rock begin to receive anonymous letters warning of a massive boycott against their stores if they continued to advertise in the Arkansas Gazette due to the paper’s stand supporting integration.
December 17, 1957
Minnijean Brown, one of the Little Rock Nine, spills chili on the heads of two white boys who had been attempting to blocker way through the cafeteria by bumping into her with their chairs. For her action, Minnijean will receive a suspension until January 13th. On January 15th, white students will dump their chili on Minnijean in retaliation resulting in their expulsion.
January 8, 1958
Jim Johnson, a leader of the segregationists, files a proposed amendment to the Arkansas Constitution that would allow for district authorities to close schools that were facing court-ordered integration eﬀorts.
January 10, 1958
Darlene Holloway, a white girl, is suspended after a shoving incident involving Elizabeth Eckford.
January 24, 1958
Central High School receives its 5th bomb threat of the year. This time, dynamite is uncovered from an unused locker.
February 6, 1958
The Little Rock School Board again suspends Minnijean Brown, along with Lester Judkins Jr., who poured soup on her in the cafeteria. Brown has also called Frankie Ann Gregg "white trash" after Gregg hit Brown with a purse.
February 16, 1958
The Little Rock School Board publishes as an advertisement a school board statement on disciplinary policy, saying that it must provide an educational program and that if this means unruly students must be expelled, it will expel them.
February 17, 1958
The Little Rock School Board suspends three white students and expels Minnijean Brown for the remainder of the year. The board charges one white student, Billy Ferguson, with pushing Gloria Ray down a flight of stairs. It suspends Howard Cooper and Sammie Dean Parker for wearing "One Down and Eight to Go" cards. These printed badges refer to Brown's expulsion. Feb. 17: The Little Rock School Board expels Brown for the year. The Board also suspends three white Central students: Billy Ferguson, accused of having pushed African American student Gloria Ray down a flight of stairs and Howard Cooper and Sammie Dean Parker, for having worn "One Down, Eight to Go" badges referring to Brown's suspension.
February 20, 1958
Using a form of the Aaron v. Cooper case, the LRSD board files for a delay of two and one-half years in further desegregating Little Rock. The school board asks to be relieved of the burden of desegregation until the U.S. Supreme Court better defines "all deliberate speed," as specified in Brown II (1955). Feb. 20: The School Board asks the U.S. District Court to allow delay of integration here until the U.S. Supreme Court's requirement that desegregation be accomplished "with all deliberate speed" is more fully defined.
February 26, 1958
Sammie Dean Parker, a suspended student from Central High, and her mother physically attack Elizabeth Huckaby at a conference in Superintendent Virgil Blossom's office.
March 4, 1958
Amis Guthridge, a lawyer for the Capital Citizens' Council, offers a platform to suspended student Sammie Dean Parker to appear on a live thirty-minute television program, allowing her to say that her expulsion from Little Rock Central was unjust and was used as an example to other white students. March 4: Sammie Dean Parker appears on a 30-minute paid television program to be interviewed by attorney Amis Guthridge, a leader of the segregationist Capital Citizens Council. Parker says she was unjustly suspended as an example to other white students.
March 12, 1958
The Little Rock School Board allows Sammie Dean Parker to reenter Central High for the remainder of the school year after she agrees in writing that she will abide by the school's rules of conduct. Some historians have said that the LRSD board and Superintendent Blossom feared creating white martyrs in the community.
May 5, 1958
It is announced in New York that the Arkansas Gazette has received an unprecedented two Pulitzer Prizes, one the Gold Medal and another for editorial writing.
Tuesday, May 27, 1958
Senior Ernest Green becomes the first African American student to graduate from Central High School during its 149th commencement ceremony held at Quigley Stadium.
June 3, 1958
Highlighting numerous discipline problems during the school year, the school board asks the court for permission to delay the desegregation plan in Cooper v. Aaron.
June 21, 1958
Judge Harry Lemley grants the delay of integration until January 1961, stating that while the African American students have a constitutional right to attend white schools, the “time has not come for them to enjoy [that right.]”
September 12, 1958
Under appeal, the United States Supreme Court rules that Little Rock must continue with its desegregation plan. The School Board orders the high schools to open September 15. Governor Faubus orders four Little Rock high schools closed as of 8:00 a.m., September 15, 1958, pending the outcome of a public vote.
September 16, 1958
The Women’s Emergency Committee to Open Our Schools (WEC) forms and begins to solicit support for reopening the schools.
September 27, 1958
Citizens vote 19,470 to 7,561 against integration and the schools remain closed.
May 5, 1959
Segregationist members of the school board vote not to renew the contracts of 44 teachers and administrators they say supported integration.
May 8, 1959
The WEC and local businessmen form Stop This Outrageous Purge (STOP) and solicit voter signatures to recall the three segregationist board members. Segregationists form the Committee to Retain Our Segregated Schools (CROSS).
May 25, 1959
STOP wins the recall election in close victory. Three segregationists are voted off the school board and three moderate members are retained.
August 12, 1959
Little Rock public high schools reopen, nearly a month early. Segregationists rally at the State Capitol where Faubus advises them that it was a “dark” day, but they should not give up the struggle. They then march to Central High School where the police and fire departments break up the mob. Twenty-one people are arrested.
A Timeline of African American History in the United States
Across the country and the world, people are rallying behind the Black Lives Matter movement to enact change in a system that has historically been unjust to people of color. Our company recognizes the struggles African Americans have faced throughout history and think now is the time to elevate the voices of the unheard.
While this timeline only highlights some of the key events, movements, and people who have impacted United States history, it gives an overall sense of the conflict and injustice African Americans faced from the Colonial era to modern day. We encourage all readers to explore the resources outlined at the end of this timeline and continue learning about the comprehensive history of African Americans in the United States.
1607. Jamestown, Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas, is founded.
1619. Slavery in America begins in Jamestown for the labor-intensive but lucrative tobacco crop.
1650. Approximately five hundred persons of African origin or descent are now slaves in the Virginia colony.
1662. Virginia declares that children born to slave women are also slaves.
1676. Bacon’s Rebellion, the first armed rebellion in the American colonies, occurs. Poor white former indentured servants and enslaved Africans form an alliance against bond servitude. The ruling class responds by hardening the racial caste of slavery in an attempt to divide the two races from subsequent united uprisings.
1705. The Virginia Slave Codes are passed, in direct response to Bacon’s Rebellion.
1775. The American Revolution begins.
1776. The Declaration of Independence is signed.
1780. An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery is passed in Pennsylvania. It is the first act abolishing slavery in the course of human history to be adopted by a democracy.
1783. The American Revolution ends.
Photo: Library of Congress
1793. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 is passed in Congress, securing rights for a slaveholder to recover an escaped slave.
Early 1800s. Westward expansion, along with a growing abolition movement in the North, sparks a national debate over slavery. Southern states want new territories in the West to become slave-holding states.
1800s. Antislavery northerners helped slaves escape from southern plantations to the North via a loose network of safe houses called the Underground Railroad.
1807. Thomas Jefferson signs the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves.
1820. The Missouri Compromise is passed.
1831. Nat Turner leads a slave revolt in Virginia.
1833. The American Anti-Slavery Society is founded.
1835. The first recorded lynching of an African American occurs in St. Louis.
1845. Frederick Douglass publishes his first autobiography and best-known work, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave.
1852. Uncle Tom's Cabin is published, helping fuel the abolitionist movement.
1857. In Dred Scott v. Sandford, the Supreme Court case finds that the U.S. Constitution does not protect or recognize free or enslaved African Americans as citizens.
1859. John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry.
Photo: Library of Congress
Civil War and Reconstruction
1861. The American Civil War begins.
1863 . Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect, changing the legal status of 3 million slaves in designated areas of the Confederacy from "slave" to "free."
1864. The Fugitive Slave Law is repealed.
1865. The thirteenth amendment passed, abolishing slavery throughout the United States.
1865. On June 19, Union soldiers arrive in Galveston, Texas to spread the news of the Civil War end and subsequent freedom of slavery. This will eventually be celebrated as "Juneteenth" across America.
1865. Mississippi is the first state to legislate Black Codes post–Civil War, restricting rights and discriminating against free African Americans
1868. The fourteenth amendment is passed, guaranteeing citizenship rights and equal protection under law.
1870. The fifteenth amendment is passed, guaranteeing that a citizen’s right to vote would not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Jim Crow Era
1885. A majority of Southern states pass individual state laws requiring separate schools for black and white students.
1887. The Thibodaux massacre occurs in Louisiana.
1896. Plessy v. Ferguson legitimizes state laws reestablishing racial segregation in Southern states.
1900. A majority of Southern states pass laws that required African Americans to be separated from white citizens in railroad cars and depots, hotels, theaters, restaurants, barber shops, and other establishments.
1905. W.E.B. Du Bois calls for social and political change for African Americans during the Niagara Movement.
1906. The Atlanta race riot occurs.
1909. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded.
1916. The Great Migration begins, where more than six million African Americans move from the rural South to various urban metropolitan areas, including Chicago, Detroit, Philadelphia, and New York City.
1918. The Dyer Anti-lynching Bill is first introduced, intending to establish lynching as a federal crime. However, the bill is halted in the Senate by a filibuster from Southern states and does not pass until reintroduced in 2020.
1920. The Harlem Renaissance marks the first time that mainstream publishers and critics turned their attention seriously to African American literature, music, art, and politics.
1921. The Greenwood massacre occurs, where mobs of white residents attacked black residents and businesses in the wealthy Black Wall Street district in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It is the single worst incident of racial violence in American history.
1932. The Tuskegee Institute collaborates with the U.S. government to conduct syphilis experiments on African American men.
1941. World War II begins.
1941. The Tuskegee Airmen become the first graduates from an all-African American pilot training program to subsequently fight in World War II.
1942. Civil-rights leader, James Farmer, founds the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).
1947. Jackie Robinson becomes the first African American to play on a Major League Baseball team.
Photo: Library of Congress
Civil Rights Movement
1954. In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court unanimously overturns the decision of Plessy v. Ferguson and legally mandates public schools to integrate.
1955. Emmett Till is murdered in Mississippi.
1955. Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a city bus to a white man, and the Montgomery bus boycott ensues.
1957. T he Little Rock Nine become the first African American students to attend the previously all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
1960. Greensboro University sit-ins spark various forms of peaceful protest against segregation across the United States.
1961. The freedom ride from Washington D.C. to New Orleans occurs.
1963. Martin Luther King Jr. writes his famous “Letter from Birmingham Jail.”
1963. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom advocates for the civil and economic rights of African Americans.
Photo: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration
1963. Chicago Public Schools boycott.
1964. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is passed it prohibits discrimination in public facilities and in the employment of African Americans.
1964. In Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States, the Supreme Court determines that private businesses must abide by the Civil Rights Act, which prohibits discrimination in public accommodations.
1965. Malcom X is shot during a speaking engagement in Harlem.
1965. Three marches are organized from Selma to Montgomery to protest the obstruction of African Americans from voting.
1965. The Voting Rights Act is passed in response to restrictions of minorities’ voting rights, primarily in the South.
1966. Led by Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton, t he Black Panther Movement rises.
1967. An all-white jury finds seven of the defendants in the murders from the 1964 Freedom Summer guilty. The verdict is hailed as a major civil rights victory as it is the first time anyone in Mississippi has been convicted for a crime against a civil rights worker.
1967. The United States Supreme Court decision Loving v. Virginia strikes down all anti-miscegenation laws remaining in sixteen U.S. states.
1968. The Fair Housing Act is passed to ensure equal housing opportunity for minorities.
1968. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
1968. Shirley Chisholm is the first black woman elected to the U.S. Congress she will later run for president in 1972.
1971. Jesse Jackson founds People United to Save Humanity (PUSH), becoming an influential leader in the civil rights movement after Martin Luther King Jr.
1978. In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, the Supreme Court rules that the use of strict racial quotas is unconstitutional, but the case also upholds that universities can rightfully use race as a criterion in admissions decisions in order to ensure diversity.
1980. The Miami race riots occur after the acquittal of four Dade County police officers who caused the death of Arthur McDuffie during his arrest.
1982. President Reagan launches the War on Drugs, creating the Office of National Drug Control Policy to coordinate drug-related legislative, security, research, and health policy. This new law disproportionately leads to the arrest of thousands of African Americans on suspected drug charges.
1986. Martin Luther King Jr. Day is first celebrated as a national holiday.
1991. Anita Hill testifies against Clarence Thomas in front of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee.
1992. The Los Angeles riots, four days of rioting occur as a direct response to the videotaped beating of Rodney King and the subsequent acquittal of the LAPD officers involved.
1994. O. J. Simpson is acquitted after almost a year of litigation of the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman.
1995. The Million Man March is organized by Louis Farrakhan to protest the disproportionate number of African Americans incarcerated.
1997. African American women participate in the Million Woman March in Philadelphia, focusing on health care, education, and self-help.
2001. President-elect George W. Bush nominates Colin Powell to be Secretary of State. Condoleezza Rice is also appointed to the position of National Security Advisor for the Bush administration. This is the first time either post has been held by an African American.
2008. Barack Obama is elected the 44th President of the United States.
2013. George Zimmerman, who shot and killed unarmed seventeen-year-old Trayvon Martin, is acquitted.
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
2013. The Black Lives Matter Network is formed by Patrisse Cullors, Alicia Garza, and Opal Tometi with the mission to “eradicate white supremacy and build local power to intervene in violence inflicted on Black communities by the state and vigilantes.”
2014. Eric Garner dies in Staten Island after being placed in a choke hold during arrest by the NYPD.
2014. In Ferguson, Missouri, Michael Brown is killed by a police officer, leading to multiple waves of protests and weeks of civil unrest throughout the city.
2014. Twelve-year-old Tamir Rice is killed in Cleveland, Ohio by a police officer after reports of a male who was “probably a juvenile” pointing a gun that was “probably fake” at passers by.
2016. Philandro Castile is shot by Minnesota PD during a traffic stop.
2016. Colin Kaepernick, Eric Reid, and Eli Harold kneel during the national anthem as a form of solidarity for the Black Lives Matter movement.
2018. Stephon Clark died after being shot at least seven times by police in Sacramento, California.
2020. Black Lives Matter protests in direct response to the death of George Floyd after being handcuffed and pinned to the ground by police officer Derek Chauvin. Floyd’s death comes on the heels of two other high-profile cases in 2020 where black citizens, 25-year-old Ahmaud Arbery and 26-year-old EMT Breonna Taylor, were killed by police officers.
Additional resources to learn about the African American experience and history:
Read one man's personal reflection and call to action for the Black Lives Matter movement
Monet Hendricks is the blog editor and social media/meme connoisseur for Social Studies School Service . Passionate about the field of education, she earned her BA from the University of Southern California before deciding to go back to get her master's degree in educational psychology. She currently attends the graduate program at Azusa Pacific University pursuing advanced degrees in school psychology and Applied Behavior Analysis. Her favorite activities include watching documentaries on mental health and cooking adventurous vegetarian recipes.
Key Events in the 1953 Coup
• Support grows for the nationalization of Iran&aposs oil industry.
• Nationalist Mohammed Mossadegh becomes prime minister and angers the British by wresting control of the oil industry.
July 22, 1952
• Under pressure, the Shah is forced to reappoint Mossadegh.
• The C.I.A. begins drafting a plan to bring to power, through covert action, a government in Iran that would be preferred by the United States.
April 16, 1953
• A C.I.A. study entitled "Factors Involved in the Overthrow of Mossadegh" is completed. The study concludes that a coup in Iran is possible.
May 13, 1953
• C.I.A. and British intelligence officers meet in Nicosia, Cyprus, to draft plans for the coup. Meanwhile, the C.I.A.&aposs Tehran station is granted approval to launch a "grey propaganda" campaign to discredit the Mossadegh government.
June 10, 1953
• C.I.A. officers meet in Beirut for a final review of the coup plan.
June 19, 1953
• The final operation plan for the coup, agreed upon by both the C.I.A. and British intelligence, is submitted to the U.S. State Department and the Foreign Office in London.
July 1, 1953
• Britain&aposs prime minister gives final approval to the operational plan for the coup.
July 11, 1953
• President Eisenhower gives final approval to the operational plan for the coup.
July 23, 1953
• A British Foreign Office memorandum is presented to an Under Secretary of State, reassuring the U.S. that the British would be flexible on the issue of controlling oil in Iran.
July 25, 1953
• Under pressure from the C.I.A., Princess Ashraf, the Shah&aposs sister, flies to Tehran from France in order to convince the Shah to sign the royal decrees that would dismiss Mossadegh.
". should the Shah fail to go along with the U.S. representative or fail to produce the [legal] documents for General Zahedi, Zahedi would be informed that the United States would be ready to go ahead without the Shah&aposs active cooperation. " — C.I.A. Document, Appendix B, page 10
July 29, 1953
• The C.I.A. intensifies a propaganda effort, which included planting stories in major American newspapers, to weaken the Mossadegh government.
Aug. 1, 1953
• In a meeting with Gen. H. Norman Schwartzkopf, the Shah refuses to sign the C.I.A.-written royal decrees firing Mossadegh and naming Gen. Zahedi as the new prime minister of Iran.
Aug. 4, 1953
• Mossadegh, suspecting that British and American governments were plotting against him, holds a referendum calling for the Iranian parliament to be dissolved.
Aug. 13, 1953
• The shah signs a royal decrees dismissing Mossadegh. Word of the shah&aposs support for the coup spreads quickly in Iran.
Aug. 15, 1953
• The coup begins, but falters and then fails because Mossadegh received advanced warning of the plans. Zahedi goes into hiding.
Aug. 16, 1953
• The shah flees to Baghdad.
Aug. 17, 1953
• Gen. Zahedi announces that he is the prime minister. To support this claim, C.I.A. agents disseminate a large quantity of photographs of the royal decrees dismissing Mossadegh and appointing Zahedi. The shah announces that he indeed signed the decrees.
Aug. 18, 1953
• The C.I.A., discouraged by the failed coup, sends a message to Tehran ordering the operations against Mossadegh to be halted.
Aug. 19, 1953
• Several Tehran newspapers publish the Shah&aposs decrees. As a result, supporters of the Shah begin gathering in the streets, and another coup begins. Gen. Zahedi comes out of hiding to lead the movement. By the end of the day, the country is in the hands of Zahedi and members of the Mossadegh government are either in hiding or incarerated.
SLIDE SHOW: Demonstrations Erupt During Coup
Timeline of Civil Rights Movement: 1954 – 1960
May 1954: Brown vs. Board of Education declares segregation illegal.
December 1955: African-Americans boycott bus service in Montgomery, Alabama after Rosa Parks refuses to give up her bus seat to a white man.
January 1957: Martin Luther King, Jr. and other civil rights leaders form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) for nonviolent integration. Followers were encouraged to use nonviolent resistance at demonstrations.
September 1957: School opens at Little Rock Central High. Nine African-American students are denied access to the school by an angry mob. It takes three weeks, presidential intervention and over 10,000 federalized Arkansas National Guard to achieve integration.
April 1960: Student activism grows on college campuses sit-ins erupt. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is organized.
Civil Rights: Timeline of Events
Civil rights ensure equality and include protection from unlawful discrimination. Many civil rights in the United States stem from action in response to the Civil Rights Movement, but there were many significant occurrences affecting civil rights that proceeded that era and there are many that followed that strive for freedom and equality and the continued preservation of civil rights. Below are summaries of key events to relevant to American civil rights.
Dred Scott v. Sanford (Denial of Basic Rights to Blacks)
A major precursor to the Civil War, this controversial U.S. Supreme Court decision denied citizenship and basic rights to all blacks -- whether slave or free.
President Abraham Lincoln's "Emancipation Proclamation" takes effect proclaiming freedom from slavery for African-Americans.
13th Amendment Passes
The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is passed, abolishing slavery in the United States.
14th Amendment Passes
The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is passed, guaranteeing due process and equal protection rights to all citizens.
15th Amendment Passes
The 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is passed, guaranteeing the right to vote for all U.S. citizens.
Wyoming Becomes First State to Grant Women the Right to Vote
Plessy v. Ferguson (Approval of "Separate but Equal" Facilities)
The U.S. Supreme Court "separate but equal" decision in Plessy v. Ferguson approved laws requiring racial segregation, as long as those laws did not allow for separate accommodations and facilities for blacks that were inferior to those for whites.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Founded
19th Amendment Passes
The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is passed, granting women the right to vote.
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) Founded
Roosevelt Issues Order Relocating Japanese-Americans
On February 19, 1942 (shortly after the U.S. entered World War II) President F.D. Roosevelt issued an executive order designating much of the west coast a "military area", and requiring relocation of most Japanese-Americans from certain west coast states. Many of the more than 100,000 persons who were relocated were forced to live in "interment" or "relocation" camps.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (De-Segregation in Education)
The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas ended legal racial segregation in public schools.
Montgomery Bus Boycotts
African-American woman Rosa Parks's arrest after her refusal to move to the back of a bus triggers a citywide boycott of the bus system.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka II, Kansas (De-Segregation in Education)
The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas II implements the anti-segregation provisions that had been mandated in Brown I, and orders that states comply with "all deliberate speed."
Bailey v. Patterson (De-Segregation in Transportation)
The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Bailey v. Patterson declares that segregation in transportation facilities is unconstitutional.
Martin Luther King, Jr.: "I Have a Dream"
Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers the historic "I Have a Dream" speech.
Equal Pay Act
Passing Congress in 1963, the Equal Pay Act is a federal law requiring that employers pay all employees equally for equal work, regardless of whether the employees are male or female.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in a number of settings: voting, public accommodations, public facilities, public education, federally-assisted programs, and employment and establishes the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 prohibits the denial or restriction of the right to vote, and forbids discriminatory voting practices nationwide.
Malcolm X Assassinated in New York City
Watts Riots in Los Angeles
Beginning as a community-wide reaction to the arrest of three African-Americans in central Los Angeles, the Watts Riots continue for six days and is a key precursor to the "Black Power" movement of the late 1960's.
Loving v. Virginia (Inter-Racial Marriage)
The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Loving v. Virginia declares that laws prohibiting inter-racial marriage are unconstitutional.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassinated in Memphis
Equal Rights Amendment Passes in Congress
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was intended to explicitly guarantee equality to all persons, regardless of gender. After passing in Congress, the amendment did not receive enough votes for ratification by the individual states, and was never signed into law.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (Affirmative Action)
The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke holds that college admission standards giving preferential consideration to minority applicants are constitutional.
Pregnancy Discrimination Act Signed
The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 prohibits employment discrimination against female workers who are (or intend to become) pregnant -- including discrimination in hiring, failure to promote, and wrongful termination.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Signed into law in 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protects persons with disabilities from discrimination in many aspects of life, including employment, education, and access to public accommodations.
Family and Medical Leave Act
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), passed in 1993, gives employees the right to take time off from work in order to care for a newborn (or recently adopted) child, or to look after an ill family member.
Lawrence v. Texas (Rights of Same-Sex Couples)
The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lawrence v. Texas declares unconstitutional a Texas statute that criminalizes same-sex sexual activity.
Shelby County v. Holder (Voting Rights)
The U.S. Supreme Court, in Shelby County v. Holder, declares unconstitutional Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act which requires states with discriminatory histories to get preclearance from Congress before changing their voting laws.
Obergefell v. Hodges (Rights of Same-Sex Couples)
The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Obergefell v. Hodges declares same-sex marriage legal in all 50 states.
10 Important Events in Education History
Horace Mann started a movement to bring about state-sponsored public education. His movement included a statewide curriculum and the use of local property tax to fund public education. The Common Schools Movement allowed students to go to public school and learn for free.
The Measurement Movement was sparked by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon. This movement involves measuring the intelligence of each human's brain. The Measurement Movement created what we know as the IQ test. An IQ score can determine if students need to be placed into a special program for extra help or if students are advanced for their age group.
Dickerson, A. (2016, Feb. 3). The measurement movement- the development of the intelligence quotient (IQ). Retrieved from https://prezi.com/qzxdpe6-hou2/the-measurement-movement-the-development-of-the-intelligen/
The Brown V.S. Board of Education decision is handed down
The Brown V. Board of Education is an important part of education's history, because this movement made it so that children of all races could go to school together. Before the Brown V. Board of Education movement occurred, children of different races were forced to follow the "separate but equal" doctrine. This movement brought attention to the fact that it was extremely unfair and unequal to teach white and African American students in different schools.
Here is a video about the Brown V. Board of Education :
Duignan. B. (2010, Apr. 7). Brown v. board of education of topeka. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/event/Brown-v-Board-of-Education-of-Topeka
National Defense Education Act
The National Defense Education Act or the NDEA was created in order to enhance and strengthen the American school system through funds. It also highly encouraged students to pursue education after high school. This act was put into effect due to the United States' concern to be able to compete with the Soviet Union, specifically in science and technology areas.
Head Start Program
Head Start was created to help preschool children that come from low-income families by providing them with a program that can meet their emotional, social, health, and psychological needs. Head Start started off as an eight week project to a program that includes full day and year services. This program was also started by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act or the ESEA. All of this was possible, because of President Johnson's war against poverty.
Head Start Early Childhood Learning & Knowledge Center. (2018, March 2). Retrieved from https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/about-us/article/head-start-history
Office of Head Start. (2019, June 4). History of Head Start. Retrieved from https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ohs/about/history-of-head-start
Title IX is a law that prohibits discrimination against students or employees based on their sex in a educational institution. Before this law was passed, female students and faculty were both limited in what they could do.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is a law that allows a free appropriate public education to children with disabilities. This law provides special education and services to the children in the program.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. (2004). About IDEA. Retrieved from https://sites.ed.gov/idea/about-idea/
The Standards Movement began with the Nation at Risk Report. This movement placed an emphasis on setting academic standards. It told teachers what students should know in their grade. Standards also determine what curriculum teachers and schools use to meet the correct standards.