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Mamo YT-325 - History

Mamo YT-325 - History


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Mamo

A former name retained.

(YT-325: t. 332 (gr.) ; 1. 130'; b. 28'11" ; a. none)

Mamo (YT-325) was built by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., San Francisco, Calif., in January 1931; acquired by the Navy from Young Brothers Ltd., Honolulu, Hawaii; and commissioned there 9 May 1942.

Assigned to the 14th Naval District, Mamo served out of Pearl Harbor throughout World War II. She was redesignated YTM-325 on 13 April 1944 and on 15 May 1944 redesignated YTB-325. The large harbor tug was returned to her owner 5 February 1946.


BOOM! Studios has revealed a first look at Mamo #1, the first issue in the five-issue debut comic book series from acclaimed illustrator and rising star cartoonist Sas Milledge, about a young hedge witch who returns to her hometown after her grandmother’s death, only to find an unlikely new friend and a series of mysterious magical disturbances that need to be solved, available on July 7, 2021.

Can Orla O’Reilly embrace her destiny in order to bridge the divide between humanity and the faerie world? Orla, the youngest in a long line of hedge witches, finds herself pulled back to her hometown after the death of her grandmother: Mamo. Without Mamo managing magical relationships between the townsfolk and the fae, the seas are impossible to fish, the crops have soured… and Jo Manalo’s attic has been taken over by a poltergeist! Now, Orla and Jo will both be pulled into worlds they never wanted to be part of. Can the two girls work together to save the town?

Mamo #1 features main cover art by series creator Sas Milledge and variant covers by acclaimed artists Trung Lê Nguyễn and Veronica Fish.


Stateless, She Became the Face of a Largely Invisible Plight

Maha Mamo had no citizenship. Born in Lebanon of Syrian parents, she was ineligible for either nationality. It took her years of perseverance and some lucky breaks to find a homeland — in Brazil.

RIO DE JANEIRO — The subject was taboo during her childhood in Lebanon, whispered about but never discussed openly.

It came to a head when Maha Mamo was 15 and, furious to miss out on a Girl Scouts trip abroad, she confronted her parents.

It was then that Ms. Mamo learned that she and her two siblings had been born stateless, ineligible for citizenship in any country, and deprived of the basic rights that come with it — including the passport needed for her scouts trip.

Lebanon does not automatically grant citizenship to the children of immigrants who are born there, as she and her siblings were, her parents explained. And documents from their own home country, Syria, were out of the question, her mother and father said, because their interfaith marriage was illegal there.

Ms. Mamo’s search for a homeland led her to Brazil, where in 2018 she and her sister, Souad, became the first stateless people to become citizens under a new immigration law in the country.

Over her yearslong quest, Ms. Mamo, who recently published a memoir about her ordeal, has become the most visible formerly stateless person and a singularly effective advocate for the plight of millions who remain in limbo.

Years before she got a passport, Ms. Mamo, now 32, traveled the world using a special travel document issued to some stateless people, delivering impassioned speeches at United Nations conferences and other events.

“Thanks to her public appearances and social media presence across different continents,” said Melanie Khanna, the head of the statelessness section at the United Nations refugee agency, “thousands of people have understood how someone can wind up stateless through no fault of their own, and how devastating the consequences of that are.”

The number of people around the world who lack a nationality is difficult to assess. There are at least 4.2 million stateless people in the 79 countries that report them, but the U.N. agency believes that to be a severe undercount and that the problem affects many millions more.

Statelessness arises from a variety of situations, including redrawn borders, discriminatory laws that prevent women from passing on their nationality to a child, births that go unregistered, or the mass expulsion of an ethnic group.

Ms. Mamo’s journey to becoming a passport-bearing, globe-trotting activist and author who delivers pitch-perfect speeches, including a TED Talk in Geneva, began with years of despondence.

Life in Lebanon felt stifling for Ms. Mamo and her two siblings. Her parents worried whenever the children crossed checkpoints in war-ravaged Beirut, where Syrians were often treated with hostility.

Money was tight, she said. Her mother, who had been a nurse in Syria, didn’t work in Lebanon. Her father used his truck to earn money as a mover. The children got new clothes twice a year — during Christmas and Easter.

Since the children had no documents, their parents had to work miracles to get them enrolled in school, pleading with officials for waivers and favors. When she was old enough to consider college, Ms. Mamo found only one university willing to take her, which meant giving up her dream to study medicine.

She pursued the longest of long shots, including adoption by a friend’s parents. The Mamo family paid a small fortune to people who said they knew someone who knew someone who could make them Lebanese.

“We did everything you can imagine,” she said. “We lost a lot of money paying people who said they had connections.”

Her siblings seemed resigned to their fates. But Ms. Mamo decided she would not rest until she found a way out. She made a list of all the embassies in Lebanon and sent each one an email describing the missed opportunities and the dreams she harbored.

For years, most embassies ignored her and some sent curt replies. In 2013, Mexico’s ambassador wrote back, offering to help find a way to get her there.

That possibility prompted Ms. Mamo’s sister, Souad, to try her luck as well. She sent her own barrage of emails to diplomatic missions. In March 2014, Brazil’s embassy extended Souad, and, subsequently, Ms. Mamo and her brother, Eddy, an invitation to travel to Brazil under a special visa for Syrian refugees.

Ms. Mamo knew next to nothing about Brazil. “The only thing we knew was it was an insecure country,” she said.

With the audacity that had gotten her that far, Ms. Mamo scrolled through Facebook to see if she could find friends who had been to Brazil and found that a scout from her former troop had once stayed briefly with a Brazilian family.

She sent a message to the family introducing herself. To her surprise, the family invited her and her siblings to stay at their home in the southeastern city of Belo Horizonte.

In Sept. 2014, when she was 26, Ms. Mamo boarded a flight out of Lebanon — after paying the government thousands of dollars in fines for overstaying her visa.

Once in Brazil, she was initially dazzled by the size of the country and the hospitality she encountered. But soon, it dawned on her there was no clear pathway to legalize her immigration status — a fact no one at the Brazilian embassy in Beirut had made clear.

“You start feeling confusion, like, what am I doing here,” Ms Mamo said. “I don’t understand the language, I don’t understand the culture.”

Ms. Mamo worked odd jobs in Belo Horizonte, like distributing pamphlets in the street.

In March 2015, an interview she gave for a Brazilian television program about statelessness sparked her career as an activist. Officials at the United Nations, which the previous year had begun a campaign urging countries to enact policies to eliminate statelessness, took note.

They helped Ms. Mamo obtain a travel document, and soon she was flying across the world, telling her story and urging lawmakers to create legal avenues to citizenship for the untold millions without a nationality.

The United Nations created two conventions regarding the rights of stateless persons after World War II, but they got relatively few signatories.

That meant even countries with a history of welcoming immigrants, including Brazil and the United States, lacked a pathway for stateless people who aspired to become citizens.

Ms. Mamo was getting weary of putting so much work and time into the activism that was not bringing her and her siblings closer to a resolution of their statelessness. Then Eddy, her brother, was killed during a robbery attempt near their home in June 2016.

The death generated widespread news coverage in Brazil and gave Ms. Mamo’s activism urgency. Officials in the capital, Brasília, took note. In 2017, when lawmakers updated the country’s immigration code, they included a new provision to provide stateless people a streamlined path to citizenship.

In June 2018, Torquato Jardim, who was then the minister of justice, invited Ms. Mamo and her sister to the capital for a ceremony in which they became the first stateless people designated as eligible for citizenship in Brazil.

A few months later, Brazilian officials in Geneva surprised Ms. Mamo with her citizenship papers when she finished one of her trademark statelessness speeches, which she often delivers with a Brazilian flag draped over her shoulders.

United Nations officials credit Ms. Mamo’s persistence with putting the issue on the political agenda in Brazil, which is among only 23 countries that currently have legal pathways to absorb stateless people.

Ms. Mamo said she has grown to feel viscerally Brazilian, feeling at home in a nation with such a broad amalgam of races, creeds and countries of ancestry. “Whenever they hear my story, no one is going to ask me: Are you Muslim, are you Christian?” she said. “They value you simply for being a human being.”

In December 2018, during one of the first trips she took using her Brazilian passport, Ms. Mamo found herself clearing customs in Paris just as a flight from Beirut landed.

She couldn’t help noticing that immigration control officers closely inspected the passports and visas of the Lebanese passengers, and asked lots of questions.

Unlike the Lebanese, Brazilians don’t need a visa for France. When she presented her passport, she was welcomed with a warm smile — no questions asked.

“I was like, oh my God, I love my Brazilian passport.” she said. Watching the Lebanese getting more scrutiny, she couldn’t shake a bit of schadenfreude. “What comes around goes around,” she said.


Drepanis funerea Newton, A, 1894

(Fringillidae Hawaii Mamo D. pacifica) Gr. δρεπανη drepanē or δρεπανηις drepanēis sickle < δρεπω drepō to pluck "One of the largest (23cm) Hawaiian honeycreepers with huge sickle-shaped bill." (Pratt 2005) "16. HÉOROTAIRE (1), Drepanis. (Temm.) — Caract. Bec très-long, beaucoup plus que la tête, en quart de cercle, gros et triangulaire à sa base, subulé et très-effilé à la pointe mandibule supérieure plus long que l'inférieure, sans échancrure. Langue courte, cartilagineuse. Narines basales, latérales, à moitié fermées en dessus. Pieds: tarse du double plus long que le doigt du milieu latéraux égaux l'extérieur soudé à sa base. Ailes: la 1re. remige nulle, la 2e. presque aussi longue que les 3e., 4e. et 5e. qui sont les plumes longues. Esp. Certhia pacifica, — Obscura. — Vestiaria et probablement falcata, que je n'ai pas vue. . (1) Toutes espèces de l'Océanique." (Temminck 1820) "Drepanis Temminck, 1820, Man. Ornith., ed. 2, 1, p. 86 [sic = lxxxvj]. Type, by subsequent designation, Certhia pacifica Gmelin (G. R. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, ed. 1, p. 12)." (Greenway in Peters, 1968, XIV, p. 95).
Var. Depranis.
Synon. Drepanita, Drepanorhamphus, Falcator, Heorataria, Heorotarius, Hoerataria, Vestiaria.
• (Apodidae ?syn. Apus) L. drepanis swift < Gr. δρεπανις drepanis sickle-wing, a bird mentioned by Aristotle and Hesychius, latterly identified as a swift or a falcon "1. Sous-famille. HIRUNDIA. Les Hirundiens: 3 doigts antérieurs, 1 postérieur G. 1. Hirundo L. 2. Caprimulgus L. 3. Agotilax R. 4. Ibijus R. 5. Drepanis R." (Rafinesque 1815).
• (Meliphagidae syn. Melithreptus † White-naped Honeyeater M. lunatus) "FAMIGLIA 17. ANTHOMYZI. (Trochilidæ) . 126. Drepanis, Temm. (Melithreptus, V.) Am. m. 4." (Bonaparte 1831) "Drepanis "Temm." Bonaparte, 1831, Giornale Arcadico, XLIX, p. 48 (not of Temminck, 1820). Alternative name for Melithreptus Vieillot, 1816." (JAJ 2021).


Sas Milledge’s MAMO explores small-town witchcraft this summer from BOOM! Studios

The five-issue miniseries from the BOOM! Box imprint follows a young witch who returns home after the death of her grandmother.

BOOM! Studios is adding another magical series to its BOOM! Box imprint. The publisher today has announced Mamo, a new five-issue series written and illustrated by Sas Milledge. The series, the first both written and illustrated by Milledge, follows a young witch who encounters unexpected challenges upon her return to her hometown.

Here’s how BOOM! describes Mamo:

Orla O’Reilly has never been the type of witch to put down roots. The youngest in a long line of hedge witches, Orla finds herself back in the town where she grew up after her grandmother, Mamo’s, death. But without Mamo around to deal with the town’s magic, it’s quickly fallen into chaos and now there’s a poltergeist in local Jo Manalo’s attic!

When Jo goes to Orla for help, the young hedge witch is reluctantly pulled into the town’s complicated relationship with the Fae, and Jo gets a crash course on the surprising world of magic that lies right beneath the surface of her normal, boring hometown. They’ll have to work together to find the source of all their otherworldly problems but are the two up to the task?

Mamo is the latest work from cartoonist Milledge for BOOM! Studios. She has previously illustrated an issue of Buffy, The Vampire Slayer, as well as a 2017 special for Jim Henson’s Labyrinth. Milledge also illustrated the middle-grade book The Lost Carnival: A Dick Grayson Graphic Novel for DC Comics.

In a statement accompanying the announcement of Mamo, Milledge expressed her excitement at bringing the series to readers:

“I am so excited to finally share MAMO with the world! This book has been circling around my head for the better part of a decade, and I’m so glad it has finally landed here in its final form a story about family and friendship filled with witches, birds, faeries, and trolls!”

BOOM! Studios Associate Editor Sophie Philips-Roberts also expressed enthusiasm for Milledge’s work on Mamo:

“Sas Milledge has magicked into existence an exciting new world for us to explore, filled with the most delightful witches, magic, and mystery. MAMO is a fresh new take on the modern witch, and also, an insightful look at what it’s like to grow up, move away, then come home as an adult to deal with family and legacies long forgotten.”

The five-issue Mamo joins a diverse BOOM! Box lineup that also includes fellow witchcraft-themed series The Last Witch, supernatural adventure series Specter Inspectors, and magical girl/superhero series Save Yourself!, among many others.

Check out a few pages of interior artwork from Mamo #1, as well as variant covers for the issue by Trung Lê Nguyễn and Veronica Fish, below. The first issue of the five-issue miniseries arrives in stores in July 2021.


Mamo decodes hierarchical temporal gradients into terminal neuronal fate

Temporal patterning is a seminal method of expanding neuronal diversity. Here we unravel a mechanism decoding neural stem cell temporal gene expression and transforming it into discrete neuronal fates. This mechanism is characterized by hierarchical gene expression. First, Drosophila neuroblasts express opposing temporal gradients of RNA-binding proteins, Imp and Syp. These proteins promote or inhibit chinmo translation, yielding a descending neuronal gradient. Together, first and second-layer temporal factors define a temporal expression window of BTB-zinc finger nuclear protein, Mamo. The precise temporal induction of Mamo is achieved via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Finally, Mamo is essential for the temporally defined, terminal identity of α'/β' mushroom body neurons and identity maintenance. We describe a straightforward paradigm of temporal fate specification where diverse neuronal fates are defined via integrating multiple layers of gene regulation. The neurodevelopmental roles of orthologous/related mammalian genes suggest a fundamental conservation of this mechanism in brain development.

Keywords: D. melanogaster antennal lobe developmental biology mushroom body neuronal temporal patterning terminal selector.

Conflict of interest statement

LL, XL, CY, RM, KS, TL No competing interests declared, RS Reviewing editor, eLife


Menstrual problems and associated factors among students of Bahir Dar University, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional survey

Introduction: Menstrual problems are the most common gynecologic complaints. The prevalence is highest in the 20 to 24-year-old age group and decreases progressively thereafter. They affect not only the woman, but also family, social and national economics as well. However, Population studies on Menstrual problems and associated factors were very little for university students in Ethiopia.

Methods: Institutional based quantitative cross-sectional study was employed at Bahir Dar University from October 14 to 20, 2010, Ethiopia. Stratified sampling technique was used and 491 study subjects were randomly selected from faculties. Only 470 respondents had given complete response for the self-administered questionnaire and were included in the final analysis. Data was entered and analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 windows. The main statistical method applied was logistic regression (unconditional) and both the classical bivariate and the multivariate analyses were considered.

Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome were 85.1% and 72.8%, respectively. The most contributing factors remained to be statistically significant and independently associated with dysmenorrhea were having menstrual cycle length of 21-35 days (AOR=0.16, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.71), family history of dysmenorrhea (AOR=3.80, 95%CI: 2.13, 6.78) and circumcision (AOR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.001, 3.386) while with premenstrual syndrome were educational status of mothers being certified in certificate and beyond (AOR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.25, 0.83), living in Peda campus (AOR=2.11, 95%: 1.30, 3.45), having irregular menstruation (AOR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.17, 2.99) and family history of premenstrual syndrome (AOR=4.19, 95%CI: 2.60, 6.74).

Conclusion: The prevalence of menstrual problems among students of Bahir Dar University was very high. Menstrual cycle length, family history of dysmenorrhea and circumcision were the most contributing factors associated with dysmenorrhea while educational status of mothers, regularity of menstruation, and family history of premenstrual syndrome were for premenstrual syndrome. Health education, appropriate medical treatment and counseling, should be accessible and persistently provided to the affected students by Bahir Dar University. Maximum effort is needed to eliminate circumcision by all levels and further steps that would enable females to join their college education should be applied.

Keywords: Dysmenorrhea menstruation premenstrual syndrome.


Drepanis pacifica (Gmelin, JF, 1788)

(Fringillidae Hawaii Mamo D. pacifica) Gr. δρεπανη drepanē or δρεπανηις drepanēis sickle < δρεπω drepō to pluck "One of the largest (23cm) Hawaiian honeycreepers with huge sickle-shaped bill." (Pratt 2005) "16. HÉOROTAIRE (1), Drepanis. (Temm.) — Caract. Bec très-long, beaucoup plus que la tête, en quart de cercle, gros et triangulaire à sa base, subulé et très-effilé à la pointe mandibule supérieure plus long que l'inférieure, sans échancrure. Langue courte, cartilagineuse. Narines basales, latérales, à moitié fermées en dessus. Pieds: tarse du double plus long que le doigt du milieu latéraux égaux l'extérieur soudé à sa base. Ailes: la 1re. remige nulle, la 2e. presque aussi longue que les 3e., 4e. et 5e. qui sont les plumes longues. Esp. Certhia pacifica, — Obscura. — Vestiaria et probablement falcata, que je n'ai pas vue. . (1) Toutes espèces de l'Océanique." (Temminck 1820) "Drepanis Temminck, 1820, Man. Ornith., ed. 2, 1, p. 86 [sic = lxxxvj]. Type, by subsequent designation, Certhia pacifica Gmelin (G. R. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, ed. 1, p. 12)." (Greenway in Peters, 1968, XIV, p. 95).
Var. Depranis.
Synon. Drepanita, Drepanorhamphus, Falcator, Heorataria, Heorotarius, Hoerataria, Vestiaria.
• (Apodidae ?syn. Apus) L. drepanis swift < Gr. δρεπανις drepanis sickle-wing, a bird mentioned by Aristotle and Hesychius, latterly identified as a swift or a falcon "1. Sous-famille. HIRUNDIA. Les Hirundiens: 3 doigts antérieurs, 1 postérieur G. 1. Hirundo L. 2. Caprimulgus L. 3. Agotilax R. 4. Ibijus R. 5. Drepanis R." (Rafinesque 1815).
• (Meliphagidae syn. Melithreptus † White-naped Honeyeater M. lunatus) "FAMIGLIA 17. ANTHOMYZI. (Trochilidæ) . 126. Drepanis, Temm. (Melithreptus, V.) Am. m. 4." (Bonaparte 1831) "Drepanis "Temm." Bonaparte, 1831, Giornale Arcadico, XLIX, p. 48 (not of Temminck, 1820). Alternative name for Melithreptus Vieillot, 1816." (JAJ 2021).

L. pacificus peaceful < pax, pacis peace facere to make. The Pacific Ocean was so-named by the Portuguese explorer Fernão de Magalhães or Magellan in 1520, contrasting its calm waters with the stormy seas of Cape Horn The toponym refers to islands in the Pacific Ocean as well as localities on Pacific Ocean coasts.
● New Caledonia ex &ldquoPacific Shrike&rdquo of Latham 1781 (syn. Aplonis striata).
New South Wales, Australia ex &ldquoPacific Heron&rdquo of Latham 1785 (Ardea).
● Pacific Ocean ex &ldquoPacific Petrel&rdquo of Latham 1785 "Inhabits Euopoa, and other islands of the Pacific Ocean." (Ardenna).
● Erroneous TL. Friendly Is. (= Hawaii) ex &ldquoGreat Hook-billed Creeper&rdquo of Latham 1782 (&DaggerDrepanis).
● Tonga Is. ex &ldquoFerruginous-vented Pigeon&rdquo of Latham 1783 (Ducula).
● Erroneous TL. Friendly Isles, Pacific Ocean (= Jamaica) (syn. Geotrygon versicolor).
● Botany Bay, New Holland ex &ldquoPacific Paroquet (var.)&rdquo of Phillip 1789 (syn. Glossopsitta concinna).
● Tahiti ex &ldquoPacific Rail&rdquo of Latham 1785 (Hypotaenidia).
● Pacific Islands ex &ldquoPacific Thrush&rdquo of Latham 1783 (syn. Lalage maculosa).


Open Research

Radiocarbon dates have been uploaded to the Arctic Data Center (https://doi.org/10.18739/A28C9R40R). Raw sequencing data generated from YG303.325 and YG188.42 are available in NCBI BioProject PRJNA727160 (SAMN19007726, SAMN19007727). All newly generated mitochondrial genomes have been uploaded to GenBank with ID nos. MW846090–MW846167. beast files and the final g-phocs “filter” file are available on Data Dryad https://doi.org/10.7291/D18W9G. All scripts, as well as filtering criteria used to ascertain the set of putatively neutral loci, are published on github https://github.com/avershinina/BLB_horses.

Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.


Hawaiian honeycreeper

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Hawaiian honeycreeper, any member of a group of related birds, many of them nectar-eating, that evolved in the forests of the Hawaiian Islands and are found only there. Recent evidence from osteology, behaviour, plumage, breeding biology, and genetics has led to a consensus that the Hawaiian honeycreepers are closely related to the cardueline finches, which include birds such as goldfinches, canaries, siskins, and crossbills. They constitute the family Drepanididae within the order Passeriformes. Most of the species are called by native names (see amakihi apapane iiwi mamo). Habitat destruction and the introduction of foreign birds and mammals have led to the extinction of at least 8 of the original 23 species most of the survivors are endangered. Numerous subspecies are known.

Hawaiian honeycreepers differ in certain ways from American honeycreepers. Isolated in the mid-Pacific, they underwent a remarkable evolutionary radiation, diversifying in the manner of the better-known Darwin’s finches in the Galapagos Islands. Those with thin bills and, usually, red-and-black plumage (both sexes look alike) feed on nectar those with finchlike bills and, usually, greenish plumage (males often have orange or yellow markings) eat seeds, fruits, and insects. Other species are intermediate between these two types. In most Hawaiian honeycreepers the tongue is troughlike and brush-tipped. The birds’ size ranges from 10 to 20 cm (4 to 8 inches). Hawaiian honeycreepers usually have simple songs and make grassy nests.


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