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Geo-History: The Treaty of Fort Pitt and the Coshocton Massacre
Earl’s Note: This is the second in a planned series of short installments about the events that shaped our history. Events that took place in other locations often involved the men and women from our part of the upper Ohio Valley. The story of the Squaw Campaign kicked off the series. If you missed it, just click the hyperlink below. At the end of each story, I will provide a set of GPS coordinates that you can use to visit some of the locations of the events discussed in the story. Instead of “Geocaching,” we will play “Geo-History.”
If you read The Squaw Campaign, you will recall that General Washington sent General Edward Hand to Fort Pitt to organize the “Western Department” to defend against the British headquartered at Fort Detroit and against their Indian allies who were waging terrorist warfare against the families of the men from Virginia and Pennsylvania who were back east serving in the Continental Army. General Hand arrived at Fort Pitt on June 1, 1777. In December 1777, Hand wrote a letter to Washington describing the undisciplined nature of the militiamen and asking to be reassigned to the regular army back east. He was referring to Westmoreland County, Pa., and Ohio County, Va., militias. The volunteer militiamen were very independent and only followed orders as they pleased. As a result, Hand had difficulty forming them into an army that could function as a single unit. Hand found the behavior of the militiamen during the Squaw Campaign to be uncivilized.
General Edward Hand (Public Domain Drawing)
In May of 1778, Hand sent another letter to General Washington and to the Continental Congress repeating his request to be relieved of command of the Western Division and reassigned back east. Around the same time, Washington transferred the 8th Pennsylvania and 13th Virginia regiments to Fort Pitt to strengthen the Western Division. You may recall that Captain Matthew Brady and Captain Van Swearingen both served in the 8th Pennsylvania, and Lieutenant Benjamin Biggs served in the 13th Virginia. In August 1778, General Lathan McIntosh replaced General Hand as commander of the Western Department including Fort Pitt.
General Lathan McIntosh (Public Domain Drawing)
Shortly after McIntosh assumed command at Fort Pitt, Chief White Eyes of the Lenape (Delaware) Indians contacted him and asked for a meeting between the Delaware Chiefs and the Americans to work out a peace treaty between the Lenapes and the Americans so that the Delawares could stay out of the conflict between the Americans and the British. McIntosh invited the Delaware chiefs to Fort Pitt to work out the details of the treaty. On September 17, 1778, Chief White Eyes of the Turkey Clan, Chief Pipe (Hopocan) of the Wolf Clan, and Chief John Kill Buck (Gelelemend) of the Turtle Clan signed the Treaty of Fort Pitt (full text of the treaty) on behalf of the Lenape (Delaware) Indians. Andrew Lewis and Thomas Lewis signed the treaty on behalf of the Americans with Brigadier General Lachlan McIntosh, Colonel Daniel Broadhead and Colonel William Crawford signing as witnesses. The treaty recognized the Lenape (Delaware) Indians as a sovereign nation and granted them a representative in the Continental Congress. The Lenape promised to remain neutral during the conflict between the British and the Americans and to supply provisions and other support to the Americans when they could. They also granted permission for the Americans to travel through their lands and to build a fort in the Ohio country for their protection. In exchange, the Americans promised to protect the Delawares from harm and to provide them with firearms, tools, clothing, and cooking utensils. The Americans began violating the treaty less than a year after it was signed.
After signing the peace treaty with the Delawares, McIntosh took a small army north along the Ohio River. In October 1778, they reached the confluence of the Beaver River where it emptied into the Ohio. There, they built a fort that McIntosh named after himself.
Historical marker at the site of Fort McIntosh along the Ohio River just west of the confluence of the Beaver River in modern-day Beaver, Pa.
After completing Fort McIntosh, the expedition continued west until they reached the Tuscarawas River at a site just south of the modern-day town of Bolivar, Ohio. There, they constructed another fort that they named Fort Laurens in honor of the President of the Continental Congress, Henry Laurens. McIntosh envisioned Fort Laurens as a base from which the Western Division could launch an attack on the British at Fort Pitt and on their Indian Allies on the Sandusky River. They completed the construction of Fort Laurens in early December 1778. McIntosh left a small contingent of men to defend the fort and then returned to Fort McIntosh and then to Fort Pitt.
Informational Sign at the Fort Laurens State Memorial just south of Bolivar, Ohio.
Encouraged by Simon Girty and Alexander McGee, the Wyandots and other Indians attacked the poorly defended fort almost immediately. During February 1779, Simon Girty and a small army of Indians began a siege of Fort Laurens. The Defenders consisted largely of men from the 8th Pennsylvania and 13th Virginia regiments of the Continental Army. By the time the siege was lifted in late March, starvation had forced the defenders to resort to grubbing for roots and boiling rawhide moccasins to make soup. In August 1779, the Americans abandoned Fort Laurens. During the attacks on the fort, 20 of the defenders were killed. They were buried in a small cemetery near the fort.
In 1772, the Moravian missionary, the Rev. David Zeisberger, accompanied by his assistant, John Heckewelder, their Christian Indian followers, and several other white helpers, moved from near Bethlehem, Pa., to the Tuscarawas River region in northeastern Ohio where they built the towns of Schoenbrunn and Gnaddenhutten. When the war between the colonies and the British broke out, Chief White Eyes of the Delawares suggested that the Christian Indians should move to a location near the main Delaware town of Goschachgunk (Joining of the Rivers) so that he could protect them from harm because most of the Moravian Christian Indians were Delawares. The name of the town of Goschachgunk was later changed to Coshocton which evolved into present-day city by the same name.
Lichtenau Historical Marker near Coshocton, Ohio
In the spring of 1776, Zeisberger, accompanied by Heckewelder and eight of the Christian Indian families moved to a site less than a mile south of Goschachgunk (Coshocton) where they built a small town that they called Lichtenau which meant “Pasture of Light.” (Many historical accounts put the establishment of Lichtenau at October of 1777, but the historical marker at the site lists the date as April 12, 1776.) The missionaries and their followers continued to live at Lichtenau until 1780.
In spite of the Treaty of Fort Pitt, the Delaware nation became more and more divided as the war between the Americans and the British dragged on. By 1780, some of the Delawares had joined the Wyandots and others in supporting the British. Some of the Delawares supported the Americans, but most of them tried to remain neutral. In the spring of 1780, the Moravian missionaries and their followers decided to abandon Lichtenau and return to their old homes at Gnaddenhutten and Schoenbrunn. As they headed upriver, Heckewelder and several of the Indian families decided to stop about six miles south of Gnaddenhutten and build a new settlement that they called “Salem” (Peace). A handful of the Christian Indians remained at Lichtenau and the remainder continued to Gnaddenhutten and Schoenbrunn. They remained at Schoenbrunn, Salem and Gnaddenhutten until 1781 when they were forcibly moved northwest to a new site on the Sandusky River. The other major Delaware Indian town was Gekelmukpechunk, which was located on the Tuscarawas River about 15 miles east of Goschachgunk (Coshocton). Netawatwes, chief of the turtle clan, lived there and his name translated as “The Newcomer.” As a result, the town became more widely known, among the white settlers, as “Newcomer’s Town. Today, it is Newcomerstown, Ohio.
Lieutenant Colonel Daniel Broadhead Public Domain Drawing from 186
On March 5, 1779, Lieutenant Colonel Daniel Broadhead replaced McIntosh as Commander of the Western Department. Broadhead commanded the Western Department until May of 1781. During his tenure as commander of the Western Division, Broadhead made several excursions into Indian country. One of the last of those was in April of 1781 only a month before he was relieved of the command.
On April 7, 1781, Colonel Broadhead accompanied by 150 regulars from the 8th Pennsylvania and 13th Virginia, and 134 militiamen, from the Westmoreland County, Pa., and the Ohio County, Va., militias, headed out along the Ohio River. Aware that some of the Delaware Indians of the Turtle and Wolf Clans had started supporting the British, Broadhead’s purpose was to meet with the Delaware tribal leaders to reinforce the alliance with them created by the 1778 Treaty of Fort Pitt.
Believing that Broadhead’s motive was to reinforce the peace with the Delawares, Chief Gelelemend (AKA Chief John Killbuck) of the Delaware Turtle Clan served as a guide for the expedition. On April 18 or 19, 1781, Broadhead’s army reached an area a few miles from the peaceful Delaware town of Gekelmukpechunk, (Newcomerstown), on the Tuscarawas River 15 miles east of Coshocton. Broadhead sent a messenger to the Delaware chiefs asking them to come to a meeting on the east side of the Tuscarawas River to arrange for a peaceful solution for his concerns. In response, some of the Delaware chiefs came out for a meeting with Broadhead. As soon as the Delaware delegation crossed the river on their way to Broadhead’s encampment, Lewis Wetzel ambushed them killing one of the chiefs with a tomahawk.
Broadhead Coshocton Massacre Historical Marker — Located in Coshocton, Ohio
Knowing that a peaceful agreement was no longer possible, Broadhead decided to destroy the main Delaware town of Coshocton. Just south of Coshocton, Broadhead’s army reached the peaceful Moravian Christian town of Lictenau. Fortunately, most of the Christian Indians had abandoned Lictenau the year before and gone back to their old homes up on the Tuscarawas River. On April 20, 1781, Broadhead’s Army destroyed Lictenau and then surrounded Coshocton. Many of the Indians had already fled the town in advance of the arrival of the army. Trusting that the Americans would respect the 1778 Treaty of Fort Pitt, 16 of the Indians simply surrendered to Broadhead’s army. The militiamen immediately killed and scalped all 16. (It is worthwhile to note that most of those militiamen also were involved in the Squaw Campaign under General Hand.) Seeing the futility of surrender, the other occupants of the town continued fighting until another 20 or more were killed. Broadhead’s army took many of the women and children as prisoners. In spite of the hospitality that Broadhead’s men had enjoyed from the Christian Indians at Salem only a few days earlier, elements of Broadhead’s army headed northeast along the Tuscarawas River with the intention of destroying the Moravian Christian towns of Salem, Gnaddenhutten and Schoenbrunn. However, Broadhead sent a detachment of men under the command of Colonel David Shepherd to stop them. Shepherd succeeded in preventing the militiamen from harming the Christian Indian towns and the army returned to Fort Pitt with the women and children whom they had captured as prisoners. (Colonel David Shepherd lived in what is now Elm Grove. Shepherd’s Fort was near where the Elm Grove McDonald’s is currently located.)
After the destruction of their towns by Broadhead’s expedition, Chief Pipe and most of the remaining Delaware Indians left the Muskingum and Tuscarawas River regions and moved to northwestern Ohio where they built a new home on the Sandusky River about 10 or 15 miles north of Half King’s Wyandot town. The new home of the Delawares became known as “Pipe’s Town.” As a result of Broadhead’s action, Chief Pipe and the Delawares became firm supporters of the British for the remainder of the war. The Moravian Christian Indians stayed at their homes in Salem, Gnaddenhutten and Schoenbrunn until they were forcibly moved to the Sandusky River region in the fall of 1781.
The next installment in this series will discuss the forced relocation of the Moravian Indians and the 1782 event known as the Moravian Massacre.
Each of the following sets of GPS coordinates will take you to a historic marker or historic site related to one of the locations where events described in the above story took place. If you are unable to travel to those locations and visit them in person, copy the coordinates and paste them into the search box on Google Earth. Then, use the Google Street View to take a look at the location. Have Fun!
Coordinates: N 40° 41′ 27.7″ W 80° 18′ 14.3″
A small park along the river commemorates the location of Fort McIntosh. It features several historical markers.
Fort Laurens Historical Marker
Coordinates: N 40° 38′ 21.9″ W 81° 27′ 20.6″ A small park also commemorates the location of Fort Laurens. If you visit the site in person, be sure to take a walk along the Ohio and Erie Canal which passes through the site of the fort. This is a great place to go with your children.
Coordinates: N 40° 16′ 28.77″, W 81° 35′ 24.56″
There is no historical marker commemorating Newcomerstown as a Delaware Indian village. The coordinates listed will take you to the middle of the Rte. 258 bridge over the Tuscarawas River at Newcomerstown, Ohio.
Lichtenau Historical Marker
Coordinates: N 40° 14′ 46.69″, W 81° 52′ 14.54″
The marker is located on the southeast corner of a busy intersection. If you decide to pay a visit and want to stop for a photograph, turn east onto Clow Lane and park at the apartment building a few hundred feet from the intersection
Broadhead Coshocton Massacre Historical Marker
Coordinates: N 40° 16′ 33.2″, W 81° 50′ 39.8″
This is on a residential street in Coshocton.
Salem Mission Historical Marker
Coordinates: N 40° 18′ 24.21″, W 81° 32′ 14.54″
This is on Rte. 36 out in the country. If you visit in person, you will find a nice turnout where you can stop for a photograph.
Shepherd’s Fort Historical Marker
Coordinates: N 40° 02′ 35.42″, W 80° 39′ 31.0″
Located near Monument Place across the road from the Elm Grove Pharmacy in Elm Grove, WV
Here are some of the sources of information for this story if you would like to do more reading. Some of these materials are available as free downloads from https://archive.org/.
Video: Fort Henry Commemoration Speaker Series: Who Attacked Fort Henry and Why?
Presented by Alan Fitzpatrick
Jan. 26, 2017
Available on Vimeo.Com at This Link.
(You may want to read the page about Indian leaders before watching this program.)
Life of John Heckewelder
by Rondthaler, Edward & Coates, Benjamin Horner,
Publication date 1847
Publisher Philadelphia, T. Ward
History of Coshocton County, Ohio
by Hill, Norman Newell Jr. & Graham, A. A. (Albert Adams),
Publication date 1881
Publisher Newark, Ohio, A. A. Graham & Co.
by Dahlinger, Charles William,
Publication date 1922
Publisher Pittsburgh, Priv. print.
Web Page: The Treaty of Fort Pitt
Publication Date: Jan. 16, 2018
Published By Earl Nicodemus
Includes full text of the treaty that is on file at the Library of Congress
The border settlers of northwestern Virginia from 1768 to 1795 : embracing the life of Jesse Hughes and other noted scouts of the great woods of the trans-Allegheny
by McWhorter, Lucullus Virgil, Connelly, William Elsey, & MacLean, John Patterson
Publication date 1915
Publisher Hamilton, Ohio: Republican Pub. Co.
During the Peninsular War and the Spanish resistance against Napoleon, Austria had tried to reverse the 1805 Peace of Pressburg by sparking national uprisings in the French-occupied territories of Central Europe (most notably the Tyrolean Rebellion against Napoleon's Bavarian allies).
These attempts ultimately failed, after French forces occupied Vienna in May 1809. The Austrians under Archduke Charles were able to repulse them at the Battle of Aspern on 21-22 May however, Napoleon withdrew his forces and crushed Charles' army at Wagram a few weeks later. The archduke had to sign the Armistice of Znaim on 12 July. In October, Austrian Foreign Minister Johann Philipp Stadion was superseded by Klemens von Metternich.
Peace of Schönbrunn
The Peace of Schönbrunn was a peace agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte and Franz I of Austria on October 14, 1809 at Schönbrunn Palace . The Austrian Empire had lost the Fifth Coalition War against France , which began on April 9, 1809 .
In this war Austria, inspired by events in Spain , tried to bring about popular uprisings in Germany and Italy against French domination and at the same time sought an alliance with Russia and Prussia in order to reverse the results of the peace agreement in Pressburg . The hopes were all dashed. The uprising of Andreas Hofer against the Bavarian occupiers was finally completely suppressed after initial successes.
The campaign on the main battlefield of southern Germany was unfortunate. Napoleon occupied Vienna as early as May . He was defeated shortly afterwards in the Battle of Aspern , but defeated the Austrians on 5/6. July 1809 in the decisive battle near Wagram . The Znojmo armistice ended the fighting on July 12, 1809 and gave up Tyrol. The main responsible Minister Stadion was replaced by Metternich .
In this peace agreement, Austria renounced Carniola , Trieste , Gorizia , Villach and the coastal area of Croatia ( Hungarian Dalmatia ) and thus lost access to the sea. France annexed these areas, Napoleon formed the Illyrian provinces with the previously royal Italian Dalmatia and Istria . The Duchy of Salzburg fell to Bavaria as the Salzachkreis . Western Galicia and Cracow , the profits of the third partition of Poland , came to the Duchy of Warsaw after a failed campaign . From Galicia , which had been Austrian since the first partition of Poland, the Duchy of Warsaw Zamoscer district and Russia, which had participated in the conflict on the French side with an invasion of Galicia, received the district around Tarnopol ( Tarnopol district ). In addition, Austria renounced the rule of Rhäzün in favor of France and in favor of Saxony the exclaves in Upper Lusatia that had remained with Bohemia after the Peace of Prague of 1635 .
In total, Austria had to cede around 100,000 km² with around 3,500,000 inhabitants. 85 million francs war contribution had to be paid to France. The country had to join the anti-British continental blockade and reduce its army to 150,000 men. The fortress on the Graz Schlossberg , which Hackher zu Hart had defended, had to be razed.
But even after this loss of territory, Austria was a great power with around 600,000 km² and over 24 million inhabitants. Consequences of Metternich's change of course in foreign policy related to the conclusion of peace were Napoleon's marriage to the Austrian Emperor's daughter Marie-Louise and a military alliance that forced Austria to take part in the 1812 Russian campaign.
Treaty of Schönbrunn
The Treaty of Schönbrunn ( French Traité de Schönbrunn de 1805 ) was signed on December 15, 1805 between Prussia and France in Schönbrunn Palace .
As a result of Napoléon Bonaparte's victory in the Battle of Austerlitz at the end of the Third Coalition War , the Prussian envoy Christian von Haugwitz had to sign this treaty, which was approved by King Friedrich Wilhelm III. but was not recognized.
According to the text of the treaty, the Duchy of Berg , which was to be elevated to the Grand Duchy of Berg a few months later in connection with joining the Rhine Confederation , received the Prussian parts of the Duchy of Kleve on the right bank of the Rhine , France the Swiss Neuchâtel , Ansbach-Bayreuth was awarded to Bavaria . In return, Prussia was granted a claim to the Electorate of Hanover , which was in personal union with Great Britain .
With the treaty, Prussia was supposed to integrate itself into the Napoleonic alliance system.
The treaty was only an intermediate step. As early as 1806, the Paris treaty led to a further shift in power in favor of France and manifested itself in the establishment of the Rhine Confederation , which Prussia initially also refused to recognize, but in July 1807 after the battle of Jena and Auerstedt in peace by Tilsit .
All peace treaties have signatories, or parties who agree to sign, or abide by, the document, including the parties involved with the conflict. Becoming a signatory to a treaty may take many forms, and is often followed by a full ratification process, which enacts the treaty as law. In the case of the United States, the U.S. Constitution outlines a strict treaty ratification process. Only the U.S. President, may sign treaties, but the U.S. Senate must also agree to ratify the treaty before the United States may be declared a party to the treaty. As a result, the United States is a signatory to many treaties that have not yet been ratified.
Just as one peace treaty may have multiple signatories, one complex conflict may have multiple peace treaties as part of a resolution. Following World War II, for example, aside from being party to several armistice agreements with other nations, the United States was one signatory on no less than three separate peace treaties, including the Paris Peace Treaties, which established peace with Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland in 1947 the Treaty of San Francisco, which ended war with Japan in 1952 and the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, in 1990.
The Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (Islamic History)
The Muhajirun had even greater affection for Makkah. They had been born there and had grown up in the city. They loved it deeply but had been driven away from it. When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah told them of his dream, they started to prepare for the journey to Makkah. Hardly anyone wanted to stay behind.
Feeding the poor and needy is an act that draws us closer to Allah. We earn His forgiveness, mercies and blessings through this act of charity.
“Anyone who looks after and works for a widow and a poor person is like a warrior fighting for Allah?s cause, or like a person who fasts during the day and prays all night. (Bukhari)
MAKKAH VISITED AT LAST
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah left Madinah for al-Hudaybiyyah in Dhu’l-Qa’dah, 6 A.H. He intended to perform ‘umrah in peace. He was accompanied by fifteen hundred Muslims dressed as pilgrims for ‘umrah in order to show people that they had come to visit the Ka’bah out of respect for it. They took with them animals for the sacrifice.
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah sent out a scout in advance to inform him about the reaction of the Quraysh. When he was near ‘Usfan the scout returned and reported, ‘I left Ka’b ibn Lu’ayy gathering an army against you to prevent you from reaching the Ka’bah.’
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah continued to travel until he reached the furthest part of al-Hudaybiyyah. He pitched camp although there was little water. The people started to complain to him of thirst. He took an arrow from his quiver and told them to put it in the waterhole. Immediately it began to gush with water and continued to flow until they had all quenched their thirst.
The Quraysh were extremely alarmed when they heard that the Muslims were at al-Hudaybiyyah, The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah decided to send one of his Companions to them and summoned Uthman ibn Affan. He was sent to inform the Quraysh that they had not come to fight but had come for ‘umrah, and that he should call them to Islam. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah instructed him to visit the believing men and women of Makkah, to give them the good news of victory and tell them that Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, would make His religion victorious in Makkah and it would no longer be necessary for them to conceal their belief.
Uthman went to Makkah and conveyed the message to Abu Sufyan and the Quraysh noblemen.
When Uthman had finished delivering the message, they said, ‘If you yourself wish to do tawaf of the House, go ahead.’
‘I will not do it,’ he said, ‘until the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah has done tawaf.’
Uthman was in Makkah longer than the Muslims had expected and the rumour spread that he had been killed. Then the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah called for a pledge of allegiance. He sat beneath a tree and the Muslims promised that they would fight with him to the last man. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah took his own hand and said, ‘This is for Uthman.’ Later they heard that Uthman had not been murdered and he came back safely.
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The Pledge took place under an acacia tree in al-Hudaybiyyah and is referred to in the Qur’an Allah revealed, ‘Allah was pleased with the believers when they were pledging their allegiance under the tree.'(48: 181
The deadlock between the Quraysh and the Muslims continued until four envoys came to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah who said to each one, ‘We did not come to fight anyone. Rather we came to perform ‘umrah.’
But the Quraysh remained stubborn and refused to allow them to proceed.
One of the envoys, ‘Urwah ibn Mas’ud ath-Thaqafi, went back to his people and said, ‘O people! By Allah, I have been in the presence of kings – from Chosroes, and Caesar to the Negus – and by Allah, I have never seen any king whose people respected him as much as the companions of Muhammad respect Muhammad.’ He described to them what he had seen.
TREATY AND TRUCE WISDOM AND FORBEARANCE
The Quraysh then sent Suhayl ibn Amr. When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah saw him coming, he remarked, ‘It is clear that they want peace since they have sent this man.’ He told his Companions to prepare a draft agreement.
He called for Ali ibn Abi Talib and told him, ‘Write: In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate.’
‘By Allah,’ Suhayl said, ‘we do not know who this “Merciful” is. Rather write, “in Your name, O Allah” as you used to write.’
The Muslims said, ‘By Allah, we will only write, “in the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate.” ‘ The Prophet said, ‘Write, “In Your name, O Allah.” ‘
Then he said, ‘Write, “This is what Muhammad, the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah has agreed.” ‘
‘By Allah,’ retorted Suhayl, ‘if we accepted that you were the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, we would not have prevented you from reaching the House of Allah nor fought you. Rather write, “Muhammad ibn Abdullah.”‘
The Prophet said, ‘I am the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah even though you do not believe me. Write, “Muhammad ibn Abdullah.” ‘
He asked Ali to erase what he had written but Ali Said, ‘By Allah no, I will not erase it.’
The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah said, ‘Show me the place,’ and he erased it himself. Then he said, ‘This is what the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah agrees provided that you give us leave to perform tawaf of the Ka’bah.’
Suhayl Said, ‘By Allah, we will not allow the Arabs to say that we submitted to pressure. It will have to be next year.’ It was also written: ‘On the condition that if any of our men, even if he has your religion, comes to you, you will return him to us.’
The Muslims said, ‘Glory be to Allah! How can we return someone to the idol-worshippers after he has become a Muslim’
While they were thus engaged, Abu Jandal ibn Suhayl came on the scene fettered by chains. He had escaped from Makkah, and threw himself down among the Muslims.
Suhayl looked at his son and commented, ‘Muhammad, here is the first man that you have to return under this treaty.’
‘We have not finished the document yet,’ countered the Prophet.
‘Then, by Allah, I will never agree to anything.’ ‘Let me keep him,’ said the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah. ‘I will not allow you to keep him.’
‘O Muslims!’ said Abu Jandal, Am I to be returned to the idol-worshippers when I have come to you as a Muslim? Do you not see what I have suffered?’ He had been severely tortured for his beliefs. However, the Prophet returned him as his father had demanded.
The two parties agreed to abandon war for ten years. During that period everyone would live in peace. Both sides would be safe and would refrain from fighting one another. Whoever came to Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) from the Quraysh without obtaining the permission of his guardian would be returned to them, but whoever came to the Quraysh from those with Muhammad need not be returned to him. Whoever wanted to enter into an alliance and agreement with Muhammad could do so and whoever wanted to enter into an alliance and agreement with the Quraysh would also be free to do so.
THE MUSLIMS’ DISTRESS
When the Muslims saw the terms of the truce and what it meant to the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah, they were very distressed. The effect on them was so great that Umar ibn al-Khattab asked Abu Bakr angrily, ‘Did not the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah say to us that we were going to go to the Ka’bah and perform tawaf?’
‘Yes. But did he tell you that it was going to be this very year!’
Abu Bakr assured him, ‘You will go there and you will do tawaf.’
When the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had finished drawing up the treaty, he sacrificed a camel and then shaved his head. This was a difficult time for the Muslims because all their hopes had been dashed. They had left Madinah with the firm intention of entering Makkah and doing ‘umrah. Now they felt beaten and crushed. However, when they saw that the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had made the sacrifice and shaved his head, they rushed to follow his example.
A HUMILIATING PEACE OR A CLEAR VICTORY?
Then the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah broke camp and returned to Madinah. On his journey back, Allah confirmed that the truce of Hudaybiyyah was not a set-back but a victory:
Surely We have given you a clear victory, that Allah may forgive you your former and later sins, and complete His blessing on you and guide you on a straight path and that Allah may help you with a mighty help. (48: 1-3)
Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said, ‘Is this a victory then, Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah!’
OUTCOME OF THE TREATY
Not long after the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had returned to Madinah, a man named Abu Basir Utbah ibn Usayd came from Makkah to join the Muslims. The Quraysh sent emissaries to fetch him back. They said, ‘Under the terms of the treaty which you made with us you must hand him over.’ So the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah allowed them to take Abu Basir with them. But on the way back to Makkah, he escaped from them and fled to the coast. Abu Jandal ibn Suhayl also escaped and joined Abu Basir. Then everyone who had become a Muslim and who had suffered persecution from the Quraysh joined Abu Basir until they comprised a group numbering seventy. They set themselves up on a trade route. Whenever they heard that a caravan of the Quraysh had left for Syria, they way laid it, killed the merchants and took the goods they were carrying.
The Hudaybiyyah treaty gave the idol-worshippers and Muslims an opportunity to mix. The idol-worshippers soon came to appreciate the good qualities of the Muslims. Before a year had passed, many of them had become Muslims, and the Quraysh leaders were worried about their influence.
They sent to the Prophet, begging him by Allah and by kinship, not to return the men to Makkah but to keep them in Madinah. From then on whoever of them came to him from Makkah was safe.
These moves indicated that the Treaty of al-Hudaybiyyah in which the Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah had accepted all the Quraysh conditions had been beneficial after all. The treaty had been a decisive step in gaining further victories for Islam and in spreading the faith throughout the Arabian peninsula with great speed. It led to the conquest of Makkah and the opportunity to invite the kings of the world – Caesar, Chosroes, Muqawqis and the Arabian princes – to accept Islam. Allah the Great revealed:
Yet it may happen that you will hate a thing which is better for you and it may happen that you will love a thing which is worse for you. Allah knows, and you know not. (2: 216)
KHALID IBN AL-WALID AND AMR IBN AL-AS ACCEPT ISLAM
Khalid ibn al-Walid, general of the Quraysh cavalry and the hero of great battles, was among those who accepted Islam. The Messenger(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) of Allah called him the ‘Sword of Allah’. He fought bravely in the way of Allah and was the conqueror of Syria. Amr ibn al-As, another great commander and subsequently the conqueror of Egypt, also became a Muslim. Both of these strong leaders came to Madinah after the Treaty of al-Hudaybiyyah.
Treaty of Schönbrunn (1805)
From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
The Convention of Schönbrunn (or Treaty of Schönbrunn) was signed between France and Prussia at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna on 15 December 1805. The terms were negotiated by Géraud Duroc, who signed for France, and Christian Graf von Haugwitz, who signed for Prussia. The convention was superseded by the Treaty of Paris of 15 February 1806, which incorporated its main terms. Ώ] ΐ]
On 3 November, Prussia had signed the Treaty of Potsdam with Russia, thereby committing to join the Third Coalition against France if Napoleon Bonaparte rejected peace terms. French forces had already violated Prussian territory by marching across the Margraviate of Ansbach in September. In response, Prussia had occupied the Electorate of Hanover, which, although it belonged King George III of Great Britain, had been occupied by the French and only vacated by them during the course of the war. Α] Napoleon's victory at the battle of Austerlitz on 2 December destroyed the Third Coalition, rendering the Treaty of Potsdam moot. Haugwitz went to Vienna, where Napoleon was staying, to negotiate a treaty of friendship with France.
By the terms of the convention, Prussia was permitted to annex Hanover, but had to cede Ansbach, the Duchy of Cleves and the Principality of Neuchâtel. Ansbach went to Bavaria, which was forced to give up the Duchy of Berg to France. Berg was then joined with Cleves to form the Grand Duchy of Berg and Cleves for General Joachim Murat. Neuchâtel was given by Napoleon to Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier. Α] Prussia also agreed to accept the terms of the Treaty of Pressburg between France and the Holy Roman Empire, which had not yet been finalized. It was only signed on 26 December. ΐ]
The Convention of Schönbrunn did not contain the customary clause affirming previous treaties. Contemporaries saw it, together with Austerlitz and Pressburg, as an epochal event, marking the end of an era, since Napoleon had demonstrated no interest in maintaining the Holy Roman Empire in anything like its old form. Α]
The annexation of Hanover incensed Britain and Charles James Fox lambasted Prussia's behaviour as "a compound of everything that is contemptible in servility with everything that is odious in rapacity." Β] The annexation ultimately led to war with Britain.
Convention of Schönbrünn or Vienna, 15 December 1805
The Convention of Schönbrünn (15 December 1805) was an alliance between Prussia and France forced on the Prussians in the aftermath of Napoleon's great victory at Austerlitz.
On 3 November 1805 the Prussians had signed the Treaty of Potsdam, agreeing to enter the Third Coalition if Napoleon didn't agree to peace within four weeks of the departure of an envoy from Berlin. This treaty came to nothing after the battle of Austerlitz, and instead the Prussian envoy, Christian Haugwitz, was forced to negotiate a treaty of friendship.
Prussia was forced to agree to a formal alliance against Britain. She was also forced to surrender three outlying parts of the kingdom. Cleves, on the lower Rhine was given to Murat, who became Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves. Ansbach, an isolated Prussian enclave in Bavaria, had been crossed by Bernadotte's corps early in the War of the Third Coalition, and was now given to Bavaria. Neuchâtel, on the western edge of Switzerland, was given to Napoleon's hard working chief of staff Berthier. In return Prussia was offered Hanover.
Haugwitz was forced to sign the convention on 15 December 1805. It was then sent to Prussia to be ratified. King Frederick William III of Prussia attempted to delay this, but was eventually left with no choice, and ratified the treaty on 24 February 1806. Prussia was left diplomatically isolated, and Napoleon now only faced Britain and Russia. Peace negotiations with Russia came quite close to success, but Napoleon's attitude had pushed Prussia towards the war camp. The peace party's cause wasn't helped when Napoleon offered to return Hanover to Britain in return for peace. Much to Napoleon's surprise later in 1806 Prussia joined the Fourth Coalition, and war was renewed.
Assassination attempt Treaty of Schönbrunn_section_2
During the negotiations at Schönbrunn, Napoleon narrowly escaped an attempt on his life. Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_18
On 12 October, shortly before signing the treaty, the emperor exited the palace with a large entourage to observe a military parade. Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_19
Seventeen year old Friedrich Staps, son of a Lutheran pastor from Naumburg, had arrived in Vienna and demanded an audience to present a petition. Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_20
He was refused by the emperor's aide General Jean Rapp, who shortly thereafter observed Staps in the courtyard pushing through the crowd towards Napoleon from a different direction, and had him arrested. Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_21
Taken to the palace, Staps was found to be carrying a large kitchen knife inside his coat, concealed in the petition papers. Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_22
Interrogated, Staps frankly revealed his plans to kill the emperor, calling him the misfortune of his country. Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_23
Brought forward to Napoleon, he asked whether Staps would thank him if he was pardoned, to which Staps replied: "I would kill you none the less." Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_24
Napoleon left Vienna on 16 October and the next day Staps was shot by Württemberg fusiliers outside the palace. Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_25
At this execution, he is said to have shouted "Long live freedom! Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_26
Long live Germany!" Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_27
Napoleon, impressed and fearing a greater conspiracy, instructed his police minister Joseph Fouché to keep the incident secret. Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_28
Soon after the German campaign of 1813, Staps came to be seen as a martyr of the burgeoning German nationalism. Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_29
He was the subject of a poem by Christian Friedrich Hebbel and a play by Walter von Molo. Treaty of Schönbrunn_sentence_30