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(AKL-28: dp. 550; 1. 177'; b. 33'; dr. 10'; s. 12 k.; cpl.
42; cl. Camano)
The second Brute was built in 1944 by Sturgeon Bay Shipbuilding Co., Sturgeon Bay, Wis., as the small freighter FS-370 for the Army. In 1950 FS 370 was turned over to the Military Sea Transportation Service and redesignated USNS AK"8 (T-AKL-28). On 31 October 1952 she was accepted by the Navy at Pearl Harbor and placed in commission as Brute (AKL-28) the same day, Lieutenant J. H. Kolbert in command.
After completion of training Brute proceeded to Guam where on 31 January 1953 she reported to Commander, Service Division 51. Between February 1953 and December 1955 she transported cargo throughout the Pacific, visiting the Marshalls, Carolines, Marianas, Philippines, Bonins, and 6kinawa and Japan. On 31 December 1955 the Division was decommissioned and Brute reported to Commander, Naval Forces, Marianas.
On 25 November 1956 Brute proceeded to Subic Bay, Philippine Islands, and reported to Commander, Naval Forces, Philippines, 2 December 1956. She was decommissioned and placed in service 6 December 1956.
Ship history [ edit ]
Brule was laid down in December 1943 for the U.S. Army as Small Freighter FS-370. During construction, she was redesignated as a Produce Freighter, FP-370. She was delivered to the U.S. Army in July 1944.
|International radio call sign of|
USS Brule (AKL-28)
World War II [ edit ]
Brule carried provisions to advanced bases occupied by the Army, from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands. In 1945, the ship came under Japanese aircraft attack near the Marinas and received damage and casualties. The crew managed to run the ship aground in shallow water, to prevent sinking. The ship was later re-floated and repaired.
In July 1946, she was used during Operation Crossroads to tow the USS Brule (APA-66) for nuclear weapons testing. She would later bear the same name.
Korean War [ edit ]
On 1 July 1950, Brule was placed into service by the Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS) as U.S.N.S. T-AKL-28. On 5 September 1952, T-AKL-28 was named U.S.N.S. Brule (T-AKL-28).
On 31 October 1952, she was accepted by the U.S. Navy at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and placed in commission as U.S.S. Brule (AKL-28) with LT John H. Kollert in command. After completion of training, the Brule proceeded to Guam where on 31 January 1953 she reported to Commander, Service Division 51. Between February 1953 and December 1955, she transported cargo throughout the Pacific. On 31 December 1955, the division was decommissioned and Brule reported to Commander Naval Forces Marianas. On 25 November 1956, Brule proceeded to Subic Bay, beginning a long lengthy career as a shuttle vessel between Subic and Sangley Point. ΐ]
Vietnam War [ edit ]
On September 1, 1965, Brule was re-commissioned for service in the Vietnam War. On 4 January 1966, after weeks of training in the Philippines, Brule set sail for the Republic of Vietnam. In 1968, the Brule sustained seven rocket hits while on one of her normal runs. Despite extensive damage to the superstructure and electrical cabling, Brule suppressed the enemy fire and proceeded on schedule. Her crew reported “ship and crew ready to haul cargo or fight and not necessarily in that order.” Α]
Ships fate [ edit ]
Brule was decommissioned on 1 November 1971 at Chinhae, South Korea, and loaned to the South Korean Navy as ROKS Ulsan (AKL-910). She was sold outright on 15 November 1974 and struck from the Naval Register. She has since been decommissioned from South Korean naval service. Her fate is unknown. Β]
History of Brule
The community of Brule, like other towns in Keith County, has its roots deeply ingrained in the railroad. As the first Transcontinental Railroad etched its way along Nebraska, records indicate that it reached the current spot of Ogallala in May of 1867. The crew spent most of the summer of that year building at a rate of nine tenths of a mile per day reaching the area that would one day become Brule by June 1, 1867.
The Union Pacific received all odd number section of land twenty miles in width on each side of the track across the state of Nebraska. Even after the crew built hundreds of miles past the area of Keith County, it was necessitated that a crew would be needed to maintain the sections of rail that had already been laid. Section crews were created to maintain the stretches of track across the railroad. Records indicate that a siding was built in the area that is now Brule sometime during 1882, and it and was used as a flag stop. The siding name of Brule had been chosen because the spot had been a seasonal campground of about 5,000 Sioux Indians under the leadership of Chief Spotted Tail.
During this time, Brule was not yet a community nor had it been platted for such. In 1885 the area around modern Brule caught the attention of a retired army major from New York. Issach Barton and his wife Elizabeth, was intrigued with the area and deemed it a &ldquogarden spot of the country.&rdquo This interest in the area sparked Elizabeth to approach the Union Pacific and inquire a purchase of 160 acres of land about where the current community of Brule lies today.
In January of 1886, the Bartons purchased the land for six hundred and forty dollars from the Union Pacific. The land was platted by F.C. Flickinger in February of 1886. Unfortunately, the Bartons did not receive the correct title to the land until 1887. Many assumed the new community would be named &ldquoBarton&rdquo after Issach and Elizabeth. The Bartons desired that the community be named Brule in honor of the Sioux Indians. On August 27, 1886, Jacob E Griffin was given the job of first postmaster in this newly platted community of Brule. According to records, the first store was built for Barton by the firm Patten and Russell. Growth in the new community was slow and population remained at about fifteen people in the last years of the 19 th century.
Construction of a bridge over the South Platte River began in 1887 after a bond was approved in 1886. The construction of the bridge made access to Brule much easier for settlers now moving in to farm the land around the community. It is no doubt this helped early business owners as well. A one room school house was built in 1888 to serve the needs of early settlers&rsquo children.
At the turn of the new century, Brule was reported to have a boom of construction. It was reported that shortages of building materials were common. In July of 1907, Union Pacific built the first substantial depot for the community. Construction of the depot took about four months to complete. In 1909 two lots were purchased by Rachel Polly and a two story hotel was built. The hotel offered a restaurant which helped many travelers on the railroad. John Welpton built the community&rsquos first bank, as he saw much promise in the newly established town.
As the community grew, the Bartons saw the need for a church. Land was set aside for the establishment of the community&rsquos first church. The Congregational Church was dedicated on August 12, 1908. Reverend W.S. Hampton became the minister of the new church. In 1928 the second church, St. John&rsquos Evangelical Lutheran Church, was built and dedicated. Other denominations had held services in the community but had not established a permanent presence in the community like the latter.
The Trans-Mississippi Grain Company built and operated Brule&rsquos first elevator in 1909. Mr. Parker and George C. Deerring operated the company until shortly before World War I when the Farmer&rsquos Coop purchased the elevator. This elevator burned in 1927 and shortly after, the current elevator was built. In 1928, land set aside by Elizabeth Barton to be used as a park was deeded to the community. This park was located near the center of the town and grew into the current park in Brule today. As the 20 th Century progressed, many businesses came and went in Brule. As cars became a new mode of transportation, the first gasoline station was built Mr. Hammer and was purchased in 1924 by Dodge and Kuskie.
As the community of Brule flourished, it operated as many as five gasoline stations, a drugstore, ice cream parlor, two hardware stores, lumber store, three grocery stores, theatre, barbershops, a hotel, creamery, and several cafes. Many of these businesses spanned a range of many years. The first telephone line was run from Big Springs, Nebraska to Brule. The company chose Brule as the location of its offices. Not only was communication improving in the area, but the use of electricity became a luxury for many of Brule&rsquos residents when an electric plant was built in Ogallala.
As the town flourished in the 1920&rsquos, organizations and clubs became popular. Among these for women included Ladies Aid, The Vail Community Club, and the Brule Women&rsquos Club. The IOOF established a lodge in Brule in 1925.
As the United States was hurled into the &ldquoGreat Depression&rdquo, Brule was affected like many towns in the County. President Roosevelt initiated a P.W.A. in the area during the depression. Construction of the road north of Brule provided much needed work to many struggling families. As The United States entered World War II, many local men enlisted to serve their country. After the war, many returned to their home to farm or create a business. Today, the community of Brule has a population of about 326 residents.
Sources: Keith County News 1976 By Anna W. McCarty
Brule Nebraska The First 100 Years 1886-1986 by The Brule Centennial Book Committee
In times like these we have to rue that Britain has only a paltry tradition of political assassination. This, I’d propose, is not a mark of civilisation but of timidity and the eschewal of realpolitik. To overcome our squeamishness, we might gainfully study this breathless race through two thousand years of special pollarding, which might have been more aptly named ‘Assassination: A Handbook’, for it is, among much else, an inventory of means and methods: blades, blunt objects, poisons and toxins, guns and ammo, shots from motorcycles, bombs, defenestration and plump cushions.
Assassination signifies the taking of life. So, obviously, does murder. They are not, however, synonymous. Assassination is planned. It most probably involves an ambush or trap, and before that high-level debates and decisions made in meetings, which typically are not minuted. Murder doesn’t generally involve such things. Assassinations are intended. They are tactical instruments and tools – if not also proxies – of war. They are, equally, evasions of war and bulwarks against tyranny. Michael Burleigh is dubious about the beneficial effects of governmentally sanctioned killing. However, a perhaps unforeseen outcome of his relentlessly sanguinary book is the implication that the planet, far from being sullied by opérations ponctuelles, might be a happier place were a few more tyrants to be treated to well-aimed headshots. There can, for instance, be no doubt that had Benito Mussolini been shot and strung up in Piazzale Loreto a few years earlier than he was, he would not have bought a road map to catastrophe from Adolf Hitler.
Hitler was himself a frequent target, of course. Burleigh retells the story of the communist Georg Elser’s failed attempt on Hitler’s life in November 1939, ten weeks after war had been declared. It became the subject of Stephen Sheppard’s novel The Artisan Klaus Maria Brandauer both directed the film adaptation and played Elser. Yet it is less well known than the July 1944 bomb plot on Hitler’s life. As Burleigh drily points out, the aristocratic bomb plotters ‘had considerably more post-war utility to the class of person who reads broadsheet German newspapers than a humble Swabian Communist carpenter’.
Joachim Fest estimated that in the ten months between the failed 1944 plot and the Nazi surrender in May 1945 4.8 million Germans died. Burleigh goes further, trepidatiously, and suggests that had Elser’s bomb succeeded ‘there might not have been a lengthy war at all none of Hitler’s peers possessed his charisma or oratorical skills, and the army high command might have swept them aside’.
The work Day of the Assassins persistently recalls is neither historical nor literary but a film, Alan Clarke’s Elephant, a dourly brilliant realistic album of sectarian assassinations in Belfast. The cumulative effect, heightened by Steadicam, is thrillingly gruesome and stomach-churning. So it is with Burleigh’s book. There are, of course, commentary and context, but every page is weighted with names of operatives in the death business: victims and culprits, executants and collaterals, backroom technicians, black-ops tacticians, the pseudonymous and the disguised whose trade demands not merely cold blood but the ability to cover their tracks. Jamal Khashoggi’s killers and their overlords were markedly wanting in this department. Burleigh is a clear-headed guide to the Saudi crown prince’s perpetual handwashing. Other killers have been less concerned to conceal their acts: among them, astonishingly, is Dwight D Eisenhower, who ordered the despatch of Patrice Lumumba with the words, ‘We will have to do whatever is necessary to get rid of him.’
For a secret organisation, Mossad is remarkably ostentatious. But then Israeli prime ministers Menachem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir never made a secret of having been members of the murderous Irgun and its offshoot Lehi, which attempted to treat with Nazi Germany in the hope that the latter would wage war against the British mandatory government in Palestine. Years later, Mossad successfully recruited the multiply scarred former(-ish) Nazi Otto Skorzeny, who was happy to both grass up old comrades, among them veterans of the V-1 and V-2 programmes now developing missiles in Nasser’s Egypt, and, if necessary, put them to sleep. Such was, most probably, the fate of the fixer and arms dealer Heinz Krug. Skorzeny, like many of Burleigh’s subjects, was a Talleyrand, in this case a muscle-bound Talleyrand, who was as happy to maim and liquidate for de Gaulle’s Barbouzes as he was to advise the OAS, the anti-Algerian independence organisation that Burleigh wrongly describes as ‘a right-wing terrorist group’.
It wasn’t. Rather, it was people fighting for their homes. Its high command included many former Resistance fighters and Raoul Salan, the most decorated soldier in the French army. Its ground troops were petites gens. They were losing everything because of de Gaulle’s treachery in sacrificing them to the FLN, the war crimes of which over a long decade far outdid those of the OAS. It is a matter of great regret that none of the attempts on de Gaulle’s life succeeded. He was a lucky ‘fascist’ – the term is Roosevelt’s.
Burleigh moves swiftly from the fortunate survivor to John F Kennedy, who, as a senator, had militated for Algerian independence and, as president, visited de Gaulle a few weeks after the generals’ failed coup of April 1961. Given Kennedy’s clumsiness over the Bay of Pigs and his escalation of the war in Vietnam, with the dispatch of thousands of ‘military advisers’, his position on Algeria was risibly hypocritical. Burleigh rather rashly dismisses the possibility of Kennedy’s assassination being the culmination of a conspiracy. So: no Mafia, no CIA, no grassy knoll, no storm drain, no bogus policemen, no James Jesus Angleton. Just one troubled loner whose familiar back story is neatly, if omissively recounted. I’m not certain that the notion of a single shooter remains credible. Still, Burleigh’s opt-out does mean that his book does not get bogged down in the world of serious investigators, conspiracy industrialists, mutually refuting anoraks and wacky hobbyists.
In his afterword, Burleigh, eager to put a lid on the topic in which he has immersed himself to the point of satiety, writes of assassins that ‘in most cases what they did on their big day had no real consequences other than to temporarily discombobulate a society with an act bound up with their own life stories and personalities’. This is surely an underestimation of both the assassin’s power and the dire litany of killings that fills this harshly excellent book. Certain eras have been defined by assassinations, and others by those that failed or were not attempted. Mossad could have wasted Ayatollah Khomeini when he was hiding in plain sight at Neauphle-le-Château outside Paris, and so might France’s DST. But the Shah advised President Giscard d’Estaing’s right-hand man Michel Poniatowski against such an action, with the results that we see today.
Brute AKL-28 - History
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Brute AKL-28 - History
Launched: 12 September 1943, as SS Arthur P. Gorman
Acquired: 18 September 1943
Commissioned: 8 April 1944, as USS Tutuila
Decommissioned: 7 December 1946
Recommissioned: 7 May 1951
Decommissioned: 21 February 1972
Motto: Eternal vigilance is the price of freedom
Name: ROCN Tian Tai (ARG 516)
Meaning: Heavenly Platform
Commissioned: February 1972
Displacement: 4,023 long tons (4,088 t)
Length: 441 ft 6 in (134.57 m)
Propulsion: Triple Expansion Machinery, Single Propeller, 2,500 hp (1,864 kW)
Speed: 12.5 knots (23.2 km/h 14.4 mph)
1 x single 5"/38 dual purpose gun mount
2 x twin 40mm AA gun mounts
12 x single 20mm AA gun mounts
Name: Tutuila (PG-44)
Builder: Kiangnan Dockyard and Engineering Works, Shanghai
Laid down: 17 October 1926
Launched: 14 June 1927
Commissioned: 2 March 1928
Reclassified: PR-4, 16 June 1928
Decommissioned: 18 January 1942
Struck: 26 March 1942
Fate: Transferred to China under lend-lease, 16 February 1942
Permanent transfer, 17 February 1948
Name: RCS Mei Yuan
Acquired: 16 February 1942
Fate: Scuttled to prevent capture, May 1949
Type: River gunboat
Displacement: 395 long tons (401 t)
Length: 159 ft 5 in (48.59 m)
Beam: 27 ft 1 in (8.26 m)
Draft: 5 ft 5 in (1.65 m)
Speed: 14.37 kn (16.54 mph 26.61 km/h)
Complement: 61 officers and enlisted
10 × .30 in (7.62 mm) machine guns
USS Tutuila (PG-44) was a gunboat in the service of the United States Navy from 1928 until her transfer to China under lend-lease in 1942.
2 Service history
2.1 Yangtze Patrol, 1928-1937
2.2 Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1941
2.3 World War II, 1941-1942
2.4 Republic of China Navy, 1942-1949
4 External links
Tutuila was laid down on 17 October 1926 at the Kiangnan Dockyard and Engineering Works in Shanghai, China launched on 14 June 1927, sponsored by Miss Beverly Pollard and commissioned on 2 March 1928, with Lieutenant Commander Frederick Baltzly in command.
Yangtze Patrol, 1928-1937
Assigned to the Yangtze Patrol (YangPat) and redesignated river gunboat PR-4 on 16 June 1928, Tutuila cruised on shakedown up the Yangtze River from Shanghai to Yichang, where she joined her sister ship Guam in mid-July. Convoying river steamers through the upper reaches of the Yangtze on her first passage through the scenic gorges, she flew the flag of Rear Admiral Yates Stirling, Jr., Commander, Yangtze Patrol (ComYangPat). Tutuila's shallow draft enabled her to traverse the treacherous rapids of the gorges with ease, so that the fluctuating water levels did not hinder her year-round access to the upper stretch of the Yangtze. Her duty with YangPat offered excitement and variety: conducting roving armed patrols convoying merchantmen providing armed guards for American flag steamers and "showing the flag" to protect American lives and property in a land where civil strife and warfare had been a way of life for centuries.
Dealing with sniping by bandits or warlord troops in the 1920s and 1930s required both tact and&mdashon occasion&mdasha few well-placed rounds of 3 in (76 mm) or .30 in (7.62 mm) gunfire. One incident which called for a mixture of diplomacy and force came in 1929, when Lt. Cdr. S. D. Truesdell was in command of the gunboat. He called on the Chinese warlord from whose territory some rifle shots had come. During a discussion of the incident, the general explained that his men were merely "country boys, who meant no harm". Truesdell replied that he, too, had some "country boys" among his own crew. He noted that he had found them tinkering with the after 3-inch gun, pointing it at the general's conspicuous white headquarters as they practiced their range-finding. Truesdell's rejoinder bore immediate fruit the sniper fire ceased.
Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1941
In 1937, the complexion of life for the Yangtze gunboats changed. The undeclared Second Sino-Japanese War began in July and spread to the Yangtze valley in August&ndashSeptember. Japanese river operations effectively bottled up the river for neutral gunboats, and their proximity to war zones produced incidents such as the sinking of Panay by Japanese aircraft on 12 December 1937. On 3 August 1938, Tutuila followed Luzon up the river to Chungking, as the YangPat flagship carried the American Ambassador&mdashNelson T. Johnson&mdashto that river port.
Tutuila remained at Chungking as station ship with little hope of relief. Further Japanese operations resulted in the capture of Hankow in October 1938, making river travel below the former Chinese capital city subject to harassment and obstruction by the Japanese Navy. Such conditions resulted in the stranding of Tutuila at Chungking, where she remained through 1941.
On 8 May 1940 Tutuila ran aground and was damaged. She remained stranded until refloated on 13 May then repaired and returned to service.
After the fall of Hankow, the Chinese moved their capital up river to Tutuila's station, Chungking. Japanese forces thus stepped up the intensity of their attacks on that city, and air raids were common occurrences during the spring, summer, and fall. Only winter bad weather prevented the Japanese from year-round heavy raids. Moored at Lungmenhao Lagoon, Tutuila bore a charmed life until 31 July 1941, when Japanese bombs landed close aboard, holing the ship at her waterline and destroying the ship's motor skimmer with its outboard motor.
By late 1941, as the situation in the Far East worsened, four gunboats remained with YangPat and one in the South China Patrol. Admiral Hart's reduction of naval forces in Chinese waters cut this number to two. Luzon&mdashwith Rear Admiral William A. Glassford, ComYangPat, aboard&mdashdeparted from Shanghai for Manila on 28 November 1941 in company with Oahu. Wake remained at Shanghai as station ship Tutuila, beyond hope of escape, remained marooned at Chungking. Mindanao departed Hong Kong at approximately the same time and arrived in the Philippines shortly after hostilities commenced.
World War II, 1941-1942
Shortly after his arrival in Manila, RAdm. Glassford deactivated the Yangtze Patrol on 6 December 1941. Within a few days, Japanese air attacks had devastated Pearl Harbor and hostilities were underway with a rapidity which caught Wake unawares at Shanghai, where she was captured. For Tutuila, however, this news only heightened the anxiety.
Her residual complement of two officers and 22 enlisted men was ordered to depart from Chungking without their ship. She was then taken under the jurisdiction of the Naval Attaché attached to the American Embassy, Chungking. She was decommissioned on 18 January 1942, the same day Tutuila's crew flew out of the city.
Republic of China Navy, 1942-1949
The attaché delivered the ship to an authorized representative of the Republic of China on 16 February 1942. Then, under terms of lend-lease, the U.S. Navy leased the gunboat to China on 19 March, her name becoming Mei Yuan, which can be translated as "of American origin". The name Tutuila was struck from the U.S. Naval Vessel Register on 26 March.
The ship was permanently transferred to the Chinese government on 17 February 1948. She served the Nationalist Navy until near the end of the Civil War which ravaged China after World War II. As Communist forces advanced upon Shanghai, the Nationalists abandoned and scuttled Mei Yuan to prevent her capture. Her subsequent fate is unknown.
History of The USS Tutuila (ARG-4)
Arthur P. Gorman was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 1179) on 11 August 1943 at Baltimore, Md., by the Bethlehem Steel Co., renamed USS Tutuila on 8 September and designated ARG-4 launched on 12 September transferred to the Navy when 80 percent complete for conversion to an internal combustion engine repair ship on 18 September, converted by the Maryland Drydock Co., and commissioned there on 8 April 1944, Comdr. George T. Boldizsar in command.
Tutuila underwent shakedown in Hampton Roads from 20 April to 24 May before sailing for the Panama Canal and proceeding via San Diego, Pearl Harbor, and Eniwetok to the South Pacific.
Early in August, the repair ship joined Service Squadron (ServRon) 10 based at Purvis Bay, in the once hotly contested Solomon Islands. Tutuila served the Fleet as a floating advance base as it swept its way across the Pacific toward Japan. For the final year of the war, the repair ship engaged in round-the-clock work schedules which seldom slackened.
Tutuila aided in the build up for the operations which led to the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese yoke. Upon completion of this campaign, American task forces set their sights on islands closer to the Japanese homeland. Iwo Jima and Okinawa fell to the telling power of American shells, bombs, and troops which stormed ashore supported by a great Allied armada. Soon, the Allied navies were within shelling distance of the Japanese home islands themselves.
During this time, the repair ship operated first out of Manus, in the Admiralties, before moving to Ulithi in the Carolines. In the wake of the liberation of the Philippines, Tutuila arrived at Leyte on 24 May 1945 and provided repair services there to a wide variety of ships and smaller craft from the date of her arrival until the end of hostilities.
Yet, Tutuila's work was far from over. As American and Allied forces prepared for occupation of the Japanese homeland, the ship joined those forces headed north for duty off Nippon's shores. On 30 August, Tutuila (in company with Jason (ARH 1), Whitney (AD-4) and 11 smaller ships) set out on the first leg of the voyage northward. One day out, a typhoon lashed at the convoy, forcing the slower repair ship to remain with the "small boys" while Jason and Whitney received orders to run for Japan. On 2 September, having weathered the storm and shepherded her charges to safe harbor, Tutuila dropped anchor in Buckner Bay, Okinawa.
From there, Tutuila proceeded with a 33-ship convoy, bound for Korea, making port at Jinsen (now called Inchon) on 24 September 1946. She operated there as a maintenance vessel for ships engaged in the repatriation of Japanese prisoners of war. She continued this work after moving to Taku, China, where she arrived on 26 January 1946.
Departing Taku on 30 March, the ship steamed to Shanghai, China, where she dropped anchor on 2 April. Six days later, she sailed for the United States. The ship transited the Panama Canal and arrived at New Orleans on 20 May. Following repairs, she moved to Galveston, Tex., on 9 June 1946 for deactivation and was decommissioned there six months later, on 7 December 1946.
She lay basking in the Texas sun until the summer of 1950, when North Korean troops crossed the 38th parallel and invaded South Korea. As the United States armed forces mobilized to support the United Nations effort, Tutuila received the call to return to active service. Towed to Orange, Tex., she was reconditioned with new shop machinery which replaced her 5-inch and 40-millimeter guns and their magazines. On 7 May 1951 the ship was re-commissioned and assigned to the Service Force, Atlantic Fleet.
Tutuila arrived at Norfolk on 30 May 1951 and served there until 13 October, when she proceeded to Baltimore for one week before returning to Hampton Roads where she remained from 23 October 1951 to 16 June 1952.
Calling briefly at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, from 20 to 23 June, she operated out of Norfolk again from 28 June to 15 August and from 22 August to 30 October, with a stint at New York in between. She continued this routine of east coast operations from 1952 through 1957, with occasional calls at Port-au-Prince, Haiti Havana, Cuba and Guantanamo Bay.
In 1957, the ship paid good will calls to Bermuda in June and Nova Scotia in August, with groups of Explorer Scouts embarked for each cruise. In October 1958, Tutuila again visited Havana and then proceeded to Philadelphia, where she took part in a special project for reclaiming materiel from ships in reserve before returning to Norfolk. She underwent a major overhaul at the Norfolk Navy Yard from 31 October 1958 to 21 January 1959 before proceeding to Guantanamo Bay late in March. But for a round-trip cruise to Port-au-Prince from 10 to 12 April, the ship served there until summer when she returned to the Virginia capes for antisubmarine exercises. The ship continued her operations out of Norfolk until the autumn of 1962.
On one occasion, the repair ship encountered merchantman SS William Johnson in distress while en route to Norfolk and, within a short time, Tutuila sent over a repair crew to correct the engineering casualty.
Cuban Missile Crisis and Dominican Intervention
American reconnaissance planes flying over Cuba in the fall of 1962 noticed unusual activities there, and, when photographic prints were developed, the unusual items and activities were found to be Russian-built missiles and missile sites. In reaction to this threat President John F. Kennedy ordered the Navy to throw a cordon around Cuba, instituting a "quarantine" of the island. In this tense climate, Navy destroyers and patrol planes formed a picket line, turning back Russian ships carrying missiles.
Tutuila proceeded to Morehead City, N.C., where she rendered services before stopping at Norfolk to load cargo and proceed south to support the quarantine line. Basing out of Roosevelt Roads and Vieques, Puerto Rico, the ship provided supplies and services for the ships engaged in blockading Cuban sea lanes.
After the Soviet Government complied with President Kennedy's demand for the withdrawal of the missiles and all of their associated technicians, sites, and the like, tensions eased. Tutuila proceeded north toward Norfolk but encountered a storm (much like the one weathered in 1945, with 80-knot winds and heavy seas) which caused a three-day delay in her returning to home port.
Operating out of Norfolk and Charleston, S.C., through 1964, the ship provided repair services during Operation "Springboard" in January of 1965. Visits to San Juan and Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, Frederiksted and St. Croix, in the American Virgin Islands and Fort Lauderdale, Fla. provided the crew with sightseeing and recreational activities in between her regular duties out of the east coast ports of Norfolk and Charleston. In March 1965, Tutuila participated in a program to reclaim materiel and special equipment installed on radar picket destroyers which were currently being decommissioned at Bayonne, N.J.
As flagship of ServRon 4, Tutuila returned to Norfolk before heading south to the strife-torn Dominican Republic. While performing repair and support duties during the months of April and May, the ship conducted a special series of operations geared toward supplying needed petroleum products to light and power facilities in Santo Domingo after rebel gunfire had prevented normal tanker deliveries
For the remainder of the year 1965, she continued operations out of Norfolk following the Dominican intervention, calling at San Juan and Guantanamo Bay for refresher training after her annual Portsmouth overhaul. During March and April 1966, Tutuila underwent extensive preparation for overseas deployment, as repair shops, berthing and messing spaces were air conditioned, and new communications equipment was procured and installed.
The repair ship sailed from Norfolk on 9 May and transited the Panama Canal on 18 May. After brief stops at Pearl Harbor and at Subic Bay in the Philippines, the repair ship arrived at An Thoi, Phu Quoc Island, in the Gulf of Siam, to support Operation "Market Time" off the coast of South Vietnam.
Relieving Krishna (APL-28) on 19 July, Tutuila commenced servicing the nimble and hard-hitting PCF's, or "Swift" boats, attached to Division 11. WPB's of the Coast Guard's Division 11 were based on Tutuila as well.
The following month found Tutuila's LCM's and their crews participating in Operation "Seamount," an Army directed landing operation to clear the southern Phu Quoc Island of enemy forces. Landing South Vietnamese troops at four locations, Tutuila's boats also carried supplies and ammunition to the Allied ground forces while helicopters evacuated casualties to the repair ship for medical attention .
Krishna returned to An Thoi on 8 October to relieve Tutuila, which then steamed to Bangkok, Thailand, for rest and relaxation for her crew. The repair ship then arrived back off the Vietnamese coast, reaching Vung Tau, off Cape St. Jacques, on 18 October. Here she supported Operations "Market Time", "Game Warden", and "Stable Door" through the end of 1966.
The opening days of the new year, 1967, saw the repair ship taking up support duties for the Mobile Riverine Force established at Vung Tau for operations in the Mekong Delta. Here, she assisted in the preparation of ASPB's and other small patrol craft until USS Askari (APL-30) arrived and took over the major repair and maintenance work.
Tutuila conducted in-country availability for the first time on Hisser (DER-100) on 9 January. Her repair crews finished another difficult job in just five days the overhauling and repairing of the troublesome diesel generators of USS Benewah (APB 35).
Turned over to the operational control of Commander, Naval Support Activity, Saigon, in April 1967, the ship commenced services to LST's engaged in operations off the mouth of the Mekong River. During this period, the repair ship continued to provide support and maintenance facilities for craft of the Mobile Riverine Assault Force and supported Coastal Division 13 as well. Further, Tutuila's 3-inch guns spoke in anger for the first time in the Vietnam conflict, as the ship undertook a shore bombardment in the Rung Sat Special Zone, providing harassment and interdiction fire into an area of suspected Viet Cong activity north of Vung Tau.
Returning to An Thoi in October 1967, Tutuila relieved Krishna and provided support for coastal divisions of Navy and Coast Guard before proceeding to Kaoshiung, Taiwan, for five days of upkeep in late November. She returned to Vung Tau on 7 December to continue supporting coastal interdiction operations.
The repair ship remained at Vung Tau until taking over duties at An Thoi in April 1968 from Krishna. While remaining on station through the summer Tutuila also trained South Vietnamese sailors in the operation of PCF's, four of which had been transferred to the Republic of Vietnam in August. Tutuila's hard work earned the Navy Unit Commendation as a result of the labors conducted at both Vung Tau and An Thoi.
Extensive improvements in habitability highlighted the yard work conducted at Yokosuka in January 1969, while the main engine, auxiliary pumps, and the three main generators were all subjected to thorough overhauling. On 21 March, the ship departed from Yokosuka for sea trials and refresher training, a virtually new ship both inside and out. The final week of training completed by 22 April, Tutuila cleared the Japanese isles on the 27th, bound, once more, for Vietnam.
After a five-day visit to Hong Kong en route, the ship dropped anchor at Vung Tau on 14 May. She commenced work almost immediately, conducting a temporary availability on Brule (AKL-28) before 1 June and filling 36 work requests from Mark (AKL-12) as well as repair work and availability requirements for local YFR craft and the Republic of Korea LSM-610.
On 12 June, Tutuila got underway for An Thoi where she supported the continuation of "Market Time," as well as "SEAFLOAT" and "SEALORDS," while maintaining PCF's, YFU's, APUBI, and several LST's.
For the months of June and July, the ship also undertook further training operations repairing 17 Vietnamese Navy PCF's and training 39 Vietnamese blue jackets in diesel engine overhaul. Saint Francis River (LSMR-525) underwent two weeks of restricted availability, adding to the repair ship's already busy and round-the-clock schedule. Fulfilling these and other requests for South Vietnamese, Korean, Thai, and United States Navy units, Tutuila remained busy for the remainder of her active career off Vietnam receiving three Navy Unit Commendations in the process. Late in 1971, she was selected for transfer to the Republic of China Navy.
On New Year's Day 1972, Tutuila departed Vung Tau after six years of combat support duties. Many times she had hoisted PCF's or other patrol craft onto pontoons alongside for complete overhauls her crew had taught their Vietnamese counterparts the intricacies of diesel power plants and generators. Her guns had even conducted one offensive shore bombardment. Vietnam lay behind her as she headed for Hong Kong on 1 January 1972. Six days of bad weather jostled her before she finally made port at the British Crown Colony on 7 January.
Her stay at Hong Kong was not all rest and relaxation, however, as much lay ahead to be done in preparation for the transfer to the Chinese Navy. Tutuila's crew gave her a "face lift" which included painting, overhauling engines, and getting her records and accounts in order. She departed Hong Kong on 13 January and arrived at Subic Bay two days later, where upon arrival, the work of off-loading supplies and ammunition began.
Departing Subic Bay on 29 January, Tutuila made port at Kaoshiung on 2 February to the accompaniment of a Chinese military band which played tunes from the dockside. For the next three weeks, final checks were undertaken to put the finishing touches on the transfer. Finally, by 21 February 1972, all was in readiness. On that day, Tutuila was decommissioned and struck from the Navy list. Transferred to the Nationalist Chinese Navy, she was renamed Pien Tai and serves as a supply ship into 1979.
Tutuila received (7) Battle Stars, (3) Navy Unit Commendations, and for her Vietnam service.
Awards earned during the Vietnam War:
(3) Navy Unit Commendations
Meritorious Unit Commendation
RVN Gallantry Cross with Palm
First Class, with Palm, RVN Campaign Medal with 60's device
(7) Battle Stars for her Vietnam Service Medal.
Crewmember Larry Maust reports these additions and corrections to the above:
"Just wanted to correct some things about the History of the USS Tutuila, I was aboard her from about the beginning of 1970 until she was turned over to the Chinese at Kaoshiung in 1971. All the time I was aboard except for when I came aboard in Japan and a few R&R trips the Tutuila was stationed in Nha Be. Your history does not indicate that for almost 2 years she sat in the river there."
Crewmember Ralph Cooke (RM3) shares the following memories of the Tutuila towards the end of WWII and shortly after:
I boarded the USS Tutuila on December 4, 1945 at Taku. I was a Seaman First Class and made Radioman Third Class in early 1946.
On March 30 1946 we left Taku for Shanghai to take on stores before crossing the Pacific to go through the Panama Canal. On this trip we had a little scare when it was thought we sighted a floating mine. We were on alert status but nothing developed.
We pulled liberty in Shanghai in the days of April 4-7, 1946. On April 8 we started out the Yangtze River and on our way across the ocean. The voyage was without incident but did encounter heavy seas at times. I think our top speed was 11.2 knots so we were thirty three days in arriving at the Panama Canal. We went through the Canal on May 11. Our captain had us dressed in our whites and standing at attention as we moved through the canal.
We had some days of liberty in the Canal Zone from Balboa on the Atlantic side until May 15 when we set sail for New Orleans. We arrive in New Orleans on May 20, 1946. This is the last entry on my personal log.
I know following our time in New Orleans we went to Houston where the Tutuila was in dry-dock. Following this we moved on to Orange, Texas where we put her in "mothballs."
From there I was sent to St. Louis, Missouri where I was discharged from the Navy on July 23, 1946. My tour of duty was eighteen months and 15 days. I spent my 18th birthday in Pearl Harbor aboard the USS Robin Doncaster which we rode from SF Treasure Island to Okinawa with two breakdowns at sea. We stayed three weeks in Pearl Harbor for repairs and in so doing missed that terrible typhoon that tore up so many places in October of 1945.
We moved from Okinawa on the USS Magoffin to Shanghai. I was aboard the USS Ankares, a cargo ship, which took us to Taku where I boarded the USS Tutuila as a radioman, SFC.
Some of the men on the crew had been aboard the Tutuila from the time it followed the invasions in the Solomon Islands all the way up through the Philippines and until the end of the war when the ship was sent to Taku to service the LCI's, LCM's and LST's and any other diesel powered crafts.
I remember Christmas Day, 1945. I came topside for a breath of fresh air and an LST was tied up alongside. It was filled with Japanese soldiers and their families who were being repatriated back to Japan from China. It was a sight still vivid in my memory.
Thanks for your work on this site. I will need to spend more time looking it over. I never knew the ship was re-commissioned in 1951 to engage in other service.
I am a retired minister after 52 years of work and am presently at home in Norfolk, Nebraska where we have lived for over six years to be close to my wife's mother who is now 103 years of age.
FS-391, a Design 381  (Vessel, Supply, Diesel, Steel, 177') U.S. Army Freight and Supply vessel,  was launched in 1944 by United States Concrete Pipe Corp. of Los Angeles, California and commissioned at Los Angeles on 28 July 1944 with LTJG Ted C. Larsen, USCGR, assuming command, relieving Lt Thomas A. Buddy, USCGR. He was succeeded by LTJG Henry P. Mistrey, USCGR, who in turn was succeeded on 10 October 1945, by LTJG George W. Litchfield, USCGR. She was assigned to and operated in the Southwest Pacific area. 
Brute AKL-28 - History
OLD-BRULE Heritage Society
Wednesday, October,14th 2020, At 6:00 PM,
at Lake Nebagamon Auditorium, in Lake Nebagamon, WI
(We will require all attending to wear face mask, and social distancing will be enforced.)
We will again hold our meeting without a speaker or program or pot luck luncheon.
This event will be limited to a Business Meeting including continued election of 2 vacant positions on the Board, and other essential matters.
Visitors are always Welcome.
(For additional information please read the August newsletter.)
the Windmill and Eskolin house open house .
At to be determined. (The Board will continue to meet to take care of any and all necessary business.)
Please Read the New
October , 2020
(click on Newsletter for a PDF copy)
Dead line for articles for the December 2020 newsletter.
Saturday, November, 21, 2020
O-BHS Archives Committee Meeting
The Monday meeting of the Archives group will be put on Hold until the work on the basement of the Monticello school is completed to a safe place to work..
Please call Jim Pellman when the next meeting will occur. All interested in preserving history are welcome.
(Please call 715-363-2549 to confirm.)
The next Archives session will
Windmill Committee and Work day Meeting
Any one wanting to service on the Windmill Committee, please contact the Committee Chairman.
New Members and Visitors are Always WELCOME!
Click on links to the following:
See Members Services page
The Old-Brule Heritage Society
is an all volunteer group.
With no paid staff, answers to questions and responses to sending gift items may take a little longer.9
Monticello School Museum and Archives Project.
The Monticello School Museum and Archive will bring into service the little old red Monticello School House, built about 1890, from the Town of Lakeside, a gift of Walter Erkkila's family, moved in 2013 to the site of the first Maple School from 1889, located on US Highway 2 at the junction with Highway F. The site was next to the original Town Hall of Old Brule, built in 1891. Beneath the school will be constructed a walkout basement archive facility. The archive will be a climate controlled workspace and permanent organization base of operations, housing its historical collection.
For more information on the Monticello School
Monticello School Museum and Archives, Project & Donations Update report.
OBHS Monticello School Museum and Archives Project report.
The archives will be a climate controlled workspace and permanent organization base of operations, housing its historical collection.
E-mail address for Old-Brule Heritage Society
questions and for additional information.
All items available including T- Shirts and Sweat shirts.
(The new light blue cap with Windmill picture, see Order Form for other colors.)
A brief history of the man Jacob (Tapola) Davidson, the land where he settled and Windmill that he built.
Cost $10.00 including shipping.
To view the Front and Back covers, please click on
"Old-Brule Heritage Society Inc."
for a PDF form of all available merchandise items and details on price and shipping information.
Calendars the new
2020 Old-Brule Heritage Society, History Photo Calendar, available for $9.00
Please click on the Gift items page for information on merchandise, and Calendar Sales locations.
Volunteer Hours cards for present year 2018 - 2019 previous year 2019-2020See Members Services page.
Click on Windmill picture to read the Davidson Windmill Story.
Davidson Windmill and The Eskolin Log House and the Taylor's Bridge tours.
(Tours take about 30 minutes to 1 hour, pending your interest in history, and the working of the Windmill.)
Tours are available for groups upon request,
Please contact Dennis Hill, OBHS president at [email protected]
See the Newletters for "Restoration & Construction funding needs"
click on the proposed Tentative plans and cost of the project, for additional information.
(The building is now on the Windmill Grounds)
click on the proposed Tentative plans and cost of the project, for additional information.
(All tours have been canceled Pending "The COVID-19, Stay at Home self-quarantine status.)
Tours During the 2020
Bayfield Apple Festival weekend.
Friday, Oct. 2, 2020, Davidson Windmill Tours 3:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.
Saturday, Oct. 3, 2020, Davidson Windmill Tours 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Bake Sale on Saturday only.
Sunday, Oct. 3, 2020, Davidson Windmill Tours 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
Windmill and Eskolin house tours
Saturday, May, 16, 2020, 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. CANCELLED
Friday, June, 19, 2020, 3:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m CANCELLED
Saturday, June, 20, 2020, 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. CANCELLED
Saturday, July, 18, 2020, 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. PENDING
Saturday, Aug., 15, 2020, 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.
Saturday, Sept., 19, 2020, 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.
See the Events Page for the next scheduled dates for Windmill and Eskolin house tours.
For the comfort and safety of our guests, a Memorial walkway has been built from the Davidson Windmill to the Eskolin Log House. The dark brick pavers on each side, will carry the names of donors. These donations will be used for the completion of the walkway and for the maintaining of the Windmill property. Names may be placed on the dark brick pavers as Memorials for a donation of $20.00
See Paver Order Form for more details, please press " Memorial Walkway" , for a pdf copy of the Order form.
The Story of the Old-Brule Heritage Society
The Old-Brule Heritage Society, Inc. was founded in 1998 by a group of historically minded community leaders from all walks of life who recognized that more needed to be done to preserve the disappearing history and heritage of the small rural dairy communities in northern Douglas County, Wisconsin. They began meeting in the region's town and village halls, and once organized, sought affiliation with the Wisconsin Historical Society through its Office of Local History. They began collecting historical documents and materials and established an archive located in the Maple Community Center, near the center of the original boundaries of the old town of Brule and close to modern Northwestern High School which, beginning with its Class of 1950, had begun serving the educational needs in the same communities. Now, after over a decade of service to the region, the society works hard to care for the national historical landmark Davidson Windmill, and for the documents, photos and records of those local communities and individuals who thrived near the South Shore of Lake Superior, and who continue to call area farms and forests their home. Please check out the resources of this web-site. OBHS stands ready to share with you the region's history, and the task of preserving it for the generations to come.
Information on Vietnam Naval Operations
Compensation and Pension (C&P) Service has initiated a program to collect data on Vietnam naval operations for the purpose of providing regional offices with information to assist with development in Haas related disability claims based on herbicide exposure from Navy Veterans.
To date, we have received verification from various sources showing that a number of offshore “blue water” naval vessels conducted operations on the inland “brown water” rivers and delta areas of Vietnam. We have also identified certain vessel types that operated primarily or exclusively on the inland waterways.
The ships and dates of inland waterway service are listed below.
If a Veteran’s service aboard one of these ships can be confirmed through military records during the time frames specified, then exposure to agents can be presumed without further development.
(5)All vessels of Inshore Fire Support [IFS] Division 93 during their entire Vietnam tour
- USS Carronade (IFS 1)
- USS Clarion River (LSMR 409) [Landing Ship, Medium, Rocket]
- USS Francis River (LSMR 525)
- USS White River (LSMR 536)
(6) All vessels with the designation LST [Landing Ship, Tank] during their entire tour
(7) WWII ships converted to transport supplies on rivers and serve as barracks for brown water Mobile Riverine Forces]
(8) Vessels with the designation LCVP [Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel] during their entire tour (9) All vessels with the designation PCF [Patrol Craft, Fast] during their entire tour [Also called Swift Boats, operating for enemy interdiction on close coastal waters] (10) All vessels with the designation PBR [Patrol Boat, River] during their entire to ur [Also called River Patrol Boats as part of the Mobile Riverine Forces operating on inland waterways and featured in the Vietnam film “Apocalypse Now”]
(9) All vessels with the designation PCF [Patrol Craft, Fast] during their entire tour [Also called Swift Boats, operating for enemy interdiction on close coastal waters]
(10) All vessels with the designation PBR [Patrol Boat, River] during their entire to ur [Also called River Patrol Boats as part of the Mobile Riverine Forces operating on inland waterways and featured in the Vietnam film “Apocalypse Now”]
Brule Participants at LBH?new
Post by markland on Feb 27, 2006 18:38:30 GMT -5
While reading The Old Iron Road last night, the author was going into the visit of Crown Prince Alexi? to the Plains. I wasn't aware of this but he states that Brule were hired to put on shows/exhibitions for the guests, including Sheridan and GAC. Just out of curiosity, does anyone know the braves who participated in that exhibition and whether any later participated at LBH?
And yes, I am fully aware out what happened to that damned cat!
Post by Dietmar on Mar 1, 2006 12:17:12 GMT -5
The only name I found out yet is that of Spotted Tail. He was definitly not at LBH. See also this article:
Post by Dietmar on Mar 11, 2006 9:05:51 GMT -5
Interpreter Nick Ruleau named as the leader or chief of the Rosebud/Brule Sioux at the LBH one Flying Chaser (Ricker interviews). I never heard of this man elsewhere. I wonder if he was just a headman of his family group or maybe a minor war leader.
The most prominent Brule - as far as I know - at the LBH was Hollow Horn Bear, son of Iron Shell, who later became a chief of his people.
Does someone know more Brule participants of the battle?
Post by ephriam on Mar 11, 2006 17:54:39 GMT -5
He Dog (in Hammer, Custer in '76, p. 206) notes: "Good many Brules there. More than twenty lodges was reported to me. Flying Chaser -- Wakuya Kinyan was the head man of Brules but not a big chief."
I have not tracked down all the families yet, but no doubt most of them surrendered in spring of 1877 at the Spotted Tail Agency. Some did flee north into Canada with the Oglala in late 1877 and early 1878. After the surrender of the northern bands in 1881, a total of 41 families (206 people) were listed as Brule in the Sitting Bull Surrender Census. The headman of this group in 1881 was Bull Dog.
Another document which lists the name of Brule, many of whom may have been at the LBH, is a letter of transfer from Agent McLaughlin to the agent at the Rosebud Agency. He noted that 18 families (68) people had slipped away to the Rosebud Agency prior to July 1881 when the northern bands were transferred from the military at Fort Yates to the agent at Standing Rock Agency. These included:
1. Flying Alone [=Flying Above?]
2. White Whirlwind
3. Red Medicine Woman
4. Medicine ghost
5. Walking Bull
6. White Hawk
7. Shell Boy
9. Bad Whirlwind
13. Gey Cow Eagle
14. Little Wolf
15. Bear in the Woods
16. Looking Elk
17. Red Eagle
18. Eagle Woman
A total of 24 Brule families were transferred from the Standing Rock Agency to the Rosebud Agency in May 1882:
1. Bull Dog (chief)
2. Running in the Midst
3. Red Buck Elk
4. No Judgment
5. White Calf
6. His Horse Chasing
7. Came and Sat Above
8. Black Bull
9. Blue Haired Horse
10. Kill the Pawnee
11. Pretty Dog
12. Yellow Horse
13. Eagle Dog
14. Crows Head
15. Sitting Buck Elk
16. White Bull Cow
17. Ghost Head
18. Four Bears
19. Black Wolf
20. Man With Horns
21. Red Leaf
22. Red Around the Face
23. One That Strikes
24. Charging Hawk
Post by Dietmar on Mar 12, 2006 4:44:38 GMT -5
It seems that although there were some Brule at LBH, there was no really renown leader among them. The big chiefs like Spotted Tail, Two Strike, Swift Bear, etc. were all at the agency.
Do you know what Brule bands Flying Chaser or Bull Dog belong to?
Post by kingsleybray on Mar 12, 2006 8:03:54 GMT -5
On Brules at the Little Bighorn:
Flying Chaser's band affiliation is unknown to me. Bull Dog (born ca. 1830) was a Wazhazha. He is listed in the Red Cloud Agency register as surrendering there on March 14, 1877, with or at the same time as the No Water outfit. The Wazhazha band had been enrolled at Red Cloud Agency since 1871, but in spring 1877 chief Red Leaf and the band council requested to be transferred to Spotted Tail Agency. On April 21-22 some 203 Wazhazhas were officially transferred from Red Cloud Agency (approximately 270 people, chief Day, chose to remain at Red Cloud Agency). Included in the transfers was the family of "Dog Bull". In the Spotted Tail Agency census conducted during May-June, "Dog Bull's" family continues to be listed in the Wazhazha band. However he does not appear in the new census conducted in December 1877, after the removal of Spotted Tail and Red Cloud agencies to new sites on the Missouri River. From this fact I opined (in "We Belong to the North") that Bull Dog was a leader in the fall breakouts to Canada. As Ephriam shows Bull Dog was considered the leader of the Brules surrendering from Canada, interned at Standing Rock in 1881, and transferred home to the new Upper Brule tribal agency of Rosebud in spring 1882.
Trying to establish Brule numbers and band identities at the Little Bighorn is something of a guessing game. The Spotted Tail Agency census of May-June 1877 does not specifically identify surrendering Indians. However if we assume that all the enumerated Miniconjous (489 people), Sans Arcs (512), and Hunkpapa (18) are surrenders, we have a sub-total of 1019 people. In his annual report military agent Lt. Jesse M. Lee stated that 1372 "hostiles" surrendered at Spotted Tail through May 31. As a working hypothesis I think it's worth considering the difference of 353 people to be Brules. By my 6 people: 1 lodge ratio that is about 60 lodges. Some Brules also surrendered at Red Cloud Agency - including as we saw Bull Dog. Weighing up the evidence I think maybe 22 Brule lodges were included in the Crazy Horse village surrender of May 6, a smaller number with previous Red Cloud Agency surrenders - so as a working guess I'd say 85+ lodges of Brules surrendered at the two White River agencies from December 1876 through May 1877. If a few Brule lodges did go directly to Canada without prior surrender (as per Ephriam's reconstruction above), then we may looking at a maximum 'out' figure of ca. 100 lodges in fall 1876. The number available at the Little Bighorn could have been less than that, if (as at other agencies) some people fled Spotted Tail Agency during fall 1876 due to the Black Hills crisis/pony confiscations/military takeover etc. etc.
On band identities most 'hostile' Upper Brules would have been drawn from the two bands who prior to the 1868 Treaty habitually hunted in the Powder River Country: the Wazhazhas and the Orphans. It's significant that two named Brules at the Little Bighorn - Hollow Horn Bear and Crow Dog - were of the Orphan band.
I'll return to this and to the Brules involved in the Duke Alexis buffalo hunt.
Post by kingsleybray on Mar 12, 2006 12:07:07 GMT -5
Continuing from the above: You're right, Dietmar: none of the major Brule chiefs were present at the Little Bighorn. The influence of Spotted Tail was so great that only a small number of Upper Brules was identified with the Northern non-treaty bands. Also, traditional Brule hunting grounds focussed south of the Black Hills, so only small numbers of Northern Brules - those Wazhazhas and Orphans I talked about in the above post - had an interest or claim in the Powder River Country.
This is reflected also in the fact that there seems to have been no formal Brule camp-circle at the Little Bighorn. The evidence is a bit scattered, but there seem to have been some Brules camped with the Oglalas, some with or near the Sihasapa (the latter tribal division also had a band called Wazhazha - Kill Eagle's band - so that may be the linkup), some straggling between circles - and also a small camp on the east side of the river upstream from Medicine Tail Coulee.
On the 1871-72 Lakota buffalo hunt on the Republican River, which hosted Grand Duke Alexis. According to Red Cloud Agency records the following bands left that agency on September 22, 1871, to spend the winter hunting on the Republican:
Spotted Tail 120 lodges Brules
Little Wound 120 lodges Southern Oglalas
Red Leaf 30 lodges Wazhazha Brules
Young Man Afraid of His Horse 20 lodges Payabya band Oglalas
Dull Knife 25 lodges Northern Cheyennes (departed Sept. 30)
The Oglalas seem to have appointed four Deciders (Wakicunze) to oversee the hunt and camp moves:
Little Wound - Kiyaksa band
Black Bear - Iwayusota band
Pawnee Killer - Spleen band
Trail Agent Frank D. Yates (known to the Lakotas as Cut Foot), placed in charge by Red Cloud agent Wham.
There were already some Southern Oglalas on the Republican (Whistler's band of Kiyaksa). Due to internal difficulties, this group seemed to have joined with the Brules in organizing hunts etc.
The Brules, accompanying Trail Agent Todd Randall, also appointed a village organization, recognizing the following "headmen" (probably both Deciders and akicita police):
Crooked Foot (aka Shooting Tiger).
According to contemporary newspapers, Duke Alexis's party arrived on the Union Pacific at North Platte in the morning of January 13. They departed to join Spotted Tail's Brule village, located on Red Willow Creek (a northern tributary of the Republican) on the 15th. "Spotted Tail, Two Strike, Cut Leg, White Bear, Little Eagle, and other Sioux chiefs, with about 1,300 warriors [sic!], accompanied by their squaws and papooses, are now assembled on the Red Willow, waiting the arrival of the palefaces." The hunt climaxed on the 16th when Spotted Tail and "eight selected warriors" joined Duke Alexis, Phil Sheridan, G.A. Custer, Bill Cody and the rest in a grand buffalo chase. Two Lance, a brother of Southern Oglala chief Whistler, is known to have been among these hunters.
Post by Dietmar on Mar 12, 2006 15:33:05 GMT -5
today I read again Leonard Crow Dog´s book "Crow Dog - Four Generations of Sioux Medicine Men".
I found a statement, that both Ghostdance leaders Short Bull and his friend Kicking Bear "had been with Crazy Horse at the Custer fight". If this is true, we have another Brule name!
In didn´t find a definite statement about Crow Dog´s presence at the LBH, it seems in the book he was not.
But Leonard Crow Dog presented a interesting story about his ancestor when Sitting Bull went to Canada:
"Crow Dog and a few others went to join Sitting Bull there. They told the people on the reservation that they were going hunting. (. ) They stopped at a place called holy Medicine Rocks, where Sitting Bull had held a sun dance just before the Custer fight. (. ) It was near Medicine Rocks that Crow Dog ran into a party of white soldiers. (. ) Crow Dog took two bullets, one in his belly near the groin. He had a fast horse and made it back to camp. There a medicine man named Sitting Hawk took care of him."
What do you think of this?
Post by markland on Mar 15, 2006 10:11:15 GMT -5
Gads, you guys are fantastic is what I think of this.
Post by charlie on May 19, 2008 10:16:55 GMT -5
Post by jinlian on May 19, 2008 10:59:08 GMT -5
Unfortunately, in the 1868 treaty of Fort Laramie there's no mention of names of the different Brulé bands.
Spotted Tail's name comes fourth, after Iron Shell, Red Leaf and Black Horn's.
As for Red Leaf, he was the main leader of the Wazhazha (Wajaja, Waźaźa) band, and certainly he was indeed regarded as an important leader by his people.
Post by kingsleybray on May 20, 2008 8:13:23 GMT -5
Spotted Tail (ca. 1823-1881) spent his formative years in the band of his mother, the Wazhazha band of Brules. His father, a Sihasapa, had married into the Wazhazha band, and seems to have settled among his wife's people - he was what Lakotas called a 'buried man'. Spotted Tail rose to prominence as a warrior during the 1840s, and remained one of the leading warriors of the Wazhazha band. As such he helped his cousin Red Leaf avenge the death of Scattering Bear, and was subsequently interned at Ft Leavenworth and Ft Kearney in 1855-56. After his return to the Brules, he shifted his allegiance. He left the Wazhazhas and married into the newly emerging Southern Men band, led by Little Thunder, which hunted in southwest Nebraska (the Wazhazha range centred between the upper White and South Cheyenne rivers). This must be partly due to emerging political differences between the Brule bands, with Little Thunder's leadership stressing co-operation with the Americans - something that Spotted Tail's detention led him to believe was imperative. However I have been told by a modern Brule historian that the reason was due to the band leadership within the Wazhazhas remaining hereditary - hence the succession of Red Leaf to the chieftainship. Spotted Tail was ambitious, and the new Southern Men band council elected its chiefs. With its enhanced scope for leadership, the Southern Men attracted in people from several Brule bands - including Spotted Tail, who in 1867 succeeded Little Thunder to the band chieftainship.
The new Southern Men band had attracted many of its people from the old Middle Village (Choka-tunwan) band, known as the Brules proper. The term ho-choka refers to the circular space or 'Ring' in the middle of a camp-circle - hence, I'm sure, the usage 'Ring Band' which is recorded in 1867.
Interesting in the 1868 treaty how Spotted Tail is listed fourth, but the treaty negotiators were favouring the leaders of the Northern Brules, those bands i.e. the Wazhazhas and Orphans, who had been involved in the Bozeman Trail war on the Powder River. Although considered by American officials as the Brule head chief from 1866 onward, this played distinctly badly with the Northern Brule leadership - especially Iron Shell, who was bitterly resentful of Spotted Tail's preferment. Over succeeding years, Spotted Tail was able to cement his position as the Brules' principal leader - but in 1868 it remained distinctly moot.
Post by jinlian on May 20, 2008 9:48:47 GMT -5
However I have been told by a modern Brule historian that the reason was due to the band leadership within the Wazhazhas remaining hereditary - hence the succession of Red Leaf to the chieftainship. Spotted Tail was ambitious, and the new Southern Men band council elected its chiefs. With its enhanced scope for leadership, the Southern Men attracted in people from several Brule bands - including Spotted Tail, who in 1867 succeeded Little Thunder to the band chieftainship.
very interesting information about the Wazhazha having a hereditary band leadership. I wonder what was their own concept of "hereditary": was it referred to a whole tiyospaye or was it more similar to the American-European idea of it? If we give credit to Thomas Twiss' statement (reported by George Hyde) that Spotted Tail's father was a brother of Scattering Bear and Red Leaf's own father and that these two brothers had married two sisters, this would make Spotted Tail part of the leading tiyospaye and therefore his lineage wouldn't preclude him from trying to get the Wazhazha leadership.
On the other hand, Scattering Bear's family tree appears to be a rather complex one. By the way, according to some of Hyde's informants, Crow Dog, who later murdered Spotted Tail, was a nephew of Scattering Bear as well and later joined the Wablenicha band (by marriage?).
Post by charlie on May 20, 2008 9:52:21 GMT -5
Post by kingsleybray on May 20, 2008 10:51:05 GMT -5
charlie, I'll try and set down a few details here on Red Leaf. He was born about 1815, and he crops up in one of the Rosebud Agency censuses, maybe 1886 or '87 (with a 30 year-old wife!), but I can't find him after that. Perhaps Ephriam can help with his census data.
He was a presumably younger brother of Scattering Bear (Mato Wayuhi - I've had wayuhi explained as like a bear digging in the earth and scattering roots). They belonged to one of the leading families within the Wazhazha band, a large tiwahe with very extensive connections. As early as 1844-45 trader David Adams considered Scattering Bear as the leader of one constituent sub-band of the Wazhazhas. SB dealt directly with Adams and rival traders as the 'chief' of this group. In January 1846 a group of Brule chiefs - they seem largely to be Wazhazhas - signed a petition to be presented to the President, requesting recompense for the loss of resources to the emigrant traffic along the North Platte River. Scattering Bear was signatory no. 1.
In 1851 SB was selected by treaty commissioner David Mitchell as the head chief of the Lakotas during the councils for the Horse Creek Treaty. The council of Lakota leaders then validated Mitchell's choice, and SB - reluctantly - agreed to act as the principal intermediary between Americans and the Lakotas. Red Leaf during this period is unmentioned in the sources, but it is likely that he was one of his brother's aides - I suspect the Lakota term would be kolaya. He may have served as an akichita or police officer. After the killing of his brother in the Grattan fight of 1854 Red Leaf and several kinsmen, inluding brother Long Chin and cousin Spotted Tail, avenged the death in the mail coach raid of November 1854. In the fallout from this raid, the Wazhazha band council - temporarily united around a peace agenda under the headman Stabber - drove out Red Leaf and his adherents. With 26 lodges of Wazhazhas (about one third of the whole band) they were part of the camp attacked by Harney at the Blue Water in Sept. 1855. The surrender of the mail coach raiders was one of Harney's demands for peace, and after prolonged negotiations run by Agent Twiss and the peace party Lakotas, Red Leaf, Long Chin, and Spotted Tail surrendered in October. They were sent to Ft Leavenworth for several months in the winter. President Pierce pardoned them in January 1856, and they shortly were moved to Ft Kearney on the Nebraska frontier, where they stayed throughout the spring and summer of 1856.
After return (Sept. 1856) to the Brules, Red Leaf was selected as the band chieftain (Wichasha Itanchan) of the Wazhazhas. Reading and hopefully not over-reading Woman Dress statement to JR Walker, I suggest he was taken into the Brule chiefs society (Nacha Okolakichiye). He did not succeed to his brother SB's unique position as head chief (Billy Garnett's account inidicates that the dying SB had passed it on to Man Afraid of His Horse of the Oglalas - a case of a poisoned chalice?). He remained the most widely influential Wazhazha leader through the next generation. One thing I've detected in council proceedings is how often Wazhazha spokesmen were younger men - Red Leaf spoke comparatively rarely. Far from being a symptom of weakness, I suggest that Red Leaf's tactic of engaging the rising men was a successful strategy. How else explain the almost unprecedented growth in the Wazhazha band - eighty lodges in 1854 (about 500 people), to just under 200 by 1875. This means that people from other bands were attracted to join the Wazhazhas. There was quite a spurt during the Bozeman Trail war period - reflecting Wazhazha involvement in the profitable stock raiding - but it continues right into the years that the band settled at Red Cloud Agency (1871-77), when Red Leaf's leadership continued to attract new adherents. Chiefs with bigger names today - Red Cloud, Man Afraid of His Horse, Little Wound, and so on - couldn't match this - so our friend RL was 'doing something right'.