Country Index: Australia

Country Index: Australia

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Country Index: Australia


Wars and Treaties


Alam Halfa, battle of, 31 August-7 September 1942
Amiens, battle of, 8 August-3 September 1918
Bapaume, second battle of, 21 August-1 September 1918
Battleaxe, Operation, 15-17 June 1941
Bismarck Sea, battle of the, 2-4 March 1943
Bougainville, Australian Campaign, November 1944-August 1945
Broodseinde, battle of, 4 October 1917
Buna, battle of, 19 November 1942-2 January 1943
Compass, Operation, part 1 (Desert War, December 1940-January 1941)
Compass, Operation, part 2 (Desert War, December 1940-January 1941)
Compass, Operation, part 3 (Desert War, December 1940-January 1941)
Coral Sea, battle of the, 3-8 May 1942
Crete, German invasion of, Operation Mercury: 20 May-1 June 1941
Crusader, Operation, 18 November-20 December 1941
Dumpu, battle of, 8-13 December 1943
El Alamein, first battle of, 1-27 July 1942
El Alamein, second battle of, 23 October-4 November 1942
Elkton III Plan
Finisterre Range campaign (17 September 1943-24 April 1944)
Finschhafen, battle of, 22 September-28 October 1943
Gallipoli Campaign 1915 - 1916
Gaza, first battle of, 26-27 March 1917
Gaza, second battle of, 17-19 April 1917
Gaza, third battle of, 31 October-7 November 1917
Gazala, battle of, 26 May-14 June 1942
Gona, battle of, 19 November-9 December 1942
Goodenough Island, battle of, 22-24 October 1942
Huon Peninsula Campaign, 22 September 1943-24 April 1944
Jerusalem, fall of, 7-9 December 1917
Jerusalem, defence of, 26-30 December 1917
Junction Station, battle of, 13-14 November 1917
Kankiryo Saddle, 20 January-1 February 1944
Kokoda Trail, battle of the, 23 July-13 November 1942
Lae, battle of, 4-16 September 1943
Lys, battle of the, 9-29 April 1918
Menin Road Ridge, Battle of the, 20-25 September 1917
Milne Bay, battle of, 25 August-7 September 1942
Nadzab, battle of, 5 September 1943
Nassau Bay, battle of, 30 June-2 July 1943
Nebi Samwil, battle of, 18-24 November 1917
New Guinea campaign (January 1942-September 1945)
Passchendaele, First battle of, 12 October 1917
Postern, Operation - The Markham Valley/ Huon Peninsula Campaign of 4 September 1943-24 April 1944
Pozières Ridge, battle of, 23 July-3 September 1916
Rafa, battle of, 9 January 1917
River Plate, battle of the, 13 December 1939
Rommel's Second Offensive, 21 January- 4 February 1942
Polygon Wood, battle of, 26-27 September 1917
Providence, Operation
Rabaul, Reduction of, Operation Cartwheel, (30 June 1943- January 1944)
Romani, battle of, 3-9 August 1916
Rommel's First Offensive, March 24-May 30 1941
Salamaua, battle of, 30 June-11 September 1943
Salamaua-Lae Campaign (30 June-16 September 1943)
Sanananda, battle of, 19 November 1942-22 January 1943
Sattelberg, 29 October-25 November 1943
Shaggy Ridge, battle of, 10 October 1943-23 January 1944
Somme, battle of the, June-November 1916
Tobruk, siege of, April-December 1941
Villers-Bretonneux, first battle of, 30 March-5 April 1918
Villers-Bretonneux, second battle of, 24-27 April 1918
Wareo, battle of, 26 November-10 December 1943
Wau, battle of, 28-30 January 1943
Wewak, battle of, December 1944-September 1945


Clowes, Cyril A., 1892-1968
Hackett, John Winthrop, Junior, 1910 - 1997
Herring, General Edmund F., 1893-1982
Little, Robert Alexander (1895-1918)
Morris, General Basil M., 1888-1975
Vasey, Brigadier George A

Weapons, Armies & Units

Australia, HMAS
Brisbane, HMAS
Chatham class light cruisers
Cruiser Tank, Sentinel AC I
Cruiser Tank, Sentinel AC II
Cruiser Tank, Sentinel AC III (Australia)
Cruiser Tank, Sentinel AC IV (Australia)
Encounter, HMAS
Matilda II Infantry Tank Mk II (A12)
Matilda Dozer
Matilda Murray
Melbourne, HMAS
Nomad, GAF
Pioneer, HMAS
Psyche, HMS
Sentinel AC I, Cruiser Tank
Sentinel AC II, Cruiser Tank
Sentinel AC III, Cruiser Tank (Australia)
Sentinel AC IV, Cruiser Tank (Australia)
Supermarine Seagull
Sydney HMAS
Vultee Vengeance (RAAF)


  • Region: Pacific
  • Population: 25 million (2018)
  • Area: 7.7 million square kilometres
  • Capital: Canberra
  • Joined Commonwealth: 1931, under the Statute of Westminster
  • Commonwealth Youth Index: 1 out of 49 countries


In November 2018, Australia used the Secretariat's good practice guide and recommendations to improve its management of elections.

Human rights

In September 2018, the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative partnered with Australia to investigate working with civil society to improve human rights.


The Secretariat is helping Australia’s La Trobe University prepare to run a course on global citizenship. Students will learn about different cultures and religions.

Sustainable development

In February 2019, the Secretariat worked with Australia to explore how best to deal with sea-level rise and climate change. Australia has included the Commonwealth’s Blue Charter Action Group activities in its budget and planning.

Australia also provides support for the Commonwealth Climate Finance Access Hub. The Hub helps small and vulnerable states secure funding to tackle climate change and experts in government departments to help with grant applications, strengthen climate change policy and build capacity.


In March 2018, in Durban, South Africa, Australia worked with the Secretariat to improve connections with trading partners. They investigated reducing physical barriers to trade – for example, by improving infrastructure.

Blue Charter

Australia is a co-champion of the Blue Charter Action Group on Coral Reef Protection and Restoration, alongside Belize and Mauritius.

The Australian Institute of Maritime Science (AIMS) hosted a meeting in July 2019 where delegates shared ideas on achieving the goals of the Action Group. This included ways to improve government policies, build awareness, and empower communities, while also tackling barriers such as lack of funding, limited capacity and weak governance structures.

Australia is also a member of the Mangrove Ecosystems and Livelihoods, Commonwealth Clean Ocean Alliance, Ocean Observation and Sustainable Coastal Fisheries Action Groups.

Connectivity Agenda

Australia is a member of the Physical, Digital and Regulatory Connectivity clusters of the Commonwealth Connectivity Agenda. The Connectivity Agenda is a platform for countries to exchange best practices and experiences to trade and investment and undertake domestic reform.

What Makes Australia A Continent?

7 continents of the world.

Defining a continent can be tricky. In fact, there is even disagreement on how many continents there are in the world. For example, many people in Russia, the rest of Eastern Europe, and Japan consider Europe and Asia to be one continent, known as Eurasia. In some countries, North and South America are considered one continent, while Europe and Asia are divided. There are even some who believe that Europe, Asia, and Africa should be considered one united continent because they are all joined together by land. The most prevailing view, however, is that there are seven continents in the world, and one of them is Australia.

There is also a widely accepted view of what a continent is. This view defines a continent as a large, continuous, distinct landmass, preferably separated by a vast expanse of water. This definition is problematic because many of today’s continents are not separated by vast expanses of water. In fact, all the continents are connected by land to at least one other continent, with one exception: Australia. Australia is surrounded by vast expanses of water on all sides. Thus, one could argue that it meets the prevailing definition of a continent better than most other continents.


The name Australia (pronounced / ə ˈ s t r eɪ l i ə / in Australian English [32] ) is derived from the Latin Terra Australis ("southern land"), a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. [33] When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was naturally applied to the new territories. [N 5]

Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 (as Nieuw-Holland) and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts. [N 6] The name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the Earth". [39] Several famous early cartographers also made use of the word Australia on maps. Gerardus Mercator used the phrase climata australia on his double cordiform map of the world of 1538, as did Gemma Frisius, who was Mercator's teacher and collaborator, on his own cordiform wall map in 1540. Australia appears in a book on astronomy by Cyriaco Jacob zum Barth published in Frankfurt am Main in 1545. [40]

The first time that Australia appears to have been officially used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. [41] In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted. [42] In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially by that name. [43] The first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. [44]

Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under" (usually shortened to just "Down Under"). Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", and "the Wide Brown Land". The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". [45]


Human habitation of the Australian continent is known to have begun at least 65,000 years ago, [46] [47] with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia. [48] The Madjedbebe rock shelter in Arnhem Land is recognised as the oldest site showing the presence of humans in Australia. [49] The oldest human remains found are the Lake Mungo remains, which have been dated to around 41,000 years ago. [50] [51] These people were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. [52] Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual cultures on Earth. [53]

At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. [54] [55] Recent archaeological finds suggest that a population of 750,000 could have been sustained. [56] [57] Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime. [58] The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. [59] The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by Makassan fishermen from what is now Indonesia. [60]

European arrival

The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. [61] The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. [62] He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, and made landfall on 26 February 1606 at the Pennefather River near the modern town of Weipa on Cape York. [63] Later that year, Spanish explorer Luís Vaz de Torres sailed through, and navigated, Torres Strait islands. [64] The Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent "New Holland" during the 17th century, and although no attempt at settlement was made, [63] a number of shipwrecks left men either stranded or, as in the case of the Batavia in 1629, marooned for mutiny and murder, thus becoming the first Europeans to permanently inhabit the continent. [65] William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688 (while serving as a crewman under pirate Captain John Read [66] ) and again in 1699 on a return trip. [67] In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. [68]

With the loss of its American colonies in 1783, the British Government sent a fleet of ships, the "First Fleet", under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, to establish a new penal colony in New South Wales. A camp was set up and the Union flag raised at Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, on 26 January 1788, [69] [70] a date which later became Australia's national day, Australia Day. Most early convicts were transported for petty crimes and assigned as labourers or servants upon arrival. While the majority settled into colonial society once emancipated, convict rebellions and uprisings were also staged, but invariably suppressed under martial law. The 1808 Rum Rebellion, the only successful armed takeover of government in Australia, instigated a two-year period of military rule. [71]

The indigenous population declined for 150 years following settlement, mainly due to infectious disease. [72] Thousands more died as a result of frontier conflict with settlers. [73] A government policy of "assimilation" beginning with the Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 resulted in the removal of many Aboriginal children from their families and communities—referred to as the Stolen Generations — a practice which also contributed to the decline in the indigenous population. [74] As a result of the 1967 referendum, the Federal government's power to enact special laws with respect to a particular race was extended to enable the making of laws with respect to Aboriginals. [75] Traditional ownership of land ("native title") was not recognised in law until 1992, when the High Court of Australia held in Mabo v Queensland (No 2) that the legal doctrine that Australia had been terra nullius ("land belonging to no one") did not apply to Australia at the time of British settlement. [76]

Colonial expansion

The expansion of British control over other areas of the continent began in the early 19th century, initially confined to coastal regions. A settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land (present-day Tasmania) in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. [77] In 1813, Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Wentworth crossed the Blue Mountains west of Sydney, opening the interior to European settlement. [78] The British claim was extended to the whole Australian continent in 1827 when Major Edmund Lockyer established a settlement on King George Sound (modern-day Albany). [79] The Swan River Colony (present-day Perth) was established in 1829, evolving into the largest Australian colony by area, Western Australia. [80] In accordance with population growth, separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, New Zealand in 1841, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. [81] The Northern Territory was excised from South Australia in 1911. [82] South Australia was founded as a "free province" — it was never a penal colony. [83] Western Australia was also founded "free" but later accepted transported convicts, the last of which arrived in 1868, decades after transportation had ceased to the other colonies. [84] In the mid-19th century, explorers such as Burke and Wills went further inland to determine its agricultural potential and answer scientific questions. [85]

A series of gold rushes beginning in the early 1850s led to an influx of new migrants from China, North America and continental Europe, [86] and also spurred outbreaks of bushranging and civil unrest the latter peaked in 1854 when Ballarat miners launched the Eureka Rebellion against gold license fees. [87] Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually gained responsible government, managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the British Empire. [88] The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs [89] and defence. [90]


On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of planning, consultation and voting. [91] After the 1907 Imperial Conference, Australia and the other self-governing British colonies were given the status of "dominion" within the British Empire. [92] [93] The Federal Capital Territory (later renamed the Australian Capital Territory) was formed in 1911 as the location for the future federal capital of Canberra. Melbourne was the temporary seat of government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was being constructed. [94] The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the federal parliament in 1911. [95] Australia became the colonial ruler of the Territory of Papua (which had initially been annexed by Queensland in 1883 [96] ) in 1902 and of the Territory of New Guinea (formerly German New Guinea) in 1920. The two were unified as the Territory of Papua and New Guinea in 1949 and gained independence from Australia in 1975. [97] [98] [99]

In 1914, Australia joined Britain in fighting World War I, with support from both the outgoing Commonwealth Liberal Party and the incoming Australian Labor Party. [100] [101] Australians took part in many of the major battles fought on the Western Front. [102] Of about 416,000 who served, about 60,000 were killed and another 152,000 were wounded. [103] Many Australians regard the defeat of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) at Gallipoli as the birth of the nation — its first major military action. [104] [105] The Kokoda Track campaign is regarded by many as an analogous nation-defining event during World War II. [106]

Britain's Statute of Westminster 1931 formally ended most of the constitutional links between Australia and the United Kingdom. Australia adopted it in 1942, [107] but it was backdated to 1939 to confirm the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during World War II. [108] [109] The shock of Britain's defeat in Asia in 1942, followed soon after by the bombing of Darwin and other Japanese attacks, led to a widespread belief in Australia that an invasion was imminent, and a shift towards the United States as a new ally and protector. [110] Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military ally of the United States, under the ANZUS treaty. [111]

After World War II, Australia encouraged immigration from mainland Europe. Since the 1970s and following the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also promoted. [112] As a result, Australia's demography, culture, and self-image were transformed. [113] The Australia Act 1986 severed the remaining constitutional ties between Australia and the United Kingdom. [114] In a 1999 referendum, 55% of voters and a majority in every state rejected a proposal to become a republic with a president appointed by a two-thirds vote in both Houses of the Australian Parliament. There has been an increasing focus in foreign policy on ties with other Pacific Rim nations while maintaining close ties with Australia's traditional allies and trading partners. [115]

General characteristics

Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans, [N 7] Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas, with the Coral Sea lying off the Queensland coast, and the Tasman Sea lying between Australia and New Zealand. The world's smallest continent [117] and sixth largest country by total area, [118] Australia—owing to its size and isolation—is often dubbed the "island continent" [119] and is sometimes considered the world's largest island. [120] Australia has 34,218 km (21,262 mi) of coastline (excluding all offshore islands), [121] and claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250 square kilometres (3,146,060 sq mi). This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory. [122]

Mainland Australia lies between latitudes 9° and 44° South, and longitudes 112° and 154° East. [123] Australia's size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and desert in the centre. [124] The desert or semi-arid land commonly known as the outback makes up by far the largest portion of land. [125] Australia is the driest inhabited continent its annual rainfall averaged over continental area is less than 500 mm. [126] The population density is 3.2 inhabitants per square kilometre, although a large proportion of the population lives along the temperate south-eastern coastline. [127]

The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef, [128] lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 km (1,200 mi). Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world's largest monolith, [129] is located in Western Australia. At 2,228 m (7,310 ft), Mount Kosciuszko is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland. Even taller are Mawson Peak (at 2,745 m (9,006 ft)), on the remote Australian external territory of Heard Island, and, in the Australian Antarctic Territory, Mount McClintock and Mount Menzies, at 3,492 m (11,457 ft) and 3,355 m (11,007 ft) respectively. [130]

Eastern Australia is marked by the Great Dividing Range, which runs parallel to the coast of Queensland, New South Wales and much of Victoria. The name is not strictly accurate, because parts of the range consist of low hills, and the highlands are typically no more than 1,600 m (5,200 ft) in height. [131] The coastal uplands and a belt of Brigalow grasslands lie between the coast and the mountains, while inland of the dividing range are large areas of grassland and shrubland. [131] [132] These include the western plains of New South Wales, and the Mitchell Grass Downs and Mulga Lands of inland Queensland. [133] [134] [135] [136] The northernmost point of the mainland is the tropical Cape York Peninsula. [123]

The landscapes of the Top End and the Gulf Country—with their tropical climate—include forest, woodland, wetland, grassland, rainforest and desert. [137] [138] [139] At the north-west corner of the continent are the sandstone cliffs and gorges of The Kimberley, and below that the Pilbara. The Victoria Plains tropical savanna lies south of the Kimberly and Arnhem Land savannas, forming a transition between the coastal savannas and the interior deserts. [140] [141] [142] At the heart of the country are the uplands of central Australia. Prominent features of the centre and south include Uluru (also known as Ayers Rock), the famous sandstone monolith, and the inland Simpson, Tirari and Sturt Stony, Gibson, Great Sandy, Tanami, and Great Victoria deserts, with the famous Nullarbor Plain on the southern coast. [143] [144] [145] [146] The Western Australian mulga shrublands lie between the interior deserts and Mediterranean-climate Southwest Australia. [145] [147]


Lying on the Indo-Australian Plate, the mainland of Australia is the lowest and most primordial landmass on Earth with a relatively stable geological history. [148] [149] The landmass includes virtually all known rock types and from all geological time periods spanning over 3.8 billion years of the Earth's history. The Pilbara Craton is one of only two pristine Archaean 3.6–2.7 Ga (billion years ago) crusts identified on the Earth. [150]

Having been part of all major supercontinents, the Australian continent began to form after the breakup of Gondwana in the Permian, with the separation of the continental landmass from the African continent and Indian subcontinent. It separated from Antarctica over a prolonged period beginning in the Permian and continuing through to the Cretaceous. [151] When the last glacial period ended in about 10,000 BC, rising sea levels formed Bass Strait, separating Tasmania from the mainland. Then between about 8,000 and 6,500 BC, the lowlands in the north were flooded by the sea, separating New Guinea, the Aru Islands, and the mainland of Australia. [152] The Australian continent is moving toward Eurasia at the rate of 6 to 7 centimetres a year. [153]

The Australian mainland's continental crust, excluding the thinned margins, has an average thickness of 38 km, with a range in thickness from 24 km to 59 km. [154] Australia's geology can be divided into several main sections, showcasing that the continent grew from west to east: the Archaean cratonic shields found mostly in the west, Proterozoic fold belts in the centre and Phanerozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic and igneous rocks in the east. [155]

The Australian mainland and Tasmania are situated in the middle of the tectonic plate and have no active volcanoes, [156] but due to passing over the East Australia hotspot, recent volcanism has occurred during the Holocene, in the Newer Volcanics Province of western Victoria and southeastern South Australia. Volcanism also occurs in the island of New Guinea (considered geologically as part of the Australian continent), and in the Australian external territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands. [157] Seismic activity in the Australian mainland and Tasmania is also low, with the greatest number of fatalities having occurred in the 1989 Newcastle earthquake. [158]


The climate of Australia is significantly influenced by ocean currents, including the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low-pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia. [160] [161] These factors cause rainfall to vary markedly from year to year. Much of the northern part of the country has a tropical, predominantly summer-rainfall (monsoon). [126] The south-west corner of the country has a Mediterranean climate. [162] The south-east ranges from oceanic (Tasmania and coastal Victoria) to humid subtropical (upper half of New South Wales), with the highlands featuring alpine and subpolar oceanic climates. The interior is arid to semi-arid. [126]

Driven by climate change, average temperatures have risen more than 1°C since 1960. Associated changes in rainfall patterns and climate extremes exacerbate existing issues such as drought and bushfires. 2019 was Australia's warmest recorded year, [163] and the 2019–2020 bushfire season was the country's worst on record. [164] Australia's greenhouse gas emissions per capita are among the highest in the world. [165]

Water restrictions are frequently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and localised drought. [166] [167] Throughout much of the continent, major flooding regularly follows extended periods of drought, flushing out inland river systems, overflowing dams and inundating large inland flood plains, as occurred throughout Eastern Australia in the early 2010s after the 2000s Australian drought. [168]


Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, the continent includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests. Fungi typify that diversity—an estimated 250,000 species—of which only 5% have been described—occur in Australia. [169] Because of the continent's great age, extremely variable weather patterns, and long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic. [170] Australia has at least 755 species of reptile, more than any other country in the world. [171] Besides Antarctica, Australia is the only continent that developed without feline species. Feral cats may have been introduced in the 17th century by Dutch shipwrecks, and later in the 18th century by European settlers. They are now considered a major factor in the decline and extinction of many vulnerable and endangered native species. [172] Australia is also one of 17 megadiverse countries. [173]

Australian forests are mostly made up of evergreen species, particularly eucalyptus trees in the less arid regions wattles replace them as the dominant species in drier regions and deserts. [174] Among well-known Australian animals are the monotremes (the platypus and echidna) a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, and wombat, and birds such as the emu and the kookaburra. [174] Australia is home to many dangerous animals including some of the most venomous snakes in the world. [175] The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE. [176] Many animal and plant species became extinct soon after first human settlement, [177] including the Australian megafauna others have disappeared since European settlement, among them the thylacine. [178] [179]

Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced animal, chromistan, fungal and plant species. [180] All these factors have led to Australia's having the highest mammal extinction rate of any country in the world. [181] The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is the legal framework for the protection of threatened species. [182] Numerous protected areas have been created under the National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity to protect and preserve unique ecosystems [183] [184] 65 wetlands are listed under the Ramsar Convention, [185] and 16 natural World Heritage Sites have been established. [186] Australia was ranked 21st out of 178 countries in the world on the 2018 Environmental Performance Index. [187] There are more than 1,800 animals and plants on Australia's threatened species list, including more than 500 animals. [188]

Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. [189] The country has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system under its constitution, which is one of the world's oldest, since Federation in 1901. It is also one of the world's oldest federations, in which power is divided between the federal and state and territorial governments. The Australian system of government combines elements derived from the political systems of the United Kingdom (a fused executive, constitutional monarchy and strong party discipline) and the United States (federalism, a written constitution and strong bicameralism with an elected upper house), along with distinctive indigenous features. [190] [191]

The federal government is separated into three branches: [192]

  • Legislature: the bicameral Parliament, comprising the monarch (represented by the governor-general), the Senate, and the House of Representatives
  • Executive: the Federal Executive Council, which in practice gives legal effect to the decisions of the cabinet, comprising the prime minister and other ministers of state appointed by the governor-general on the advice of Parliament [193]
  • Judiciary: the High Court of Australia and other federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the governor-general on advice of Parliament

Elizabeth II reigns as Queen of Australia and is represented in Australia by the governor-general at the federal level and by the governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers. [194] [195] Thus, in practice the governor-general acts as a legal figurehead for the actions of the prime minister and the Federal Executive Council. The governor-general does have extraordinary reserve powers which may be exercised outside the prime minister's request in rare and limited circumstances, the most notable exercise of which was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975. [196]

In the Senate (the upper house), there are 76 senators: twelve each from the states and two each from the mainland territories (the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory). [197] The House of Representatives (the lower house) has 151 members elected from single-member electoral divisions, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", allocated to states on the basis of population, [198] with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats. [199] Elections for both chambers are normally held every three years simultaneously senators have overlapping six-year terms except for those from the territories, whose terms are not fixed but are tied to the electoral cycle for the lower house thus only 40 of the 76 places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle is interrupted by a double dissolution. [197]

Australia's electoral system uses preferential voting for all lower house elections with the exception of Tasmania and the ACT which, along with the Senate and most state upper houses, combine it with proportional representation in a system known as the single transferable vote. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over in every jurisdiction, [200] as is enrolment. [201] The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms the government and its leader becomes Prime Minister. In cases where no party has majority support, the Governor-General has the constitutional power to appoint the Prime Minister and, if necessary, dismiss one that has lost the confidence of Parliament. [202] Due to the relatively unique position of Australia operating as a Westminster Parliamentary democracy with an elected upper house, the system has sometimes been referred to as having a "Washminster mutation", [203] or as a Semi-parliamentary system. [204]

There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party. [205] [206] Within Australian political culture, the Coalition is considered centre-right and the Labor Party is considered centre-left. [207] Independent members and several minor parties have achieved representation in Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses. The Australian Greens are often considered the "third force" in politics, being the third largest party by both vote and membership. [208]

The most recent federal election was held on 18 May 2019 and resulted in the Coalition, led by Prime Minister Scott Morrison, retaining government. [209]

States and territories

Australia has six states — New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (QLD), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS), Victoria (VIC) and Western Australia (WA) — and two major mainland territories—the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT). In most respects, these two territories function as states, except that the Commonwealth Parliament has the power to modify or repeal any legislation passed by the territory parliaments. [210]

Under the constitution, the states essentially have plenary legislative power to legislate on any subject, whereas the Commonwealth (federal) Parliament may legislate only within the subject areas enumerated under section 51. For example, state parliaments have the power to legislate with respect to education, criminal law and state police, health, transport, and local government, but the Commonwealth Parliament does not have any specific power to legislate in these areas. [211] However, Commonwealth laws prevail over state laws to the extent of the inconsistency. [212]

Each state and major mainland territory has its own parliament — unicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT and Queensland, and bicameral in the other states. The states are sovereign entities, although subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution. The lower houses are known as the Legislative Assembly (the House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania) the upper houses are known as the Legislative Council. The head of the government in each state is the Premier and in each territory the Chief Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a governor and in the Northern Territory, the administrator. [213] In the Commonwealth, the Queen's representative is the governor-general. [214]

The Commonwealth Parliament also directly administers the external territories of Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, and the claimed region of Australian Antarctic Territory, as well as the internal Jervis Bay Territory, a naval base and sea port for the national capital in land that was formerly part of New South Wales. [193] The external territory of Norfolk Island previously exercised considerable autonomy under the Norfolk Island Act 1979 through its own legislative assembly and an Administrator to represent the Queen. [215] In 2015, the Commonwealth Parliament abolished self-government, integrating Norfolk Island into the Australian tax and welfare systems and replacing its legislative assembly with a council. [216] Macquarie Island is part of Tasmania, [217] and Lord Howe Island of New South Wales. [218]

Foreign relations

Over recent decades, Australia's foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States through the ANZUS pact, and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, particularly through Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Pacific Islands Forum and the Pacific Community, of which Australia is a founding member. In 2005, Australia secured an inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit following its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, and in 2011 attended the Sixth East Asia Summit in Indonesia. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, in which the Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for co-operation. [219] Australia has pursued the cause of international trade liberalisation. [220] It led the formation of the Cairns Group and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. [221] [222]

Australia is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), [223] [224] and has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement [225] and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand, [226] with another free trade agreement being negotiated with China — the Australia–China Free Trade Agreement — and Japan, [227] South Korea in 2011, [228] [229] Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement, and as of November 2015 [update] has put the Trans-Pacific Partnership before parliament for ratification. [230]

Australia maintains a deeply integrated relationship with neighbouring New Zealand, with free mobility of citizens between the two countries under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement and free trade under the Australia–New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement. [231] New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom are the most favourably viewed countries in the world by Australian people. [232] [233]

Along with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia and Singapore, Australia is party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements, a regional defence agreement. A founding member country of the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to multilateralism [234] and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance. The 2005–2006 budget provides AU$2.5 billion for development assistance. [235] Australia ranks fifteenth overall in the Center for Global Development's 2012 Commitment to Development Index. [236]


Australia's armed forces—the Australian Defence Force (ADF) — comprise the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), in total numbering 81,214 personnel (including 57,982 regulars and 23,232 reservists) as of November 2015 [update] . The titular role of Commander-in-Chief is vested in the Governor-General, who appoints a Chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services on the advice of the government. [237] In a diarchy, the CDF serves as co-chairman of the Defence Committee, conjointly with the Secretary of Defence, in the command and control of the Australian Defence Organisation. [238]

In the 2016–2017 budget, defence spending comprised 2% of GDP, representing the world's 12th largest defence budget. [239] Australia has been involved in United Nations and regional peacekeeping, disaster relief and armed conflict, including the 2003 invasion of Iraq Australia currently has deployed about 2,241 personnel in varying capacities to 12 international operations in areas including Iraq and Afghanistan. [240]

A wealthy country, Australia has a market economy, a high GDP per capita, and a relatively low rate of poverty. In terms of average wealth, Australia ranked second in the world after Switzerland from 2013 until 2018. [241] In 2018, Australia overtook Switzerland and became the country with the highest average wealth. [241] Australia's relative poverty rate is 13.6%. [242] It was identified by the Credit Suisse Research Institute as the nation with the highest median wealth in the world and the second-highest average wealth per adult in 2013. [243]

The Australian dollar is the currency for the nation, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu. With the 2006 merger of the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange became the ninth largest in the world. [244]

Ranked fifth in the Index of Economic Freedom (2017), [245] Australia is the world's 13th largest economy and has the tenth highest per capita GDP (nominal) at US$55,692. [246] The country was ranked third in the United Nations 2017 Human Development Index. [247] Melbourne reached top spot for the fourth year in a row on The Economist ' s 2014 list of the world's most liveable cities, [248] followed by Adelaide, Sydney, and Perth in the fifth, seventh, and ninth places respectively. Total government debt in Australia is about A$190 billion [249] —20% of GDP in 2010. [250] Australia has among the highest house prices and some of the highest household debt levels in the world. [251]

An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactured goods has underpinned a significant increase in Australia's terms of trade since the start of the 21st century, due to rising commodity prices. Australia has a balance of payments that is more than 7% of GDP negative, and has had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50 years. [253] Australia has grown at an average annual rate of 3.6% for over 15 years, in comparison to the OECD annual average of 2.5%. [253]

Australia was the only advanced economy not to experience a recession due to the global financial downturn in 2008–2009. [254] However, the economies of six of Australia's major trading partners were in recession, which in turn affected Australia, significantly hampering its economic growth. [255] [256] From 2012 to early 2013, Australia's national economy grew, but some non-mining states and Australia's non-mining economy experienced a recession. [257] [258] [259]

The Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar in 1983 and partially deregulated the financial system. [260] The Howard Government followed with a partial deregulation of the labour market and the further privatisation of state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunications industry. [261] The indirect tax system was substantially changed in July 2000 with the introduction of a 10% Goods and Services Tax (GST). [262] In Australia's tax system, personal and company income tax are the main sources of government revenue. [263]

As of September 2018 [update] , there were 12,640,800 people employed (either full- or part-time), with an unemployment rate of 5.2%. [264] Data released in mid-November 2013 showed that the number of welfare recipients had grown by 55%. In 2007 228,621 Newstart unemployment allowance recipients were registered, a total that increased to 646,414 in March 2013. [265] According to the Graduate Careers Survey, full-time employment for newly qualified professionals from various occupations has declined since 2011 but it increases for graduates three years after graduation. [266] [267]

As of 2020 [update] interest rates in Australia were set at a record low of 0.1%, targeting an inflation rate of 2 to 3%. [268] The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, accounts for about 70% of GDP. [269] Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, particularly wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and gold, and energy in the forms of liquified natural gas and coal. Although agriculture and natural resources account for only 3% and 5% of GDP respectively, they contribute substantially to export performance. Australia's largest export markets are Japan, China, the United States, South Korea, and New Zealand. [270] Australia is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine, and the wine industry contributes A$5.5 billion per year to the nation's economy. [271]

Access to biocapacity in Australia is much higher than world average. In 2016, Australia had 12.3 global hectares [272] of biocapacity per person within its territory, much more than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. [273] In 2016 Australia used 6.6 global hectares of biocapacity per person – their ecological footprint of consumption. This means they use half as much biocapacity as Australia contains. As a result, Australia is running a biocapacity reserve. [272]

In 2020 the Australian Council of Social Service released a report stating that relative poverty was growing in Australia, with an estimated 3.2 million people, or 13.6% of the population, living below an internationally accepted relative poverty threshold of 50% of a country's median income. It also estimated that there were 774,000 (17.7%) children under the age of 15 in relative poverty. [274] [275]

Australia has an average population density of 3.4 persons per square kilometre of total land area, which makes it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. The population is heavily concentrated on the east coast, and in particular in the south-eastern region between South East Queensland to the north-east and Adelaide to the south-west. [276]

Australia is highly urbanised, with 67% of the population living in the Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (metropolitan areas of the state and mainland territorial capital cities) in 2018. [277] Metropolitan areas with more than one million inhabitants are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. [278]

In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2018 the average age of the Australian population was 38.8 years. [279] In 2015, 2.15% of the Australian population lived overseas, one of the lowest proportions worldwide. [280]

Ancestry and immigration

Country of birth (2020) [282]
Birthplace [N 8] Population
England 980,360
India 721,050
Mainland China 650,640
New Zealand 564,840
Philippines 310,050
Vietnam 270,340
South Africa 200,240
Italy 177,840
Malaysia 177,460
Sri Lanka 146,950
Scotland 132,590
Nepal 131,830
South Korea 111,530
Germany 111,030
United States 110,160
Hong Kong 104,760
Greece 103,710
Total Australian-born 18,043,310
Total foreign-born 7,653,990

Between 1788 and the Second World War, the vast majority of settlers and immigrants came from the British Isles (principally England, Ireland and Scotland), although there was significant immigration from China and Germany during the 19th century. In the decades immediately following the Second World War, Australia received a large wave of immigration from across Europe, with many more immigrants arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe than in previous decades. Since the end of the White Australia policy in 1973, Australia has pursued an official policy of multiculturalism, [283] and there has been a large and continuing wave of immigration from across the world, with Asia being the largest source of immigrants in the 21st century. [284]

Today, Australia has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 30% of the population, the highest proportion among major Western nations. [28] [285] 160,323 permanent immigrants were admitted to Australia in 2018–2019 (excluding refugees), [284] whilst there was a net population gain of 239,600 people from all permanent and temporary immigration in that year. [286] The majority of immigrants are skilled, [284] but the immigration program includes categories for family members and refugees. [286] In 2019, the largest foreign-born populations were those born in England (3.9%), Mainland China (2.7%), India (2.6%), New Zealand (2.2%), the Philippines (1.2%) and Vietnam (1%). [28]

In the 2016 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: [N 9] [287] [288]

At the 2016 census, 649,171 people (2.8% of the total population) identified as being Indigenous — Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders. [N 12] [290] Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are, respectively, 11 and 17 years lower than those of non-indigenous Australians. [270] [291] [292] Some remote Indigenous communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions. [293]


Although Australia has no official language, English is the de facto national language. [2] Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon, [294] and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling. [295] General Australian serves as the standard dialect. [296]

According to the 2016 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for 72.7% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Mandarin (2.5%), Arabic (1.4%), Cantonese (1.2%), Vietnamese (1.2%) and Italian (1.2%). [287] Over 250 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact, [297] of which fewer than twenty are still in daily use by all age groups. [298] [299] About 110 others are spoken exclusively by older people. [299] At the time of the 2006 census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12% of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous language at home. [300] Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 10,112 deaf people who reported that they spoke Auslan language at home in the 2016 census. [301]


Australia has no state religion Section 116 of the Australian Constitution prohibits the federal government from making any law to establish any religion, impose any religious observance, or prohibit the free exercise of any religion. [303] In the 2016 census, 52.1% of Australians were counted as Christian, including 22.6% as Catholic and 13.3% as Anglican 30.1% of the population reported having "no religion" 8.2% identify with non-Christian religions, the largest of these being Islam (2.6%), followed by Buddhism (2.4%), Hinduism (1.9%), Sikhism (0.5%) and Judaism (0.4%). The remaining 9.7% of the population did not provide an adequate answer. Those who reported having no religion increased conspicuously from 19% in 2006 to 22% in 2011 to 30.1% in 2016. [302]

Before European settlement, the animist beliefs of Australia's indigenous people had been practised for many thousands of years. Mainland Aboriginal Australians' spirituality is known as the Dreaming and it places a heavy emphasis on belonging to the land. The collection of stories that it contains shaped Aboriginal law and customs. Aboriginal art, story and dance continue to draw on these spiritual traditions. The spirituality and customs of Torres Strait Islanders, who inhabit the islands between Australia and New Guinea, reflected their Melanesian origins and dependence on the sea. The 1996 Australian census counted more than 7000 respondents as followers of a traditional Aboriginal religion. [304]

Since the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships in 1788, Christianity has become the major religion practised in Australia. Christian churches have played an integral role in the development of education, health and welfare services in Australia. For much of Australian history, the Church of England (now known as the Anglican Church of Australia) was the largest religious denomination, with a large Roman Catholic minority. However, multicultural immigration has contributed to a steep decline in its relative position since the Second World War. Similarly, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Judaism have all grown in Australia over the past half-century. [305]

Australia has one of the lowest levels of religious adherence in the world. [306] In 2018, 13% of women and 10% of men reported attending church at least weekly. [307]


Australia's life expectancy is the fourth highest in the world for males and the third highest for females. [308] Life expectancy in Australia in 2014–2016 was 80.4 years for males and 84.6 years for females. [309] Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, [310] while cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disease, responsible for 7.8% of the total mortality and disease. Ranked second in preventable causes is hypertension at 7.6%, with obesity third at 7.5%. [311] [312] Australia ranks 35th in the world [313] and near the top of developed nations for its proportion of obese adults [314] and nearly two thirds (63%) of its adult population is either overweight or obese. [315]

Total expenditure on health (including private sector spending) is around 9.8% of GDP. [316] Australia introduced universal health care in 1975. [317] Known as Medicare, it is now nominally funded by an income tax surcharge known as the Medicare levy, currently at 2%. [318] The states manage hospitals and attached outpatient services, while the Commonwealth funds the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (subsidising the costs of medicines) and general practice. [317]


School attendance, or registration for home schooling, [320] is compulsory throughout Australia. Education is the responsibility of the individual states and territories [321] so the rules vary between states, but in general children are required to attend school from the age of about 5 until about 16. [322] [323] In some states (e.g., Western Australia, the Northern Territory and New South Wales), children aged 16–17 are required to either attend school or participate in vocational training, such as an apprenticeship. [324] [325] [326] [327]

Australia has an adult literacy rate that was estimated to be 99% in 2003. [328] However, a 2011–2012 report for the Australian Bureau of Statistics reported that Tasmania has a literacy and numeracy rate of only 50%. [329]

Australia has 37 government-funded universities and three private universities, as well as a number of other specialist institutions that provide approved courses at the higher education level. [330] The OECD places Australia among the most expensive nations to attend university. [331] There is a state-based system of vocational training, known as TAFE, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople. [332] About 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications, [270] and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries. 30.9% of Australia's population has attained a higher education qualification, which is among the highest percentages in the world. [333] [334] [335]

Australia has the highest ratio of international students per head of population in the world by a large margin, with 812,000 international students enrolled in the nation's universities and vocational institutions in 2019. [336] [337] Accordingly, in 2019, international students represented on average 26.7% of the student bodies of Australian universities. International education therefore represents one of the country's largest exports and has a pronounced influence on the country's demographics, with a significant proportion of international students remaining in Australia after graduation on various skill and employment visas. [338]


In 2003, Australia's energy sources were coal (58.4%), hydropower (19.1%), natural gas (13.5%), liquid/gas fossil fuel-switching plants (5.4%), oil (2.9%), and other renewable resources like wind power, solar energy, and bioenergy (0.7%). [339] During the 21st century, Australia has been trending to generate more energy using renewable resources and less energy using fossil fuels. In 2020, Australia used coal for 62% of all energy (3.6% increase compared to 2013), wind power for 9.9% (9.5% increase), natural gas for 9.9% (3.6% decrease), solar power for 9.9% (9.8% increase), hydropower for 6.4% (12.7% decrease), bioenergy for 1.4% (1.2% increase), and other sources like oil and waste coal mine gas for 0.5%. [340] [341]

In August 2009, Australia's government set a goal to achieve 20% of all energy in the country from renewable sources by 2020. [342] They achieved this goal, as renewable resources accounted for 27.7% of Australia's energy in 2020. [340]

Since 1788, the primary influence behind Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture, with some Indigenous influences. [344] [345] The divergence and evolution that has occurred in the ensuing centuries has resulted in a distinctive Australian culture. [346] [347] The culture of the United States has served as a significant influence, particularly through television and cinema. Other cultural influences come from neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking nations. [348]

Australia has over 100,000 Aboriginal rock art sites, [349] and traditional designs, patterns and stories infuse contemporary Indigenous Australian art, "the last great art movement of the 20th century" according to critic Robert Hughes [350] its exponents include Emily Kame Kngwarreye. [351] Early colonial artists showed a fascination with the unfamiliar land. [352] The impressionistic works of Arthur Streeton, Tom Roberts and other members of the 19th-century Heidelberg School—the first "distinctively Australian" movement in Western art—gave expression to nationalist sentiments in the lead-up to Federation. [352] While the school remained influential into the 1900s, modernists such as Margaret Preston, and, later, Sidney Nolan and Arthur Boyd, explored new artistic trends. [352] The landscape remained a central subject matter for Fred Williams, Brett Whiteley and other post-war artists whose works, eclectic in style yet uniquely Australian, moved between the figurative and the abstract. [352] [353] The national and state galleries maintain collections of local and international art. [354] Australia has one of the world's highest attendances of art galleries and museums per head of population. [355]

Australian literature grew slowly in the decades following European settlement though Indigenous oral traditions, many of which have since been recorded in writing, are much older. [357] In the 1870s, Adam Lindsay Gordon posthumously became the first Australian poet to attain a wide readership. Following in his footsteps, Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson captured the experience of the bush using a distinctive Australian vocabulary. [358] Their works are still popular Paterson's bush poem "Waltzing Matilda" (1895) is regarded as Australia's unofficial national anthem. [359] Miles Franklin is the namesake of Australia's most prestigious literary prize, awarded annually to the best novel about Australian life. [360] Its first recipient, Patrick White, went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1973. [361] Australian Booker Prize winners include Peter Carey, Thomas Keneally and Richard Flanagan. [362] Authors David Malouf, Germaine Greer, Helen Garner, playwright David Williamson and poet Les Murray are also renowned. [363] [364]

Many of Australia's performing arts companies receive funding through the federal government's Australia Council. [365] There is a symphony orchestra in each state, [366] and a national opera company, Opera Australia, [367] well known for its famous soprano Joan Sutherland. [368] At the beginning of the 20th century, Nellie Melba was one of the world's leading opera singers. [369] Ballet and dance are represented by The Australian Ballet and various state companies. Each state has a publicly funded theatre company. [370]


The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first feature-length narrative film, spurred a boom in Australian cinema during the silent film era. [371] After World War I, Hollywood monopolised the industry, [372] and by the 1960s Australian film production had effectively ceased. [373] With the benefit of government support, the Australian New Wave of the 1970s brought provocative and successful films, many exploring themes of national identity, such as Wake in Fright and Gallipoli, [374] while Crocodile Dundee and the Ozploitation movement's Mad Max series became international blockbusters. [375] In a film market flooded with foreign content, Australian films delivered a 7.7% share of the local box office in 2015. [376] The AACTAs are Australia's premier film and television awards, and notable Academy Award winners from Australia include Geoffrey Rush, Nicole Kidman, Cate Blanchett and Heath Ledger. [377]

Australia has two public broadcasters (the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and the multicultural Special Broadcasting Service), three commercial television networks, several pay-TV services, [378] and numerous public, non-profit television and radio stations. Each major city has at least one daily newspaper, [378] and there are two national daily newspapers, The Australian and The Australian Financial Review. [378] In 2010, Reporters Without Borders placed Australia 18th on a list of 178 countries ranked by press freedom, behind New Zealand (8th) but ahead of the United Kingdom (19th) and United States (20th). [379] This relatively low ranking is primarily because of the limited diversity of commercial media ownership in Australia [380] most print media are under the control of News Corporation and, after Fairfax Media was merged with Nine, Nine Entertainment Co. [381]


Most Indigenous Australian groups subsisted on a simple hunter-gatherer diet of native fauna and flora, otherwise called bush tucker. [382] The first settlers introduced British food to the continent, much of which is now considered typical Australian food, such as the Sunday roast. [383] [384] Multicultural immigration transformed Australian cuisine post-World War II European migrants, particularly from the Mediterranean, helped to build a thriving Australian coffee culture, and the influence of Asian cultures has led to Australian variants of their staple foods, such as the Chinese-inspired dim sim and Chiko Roll. [385] Vegemite, pavlova, lamingtons and meat pies are regarded as iconic Australian foods. [386]

Australian wine is produced mainly in the southern, cooler parts of the country. [387] Australia is also known for its cafe and coffee culture in urban centres, which has influenced coffee culture abroad, including New York City. [388] Australia was responsible for the flat white coffee–purported to have originated in a Sydney cafe in the mid-1980s. [389]

Sport and recreation

Cricket and football are the predominate sports in Australia during the summer and winter months, respectively. Australia is unique in that it has professional leagues for four football codes. Originating in Melbourne in the 1850s, Australian rules football is the most popular code in all states except New South Wales and Queensland, where rugby league holds sway, followed by rugby union the imaginary border separating areas where Australian rules football dominates from those were the two rugby codes prevail is known as the Barassi Line. [391] Soccer, while ranked fourth in popularity and resources, has the highest overall participation rates. [392] Cricket is popular across all borders and has been regarded by many Australians as the national sport. The Australian national cricket team competed against England in the first Test match (1877) and the first One Day International (1971), and against New Zealand in the first Twenty20 International (2004), winning all three games. It has also participated in every edition of the Cricket World Cup, winning the tournament a record five times. [393]

Australia is also notable for water-based sports, such as swimming and surfing. [394] The surf lifesaving movement originated in Australia, and the volunteer lifesaver is one of the country's icons. [395] Nationally, other popular sports include horse racing, basketball, and motor racing. The annual Melbourne Cup horse race and the Sydney to Hobart yacht race attract intense interest. [396] In 2016, the Australian Sports Commission revealed that swimming, cycling and soccer are the three most popular participation sports. [397] [398]

Australia is one of five nations to have participated in every Summer Olympics of the modern era, [399] and has hosted the Games twice: 1956 in Melbourne and 2000 in Sydney. [400] Australia has also participated in every Commonwealth Games, [401] hosting the event in 1938, 1962, 1982, 2006 and 2018. [402] Australia made its inaugural appearance at the Pacific Games in 2015. As well as being a regular FIFA World Cup participant, Australia has won the OFC Nations Cup four times and the AFC Asian Cup once—the only country to have won championships in two different FIFA confederations. [403] In June 2020, Australia won its bid to co-host the 2023 FIFA Women's World Cup with New Zealand. [404] [405] The country regularly competes among the world elite basketball teams as it is among the global top three teams in terms of qualifications to the Basketball Tournament at the Summer Olympics. Other major international events held in Australia include the Australian Open tennis grand slam tournament, international cricket matches, and the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. The highest-rating television programs include sports telecasts such as the Summer Olympics, FIFA World Cup, The Ashes, Rugby League State of Origin, and the grand finals of the National Rugby League and Australian Football League. [406] Skiing in Australia began in the 1860s and snow sports take place in the Australian Alps and parts of Tasmania. [407]

Australia’s migration history

In 1788, when European settlement began, Australia’s Aboriginal population was about 400,000. Today, over 20 million people live here. Migration has been the main driver for this change. In New South Wales, four out of every ten people are either migrants or the children of migrants.

Clearly Australia has a rich migration history. However attitudes to migration and particularly to the ideal source of migrants have changed considerably over these 218 years. The first migrants were decidedly involuntary, the convicts transported from Britain, Ireland and, to a lesser degree, other British colonies. Altogether 80,000 arrived in New South Wales between 1788 and 1840. From the 1830s they were joined by small numbers of voluntary migrants, again principally from Britain and Ireland. Some came under their own resources, others with assistance from one of the public or private schemes then available.

However, with the discovery of gold just outside Bathurst in 1851, the nature of Australian migration changed completely. People arrived in far greater numbers and from more varied backgrounds than ever before. Between 1851 and 1861 over 600,000 came and while the majority were from Britain and Ireland, 60,000 came from Continental Europe, 42,000 from China, 10,000 from the United States and just over 5,000 from New Zealand and the South Pacific. Although Australia never again saw such a rush of new immigrants, the heightened interest in settling here remained. By the time of Federation the total population was close to four million of whom one in four was born overseas. Many had been given assisted passages. Whilst the majority were of British or Irish extraction, there were significant numbers of Europeans, particularly Germans, and Chinese.

The infamous ‘White Australia’ policy: keeping Australia British

When the colonies federated in 1901, control of immigration changed. Instead of each colony managing its own system, the Commonwealth now oversaw recruiting and selection. Assisted passages were offered to encourage migration with priority still being given to the British and Irish. Despite comparatively large numbers of Chinese residents in Australia, the first legislation passed by the new parliament was the Immigration Restriction Act. Often referred to as the ‘White Australia policy’ this effectively banned Asian migration for the next fifty years. That same year the Federal Parliament passed the Pacific Islands Labourers Act to prohibit their employment as contract labourers and to deport those already here.

In 1914, with the outbreak of the First World War, migration almost ceased. Furthermore, some migrants from countries previously thought acceptable were now reclassified as ‘enemy aliens’. Those born in Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria and Turkey faced internment or general restrictions on their daily lives. Altogether about 7,000 people were interned, with camps in New South Wales at Berrima, Trial Bay and Liverpool. After the war, the 1901 Immigration Act was extended to ban people from these countries for five years. The ban on Turkish people was not lifted until 1930.

With the 1918 peace came a revival of assisted migration schemes. The British Government offered ex-servicemen free passage to one of the dominions or colonies and 17,000 arrived in Australia between 1919 and 1922. Church and community organisations such as the YMCA and the Salvation Army sponsored migrants. Small numbers also arrived independently. As the United States sought to limit migration of Southern Europeans, increasing numbers of young men from Greece and Italy paid their own way to Australia. By the 1930s, Jewish settlers began arriving in greater numbers, many of them refugees from Hitler’s Europe. However the 1929 stockmarket crash and the Great Depression put an end to sponsored migration and it was not until Australia had again fought a war that it was resumed.

Just as in the First World War, with the outbreak of the Second World War previously acceptable migrants — Germans, Italians, Japanese and Hungarians – were reclassified ‘enemy aliens’ and interned or kept under close police surveillance. No distinction was made on the basis of political sympathies. Thus, a large group of Jewish refugees that arrived on the Dunera in September 1940 were interned first at Hay in New South Wales, and later at Tatura in Victoria.

‘Populate or perish’: post war migration

When the war ended, the government took an entirely new approach to migration. The near invasion of Australia by the Japanese caused a complete rethink of ideal population numbers. As Prime Minister Ben Chifley would later declare, ‘a powerful enemy looked hungrily toward Australia. In tomorrow’s gun flash that threat could come again. We must populate Australia as rapidly as we can before someone else decides to populate it for us.’ i In 1945, the Department of Immigration was established, headed up by Arthur Calwell. It resolved that Australia should have annual population growth of two per cent, of which only half could come from natural increase. 70,000 immigrants a year were needed to make up the difference.

However, although the government wanted the majority to be Anglo Celtic – and Arthur Calwell declared ‘It is my hope that for every foreign migrant there will be 10 people from the United Kingdom’ ii in fact the British Government was both unable and unwilling to meet such a high target. At the same time, some 11 million people had survived the Nazi labour and concentration camps and many, particularly Poles, Yugoslavs, Latvians, Ukrainians and Hungarians, were unable or unwilling to return home. Visiting Europe in 1947, Calwell therefore agreed to accept a minimum of 12,000 of these refugees a year.

On 28 November 1947, the first Displaced Persons – 844 young Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians – arrived on the General Heintzelman in Melbourne and were transferred to Bonegilla migration hostel. In exchange for free passage and assistance on their arrival, they agreed to work for the government for two years.

During the seven years this scheme operated, nearly 171,000 arrived. When this source came to an end, the Federal Government negotiated a series of migration agreements including with the Netherlands and Italy (1951), Austria, Belgium, West Germany, Greece and Spain (1952), and the United States, Switzerland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland (1954). In these immediate post war years Australia was second only to Israel in the proportion of migrants accepted. As a result, Australian society became markedly less British and Irish in character. At the 1961 census, eight per cent of the population was non-British in origin with the largest group being Italians followed by Germans, Greeks and Poles.

Most migrants arrived by ship, disembarking in major cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. From there they were immediately taken to migration hostels in rural areas, often in former military barracks. With accommodation fashioned from old corrugated iron Nissen huts, migrants were frequently shocked at the primitive conditions. With men and women separated into single sex barracks, shared bathrooms and kitchens and a communal dining room serving unfamiliar, and often unpalatable food, migration hostels were neither comfortable nor welcoming. The intention was that migrants stay only four to six weeks until they could be resettled near their workplace. At times however work was difficult to find and some stayed for months if not years. Improvements were slow in coming. In 1969 family units opened at Villawood and migrants no longer had to share facilities. Yet, as one Polish immigrant who arrived there in 1975 remarked, ‘For the first time in my life I had a room to myself’. Some things had not changed, as to food, ‘After one week there we’d had enough’. iii

All assisted migrants aged over 16 had to work. Regardless of qualifications men were classified as labourers and women as domestics. One of the largest employers was the Snowy Mountain Scheme. Australia’s largest post war project, this diverted the course of the Snowy and Tumut Rivers to provide irrigation and generate hydro-electricity. The work was hard, dangerous and meant men lived for months in isolated and primitive camps. Other migrants found work in factories, in the burgeoning iron and steel industries, on the railways and in mines.

Although the official government policy was that migrants should assimilate into Australia’s Anglo Celtic culture, many celebrated their origins through membership of clubs, sporting and religious organisations. For some such community organisations made a huge difference in overcoming a sense of isolation. For others it came when they had their own homes and families and could grow familiar fruits and vegetables and eat traditional foods.

From a ‘White Australia’ to multiculturalism

From the 1950s, Australia began to relax its ‘White Australia’ policy. In 1956 non-European residents were allowed to apply for citizenship. Two years later the Dictation Test was abolished as a further means of exclusion. By the 1960s mixed race migration was becoming easier and in 1967 Australia entered into its first migration agreement with a non-European country, in this case Turkey.

Then in 1972 Australians elected their first Labor government since 1948. As Minister for Immigration, Al Grassby radically changed official policy. The quota system, based on country of origin and preservation of racial ‘homogeneity’, was replaced by ‘structured selection’. Migrants were to be chosen according to personal and social attributes and occupational group rather than country of origin. In 1973, declaring Australia a ‘multicultural’ society, Al Grassby announced that every relic of past ethnic or racial discrimination had been abolished. The Australian Citizenship Act of that year declared that all migrants were to be accorded equal treatment.

In 1975 the first of what would become known as ‘boat people’ arrived in Darwin. More than 25 000 arrived in the next thirty years, initially from East Timor and then from Vietnam, China and, most recently, the Middle East. All are subject to compulsory internment while their claims of refugee status are assessed. Although Australia has been criticised by the United Nations and Amnesty International for the injustice of interring all illegal migrants, particularly children, it continues to this day.

In 1988 the Fitzgerald Inquiry led to further changes in migration with a move away from ‘family reunion’ towards an emphasis on skilled and business categories. The assisted passage scheme had ended in 1981 and only refugees are given any level of support on their arrival in Australia. In 1996, for the first time in Australia’s migration history, the number of British migrants arriving fell to second place behind New Zealand. Renewed prosperity in Europe has also meant that, where once Italians and Greeks made up the majority of non-British new arrivals, today, after New Zealand, it is people from China, South Africa and India. Conflicts overseas have also meant that Australia is now taking refugees from countries previously unrepresented. In 2006 the fastest growing refugee group is from Sudan followed by Afghanistan and Iraq.

iii Kate Walsh, The changing face of Australia: A century of immigration 1901-2000, Sydney, Allen & Unwin, 2001, 169

History of Australia

People have lived in Australia for over 65,000 years. [1] [2] The first people who arrived in Australia were the Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. [3] They lived in all parts of Australia. They lived by hunting, fishing and gathering.

Aborigines invented tools like the boomerang and spear. There is also evidence that the Aboriginal people used farming methods. Tradition was very important in their lives. Their religion is called the Dreamtime, which has lots of stories about the creation of the world by spirits. Aboriginal art started at least 30,000 years ago and there are lots of Dreaming stories painted on walls and cut in rocks all around Australia. Aboriginal music has songs about the Dreamtime, sometimes with special instruments like the didgeridoo.

In 1606 the first European, Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon (1571–1639), visited the west. Luis Vaez de Torres sailed through the water between Australia and New Guinea later that year. [ source? ] Only after Dirk Hartog chanced upon the west coast in 1616 did other European vessels visit and map the coast. After sixty more ships visited the coast, [ source? ] enough was known for a map to be published in 1811. The land was dry because of not much rain some was a desert. The explorers thought no crops could be grown and so it would be difficult for people to live there. They decided there would be no economic reasons to stay.

In 1642, Dutchman Abel Tasman, working for the Dutch East Indies Company reached Tasmania, which he called Antony van Diemenslandt. He then called the continent he charted the north coast of on his second visit in 1644 New Holland. In 1688, William Dampier became the first Englishman to reach Australia. But in 1770 a British sailor, Captain James Cook, found the fertile east coast of Australia. He called it New South Wales, and claimed it for Britain. [3] Englishman Matthew Flinders published his map of the coast in 1814, calling it Australia for the first time, a name later formally adopted by the authorities.

The British decided to use the land visited by Captain Cook as a prison colony. Britain needed a place to send its convicts (people who had been sent to jail for theft and other crimes) because its gaols were full and it had just lost its American colonies in the American War of Independence. In 1788 the British First Fleet of 11 ships, carrying about 1500 people arrived at Botany Bay (Sydney). Arthur Phillip led them as the first Governor of New South Wales. About 160 000 convicts were brought to Australia from 1788 until 1868. Free immigrants began arriving in the 1790s. [3]

For the first few years they did not have much food, and life was very hard. But soon they began to farm, and more people came. Sydney grew, and new towns were started. Wool brought good money. By 1822, many towns had been set up and people from the towns often visited Sydney for additional economic resources.

Soon people from Sydney found other parts of Australia. George Bass and Matthew Flinders sailed south to Tasmania and a colony was started at Hobart in 1803. Hamilton Hume and William Hovell went south from Sydney by land. They found the Murray River, and good land in Victoria. Thomas Mitchell went inland, and found more rivers. In 1826, the first British military outpost was set up at King George Sound in Western Australia. The Swan River Colony was started in 1829, with townsites at Fremantle and Perth. In 1836, a free-settler colony was started in South Australia, where no convicts were ever sent. Queensland became a separate colony in 1859. As the towns and farms spread across Australia, the Aboriginal people were pushed off their land. Some were killed, and many died from illness and hunger. Soon, Australia's Aborigines were outnumbered by Europeans, and many were made to live on reserves.

The goldrushes of New South Wales and Victoria started in 1851 leading to large numbers of people arriving to search for gold. The population grew across south east Australia and made great wealth and industry. By 1853 the goldrushes had made some poor people very rich.

Convict transportation ended in the 1840s and 1850s and more changes came. The people in Australia wanted to run their own country, and self-govern. The first governments in the colonies were run by Governors chosen by London. Soon the settlers wanted local government and more democracy. The New South Wales Legislative Council, was created in 1825 to advise the Governor of New South Wales, but it was not chosen by voters. William Wentworth established the Australian Patriotic Association (Australia's first political party) in 1835 to demand democratic government for New South Wales. In 1840, the Adelaide City Council and the Sydney City Council were started and some people could vote for them (but only men with a certain amount of money). Then, Australia's first parliamentary elections were held for the New South Wales Legislative Council in 1843, again with some limits on who could vote. The Australian Colonies Government Act [1850] allowed constitutions for New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. [4] In 1850 elections for legislative councils were also held in the colonies of Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. [5]

In 1855, limited self-government was granted by London to New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. A new secret ballot was introduced in Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia in 1856, allowing people to vote in private. This system was copied around the world. In 1855, the right to vote was given to all men over 21 in South Australia. The other colonies soon followed. [5] Women were given the vote in the Parliament of South Australia in 1895 and they became the first women in the world allowed to stand in elections. In 1897, Catherine Helen Spence became the first female political candidate. [6] [7]

Australians had started parliamentary democracies all across the continent. But voices were getting louder for all of them to come together as one country with a national parliament.

NSW Migration Heritage Centre

Invitations to Australian Commonwealth Celebrations, Francis Cotton, 1901. Courtesy State Library of New South Wales

I regard as second only to the necessity of protecting our shores against actual invasion, the necessity of protecting Australia against the influx of aliens, Asiatics, criminals, paupers, and other undesirable classes
– Charles Kingston, Premier of South Australia, 1891

Before 1900, there was no actual country called Australia, only the six colonies – New South Wales, Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria, Queensland, and Western Australia. While these colonies were on the same continent, they were governed like six rival countries and there was little communication between them. Until the 1880s, there was limited interest in the idea of uniting the colonies into one country and the influential businessmen in the colonies seemed more interested in protecting their own economic bases.

Things began to change in the 1890s as a severe drought resulted in a recession and violent industrial strikes. By 1888, 70% of the population had been born here and there was a growing nationalist sentiment. Communication had improved with the colonies linked to each other and the world by the Overland Telegraph and submarine cable. Germany, France and Russia were expanding in the Pacific and the colonies could better defend themselves with a single army and navy. Thousands of Chinese migrants came to Australia during the gold rush. People wanted to restrict the economic competition of migrants from Asia. The best way to do this was for all the colonies to act together and work out a common immigration policy.

Federation would deliver free trade between the states and protection from the rest of the world. It offered protection from imported goods and anyone who was not white. Apart from collecting the all important government revenue and preventing smuggling, Customs Officers were also entrusted with quarantine, immigration and the enforcement of the Passengers Act. Under the Passengers Act 1852 ships masters were required to keep accurate passenger lists which were verified before the ship was cleared by Customs and passengers could go ashore. Prior to 1852 there was no legal requirement to submit passenger lists.

Uniting the six colonies was not easy, with many fights and walkouts in negotiations along the way. After a series of conferences and meetings, a draft Australian Federal Constitution was drawn up. A series of referendums was put to the people until finally, in 1900, there was a majority agreement for Federation.

Invitation to Australian Commonwealth Celebrations, Francis Cotton, 1901. Courtesy State Library of New South Wales

The Commonwealth of Australia was proclaimed on 1 January 1901 at a grand ceremony in Sydney’s Centennial Park. Elections were held in March and the first Commonwealth Parliament was opened in Melbourne on 9 May 1901. The only women voting were those of South Australia and Western Australia. Campaigners for the women’s vote had hoped all women would be granted that right in time for Federation.

People were proud to be Australians and thought their country was the land of opportunity. Australia was part of the British Empire and in 1907 Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand became known as dominions. However, while Australians elected a parliament that made Australian laws, Britain – the mother country – kept a firm control over defence and foreign policy. Australia did not have its own navy and could not make treaties with other nations.

But Australia was getting its own ideas. It was especially concerned that Britain did not have strong military bases in the Pacific and that Britain had signed a treaty with Japan which Australia feared. As a result, Australia began to build up its own navy in 1909.

In 1901, 98% of people in Australia were of British heritage. Australia wanted to remain a country of white people who lived by British customs. Trade unions were keen to prevent labour competition from Chinese and Pacific Islander migrants who they feared would undercut wages.

Consequently, one of the first pieces of legislation passed in the new Federal Parliament was the Immigration Restriction Act. Now known as the infamous White Australia Policy it, along with the Pacific Islander Labourers Act and the Post and Telegraph Act 1901, made it virtually impossible for Asians and Pacific Islanders to migrate to Australia.

This Act stated that if a person wanted to migrate to Australia they had to be given a ‘dictation test’ which could be in any European language. So a person from China or Japan who wanted to live in Australia could be tested in one or all of the French, Italian or English languages.

In 1905, the Act was changed so it could be given in any language at all. Of course, most Asians failed the test or were only allowed to enter the country under very strict exclusion rules or if they were fortunate enough to have well-connected sponsors.

The Dictation Test was used by customs officers as passengers came off the ships and paddle steamers and by police rounding up suspect illegal immigrants.

After the 1901 celebrations had faded the Federation needed a capital city. An American couple Walter Burly Griffin won a competition to design the nation’s capital on a remote sheep run in southern New South Wales bringing Art Deco and Art Moderne ideas to the Australian bush.

  • OFFICIAL NAME: Commonwealth of Australia
  • FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Federal parliamentary democracy Commonwealth realm
  • CAPITAL: Canberra
  • POPULATION: 23,470,145
  • MONEY: Australian dollar
  • AREA: 2,969,906 square miles (7,692,024 square kilometers)
  • MAJOR MOUNTAIN RANGES: Great Dividing Range, Macdonnell Ranges
  • MAJOR RIVERS: Murray-Darling, Murrumbidgee, Lachlan


Australia is the only country in the world that covers an entire continent. It is one of the largest countries on Earth. Although it is rich in natural resources and has a lot of fertile land, more than one-third of Australia is desert.

Most Australian cities and farms are located in the southwest and southeast, where the climate is more comfortable. There are dense rain forests in the northeast. The famous outback (remote rural areas) contains the country's largest deserts, where there are scorching temperatures, little water, and almost no vegetation.

Running around the eastern and southeastern edge of Australia is the Great Dividing Range. This 2,300-mile (3,700-kilometer) stretch of mountain sends water down into Australia's most important rivers and the Great Artesian Basin, the largest groundwater source in the world.

Map created by National Geographic Maps


Australia is one of the world's most ethnically diverse nations. Nearly a quarter of the people who live in Australia were born in other countries. They come from the United Kingdom and other European countries, but also from China, Vietnam, North Africa, and the Middle East.

Australia's warm, sunny climate and abundance of open spaces gives the population a love of the outdoors. The people are also passionate about sports, including swimming, surfing, sailing, tennis, soccer, cricket, rugby, and their own invention, Australian rules football.


Australia's ecosystem is an unusual one because of its remote location. As a result, there are many animal species that occur here and nowhere else in the world, such as the platypus, kangaroo, echidna, and koala. Australia has 516 national parks to protect its unique plants and animals.

One of Australia's most amazing sites rises like an enormous whale's back from a flat red-soil desert called the Red Center. This site is called Uluru, and it is a sacred natural formation at the heart of the country. Rising 1,100 feet (335 meters) tall, it is the largest rock in the world!

Australia is home to many of the deadliest species of animals on the planet. There are 36 species of poisonous funnel-web spiders in eastern Australia. There are also 20 types of venomous snakes, including the taipan, which attacks without warning and bites repeatedly, killing its victim in minutes.

There are several types of rain forests in Australia. Tropical rain forests, mainly found in the northeast, are the richest in plant and animal species. Subtropical rain forests are found near the mid-eastern coast, and broadleaf rain forests grow in the southeast and on the island of Tasmania.

Climate Regions

Central and western Australia are sparsely populated. Large areas of the Northern Territory and the desert regions are uninhabited. Approximately 40 percent of Australia’s interior is desert, where Type B climates dominate. The large land mass can heat up during the summer months, triggering high temperatures. Low humidity allows heat to escape into the atmosphere after the sun goes down, so there is wide temperature variation between day and night.

Along the northern coastal region there are more tropical Type A climates. Closer to the equator and with the sea to moderate temperatures, the northern areas around Darwin and Cape York have little temperature variation. Temperatures in Darwin average about 90 °F in the summer and 86 °F in the winter. Spring monsoons bring additional rainfall from February to March.

Tasmania, Victoria, and the core region of the southeast have a more moderate and temperate Type C climate. The main cities, such as Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide, are within this area. It is not surprising that there is a direct correlation between Type C climates and the major population areas. The Tropic of Capricorn cuts across the continent, indicating that the cities are not that far south of the tropics. Average winter temperatures in June and July do not usually fall below 50 °F and average summer temperatures in January and February remain around 70 °F. Since the seasons are reversed from that of the Northern Hemisphere, many Australians go to the beach for Christmas.

Figure 12.6 Australia’s Provinces and Territories and Their Respective Major Cities

The two core areas, where most of Australia’s population resides, are also noted. Not unexpectedly, the core areas have a dominant type C climate, following the general principle that humans gravitate toward type C climates.

Updated map from Wikimedia Commons – CC BY-SA 3.0.

Australia - Statistics & Facts

Among the biggest economies worldwide, Australia ranks 13th, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of approximately 1.38 trillion U.S. dollars in 2017. Its GDP per capita thus amounted to approximately 55,693 U.S. dollars the same year. Australia’s economic growth amounted to 2.22 percent in 2017 and is estimated to increase again. The country's unemployment rate is expected to decline as well.

In 2017, Australia exported goods worth about 321 billion U.S. dollars, and imported goods worth approximately 229 billion U.S. dollars, a significant decline from previous years. Its most important trade partner for import and export is China.

This text provides general information. Statista assumes no liability for the information given being complete or correct. Due to varying update cycles, statistics can display more up-to-date data than referenced in the text.


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