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King Amenhotep III

King Amenhotep III


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Tutankhamun’s Family | Amenhotep III Facts

On the western bank of the Nile, across from the Eastern bank city of Luxor, the scale of the site of Kom el-Hettan, the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III, attests to the reign of Tutankhamun’s grandfather—the golden age of Egypt.

Who was Amenhotep III?

Amenhotep III was the son and successor of Thutmose IV, who, like his grandson Tutankhamun ascended the throne at a very young age.

Who was Amenhotep III married to?

Early in his reign Amenhotep III married Tiye, who originated from Akhmīm in the south of Egypt she was the favoured wife of the king during his thirty-eight-year reign.

Was Amenhotep III a good ruler?

Amenhotep III reign was a period of peaceful prosperity, which Egypt did not experience again until the reign of Ramses II, and was one which resulted in unprecedented artistic development.Monuments glorifying Amenhotep III, his reign, and the gods, were constructedall over Egypt. Amongst the most famous, in addition to the funerary temple at Kom el-Hettan and its famous colossi, is the Luxor Temple, which was completed by Ramses II. Amenhotep III, like the kings who preceded and succeeded him, also implemented a building programme at Karnak, where he embellished the temple of Amon-Re. In Nubia, the temples of Soleb and Sedeinga, devoted respectively to Amenhotep III, who was deified during his lifetime, and his wife Tiye, are monumental attestations to Egypt’s presence to the south of its borders. The two temples may have inspired those of Ramses II and his wife Nefertari at Abu Simbel, which were built decades later.

Amongst the king’s most prominent high officials and courtiers, a certain Amenhotep, the son of Hapu, who was very close to Amenhotep III, went down in history. As architect and ‘director of all the king’s works’, Amenhotep, son of Hapu, built the Colossi of Memnon and probably directed the construction of Amenhotep III’s funerary temple. He was such an important figure that Amenhotep III granted him the right to construct his own small funerary temple on the western bank of Thebes, an honour that was usually only reserved for the pharaohs. It is probably for these reasons that, centuries later, during the Late Period and even during the Ptolemaic era, Amenhotep, son of Hapu, was deified along with other great figures in Pharaonic history, such as Imhotep, the architect of the step pyramid built at the necropolis of Ṣaqqārah.

What was Amenhotep III known for?

Under Amenhotep III, the statuary also became diverse. New types appeared, in both the royal and private spheres, and a taste for refined details in clothing, wigs, and finery developed. Crockery and luxury toiletry items, such as the famous cosmetic spoons in the form of female swimmers, in carved wood, were used by the living and accompanied the deceased in their tombs. Taking advantage of the lasting peace with the neighbouring countries in the Near East, consolidated through marriages with foreign princesses, Amenhotep III’s Egypt increased trade and imported rare products, which were transported along the coast of the Levant.

What years did Amenhotep III rule?

Amenhotep III (1386-1349 BC) ruled during the 18th Dynasty (1570-1293 BC) for around 40 years.

How do you pronounce Amenhotep III?

ah-muh n-hoh-tep

How did Amenhotep III die?

The causes of Amenhotep III’s death are not known. It is possible that the king died after a long illness, which may explain his deep devotion to the lioness goddess Sekhmet hundreds of granite statues of the goddess were found in the Theban area, and she was known for her great healing power.

Where was Amenhotep III buried?

Amenhotep III was buried in a valley—the Western Valley—not far from the Valley of the Kings. Queen Tiye survived her husband and lived to see one of her sons ascend the throne—the young Amenhotep IV (later known as Akhenaten), Tutankhamun’s father.

Who was Tutankhamun’s father?

Amenhotep IV (later known as Akhenaten) was Tutankhamun’s father.

Experience the mystery of Ancient Egypt yourself. KING TUT: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh. It will be at The Saunders Castle at Park Plaza in Boston, Massachusetts, and open for a limited time from June 12 2020. With more than 150 authentic artifacts from the boy king’s tomb on their final world tour before they return to Egypt, this is a must-see cultural event.

Author of this article is Renaud Pietri.
PhD in Egyptology: “The chariot in Egyptian thought” (December 9, 2017)
Ph.D in Egyptology: “Trolley in Egyptian mind” (December 9th, 2017

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Architecture During the Reign of Amenhotep III

Amenhotep III built the temple, now known as Luxor Temple, in honor of the god Amun. (Image: Waj/Shutterstock)

Thebes during the Reign of Amenhotep III

The XVIII th Dynasty, in some respects, was the high point of Egyptian civilization. It was where it got superpower status, and where it was right on top of the world. Amenhotep III was an incredible pharaoh who contributed significantly to the growth of Egypt.

Amenhotep III was a builder. The skyline of what tourists today know as Luxor is to a great extent due to Amenhotep III. He was the one who really started building up the city and making it great. So, Thebes was in the process of becoming a beautiful city.

This was the city that Homer called “100-gated Thebes” because it had so many temples with so many doors. Amenhotep III built what is today called Luxor Temple. He built a temple dedicated to the god Amun. His own name meant ‘Amun is pleased’.

Amenhotep III’s Malkata Palace

Amenhotep III also built a palace, which was rather unusual. It was called the Malkata palace. Malkata is an Arabic word that means ‘where you find stuff’. The pharaohs built their temples and tombs for eternity, but a palace was meant to last for only a generation or two.

The Malakata Palace was built out of mud-brick. As a result, it got terribly damaged. Today, there are only short walls that exist. These walls are at best two to three feet high. But one can get a glimpse of how it was done and how it was decorated. The mud-brick was plastered over with white gesso, white plaster. And then on the plaster, they had made frescos, depicting beautiful scenes of the gods, of plants, and of animals.

Also, it was next to this palace that Amenhotep III built the pleasure lake for Queen Tiye. This lake was about a mile long. Amenhotep III had even sent out commemorative scarabs to tell the world about this lake. He said on the commemorative scarabs that it was so large that Queen Tiye could sail her boat on this lake. He even gave the name to the boat, ‘The Aten Gleams’.

The palace was large. It sprawled because he had to have plenty of rooms for children, concubines, and wives, and sections for the cook and the kitchen.

This is a transcript from the video series History of Ancient Egypt. Watch it now, on Wondrium.

Amenhotep III’s Religious Shift

Amenhotep III became a bit of a god in his own day. The pharaoh, of course, was always a god. He was the falcon on earth. But Amenhotep III also took another name: the ‘Dazzling Sun Disk of All Lands’. Moreover, Queen Tiye’s boat was named ‘The Aten Gleams’. What this shows is that there was a gentle shift in religion. It seems that the Aten or sun disk was gradually becoming important.

Another interesting thing that happened with Amenhotep III was that he moved permanently to Thebes to live in the Malkata palace. Normally, the pharaoh would have lived at Memphis, the administrative center, and on vacation or for religious ceremonies would have gone to the south.

While it is possible that Amenhotep III was getting old and so wanted to head south, another possibility is that religious things were becoming more important to him. It could be that the ‘Dazzling Sun Disk of All Lands’, as he was called, wanted to be in the religious capital of Egypt.

The Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III

Amenhotep III also built his mortuary temple. The mortuary temple was where he was going to be worshipped forever. This was different from where he would be buried.

Now the mortuary temple has virtually disappeared. The water table has risen in Thebes, and the place where the mortuary temple was is right next to the cultivated fields and is quite moist. So the temple has literally sunk underground.

However, what fronted the temple is still standing there. These are two huge statues, about 60 feet high, and they are of Amenhotep III. They were so big that they didn’t sink in the ground. They are called the ‘Colossi of Memnon’. When people entered the mortuary temple to pay respects, they had to pass between these two colossal statues of Amenhotep III.

The Colossi of Memnon are the only parts of the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III that have not sunk. (Image: Tomasz Czajkowski/Shutterstock)

One of the colossi became famous in the ancient world because it was called the ‘vocal Memnon’. People said that it spoke in the morning.

However, what actually happened was that there were cracks in the statue, and in the morning, when the sun rose and hit the statue, it would warm up the rocks of the statue, and it would expand a little and the wind would whistle through it and one would hear a sound. That was the ‘vocal Memnon’. Now the statue has been restored, and it does not say anything anymore.

End of Amenhotep III

When Amenhotep III died, he was buried in an unusual place. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings, but not in the same section as his great ancestors. He decided to be buried off to the side, in an area called the West Valley. No one had ever been buried there. He was the first pharaoh ever to be buried in the West Valley.

The ancestors of Amenhotep III had all been buried in the Valley of Kings. (Image: EvrenKalinbacak/Shutterstock)

Amenhotep III and his great wife, Queen Tiye, had six children. There were four daughters and two boys. The eldest boy was going to be the king of Egypt. His name was Tuthmosis, and he had an important title—high priest of Memphis. Even the girls had been given important titles. However, young Tuthmosis, the prince, died before he became the king, which left his younger brother to rule over Egypt.

This other brother was never mentioned in the records until the end of the pharaoh’s reign. Amenhotep III made this son his co-regent. Co-regencies were started by the Middle Kingdom pharaohs with the notion that if one wanted to make sure who his successor was going to be, he took him as co-regent and both ruled together. This young prince, who was not supposed to be the king, later turned Egypt upside down.

Common Questions about Architecture During the Reign of Amenhotep III

Thebes was the religious capital of Egypt during the reign of Amenhotep III . Amenhotep III built a temple dedicated to the god Amun there. Moreover, he, unlike the other kings, moved permanently to Thebes during his old age.

Amenhotep III built the Malkata palace in Thebes . This palace was made of mud-brick. During his old age, Amenhotep III moved permanently to Thebes to live in the Malkata palace.

Aten was a sun god in ancient Egypt . During the reign of Amenhotep III , Aten or sun disk had gradually become important. Amenhotep III had taken on another name: the ‘Dazzling Sun Disk of All Lands’, and Queen Tiye’s boat was named ‘The Aten Gleams’.

The Colossi of Memnon fronted the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III . They are two huge statues of Amenhotep III. When people entered the mortuary temple to pay respects, they had to pass between them.


Renowned archaeologist Zahi Hawass announces discovery of Luxor’s ‘Lost City’

CAIRO &ndash 8 April 2021: The Egyptian mission headed by former Minister of Antiquities Zahi Hawass and jointly between the Zahi Hawass Center for Egyptology affiliated to the Bibliotheca Alexandrina and the Supreme Council of Antiquities, discovered the lost city under the sand, which was called &ldquoSo&rsquooud Atun&rdquo [Ascension of Atun].

Its history spans back to the reign of King Amenhotep III. The city continued to be used by King Tutankhamun, that is, 3000 years ago.

Hawass said that work began in this area to search for the funerary temple of King Tutankhamun, because the temples of Horemheb and Ay had been found before.


Luxor's 'Lost City' - Min. of Tourism & Antiquities

Moreover, Hawass confirmed that the mission found the largest city ever in Egypt, which was founded by one of the greatest rulers of Egypt, King Amenhotep III, the ninth king of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

He ruled Egypt from 1391 until 1353 BC. His son and future heir to the throne, Amenhotep IV, "Akhenaten", shared the last eight years of his reign.

Hawass added that this city was the largest administrative and industrial settlement in the era of the Egyptian Empire on the West Bank of Luxor where houses were found, some of which were about 3 meters in height. It was also divided into streets.

"We have uncovered a part of the city extending to the west, while Deir el-Medina is part of our city," said Hawass.

Excavations began in September 2020. Within weeks, formations of mudbrick began to appear in all directions. The mission was astonished when it was discovered that the site is a large city in good condition, with almost complete walls and rooms full of tools of daily life.

The archaeological layers have remained intact for thousands of years, and the ancient inhabitants left them as if they were yesterday.

Professor of Egyptology at Johns Hopkins University Betsy Bryan said that the discovery of this lost city is the second important archaeological discovery after the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun.

The discovery of this city not only gives us a rare glimpse into the life of the ancient Egyptians in the era of the empire, but it will also help us shed light on one of the greatest mysteries in history and why Akhenaten and Nefertiti decided to move to Amarna ?!

The excavation area was located between the Temple of Ramses III in Habu City and the Temple of Amenhotep III in Memnon.

The Egyptian mission began working in this area in search of the funerary temple of Tutankhamun. It was King Ay, the successor to Tutankhamun, who built his temple on a site that was later adjoined on its southern side with the Temple of Ramses III in Medinet Habu [Habu City].

The first objective of the expedition was to determine the history of this city, as hieroglyphic inscriptions were found on the ceramic lids of wine vessels.

Historical references tell us that the city consisted of three royal palaces of King Amenhotep III, in addition to the administrative and industrial center of the empire.


Part of the discovery - Min. of Tourism & Antiquities

A large number of archaeological discoveries have confirmed the history of the city, such as rings, scarabs, colored pottery vessels, and the mud bricks bearing the cartouche seals of King Amenhotep III.

After just seven months of excavation, several areas or neighborhoods of that city were uncovered.


Part of the discovery - Min. of Tourism & Antiquities

In the southern part, the mission found a bakery, cooking area and food preparation area complete with ovens and clay storage vessels, which was serving a large number of workers and employees.

As for the second area, which has been partially disclosed, represents the administrative and residential district, as it includes larger units with good organization. This area is fenced by a zig-zag wall, with only one entry point leading to interior corridors and residential areas.

This single entrance suggests it was a kind of security in terms of being able to control entry and exit into closed areas.

Winding walls are a rare architectural element in ancient Egyptian architecture, and were used mainly around the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

Furthermore, the third area is the workshop. On one side, it includes a production area for the mudbricks used to build temples and annexes. The bricks contain seals bearing the cartouches of King Amenhotep III.

A large number of casting molds have been discovered for the production of amulets and delicate decorative elements. This is another testament to the widespread activity in the city to produce the decorations of both temples and tombs.

Throughout the excavation areas, the mission found many tools used in industrial activity, such as spinning and weaving. Metal and glass rubble were also discovered, but the main area of such activity has yet to be discovered.


Part of the discovery - Min. of Tourism & Antiquities

Two uncommon burials of a cow or bull were also found inside one of the rooms. Research is still underway to determine the nature and purpose of these burials.


Part of the discovery - Min. of Tourism & Antiquities

A wonderful burial of someone was also found, with his arms stretched out next to him, and the remains of a rope wrapped around his knees. The location and position of this skeleton is somewhat strange, triggering a more in-depth research into this finding.


Part of the discovery - Min. of Tourism & Antiquities

Also, a vase was found containing two gallons of dried or boiled meat (about 10 kg) and bore valuable inscriptions that could be read.

This valuable information not only gives us the names of two people who lived and worked in the city, but also confirms that the city was active and determines the time of the participation of King Amenhotep III with his son Akhenaten.

The mission also found a text inscribed on the imprint of a seal that reads: Province of Atun the Great. This is the name of a temple built by King Akhenaten at Karnak.

In addition, a large tomb was discovered, the extent of which has not yet been determined. The mission discovered a group of tombs carved into the rocks of various sizes, which can be accessed through stairs carved into the rock.

There is a common feature of the construction of tombs in the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Nobles, where work is still underway. The mission expects to uncover untouched graves full of treasures.

Ongoing excavations give archaeologists access to the city's original layer of activity, as information has been unveiled that will change history and give us unique insight into the Tutankhamun family.

The discovery of the lost city will also give us a deeper understanding of the daily life of the ancient Egyptians in terms of the style of buildings and decorating their homes, the tools they used and how they organized their work.

Only a third of the area has been uncovered so far, and the mission will continue excavations, including the area identified as the potential site of Tutankhamun's funerary temple.

Hawass concluded that we have a lot of information about tombs and temples, but this is the first time that they reveal secrets about the lives of the kings of the golden age of Egypt.


His scarabs found in Ashurnasirpal’s city of Calah

“Strange as it may seem, Ashurnasirpal II was also a great builder.

He too raised monuments throughout Assyria. These included a new capital named Calah.

In Calah archaeologists found numerous [artifacts] … of Egyptian manufacture.

There were, for example, many scarabs of the latter Eighteenth Dynasty,

especially from the time of Amenhotap [Amenhotep] III”.

Emmet Sweeney

Emmet Sweeney gives evidence here to indicate that pharaoh Amenhotep III reigned closely in time to Ashurnasirpal (so-called II) of Assyria, who Emmet thinks must also be the enigmatic “Assuruballit” of El-Amarna (EA letters 15 and 16).

EA 15 is addressed “To the king of the land of Egypt”, whereas

EA 16 is addressed more specifically “To Napkhororia, Great King, king of Egypt, my brother”– generally considered to be Akhnaton, the son of Amenhotep III.


On a Par with Pharaoh

“The known monuments of Amenhotep III stretch from the Delta region in the north to as far south as the Third Cataract in Nubia. More often than not, these monuments survive today in fragmentary form, due to extensive dismantling and reuse by Amenhotep III’s own successors, and due to later, further reuse in post-pharaonic constructions. It should be stressed that this fragmentary material often preserves a tremendous amount of information pertinent to otherwise vanished cult centers and at the very least allows for the identification of a particular monument at a particular site,” explains Raymond Johnson.

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[The author thanks Leslie D. Black , Heidi Kontkanen , Margaret Patterson , Bruno Duro, Ted Loukes and Richard Dick Sellicks for granting permission to use their photographs. The public archives of the Metropolitan Museum of Art can be accessed here.]

Top Image: The Great Sun Court of Amenhotep III at Luxor Temple and detail of a calcite statue shows Amenhotep III with a solar form of the crocodile god Sobek, likely Sobek-Horus design by Anand Balaji (Photo credits: Jorge Láscar and Heidi Kontkanen ) Deriv.

By Anand Balaji

Anand

Anand N. Balaji is an independent researcher who has a special interest in the Amarna era.


The Reign of Amenhotep Iii

Ancient History Essay – Amenhotep III
The thirty-eight-year reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh, Amenhotep III was a period of unparalleled stability and wealth in the history of the New Kingdom. During the reign of Amenhotep III, Egypt grew to be the world’s “Super Power,” and had great influence on a large scale. The key features of his reign included: * His use of scarabs

* His marriage to Queen Tiye
* His relationship with other Kings and the Amarna Letters * His religious ideology
* His building projects
One significant reason that made Amenhotep III such a distinguished pharaoh was his use of propaganda to influence and manipulate peoples’ thoughts, such as his use of stone scarabs which have been discovered. Their lengthy inscribed texts praise the accomplishments of the pharaoh, for example one of these scarabs records that he captured ninety-six wild bulls, another shows that he hunted on horseback (this was an unusual skill in this period). Another scarab tells of a total of 102 lions killed during ten years of hunting. Also, in his tenth year as pharaoh he announced on another scarab the inclusion of Gilukhepa, a Mitannian princess, in his harem. In addition, his marriage to Queen Tiye was also noted on a number of beautifully crafted scarabs. In Amenhotep’s second year as pharaoh, he married the daughter of two commoners named Yuya, who was the overseer of the Kings horses and Thuya, who was attached to the temple of Amen. Her name was Tiye and she was to become the Chief Queen. Tiye was a beautiful and elegant woman who was closely involved in the government of the kingdom. It was obvious that the King treasured her and he celebrated their marriage by issuing a scarab as well as ordering a special boat to be built along with a huge lake for her to go boating in private. Queen Tiye appears frequently on Amenhotep’s monuments, sometimes in the place of a goddess or seated next to him with royal characteristics. To show his love for Queen.


Rebellious Son

Not long after Amenhotep III died, in 1353 B.C., masons entered his mortuary temple and methodically chiseled out every mention of Amun, the god said to have fathered the great pharaoh. Astonishingly, the order to commit this blasphemy came from the king's own son. Crowned Amenhotep IV, he changed his name to Akhenaten in his fifth year on the throne and focused his energies on promoting a single god, Aten, the sun disk. Together with his beautiful queen Nefertiti, he built a new capital, Akhetaten (today known as Amarna), banned representations of several deities and set about destroying all inscriptions and images of Amun, from the Nile Delta to today's Sudan.

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Akhenaten's attempt to suppress one god and advance another in a culture that reveled in a complex pantheon of ever-changing deities did not endure. Yet no other pharaoh—save perhaps his son, the boy king Tutankhamen, who quickly reversed his father's campaign—has so captured the modern imagination. Agatha Christie wrote a play and Philip Glass composed an opera named after Akhenaten, and Nobel Prize winner Naguib Mahfouz penned the novel Dweller in Truth about the heretic king who dared to overturn a religious system that was older than Islam is today. The ancient Egyptian set of beliefs, with its focus on death and the afterlife and with deities who can change their species, remains alien and mysterious to most Westerners.

Early Egyptologists saw in Akhenaten's approach the first stirring of the great monotheisms of Judaism, Christianity and Islam to come. "Not a rag of superstition or of falsity can be found clinging to this new worship," wrote Flinders Petrie, a British archaeologist who dug at Akhenaten's capital in the early 1890s. Sigmund Freud even argued that Moses was an Egyptian priest who spread the religion of Aten. There is, of course, no evidence linking the cult of Aten to today's monotheisic beliefs, and no archaeological evidence of Hebrew tribes appears until two centuries after the pharaoh's death. Nor do scholars agree on what accounted for Akhenaten's beliefs. "As a result," says Egyptologist Betsy Bryan at Johns Hopkins University, "people tend to allow their fantasies to run wild."

But Akhenaten's faith can at least be traced to the time of Amenhotep III, who named a royal boat as well as a Theban palace after Aten. (The name "aten" had simply been a word meaning "sun" until Amenhotep III's father elevated Aten to the status of a deity.) Amenhotep III's primary devotion, however, was to Amun-Ra, a combination of Thebes' deity Amun and the northern Egyptian sun god Ra. According to an inscription describing the pharaoh's conception, Amun disguised himself as Thutmose IV and entered the queen's bedchamber. The god's alluring aroma woke her, "and then the majesty of this god did all that he desired with her." By claiming Amun as his father, Amenhotep III "tried to show himself as close to a god as any pharaoh before him," says Bryan.

While Amenhotep III accepted the traditional view that all gods are aspects of the same divine essence, there are hints that a theological split was already in the offing. Bryan notes that some inscriptions from the pharaoh's mortuary temple mention only Aten.

Other Egyptologists point out that Akhenaten tolerated other gods and seems to have had it in just for Amun. Some believe that in erasing Amun, Akhenaten may have wanted to bring more order to a confusing pantheon. Others think he was battling the political power of a wealthy priesthood. And then there are more psychoanalytic interpretations—that he either worshiped his father as Aten or rebelled against his father's devotion to Amun. Ray Johnson of the University of Chicago sees a link between the sculptures and friezes of Amenhotep III's reign and the naturalistic art of Akhenaten's time, and he and others suggest that father and son shared the throne for some years before the father's death at around age 50. "We don't get motivations" in the surviving texts, says John Baines of Oxford University. "It's very unwise to think we know enough to be sure."

Still, Akhenaten's eradication of Amun's name and images throughout Egypt "has all the signs of a true extremist," says Bryan. In any case, his vision didn't survive him. After Akhenaten's death, masons again entered Amenhotep III's mortuary temple. They recarved Amun's name, and while they were at it, they erased all mention of Akhenaten.


Amenhotep III

Amenhotep III is actually depicted seated in the distinctive ark of the sun god, thus identifying himself as the god while he was still alive! Furthermore, the following carvings depict the king and the divine statuary of Amen both being carried alongside sacred arks. This was a truly remarkable statement. No longer was Amenhotep III to be regarded as just a mere agent of the gods. Without prevarication, he was announcing to all those present that he was now to be regarded as a living god. Under normal circumstances, only upon death could a pharaoh thus become deified…By openly declaring himself a god, he was now on an equal standing with Amen himself. Additional new material pertaining to Amenhotep’s deification whilst alive has emerged over the past few years. Astonishingly, they depict scenes of him worshipping figures of himself.

Lorraine Evans / <cite>Kingdom of the Ark (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>

Amenhotep III was the father of Akhenaton. A good candidate for the biblical Solomon. His title was "Shining Solar Disk of All the Land"

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

The task of identifying the historical Solomon is complicated not only by the biblical red-herring we have already looked at, but also by the fact that we have no historical record of a king of that name. It is only when we match in detail the Old Testament account of his exploits with the reign of Amenhotep III that it becomes clear we are dealing with the same person

Ahmed Osman / <cite>quoted by Michael Tsarion</cite>

Although he [Yuya] never reigned as a pharaoh he was the unseen authority behind the thrones of Amenhotep III and Akhenaton. Lately identified as the prototype for the biblical Joseph, he was the richest man in the world after the pharaoh who promoted him. He possessed many illustrious titles. Pharaoh Amenhotep III awarded him the title "Father of a God," a title later passed to his son Aye. Since his daughter Tiye was the mother of Akhenaton, Yuya was the grandfather of the man who would become the most notorious pharaoh in Egypt's long history. His son Aye, the uncle of Akhenaton, would also go on to be a major player in the story of the Atonists. Yuya and his wife Tuya were among the major educators and caretakers of the young Akhenaton. They were Israelites descended from the Hyksos people and were probably of elite rank within that allegedly foreign race. This is probably the reason why Yuya bore the illustrious title "Father to a Pharaoh." It is believed that one of his wives, Asenath, was the daughter of the chief priest of the sun at Heliopolis. Yuya cleverly arranged matters so that his daughter Tiye married Pharaoh Amenhotep III, the son of Tuthmosis IV, who had first honored him. Yuya (Joseph) was descended from Yakobaam/Jacoba/Jacob, an earlier Hyksos pharaoh. In the bible we are toldthat Jacob’s name was changed to Israel, hence the Hyksos people can be known as “Israelites.”If Yuya was indeed the same man as the biblical Joseph it is interesting to note that he served as the chief "tax collector" in charge of the seizure and acquisition of many private estates. The seven years of famine also helped Joseph prosper since, as the bible states, the rich of many lands came to Egypt to purchase grain. More importantly, for our investigations, the bible reveals that Joseph's initial benefactor, Potiphar, was a sun priest of the city of On, or Heliopolis. In Hebrew the name Potiphar means "powerful pharaoh" and in Coptic it means "belonging to the sun." In his fine books author, Ahmed Osman, writes about the effect Yuya's mummified visage had upon him. He relates how his discovery of the connection between Yuya and the biblical Joseph led him to his masterly revisionist readings of the bible and Egyptian history.

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

He [Amenhotep III] was the prototype for King Solomon

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

Tuya’s mummy had been found with that of her husband Yuya in their small joint tomb (KV. 46) in the Valley of the Kings. Their son-in-law Amenhotep III had honored them with a grand burial, filled the tomb with fabulous gold coffins and death masks, a gilded chariot, inlaid furniture, well-stuffed cushions, a jewel casket and wig box, perfume jars and sandals…Yuya in particular is regarded as the best-preserved Egyptian mummy…Both he and his wife also have bright yellow hair, originally taken as evidence for their supposed foreign origins, equally, perhaps, it may have been the effect of embalming fluids on their otherwise white hair, or evidence of a pale henna rinse

Dr. Joann Fletcher / <cite>The Search for Nefertiti (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>

Like this writer, the researcher Ralph Ellis does not buy into the migration of Abraham and Sarah story. He believes that Abraham and Sarah did not come from Sumeria into Egypt in the manner commonly described. Ellis, like the great revisionist Comyns Beaumont before him, believes that Abraham (from Ab'ram meaning "of Ra the Father") was the first pharaoh of the Hyksos dynasty. Abraham may have gone with his sister and wife Sarah towards Thebes (in southern Egypt) after a famine broke out in his own Northern kingdom. According to Ellis it was during this journey that the Theban king fell in love with Sarai and took her for his wife. The Southern pharaoh in question was none other than Tuthmosis III. And so, it was he, and not Abraham, who was the true father of the so-called Twelve Tribes of Israel. They were in fact the Twelve Tribes of Aton. Since the Hyksos were rulers in the North (Lower Egypt, Delta region), they would have had dominion over the pyramids and over Heliopolis, the capital of solar worship. Hence, Akhenaton's zeal for just that kind of worship and iconography. Ellis suggests that prior to the reign of Akhenaton, the Levite Yuya (the biblical Joseph) acted as an agent for the expelled Hyksos and returned to ingratiate himself with the pharaoh Amenhotep I. Ellis believes that he was successful and became a powerful presence behind the thrones of Tuthmosis III, Tuthmosis IV, Amenhotep III,and Akhenaton. Yuya and his family were the richest personalities in the entire world at that time, after the pharaoh himself.

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

Despite Amenhotep III's gender peculiarities, he and his wife Tiye had six children in all and it was their first son Tuthmosis (Akhenaton's elder brother) who was favored as next pharaoh by Amenhotep III. The young boy died mysteriously and so it was Akhenaton (also known as Amenhotep IV or, in Greek, as Amenophis IV) who became pharaoh. Strangely, Akhenaton does not appear in the various portraits of his father and the rest of his brothers and sisters. This fact tends to confirm that Akhenaton was not the favorite of his father. He may even have been shunned by his family in the early years. He not only appears to be the proverbial "ugly duckling" but also something of an unwanted black-sheep shunted from place to place.

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

As the despot [Amenhotep III] got older his character become more and more unstable. In a fit of self-indulgence he "married" one of his own daughters. And he displayed other strange traits. Amenhotep the Magnificent, given to luxury and overindulgence, was the only pharaoh who had himself portrayed in female clothes. Cyril Aldred, in an issue of the Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (February 1957), reproduced such a sculpture of "Amenhotep III in his old age wearing a type of gown usually worn by women"

Immanuel Velikovsky / <cite>Oedipus and Akhenaton (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>

The reign of Amenhetep III stands alone in Egyptian History. When he ascended the throne he found himself absolute lord of Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt and the Egyptian Sudan as far south as Napata. His great ancestor Thothmes III had conquered the world, as known to the Egyptians, for him

E. A. W. Budge / <cite>Tutankhamen: Amenism, Atenism, and Egyptian Monotheism (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>

Tiye was not overly concerned whether Egypt would balk at accepting her foreign-blooded son as king. As long as he married legally he would have to be accepted as the legitimate pharaoh. It also appears that her husband Amenhotep III (King Solomon) had a very romantic and amorous nature. He constantly sought the company of women. The satisfaction of his physical needs appears to have been his primary passion in life, and his Israelite queen appears to not have interfered with his peccadilloes. Indeed, she exploited them. As a result Amenhotep III enjoyed intimate liaisons with innumerable native and foreign princesses. These liaisons ensured favorable relationships with foreign governments. Consequently, the reign of Amenhotep III and Tiye was known to have been a pleasant and nonviolent one. However, given Amenhotep III's success in sexual conquest we must ask questions concerning his overall competence as a ruler. It may be realistic, if rather alarming, to surmise that the official duties were taken over by his cunning wife and her retinue of Israelites. In other words, if we are seeking for any point during the eighteenth dynasty (other than the period of Akhenaton's personal reign) for gross breaches of normal procedure and conduct and for suspicious insider-intrigue that may have destabilized the country, it is this period that warrants attention. Although the official history declares Amenhotep III's reign to be one of great stability and excellent foreign connections, we sense that the horrors of later times were rooted in the not so obvious political intrigues of his time.

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

By marrying with Tiye and favoring her above the royal wife, Amenhotep III broke the great convention of Egypt. Until this apostate's seditious act the succession of Egyptian kings had always been through the royal blooded female line. This break with convention had the most serious consequences for the great land of Egypt.

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

Today, 3,300 years later, he [Amenhotep III] still enjoys the reputation of one infinitely wise…Amenhotep III was Solomon

Ahmed Osman / <cite>Christianity: An Egyptian Religion (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>

Yuya (Yusuf) was the principle minister for the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Tuthmoses IV (c.1413-1405 BC) and for his son Amenhotep III…His tomb was discovered in 1905, along with that of his wife Tuya (the Asenath), and the mummies of Yuya and Tuya are among the very best preserved in the Cairo Museum…Clearly, this couple were of tremendous importance in their day this becomes obvious from Yuya’s funerary papyrus, which refers to him as ‘The Holy Father of the Lord of the Two Lands’…as does his royal funerary statuette

Laurence Gardner / <cite>Genesis of the Grail Kings (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>

Yuya's (Joseph's) power was enhanced and solidified after his daughter Tiye was betrothed and wedded to the young Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1382-1344 BC). This fortuitous marriage sealed the Israelite/Levite (Hyksos) line with the native Egyptian one. There is little doubt in our mind that if Amenhotep was not himself of Hyksos descent, his second wife Tiye most certainly was.

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

Tuthmosis IV died relatively young (before 30) and left a very young Amenhotep III (also of mixed blood) in the hands of the priests. Amenhotep III (the prototype for the biblical king Solomon) could only have been between 2 and 12 years of age when he was made pharaoh of Egypt. Because of his young age others stepped in to take control of Egypt from behind the throne. The two most likely candidates were his step-parents - the Israelites - Yuya and Tuya. Scholars recognize their Israelite origins and investigators such as Moustafa Gadalla, Ahmed Osman, and Ralph Ellis, are convinced (as we are) that Yuya was the biblical patriarch Joseph, the previous pharaoh's (Tuthmosis IV) "dream-analyst" and man with the "coat of many colors." Ellis states that this Joseph (Yuya) had been elevated to high command and was not only the second most powerful Egyptian after pharaoh, he was the world's wealthiest human being.

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

"Solomon" who established the "Zadokite" order was none other than the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep III, the father of Akhenaton. Amenhotep III was a descendant of the Hyksos pharaohs of Upper Egypt and was a worshipper of the sun god Aton. The name Solomon was merely his solar title - sol meaning sun. The Zadokites, originally sun priests of Egypt, were serpent worshippers.

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

Already under Amenhotep III. the worship of the sun-god was in the ascendant, probably in opposition to the worship of Amon at Thebes.

Sigmund Freud / <cite>quoted by Michael Tsarion</cite>

Despite the hard work of biblical scholars, historians and archaeologists, no single piece of evidence has been found to support the period of the supposed United Monarchy of David and Solomon. Scholars have been confused by the biblical chronology, which present David and Solomon as having belonged to the period following both the Exodus and the settlement in the“Promised Land”…Many of these biblical events occurred four to five centuries earlier than what the Old Testament would have us believe. Both Tuthmoses III, the historical King David, and his great -grandson Amenhotep III, the Biblical Solomon, belonged to the Egyptian’s Eighteenth Dynasty.

Ahmed Osman / <cite>Moses and Akhenaton (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>

Official history tells us that the oppressive Hyksos were eventually expelled from the country by the Pharaoh Ahmose I (1575-1550 BC) who led the Egyptian people in rebellion against the tyrannical invader dynasty. However, we believe the upper classes of the Hyksos invaders were not expelled. We believe they maintained senior positions at the pharaoh's court and great temples of the sun at Gizeh, Tanis, Heliopolis, Amarna, Avaris, and Alexandria. The upper strata of the Hyksos people had clearly married in with the native Egyptian line, since even Tuthmosis IV and his son Amenhotep III were of mixed blood. Some Egyptologists believe that Amenhotep III was the father of both Smenkhare and Tutankhamun, and given that this is true, it would mean that these two Atonist pharaohs were also of mixed blood.

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

Nevertheless, when researcher Ahmed Osman declares he has proven the Old Testament character known as "King David" to be none other than the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Tuthmosis III and a succeeding pharaoh, Amenhotep III, to be the “Jewish” King Solomon, one would think the revelations should not only raise the proverbial eye-brow but should cause worldwide discussion. When author Laurence Gardner states that the prophet Enoch was a character based on the Sumerian Enki and when Tony Bushby declares Roman Emperor Tiberius to be the true father of Jesus, we should take notice. And when revisionist author Moustafa Gadalla labors to prove that Jesus Christ was a character based on Pharaoh Tutankhamen, the world should surely grind to a halt to listen.

Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>

File:Amarna letter. Letter from Tushratta king of Mitanni to Amenhotep III. From Tell el-Amarna, Egypt. 1st half of the 14th century BCE. British Museum.jpg

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