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John Gray, the son of a carpenter, and the first of nine children, was born in Bethnal Green, London, on 2nd March 1866. He left school at thirteen and worked as a metal-worker at the Royal Arsenal. He continued his education at evening-classes and at sixteen he passed a civil service examination and became a clerk in the Post Office.
In 1888 Gray found employment in the Library of the Foreign Office. The following year Charles Ricketts (1866-1931) and Charles Shannon (1863–1937) established The Dial Magazine . Gray contributed an article on Edmond de Goncourt and a fairy tale, The Great Worm , in the first edition. Oscar Wilde took an interest in the magazine and soon afterwards met Gray. The writer Frank Liebich attended a dinner party in 1889 at which Wilde and Grey were present.
Wilde fell in love with Gray. Richard Ellmann, the author of Oscar Wilde (1988), has argued: "Wilde and Gray were assumed to be lovers, and there seems no reason to doubt it." Wilde later described Gray as being: "Wonderfully handsome, with his finely-curved scarlet lips, his frank blue eyes, his crisp gold hair. There was something in his face that made one trust him at once. All the candour of youth was there, as well as all youth's passionate purity. One felt that he had kept himself unspotted from the world." A mutual friend, Lionel Johnson, said that he had the "face of a fifteen" year-old boy. George Bernard Shaw recalled that he was "one of the more abject of Wilde's disciples".
The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde appeared in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine on 20th June 1890. The story tells of a young man named Dorian Gray (John Gray), who is being painted by Basil Hallward. The artist is fascinated by Dorian's beauty and becomes infatuated with him. Lord Henry Wotton meets Dorian at Hallward's studio. Espousing a new hedonism, Wotton suggests the only things worth pursuing in life are beauty and fulfillment of the senses.
When Dorian Gray sees the portrait he remarks: "How sad it is! I shall grow old, and horrible, and dreadful. But this picture will remain always young. It will never be older than this particular day in June... If it were only the other way! If it were I who was to be always young, and the picture that was to grow old! For that - for that - I would give everything! Yes, there is nothing in the whole world I would not give! I would give my soul for that!" In the story Dorian's wish is fulfilled.
Richard Ellmann has argued: "To give the hero of his novel the name of Gray was a form of courtship. Wilde probably named his hero not to point to a model, but to flatter Gray by identifying him with Dorian. Gray took the hint, and in letters to Wilde signed himself Dorian. Their intimacy was common talk." As a result some critics believed the book, named after his lover, promoted homosexuality. Charles Whibley accused Wilde of writing for "none but outlawed noblemen and perverted telegraph boys". On 30th June, 1890 The Daily Chronicle suggested that Wilde's story contains "one element... which will taint every young mind that comes in contact with it." The Scots Observer asked why Wilde must "go grubbing in muck-heaps?”
Wilde was concerned by the suggestions that he was trying to promote an illegal act. He decided to turn the short-story into a novel by adding six chapters. He also took the opportunity to remove some of the passages that indicated that The Picture of Dorian Gray was about homosexual love. Wilde also added a Preface that was a series of aphorisms that attempted to answer some of the criticisms of the original story. This included: "There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written."
The amended version of The Picture of Dorian Gray was published by Ward, Lock and Company in April 1891. Again the reception was extremely hostile. Samuel Henry Jeyes demanded in the St James's Gazette that the book be burnt and hinted that its author was more familiar with homosexuality than he should have been. The only good review was by his friend, Walter Pater, in The Bookman. The country's leading bookshop, W. H. Smith refused to stock what it described as a "filthy book".
Grays's first collection of verse, Silverpoints, was published in 1893. It included sixteen original poems and thirteen translations from Paul Verlaine, Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud and Charles Baudelaire. This was followed by Spiritual Poems (1896) that shows him embracing the values of the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1898 Gray moved to Rome where he studied for the priesthood. He was ordained on 21st December 1901. He served as a priest in Edinburgh at Saint Patrick's Church. He also developed a close relationship with Marc-André Raffalovich, a wealthy poet who was a priest at St Peter's Church in Morningside.
John Gray died on 14th June 1934.
To give the hero of his novel the name of Gray was a form of courtship. Their intimacy was common talk, for after a meeting of the Rhymers' Club about 1st February 1891, where Gray read and Wilde turned up to listen, Lionel Johnson and Ernest Dowson both alluded to it.... Wilde and Gray were assumed to be lovers, and there seems no reason to doubt it.
The chain of events leading to the development of Irving Park began in 1843 when Major Noble purchased a 160-acre tract of land from Christopher L. Ward, upon which Noble established a farm. The boundaries of that farm today would be Montrose to the north, Irving Park to the south, Pulaski to the east and Kostner to the west. Major Noble’s house on the east side of Elston just south of Montrose doubled as the Blackthorn Tavern, serving travelers coming to and from the City of Chicago along the North West Plank Road (Elston). After many years of successful farming, Noble sold the farm and retired to McHenry County. Four men from New York – Charles T. Race, John S. Brown, Adelbert E. Brown and John Wheeler – purchased the farm in 1869 for $20,000.
Shortly thereafter, they purchased an additional 80-acre tract immediately south of the Noble farm from John Gray for $25,000. This parcel, bounded by Irving Park Road on the north, Grace on the south, Pulaski to the east and Kostner to the west, was part of his original 320 acre farm. The intention of the men was to continue farming, but after seeing the success of suburban communities which had recently opened for settlement, they decided to subdivide their land and create an exclusive suburb seven miles from the city.
An agreement was reached with the Chicago & North Western Railroad allowing their trains to stop in Irving Park if the developers would build a station. This was done and the station, still at the same location, continues to serve neighborhood residents today. The original name chosen for the suburb was “Irvington” after author Washington Irving, but it was discovered that another town in Illinois had already used the name, so the name “Irving Park” was adopted.
The original developers built substantial mansions along Irving Park Boulevard between 1870 and 1874. All have since been razed, with the exception of the Stephen A. Race mansion, which was moved at the turn of the century and now stands at 3945 N. Tripp. Another early home, built for Erastus Brown, father of John and Adelbert, also remains at 3812 N. Pulaski, although greatly altered. The Chicago fire of 1871, which was watched from the cupolas of several area homes, brought an influx of new residents who built many unique but slightly less pretentious homes.
In 1872, the area’s first church, the Dutch Reformed Church and Society of Irving Park, was constructed on the southeast corner of Keeler and Belle Plaine. It remained the only house of worship for 13 years. The building was completely remodeled in 1908, according to the plans by noted architect Elmer C. Jensen. By the turn of the 20th century, congregations representing the Episcopalian, Methodists, Disciples of Christ, Catholics and Baptists had been established.
The 1880’s found residents beginning to miss some of the advantages they had left behind in the city and in 1889, the community, along with the rest of Jefferson Township, was annexed to Chicago. Water piped to the area from Lake Michigan, the establishments of a Fire Department and streetcar service along major streets were some of the improvements to occur during the first years after annexation.
Over 200 homes had been built in the original subdivision within the first 20 years. Several additions to Irving Park had greatly increased the 240 acre-suburb. Grayland, which was opened for settlement in 1874, extended west from Kostner to Cicero, between Irving Park and Addison. Subdivided by John Gray, the first Republican Sheriff of Cook County, on a portion of his extensive farm, it grew around the Grayland station of the Milwaukee Road Railroad, which is still in active use today. Gray’s first home built in 1856 at 4362 W. Grace survives today in a remarkable state of preservation and is the oldest house in Irving Park. Gray later built a house on the northwest corner of Milwaukee and Lowell to reflect his newfound wealth, and it was a community showplace. Indoor plumbing with gold fixtures, exotic woods and expensive marbles highlighted his home. It was razed about 1915.
Three subdivisions east of Pulaski led to the development of the area in the late 1890’s. West Walker is located between Irving Park Road and Montrose and is characterized by large single family homes in late Victorian, Foursquare and Revival styles. The area south of Irving Park Road was developed by Samuel Gross and was known as the “Gross Boulevard Addition to Irving Park.” The housing stock is similar to that of West Walker. The section between Addison and Avondale was developed as the “Villa Addition to Irving Park” and is comprised of many unique Craftsman and Bungalow style homes fronting on boulevard style streets. The Villa is an official Chicago Landmark District.
In 1910, the residents of Irving Park established their own park district and created eight local parks, the largest of which is Independence Park. Considered one of the finest landscaped neighborhood parks in the City for many years, Independence Park also served as the site of local Fourth of July celebrations. This annual event featured a parade down Irving Park Boulevard involving hundreds of children, athletic events, a band concert and an award-winning display of fireworks. In 1933, the Irving Park Park District merged with the Chicago Park District. Irving Park continued to grow steadily during the first decades of the twentieth century. Several large apartment buildings featuring elaborate wrought iron fencing, fountains and terra cotta details were constructed primarily north of Irving Park Boulevard.
The Depression and war years saw many of the larger homes converted into rooming houses and two-family homes. The prosperity following the war was diminished when it was learned the Northwest (Kennedy) Expressway would cut directly through the heart of Irving Park. This resulted in the displacement of many residents and loss of many homes and businesses. During the 1960’s, apartment buildings replaced several larger homes along Keystone, Kedvale and Keeler north of the expressway.
The early 1980’s saw a rebirth for Irving Park as a wider audience discovered the beautiful homes and rich history of the area. The Irving Park Historical Society was formed in 1984 to help preserve this heritage and the irreplaceable architecture which had survived since the earliest days of our history. Since that time, many homes have been restored and many more restorations are in progress. Many of the homes built in the 1870’s and 1880’s survive today. A survey by volunteers of the Irving Park Historical Society documented several hundred buildings in use which predate 1894. Some remain intact, some have been slightly modified and others retain just a hint of their former Victorian splendor.
The combined efforts of the residents of Old Irving Park are helping to return our community to its original glory and to what has been referred to as “a suburb within the city”.
John Gray: Is Human Progress an Illusion?
We like to think that the tide of history is an inexorable march from barbarity to civilization, with humans “progressing” from one stage to the next through a gradual process of enlightenment. Modern humanists like Steven Pinker argue forcefully for this method of thinking.
One of the leading challengers to that type of thinking has been the English writer and philosopher John Gray, the idiosyncratic author of books like Straw Dogs: Thoughts on Humans and Other Animals, The Soul of the Marionette, and The Silence of Animals.
To Gray, the concept of “progress” is closer to an illusion, or worse a delusion of the modern age. Civilization is not a permanent state of being, but something which can quickly recede during a time of stress.
He outlines his basic idea in a foreword to Straw Dogs:
Straw Dogs is an attack on the unthinking beliefs of thinking people. Today, liberal humanism has the pervasive power that was once possessed by revealed religion. Humanists like to think they have a rational view of the world but their core belief in progress is a superstition, further from the truth about the human animal than any of the world’s religions.
Outside of science, progress is simply a myth. In some readers of Straw Dogs this observation seems to have produced a moral panic. Surely, they ask, no one can question the central article of faith of liberal societies? Without it, will we not despair? Like trembling Victorians terrified of losing their faith, these humanists cling to the moth-eaten brocade of progressive hope. Today religious believers are more free-thinking. Driven to the margins of a culture in which science claims authority over all of human knowledge, they have had to cultivate a capacity for doubt. In contrast, secular believers — held fast by the conventional wisdom of the time — are in the grip of unexamined dogmas.
And what, pray tell, are those dogmas? They are numerous, but the central one must be that the human march of science and technology creates good for the world. Gray’s not as sure: He sees science and technology as magnifying humanity “warts and all”.
Our tools allow us to go to the Moon but also murder each other with great alacrity. They have no morality attached to them.
In science, the growth of knowledge is cumulative. But human life as a whole is not a cumulative activity what is gained in one generation may be lost in the next. In science, knowledge is an unmixed god in ethics and politics it is bad as well as good. Science increases human power — and magnifies the flaws in human nature. It enables us to live longer and have higher living standards than in the past. At the same time it allows us to wreak destruction — on each other and the Earth — on a larger scale than ever before.
The idea of progress rests on the belief that the growth of knowledge and the advance of the species go together—if not now, then in the long run. The biblical myth of the Fall of Man contains the forbidden truth. Knowledge does not make us free. It leaves us as we have always been, prey to every kind of folly. The same truth is found in Greek myth. The punishment of Prometheus, chained to a rock for stealing fire from the gods, was not unjust.
Gray has a fairly heretical view of technology itself, pointing out that no one really controls its development or use making humanity as a group closer to subjects than masters. Technology is both a giver of good and an ongoing source of tragedy, because it is used by fallible human beings.
Those who ignore the destructive potential of future technologies can do so only because they ignore history. Pogroms are as old as Christendom but without railways, the telegraph and poison gas there could have been no Holocaust. There have always been tyrannies but without modern means of transport and communication, Stalin and Mao could not have built their gulags. Humanity’s worst crimes were made possible only by modern technology.
There is a deeper reason why “humanity” will never control technology. Technology is not something that humankind can control. It as an event that has befallen the world.
Once a technology enters human life — whether it be fire, the wheel, the automobile, radio, television, or the internet — it changes it in ways we can never fully understand.
Nothing is more commonplace than to lament that moral progress has failed to keep pace with scientific knowledge. If only we were more intelligent and more moral, we could use technology only for benign ends. The fault is not in our tools, we say, but in ourselves.
In one sense this is true. Technical progress leaves only one problem unsolved: the frailty of human nature. Unfortunately that problem is insoluble.
This reminds one of Garrett Hardin‘s idea that no system, however technically advanced, can be flawless because the human being at the center of it will always be fallible. (Our technologies, after all, are geared around our needs.) Even if we create technologies that “don’t need us” — we are still fallible creators.
Gray’s real problem with the idea of moral progress, technical progress, and scientific progress are they, even were they real, would be unending. In the modern conception of the world, unlike the ancient past where everything was seen as cyclical, growth has no natural stop-point. It’s just an infinite path to the heavens. This manifests itself in our constant disdain for idleness.
Nothing is more alien to the present age than idleness. If we think of resting from our labours, it is only in order to return to them.
In thinking so highly of work we are aberrant. Few other cultures have ever done so. For nearly all of history and all prehistory, work was an indignity.
Among Christians, only Protestants have ever believed that work smacks of salvation the work and prayer of medieval Christendom were interspersed with festivals. The ancient Greeks sought salvation in philosophy, the Indians in meditation, the Chinese in poetry and the love of nature. The pygmies of the African rainforests — now nearly extinct — work only to meet the needs of the day, and spend most of their lives idling.
Progress condemns idleness. The work needed to delivery humanity is vast. Indeed it is limitless, since as one plateau of achievement is reached another looms up. Of course this is only a mirage but the worst of progress is not that it is an illusion. It is that it is endless.
Gray then goes on to compare our ideas of progress to Sisyphus forever pushing the bolder up the mountain.
He’s an interesting thinker, Gray. In all of his works, though he certainly raises issue with our current modes of liberal progressive thought and is certainly not a religious man, one only finds hints of a “better” worldview being proposed. One is never sure if he even believes in “better”.
The closest thing to advice comes from the conclusion to his book The Silence of Animals. What is the point of life if not progress? Simply to see. Simply to be human. To contemplate. We must deal with human life the way we always have.
Godless contemplation is a more radical and transient condition: a temporary respite from the all-too-human world, with nothing particular in mind. In most traditions the life of contemplation promises redemption from being human: in Christianity, the end of tragedy and a glimpse of the divine comedy in Jeffers’s pantheism, the obliteration of the self in an ecstatic unity. Godless mysticism cannot escape the finality of tragedy, or make beauty eternal. It does not dissolve inner conflict into the false quietude of any oceanic calm. All it offers is mere being.
There is no redemption from being human. But no redemption is needed.
In the end, reading Gray is a good way to challenge yourself to think about the world in a different way, and to examine your dogmas. Even the most cherished one of all.
Relentless hosts drive-in worship in coronavirus' wake
May 2020: Relentless Church held a drive-in worship service outside in vehicles during the coronavirus pandemic so that the church could focus on "worshiping God and honoring our elected officials who have told us to maintain social distancing," Gray said during the start of the service.
April 2020: A Greenville County judge ordered Relentless Church to pay Redemption Church any deficiencies of disputed monthly rent since taking over the Greenville campus in 2018 &mdash at least until a jury trial is held in the dueling megachurches' eviction case.
March 2020: Relentless Church gave away groceries specifically to those affected by COVID-19.
February 2020: Court documents are filed in the Redemption-Relentless eviction case that detail a megachurch handoff that did not go as planned.
January 2020: Redemption Church filed for an eviction against John Gray's Relentless Church claiming Relentless failed to make all payments to cover the cost of the property.
December 2019: Redemption Church Pastor Ron Carpenter threatened to evict Relentless Church.
John Gray, Former President of Autry National Center of the American West, Named Director of National Museum of American History
John Gray, founding president of the Autry National Center of the American West, a consolidation of three cultural organizations in Los Angeles and Denver, has been appointed the Elizabeth MacMillan Director of the Smithsonian&rsquos National Museum of American History, effective July 23. Gray was known for his leadership in banking and government service until he became director of the Autry Museum of Western Heritage in Los Angeles. He enlarged the museum&rsquos mission and scope, and, in 2002, merged the museum with Colorado&rsquos Women of the West Museum and, in 2004, with Los Angeles&rsquo oldest museum, the Southwest Museum of the American Indian. The new organization became the Autry National Center of the American West based in Los Angeles.
&ldquoJohn comes to the Museum of American History with a track record of transforming the organizations he has led,&rdquo said Richard Kurin, head of the search committee and Under Secretary for History, Art and Culture at the Smithsonian. &ldquoHe took a museum of the American West, including the collections of Gene Autry and transformed it into an institution representing a broader, inclusive and complicated vision of the American West. He enlisted outstanding scholars, supported serious research and exhibitions, and robust educational activities.&rdquo
&ldquoAnyone who knows museums will know that this was a great accomplishment, supported by an expanded Board of Trustees and a large capital campaign spearheaded by John,&rdquo Kurin added. &ldquoHe is enthusiastic and intellectually curious and supportive of scholarly research that serves the public programs&mdashexactly the traits we wanted for a director of our American History Museum on the National Mall.&rdquo
The Autry National Center has more than 500,000 objects, a 130-member staff and an annual budget of about $16 million. It is accredited by the American Association of Museums and gained national prominence during Gray&rsquos tenure.
Gray spent 25 years in commercial banking, serving as executive vice president of First Interstate Bank of California in Los Angeles from 1987 until 1996. He worked for the Small Business Administration in Washington, D.C., for two years, 1997 to 1999&mdashwhen he moved back to the West Coast to serve as president and CEO of the Autry Museum in Los Angeles. This was the beginning of his career in non-profit cultural organizations, which culminated in the creation of the Autry National Center of the American West, formed by the merger of three organizations.
He retired from the Autry National Center in late 2010 and currently lives in New Mexico.
Gray has a bachelor&rsquos degree from C.W. Post College at Long Island University and a master&rsquos degree in business administration from the University of Colorado. He is currently enrolled in the master&rsquos program in Eastern classics from Saint John&rsquos College in Santa Fe.
&ldquoIt is a great honor to be selected as steward of our national treasures,&rdquo said Gray. &ldquoLearning and understanding our shared histories as Americans are vital to living in and developing the American experience.&rdquo
Smithsonian Secretary Wayne Clough said, &ldquoJohn pulled together three organizations with different missions, leadership and boards, to form one new center whose mission is to tell the story of the American West as a place created by cowboys, Native Americans, women, Chinese laborers, Mexicans and many others. His passion for American history and scholarship is obvious, and it&rsquos what will make him a great leader for our American History Museum.&rdquo
Clough made the appointment based on recommendations made by a search committee chaired by Kurin that included American History Museum board chair John Rogers vice chair Nick Taubman board member and former Smithsonian Regent Rep. Doris Matsui (D-Calif.) museum staff members Judith Gradwohl, Marvette Perez and Jeffrey Stine National Museum of African American History and Culture director Lonnie Bunch the Smithsonian&rsquos director of advancement Ginny Clark and Nina Archabal, former director of the Minnesota Historical Society.
Gray succeeds Brent Glass, who retired as director in August 2011. Marc Pachter, former director of the Smithsonian&rsquos National Portrait Gallery, has served as interim director since last August.
Gray will oversee 234 employees, a budget of more than $34 million and the renewal of the museum&rsquos 120,000-square-foot west exhibition wing with its new exhibit spaces, interior public plazas, a Hall of Music for live performances, a modern education center and a gallery for the Lemelson Center for Invention and Innovation.
Pachter has overseen the opening of eight exhibitions, new public programs and record-breaking attendance (the museum is on target for 5 million visitors this year). The exhibitions included &ldquoSeptember 11: Remembrance and Reflection,&rdquo which provided visitors with an intimate view of more than 50 objects from the three sites and was visited by 13,000 people in 11 days &ldquoJefferson&rsquos Bible: The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth&rdquo a new &ldquoThe First Ladies&rdquo exhibition and &ldquoAmerican Stories,&rdquo with historical and popular-culture icons. He also created small, temporary exhibits and children&rsquos play areas to enliven the visitor experience. Special projects included experimental sound recordings of Alexander Graham Bell in partnership with the Library of Congress and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as the opening of the Warner Bros. Theater.
The National Museum of American History collects, preserves and displays American heritage in the areas of social, political, cultural, scientific and military history. It also houses a special gallery devoted to African American history for the new National Museum of African American History and Culture while that building is under construction.
In 1845, the Rev. Hope Waddell of the Scottish Presbyterian Church was on his way from Jamaica to West Africa, to do missionary work there, when the ship he and his family were travelling on was wrecked on the reef at East End, Grand Cayman. He recorded that there were about 1,500 inhabitants but no Church or school, even though the Church of England and the Wesleyans had at one time been represented here. The people received them &ldquowith avidity&hellipand implored us to make known their destitute condition, and procure them a missionary&rdquo. The next year, 1846, the Rev. James Elmslie arrived to take up the challenge of bringing the knowledge of God to the Island. He laboured for 12 years establishing congregations in the principal districts.
The Church in Cayman has always been a part of the Synod in our neighbouring island of Jamaica. In 1965, the Presbyterian and Congregational denominations in Jamaica joined and, even though there was no established Congregational mission in Cayman, the move was welcomed here and thus the United Church of Jamaica and Grand Cayman was born.1992 saw the celebration of the joining of the Disciples of Christ to the union and so our Christian family has grown.
The first groups that Rev. Elmslie established were called Mission Stations. When they grew strong enough and were ready to take on the responsibility, they were &lsquocongregated&rsquo. Bodden Town was the first to be congregated, then George Town. When George Town was congregated West Bay (along with North Side) became a mission station of George Town. It remained this way until May 1908 when West Bay was congregated and we celebrated our 100th Anniversary in 2008. In March 1994 this fellowship was dedicated as the John Gray Memorial Church, in honour of a much beloved former Minister. Therefore, the United Church has been an integral part of the West Bay community for over 163 years. It was the first church to take root and continue in the Island.
Presently there are congregations in North Side, Gun Bay, East End, Bodden Town, Savannah, George Town, South Sound, Crewe Road and West Bay.
John Gray - History
The Gray Family Foundation is built upon the spirit and generosity of John and Betty Gray, whose visionary leadership significantly shaped the Oregon we know and love today.
Born in Ontario, Oregon and raised in Monroe in Benton County, John Gray grew up exploring the outdoors, where he developed a lifelong devotion to preserving the state’s natural beauty. After graduating from Oregon State University, John enlisted in the Army and, after World War II ended, went to Harvard Business School.
Betty was born in Roseburg and grew up in Portland. She graduated from Oregon State University with a degree in home economics and went on to attend graduate school at Columbia University Teacher’s College, earning a degree in counseling. John and Betty married after his return from the war.
After John completed business school, they settled together in Portland where John became one of the earliest employees of Oregon Saw Chain Manufacturing Company. In 1984, he sold the company, then called Omark Industries, and went on to develop such iconic Oregon destinations as Sunriver Resort in Bend, Salishan on the Oregon Coast, Skamania Lodge in the Columbia Gorge and John’s Landing in Portland.
As humble as he was iconic, John believed that giving back was one of the joys and obligations of success. Dynamic and charming, Betty was deeply committed to childhood education, the arts, and supporting college scholarships. Together, they were active and generous members of many philanthropic communities, from music to the environment to health and education, including Reed College. In 1997, John and Betty established the Gray Family Fund at The Oregon Community Foundation (OCF), which grew with the addition of Betty’s estate when she passed away in 2003. From these assets, new initiatives were added to support early childhood, geography and environmental education.
The Gray Family Foundation was officially established in 2011 as a supporting organization of OCF, and John died shortly after. His children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren now carry on the legacy he began together with Betty, helping Oregon youth grow into lifelong stewards of their place and community.
“From an early age, I knew that there was something very special about Oregon and felt a strong loyalty to my homeland. Later in life I recognized that, if I wanted my great grandchildren to have this same connection to the land, I needed to be active in protecting this incredible place before it is too late.” –John Gray
“Do what you can. If you can’t give money, give time or give your expertise. I think there is something everyone can contribute.” -John Gray
A Brief History of Gray Marine Engines
Having lived in the Detroit area for many years where Gray marine engines were built, I had respect for the Gray Marine Motor Company. However, I knew little of its history. That changed when I acquired a copy of a history of that company written by the son of the founder. The document is an unpublished manuscript written by John W. Mulford in 1961. It runs to 41 pages, single-spaced. Actually, it is a family history as well as a company history. Like other such documents, it may contain some family traditions and some recollections that are not entirely correct. Until 1941 when he took his father’s place at Gray, John W. Mulford operated a printing business.
O. J. Mulford was born in Monroe, Michigan in 1868. A few years later the family moved, first to Indiana, then to Stanton, Michigan. The father was a lumberman, and lumber was still being cut in the great pine forests of northern Michigan. As a boy, O. J. Mulford began to learn the printing trade, working in a print shop in Stanton. He continued in school after the family moved to Detroit and worked in a commercial printing shop part time. He then acquired a print shop of his own.
After a bout with meningitis, he went to live with an uncle in California. There he worked as a printer and developed a business of street car advertising. Back in Detroit, he started his own street car advertising business as well as an advertising agency. He also acquired a lifelong love of boats.
About 1890,O. J. Mulford with a W. A. Punge and a Mr. Seymour, a yacht designer, formed the Michigan Yacht and Power Company, bought a building in Detroit where the Naval Armory now stands, and began building small power boats. That same year they became distributors or perhaps exclusive agents for the Sintz gasoline marine engine built in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Undoubtedly it was one of the best marine engines available during those pioneer times. In 1901 or 1902, according to the manuscript, they purchased the Sintz company and moved it to Detroit.
Larry Mahan of Marstons Mills, Massachusetts has a collection of Sintz information, including stock ownership records. In 1900, O. J. Mulford owned just one share of stock in the Sintz Gas Engine Company. In 1901, when the Sintz company was moved to Detroit, Mulford owned 1300 shares and W. A. Punge (see above) was the largest shareholder with 3481 shares. Several prominent Grand Rapids people still owned considerable stock, including many of the early Sintz owners. He mentioned that by 1894 the Sintz family no longer had a financial interest in the company. Clark Sintz had sold his interest he and his son Claude founded Wolverine Motor Works. Larry Mahan states that the Sintz Gas Engine Company was absorbed into Michigan Yacht and Power Company late in 1903. The Sintz Gas Engine Company ceased to exist. In 1903, W. A. Punge was building automobiles at the boat factory.
Returning to the manuscript story, Mulford sold his interest in the Michigan Yacht and Power Company late in 1905. That was the year that the Gray Marine Motor Company was formed with O. J. Mulford, president, Paul Gray, vice-president, and David Gray, secretary-treasurer. Paul and David Gray were sons of a banker, John Gray. They began with a line of single-cylinder two-cycle designs and then expanded into other engines. They developed a four cylinder four-cycle engine with the automotive market in mind.
Meanwhile, the United States Motor Company had been formed in 1909 by Frank Briscoe to merge Maxwell, Columbia, and Stoddard-Dayton Truck. [This is not the U. S. Motors Corp. of Oshkosh, Wisconsin.] I have been told that the history of the United States Motor Company is in George Dammann’s book 70 Years of Chrysler. U. S. Motor purchased Gray and Mulford became vice-president of U. S. Motor. At the time of the sale, Gray was building about seven thousand engines a year. Unfortunately, U. S. Motor went bankrupt the next year, 1910. With $ 160,000 of investment by others, Mulford purchased Gray, now calling it Gray Motor Company, without ‘marine,’ as he had automotive engines in mind. One of the investors was Charles King, who developed the King car with a Gray Engine.
Gray Motor Company spent considerable money on an air starter for cars but it never did see production. The 1919 edition of The Modern Gasoline Automobile by Victor W. Page describes the Never-Miss Starting System which undoubtedly is the Gray development. A control knob on the dash admitted compressed air from a tank to a device mounted on the front of the crankshaft. A piston, rack, and pinion cranked the engine a couple of turns. The operation could be repeated if neccesary until tank pressure became low. After the engine started, a foot-pedal engaged an air compressor to recharge the tank. John Mulford remembered an air starter on the family car when he was a child. The Never-Miss was one of many starters that lost out to electric starting.
Some of the four-cylinder Gray engines were used in lifeboats during WWI, as well as on drainage pumps to pump out trenches in France. After the war, this engine was named the ‘Victory Motor.’
Gray stationary engines are not mentioned in the manuscript, but I know that Gray did build hopper-cooled engines in the 1911-1914 period.
The Gray ‘gearless’ outboard motor is in Gray catalogs of 1915-1918. They had a flexible shaft in the lower end instead of the usual gear box. The Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum in St. Michaels, Md.has one in its collection. The outboard is mentioned in the manuscript, but with the wrong period of production.
The company built a new factory in 1917 at 2102 Mack Avenue on the Detroit Terminal Railway. War work included the machining of artillery shells. After the war, the Victory engine was built for some car and truck applications. Traffic Truck in St. Louis, Kohler Truck in New Jersey, the Panhard truck, and the Crow-Elkhart car were among those customers. Looking through Wendel’s Encyclopedia of Farm Tractors, I discovered that the Gray Victory engine was used in the little Prairie Queen tractor in 1922.
Though Paul and David Gray had been partners in the founding of the company, their names do not appear again in the manuscript. Mulford continued his advertising business. He was not suited to managing an industrial firm so he always needed a good factory manager. The manuscript tells the names and backgrounds of the men who held that job over the years.
While Billy Blackburn was manager, he modernized the Victory engine and called it the model X, according to the manuscript. However, I found that Gray ads in 1920 called the marine version the VM (Victory Marine). In 1921, F. F. Beall came to be manager of Gray. He further improved the engine and named it the Gray-Beall engine. My listing of marine engine catalogs in the February 1992 issue of Gas Engine Magazine includes literature on the Gray four cylinder automotive and marine engines, including the Gray-Beall of 1921. Production of the two-cycle engines continued, at least through 1924.
1921 was the year that the Gray automobile was developed together with an inexpensive model Z engine for the car. They built 75,000 cars from 1922 to 1924. By then the car operation was in very bad financial condition. Mulford managed to buy back the marine engine part of the business in 1924, together with 3,000 model Z engines. The reformed Gray Marine Motor Company purchased the old Northern car plant at the corner of Canton and East Lafayette (6910 Lafayette) for their factory. From this time on, Gray was in business converting engines for marine use.
The April 10, 1924 issue of Motor Boat Magazine contains a brief report that O. J. Mulford had bought back Gray Marine the previous August. The article contains some Gray history which agrees well with the manuscript. It has a portrait of Mulford.
In the later 1920s, Gray converted the Studebaker light six and big six. These were followed by conversions of the Pontiac six and some Hercules industrial engines. The 3,000 model Z engines were all converted and sold. The issue of Motor Boat just mentioned has a two-page advertizement for Gray engines. There are excellent pictures of the Z and X engines. The Z is a 12-18 HP 4 cylinder L-head design that seems to owe a lot to the model T Ford. The X is a 35 HP 4 cylinder OHV engine. Both engines employ much aluminum to reduce weight. Gray continued to offer 1-and 2-cylinder two-cycle model U engines.
At some point, Chris Craft took over the conversion of Hercules engines and Gray switched to Continental engines. A friend who toured the Gray factory in 1940 remembers seeing Continental engines being converted. 1936 was a turning point. That year they began negotiating for the new General Motors 6-71 diesel. The project was highly successful, and Gray was poised to build a great many 6-71 conversions for the war effort. By 1941, John W. Mulford had taken his father’s place at Gray, so the manuscript contains much detail of the wartime operation. They reached a production rate of 100 engines per day requiring constant expansion into new factory space. O. J. Mulford died August 2, 1943.
After WWII, there were two contenders for the purchase of the Gray Marine Motor Company. One was General Motors, which would make it their marine engine division. The other was Continental, who wanted their own marine engine business. The deal with Continental was the successful one. According to William Wagner’s book Continental, Its Motors and Its People, Gray was acquired by Continental on June 14, 1944 for $2.6 million. John W. Mulford was made general manager of Gray. The manuscript tells some interesting tales about the boat builders who were Gray’s post-war customers. The manuscript does not tell the date at which Continental closed Gray because that was after the manuscript was written, but I believe it was in 1967.
I thank Phil Brooke, Jr. of Spokane, Washington, for the Mulford manuscript and Larry Mahan of Marston Mills, Massachusetts for reviewing my article and supplying the Sintz ownership data. Larry plans to publish a history of the Sintz and Wolverine operations.
Gray catalogs in the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association Patent Library, Detroit
1912 instruction book. Hardback.
1913 pocket catalog. All engines two-cycle.
1920 catalog. Little change.
1921 marine engine catalog, the two-cycle engines are shown plus a 4-cylinder OHV engine. The four is rather ugly with a very high rocker arm cover.
1921 catalog showing the Gray-Beall automotive engine. A good-looking OHV design.
1922 sheets, one showing the two-cycle engines and the other showing an OHV automotive engine. It looks much neater than the one in the 1921 marine engine catalog.
1924 sheets with good cross-sections of the one and two cylinder two-cycle engines. Also a pocket catalog for the entire line.
Pastor John Gray Bio, Age, Wife, Family, Salary, Net Worth and Sermons
Pastor John Gray born John W. Gray III, is an Associate Pastor at Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas under the leadership of Pastor Joel Osteen.
John accepted Jesus Christ as Savior at seven years old at Bethel Baptist Church under the pastorate of Dr. Wayne Davis. Born into a musical family, John showed an early interest in music and was directing the choir at seven years old. His passion for music and the arts was evident throughout his formative as he was a part of every theatrical production at church and at school.
After graduating from Withrow High School in 1991, John accepted an academic scholarship to The College of Wooster in Wooster, Ohio where he continued to pursue music and acting. A sudden and devastating illness to John’s beloved grandmother at the beginning of his sophomore year caused John to lose focus on his academics and he subsequently flunked out of school after that semester. Derailed temporarily, John headed home to seek direction and clarity for his next move. He subsequently enrolled in The University of Cincinnati and became a part of the traveling Gospel Choir that represented the school around the country. While home, John heeded the call to the preached ministry on the Sunday of his 21st birthday at Bethel Baptist Church and preached his first sermon that September.
Not long after accepting the call to preach the Gospel, John was asked to be a cast member in a touring stage play starring Grammy Award winning Gospel artist Kirk Franklin and The Family.
After touring with Kirk Franklin, John’s heart led him to participate in a musical tour whose purpose was to eliminate racism and create equality in the Body of Christ. The tour was headlined by DC Talk, Out of Eden and The Katinas.
After that tour, in September of 2000, John accepted his first Youth Pastor’s position at The First Baptist Church of Lincoln Gardens in Somerset, New Jersey under the leadership of DeForest Soaries. It was while youth pastoring in New Jersey that John felt that he had found the call of God on his life: impact youth and young adults with the Word of God through music, comedy and preaching-all at the same time.
As a speaker, John has traveled the world speaking to youth, young adults, entire churches, conferences and camps.
He has directed, produced or co-produced award winning films, released two musical albums, a comedy DVD and appeared on hit T.V. shows “Sister, Sister” and “Tyler Perry’s The House of Payne.”
John was ordained an Elder at Northview Christian Church in Dothan, AL in March of 2010. He currently serves as an Associate Pastor at Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas under the leadership of Pastor Joel Osteen.
John Gray - History
Though shrouded by the mists of time, the chronicles of Scotland reveal the early records of the Norman surname Gray which ranks as one of the oldest. The history of the name is interwoven within the colourful plaid of Scottish history and is an intrinsic part of the heritage of Scotland.
Diligent analysis by professional researchers using such ancient manuscripts as the Domesday Book (compiled in 1086 by William the Conqueror), the Ragman Rolls, the Wace poem, the Honour Roll of the Battel Abbey, the Inquisitio, the Curia Regis, Pipe Rolls, the Falaise Roll tax records, baptismals, family genealogies, and local parish and church records shows the first record of the name Gray was found in Northumberland where they were seated from very early times and were granted lands by Duke William of Normandy, their liege Lord, for their distinguished assistance at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 A.D.
Variable spellings of the name were typically linked to a common root, usually one of the Norman nobles at the Battle of Hastings. Gray occurred in many references from time to time, and variables included were Grey, Groy, Croy, Graye, and many more. Scribes recorded and spelled the name as it sounded. It was not unlikely that a person would be born with one spelling, married with another, and buried with a headstone which showed another. Preferences for different spellings were derived from a branch preference, to indicate a religious adherence or sometimes to show nationalistic allegiance.
The family name Gray is believed to be descended originally from the Norman race. The Normans were commonly believed to be of French origin but were, more accurately, of Viking origin. The Vikings landed in the Orkneys and Northern Scotland about the year 870 A.D., under their King, Stirgud the Stout. Later, under their Jarl, Thorfinn Rollo, they invaded France about 910 A.D. The French King, Charles the Simple, after Rollo laid siege to Paris, finally conceded defeat and granted northern France to Rollo. Rollo became the first Duke of Normandy. Duke William, who invaded and defeated England in 1066, was descended from the first Duke Rollo of Normandy.
After the Conquest, Duke William took a census of most of England in 1086, which became known as the Domesday Book. By 1070, William's nobles were growing restive, dissatisfied with their grants of land. William took an army north, and laid waste most of the northern counties. King Malcolm Canmore of Scotland offered refuge to these nobles, granting them land. Later, King David, about 1160, also encouraged his Norman friends to come north to join the royal court and obtain lands.
The surname Gray emerged as a notable Scottish family name in the county of Northumberland where they were recorded as a family of great antiquity seated with manor and estates in that shire. Anschatel Groy settled in Chillingham in Northumberland after accompanying William the Conqueror in 1066. He was from the department of Haute Saone called Gray, sometimes Groy, or Croy, in Normandy. From this house sprang the Grays of Suffolk, Kent, Tankerville, and Stamford. In 1248 the Chillingham branch moved north when Hugh Gray settled in Berwickshire, and John Gray became the Mayor of Berwick in 1250. Henry Gray rendered homage to Kind Edward I of England on his brief conquest of Scotland in 1296. Sir Thomas Gray of Lanarkshire was an important historian of early border life. The Grays became more prominent in Scottish life and became a fully fledged Scottish Clan of great dignity. Of note amongst the family at this time was Sir Thomas Gray of Lanarkshire.
The surname Gray contributed much to local politics and in the affairs of England or Scotland. Later, in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries the country was ravaged by religious and political conflict. The Monarchy, the Church and Parliament fought for supremacy. The unrest caused many to think of distant lands. The news about the attractions of the New World spread like wildfire. Many sailed aboard the fleet of sailings ships known as the "White Sails."
In North America, migrants which could be considered kinsmen of the surname Gray, or variable spellings of that same family name included Francis Gray who settled in Virginia in 1635 with his wife Alice Robert Gray settled in the Barbados in 1680 with his wife and servants David, Edward, Henry, James, John, Joseph, Martha, Patrick, Richard, Samuel, Thomas and William Gray, all settled in Philadelphia between 1840 and 1860 Daniel Grey settled in Virginia in 1654, along with Samuell, Thomas, Miles, and John John Graye settled in Virginia in 1673.
The family name was noted in the social stream. There were many notables of this name: Admiral Gordon Gray Sir James Gray, Air Marshall Gray Admiral Sir John Gray Sir William Gray George Gray signed the draft Constitution of the United States in 1787.
A History of Hospitality and Service at Salishan COASTAL LODGE
John Gray is the kind of man legands are made from. A native Oregonian, John Gray was the consummate self-made man who came to be known as &ldquoThe Quiet Lion.&rdquo From humble beginnings to business degrees from Oregon State University and Harvard to serving his country in World War II, John Gray envisioned the Pacific Northwest, with its lush greenery and year-round beauty, as the ultimate natural haven. And, thus the vision for Salishan was born.
As the developer and builder of several high-end resorts and rustic lodges in the Pacific Northwest, including Sunriver Resort near Bend, Skamania Lodge in the Columbia Gorge in Washington, and John&rsquos Landing in Portland, Gray sought to build a luxurious jewel on the stunning central Oregon Coast. In 1961, Gray began purchasing parcels of land that comprises the Salishan development and current grounds. With a dedication and sensitivity to the environment and in harmony with the natural resources of the region, John Gray first spearheaded the construction of the first Salishan Spit homes, followed by the first nine holes of the golf course (the back nine of the current Salishan Golf Course), and finally the lodge at Salishan, which opened in 1965.
A Fully Realized Dream
Since then, Salishan has been remodeled and updated to make it the expansive coastal lodge destination it is today. With the addition of the Tennis Center and the luxury spa, and multi-million dollar renovations to the main grounds and accommodations, Salishan Lodge is the fully realized dream of its founder.
A Spirit of Philanthropy
John Gray passed away in 2012, leaving a still-present spirit of philanthropy and the legacy of hospitality in each of his real estate projects. Salishan Coastal Lodge embodies his spirit of adventure, wonder of nature and attention to nature's details, which ultimately make each guest's stay memorable. This is just part of a legacy of Gray's creativity, integrity, and generosity.
Where Vision Becomes a Reality
While John Gray was the visionary that spearheaded the construction of Salishan, an incredible support team and staff aided, and continues to this day, to make that vision a reality.
- Architect John Storrs pioneered the Northwest style of architecture of Salishan Coastal Lodge, emphasizing the use of locally sourced woods, natural light, and harmony with the Oregon landscape.
- Landscape architect Barbara Fealy was responsible for the feeling that Salishan grows organically out of the coastal forest.
My boyfriend and I recently stayed here on a whim during a trip to the Oregon coast and absolutely loved it. The architecture is gorgeous and the grounds are pleasant and relaxing. Would definitely recommend!Emily T. (TripAdvisor)
Our first trip to the Oregon Coast was fabulous! Love the Salishan Resort! The staff was gracious and kind. Great golfing, tennis, hiking, whale and seal watching. The scenery on the coast and beaches were beautiful (better than California and Cabo). The food was excellent and comes from local farms in Oregon. A must try vacation! A great break from the Texas heat, we will be returning every year.Cheryl B. (TripAdvisor)
Great first experience here! The pool and hot tub are huge and the staff at the bar was excellent. Another perk was across the street there is a private beach access for Salishan members which was great to get away from crowded beaches. Can not wait to come back in the summer to check out the beautiful golf course.Zakk K. (TripAdvisor)
We had a great day at the Arial Park at the lodge. Dillion, Chad, and Christian were our guides and they were a lot of fun. A perfect day adventure for our mother daughter weekendChad And Kelly M. (TripAdvisor)
Salishan has recently changed ownership and the new management has made exciting changes and breathed new life into the resort. This is a wonderful destination resort for people looking for a peaceful retreat and a classic Pacific Northwest experience. At the same time, there is enough action going on that it’s a great resort for families.Leah Deangelis (The Modern Travelers)