Battle of Erastfer, 29 December 1701 OS/ 9 January 1702 NS

Battle of Erastfer, 29 December 1701 OS/ 9 January 1702 NS

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Battle of Erastfer, 29 December 1701 OS/ 9 January 1702 NS

The battle of Erastfer was an early Russian victory over a Swedish army during the Great Northern War. During 1701 the main Swedish army, under Charles XII, had left Sweden’s Baltic provinces to campaign in Poland-Lithuania. An army 25,000 strong under Anton Wolmar von Schlippenbach was left in Estonia and Livonia to defend the area against any Russian attack, but much of that army had to be dispersed around the area. At Erastfer Schlippenbach was caught with only 3,800 men.

His opponent was Boris Sheremetev, dispatched into the Baltic by Peter the Great. At the end of December 1701 (OS) he led an army 13,000 strong (8,000 infantry, 5000 cavalry and 15-20 guns) on a march that caught Schlippenbach by surprise at Erastfer.

The Swedish army attacked and defeated the Russian advance guard. Schlippenbach then decided to withdraw to his fortified camp. During this manoeuvre the main Russian army attacked. The Swedish cavalry was driven away leaving the infantry isolated. Casualties were high amongst the Swedish infantry. Schlippenbach himself escaped from the battlefield, but would suffer a second, more serious defeat at Hummelshof (18/29 July 1702). These battles saw Swedish control of their Baltic provinces slowly destroyed and also served to increase the confidence of Peter the Great’s reformed Russian army, essential after the crushing defeat at Narva in 1700.

18th century

The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 (MDCCI) to December 31, 1800 (MDCCC). During the 18th century, elements of Enlightenment thinking culminated in the American, French, and Haitian revolutions. During the century, slave trading and human trafficking expanded on a global scale. Revolutions began to challenge the legitimacy of monarchical and aristocratic power structures, including the structures and beliefs that supported the slave trade.

The period is also known as the "century of lights" or the "century of reason". In continental Europe, philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. For some, this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789, though this was later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but in the wake of the French Revolution they feared loss of power and formed broad coalitions for counter-revolution.

The Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. As a consequence, the empire was not exposed to Europe's military improvements of the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). The Ottoman Empire military may have fallen behind and suffered defeats against Russia in the second half of the century.

The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The formerly powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of Central Europe and politics for the next hundred years.

European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued.

Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the French and Indian War in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India, especially Bengal. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution and Indian wars. In North America, the defeat of the British resulted in the formation of an independent United States.

In Central Asia, Nader Shah led successful military campaigns and major invasions, which led to the founding of the Durrani Empire.

In the Indian subcontinent, the death of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb marked the end of medieval India. It marked the beginning of modern India and the era of extensive European intervention in the subcontinent. The victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and their French allies [1] in the Battle of Plassey caused the deindustrialization of Bengal and the beginning of the British Industrial Revolution which radically changed human society and the environment. The British invasion expanded to cover much of South Asia.

French-Italian emperor Napoleon Bonaparte formed one of the Franco-Indian alliances with the major economic power Kingdom of Mysore, [2] governed by Tipu Sultan and his father Hyder Ali, who pioneered the use of Rocket artillery and the world's first iron-cased rockets, the Mysorean rockets, through the compilation of the Fathul Mujahidin. [3] [4] The Anglo-Mysore Wars were fought and the Treaty of Mangalore was initiated in 1784.

Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events. [5] [6] To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th century [7] may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 [8] or even later. [9]

Birthdays in History

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Anne Bonny

Mar 8 Anne Bonny, Irish pirate (date of birth is approximate), born in Kinsale, Ireland (d. 1782)

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Year Battle Winners Losers Notes
1275–1205 BC Battles of Alashiya Hittite navy Alashiya Off the coast of Cyprus over 3 engagements. [1]
c.1190 BC Battle of the Delta Ramesses III The "Sea Peoples" In the Nile delta
664 BC Corinth battles Corfu
540–535 BC Alalia Carthaginians and Etruscans Greeks Near Alalia (now Aléria), Corsica
497 BC Ionians Phoenicians Near Cyprus
494 BC Lade Persians Ionians
480 BC Artemisium Stalemate between Persians and Greeks
Salamis The allied Greek navy Persians
474 BC Cumae Syracuse and Cumae Etruscans
460s BC Eurymedon Delian League Persians
458 BC Aegina Athenians Aegina and the Peloponnesians
450s BC Salamis (in Cyprus) Delian League Phoenicians and Cilicians
433 BC Sybota Corcyra and Athens Corinthians
429 BC Battles of Naupactus Athenians Spartans and Corinthians
425 BC Pylos Athenians Spartans
413 BC Syracuse Syracusans Athenians
411 BC Cynossema Athenians Spartans
Eretria Spartans Athenians In September
410 BC Cyzicus Athenians Spartans and Peloponnesians
406 BC Arginusae Athenians Peloponnesians
405 BC Notium (Ephesus) Spartans under Lysander Athenians under Antiochus
405 BC Aegospotami Spartans Athens Athenian navy destroyed
394 BC Cnidus Persians Spartans
384–3 BC Pharos Syracusans Liburnians
376 BC Naxos Athenians Spartans
357 BC Chios Athenians During the Social War
306 BC Salamis (in Cyprus) Demetrius I Poliorcetes Menelaeus, brother of Ptolemy I of Egypt
276 BC Strait of Messina Carthaginians Pyrrhus of Epirus
261 BC Cos Antigonus II Gonatas Ptolemy II
260 BC Lipara Islands Carthaginians Romans
Battle of Mylae Romans under Duilius Carthaginians Near Sicily
258 BC Ephesus Rhodians under Agathostratus Ptolemaic fleet under Chremonides
Sulci Romans under Gaius Sulpicius Paterculus Carthaginians under Hannibal Gisco
257 BC Tyndaris Romans under Gaius Atilius Regulus Carthaginians under Hamilcar
256 BC Cape Ecnomus Romans Carthaginians
249 BC Drepana Carthaginians Romans
246-245 BC Andros Macedonians Egyptians At Andros
10 Mar 241 BC Aegates Islands Romans Carthaginians Ending the First Punic War
229 BC Paxos Illyrians Conquer island of Corcyra
218 BC Lilybaeum Romans under Amellius Carthaginians Near Lilybaeum, Sicily
217 BC Ebro River Romans under Cornelius Scipio Carthaginians Near the mouth of the Ebro River, Spain
206 BC Carteia Romans under Gaius Laelius Carthaginians under Adherbal
201 BC Chios Egyptians, Rhodians, and Pergamese Philip V of Macedon
2nd Battle of Lade Philip V of Macedon Rhodians under Cleonaeus
190 BC Eurymedon Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Regillus Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal
Myonessus Romans under Regillus and Rhodians under Eudoras Seleucids under Polyxenidas
147 BC Port of Carthage Carthaginians under Hasdrubal Roman fleet of Lucius Hostilius Mancinus
74 BC Chalcedon Pontians under Mithridates VI Roman fleet of Marcus Aurelius Cotta
73 BC Tenedos Romans under Lucius Licinius Lucullus Pontian fleet
67 BC Korakesion Romans under Pompey Cilician pirates
56 BC Morbihan Romans under Decius Brutus Veneti Near Armorica
49 BC Île du Levant Romans under Decius Brutus ? At Île du Levant
Romans under Decius Brutus ? At Tauroentum
42 BC Republican fleet Reinforcements of the triumvirs
led by Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus
Intercepted and destroyed
3 Sept 36 BC Naulochus Agrippa Sextus Pompeius
2 Sept 31 BC Actium Octavian Antony and Cleopatra Decisive victory
AD 70 Rome vs Batavi in the Maas
AD 199 Shaxian Wu forces under Sun Ce Liu Biao and Huang Zu
AD 208 Red Cliffs Combined forces of Liu Bei and Sun Quan Fleet under Cao Cao
AD 221 Yiling Sun Quan Fleet under Liu Bei And successfully defends Jingzhou
AD 222 Dongkou Eastern Wu general Lü Fan Cao Xiu
AD 272 Xiling Lu Kang Jin general Bu Chan And retakes Xiling

5th century Edit

  • 456 – Romans under Flavius Ricimer defeat Vandals near Corsica
  • 461 Cartagena – Vandals destroy a newly built West Roman fleet
  • 468 Cape Bon – Vandals defeat East and West Romans under Basiliscus

6th century Edit

7th century Edit

  • 655 Battle of the Masts – Arabs under Uthman defeat Byzantines under Constans II
  • 663 August Battle of Baekgang – Tang China and Silla defeat Yamato Japan and Baekje
  • 676 Battle of Gibeolpo – Silla defeat Tang China
  • 677 or 678 First Arab siege of Constantinople – Byzantines defeat Arabs (first use of "Greek fire")
  • 697? – Greeks under John defeat Arabs
  • 698 Carthage – Arabs defeat Greeks under John at Carthage
  • 698 – Imperial Constantinopolitan fleet defeats Cibyrrhaeot rebels

8th century Edit

  • 717, September 3 Second Arab siege of Constantinople – Byzantines under Leo III the Isaurian defeat Arabs
  • 718, Spring Second Arab siege of Constantinople – Byzantines under Leo III defeat Arabs
  • 719, Dalriadan civil war resulted in a conflict between two opposing groups of curraghs, mentioned in the Senchus Fer n-Alban
  • 727 – Byzantine central imperial fleet destroys provincial Helladic and Cyclades fleets under Agallianos Kontoskeles.
  • 746 Battle of Keramaia – The Cibyrrhaeots annihilate the Egypt-based fleet of the Umayyad Caliphate

9th century Edit

  • 806? – Moors defeat Franks under Hadumar near Corsica
  • 807 – Franks under Burchard (a lieutenant of Charlemagne) defeat Moors at Sardinia [citation needed]
  • 813 – Byzantines defeat Arabs
    • 813 – Franks under Irmingar defeat Moors near Majorca
      (also Punto Stilo or Milazzo) – Byzantines under Nasar destroy Aghlabid fleet
  • 10th century Edit

    • 906 – Byzantines under Himerios defeat Arabs on St. Thomas' Day
    • 912 – Battle of Chios (912) – Syrian-Cilician fleet defeats Byzantine squadron under Himerios
    • 932 – Battle of Lang-shan Jiang
    • 941 – Rus'-Byzantine War – Byzantine fleet under Theophanes destroys Kievan Rus' fleet under Igor near Bosporus Strait
    • 938 – First Battle of Bach Dang River – Vietnamese defeat Southern Han fleet
    • 956 – Tunisian fleet destroyed by Christians near Mazara
    • 958 – Tunis vs Christians in Messina Strait
    • 965 – Battle of the Straits – Fatimid fleet destroys Byzantine fleet under Niketas Abalantes at the Straits of Messina
    • 975 – Song forces defeat Tang forces
    • 981 Second Battle of Bach Dang – Vietnam defeats Chinese Song forces
    • 998 – Venetians under Orseolo defeat Narentan pirates

    11th century Edit

    • 1000 September 9 Swold – Swedes and Danes defeat Norwegians
    • 1004 – Venetians under Pietro Orseolo II defeat Arabs at Messina
    • 1005 – Pisans defeat Arabs at Messina
    • 1024 – Lemnos – Byzantines defeat Rus' fleet in the Lemnos Island
    • 1026 The Helgeå – Danes under Ulf Jarl defeat Swedes and Norwegians under Anund Jacob and Olaf II Haraldsson (Olaf the Stout) in southern Sweden
    • 1032 – A joint Byzantine-Ragusan squadron defeats a Muslim corsair fleet in the Adriatic
    • 1032 – According to one hypothesis, battle at Iron Gate mentioned in Russian chronicles was a naval battle, where Novgorod fleet tries to reach Tallinn Bay, but is defeated by Estonians. [2]
    • 1035–1036 – Last Arab corsair raids against the Aegean islands are repulsed by the Byzantines
    • 1043 Rus'-Byzantine War – Byzantines defeat Rus' squadron in the Bosporus
    • 1062 Niså – Norwegians under Harald Hardrada defeat Danes in Kattegat
    • 1081 Dyrrhachium – Venetian-Byzantine fleet defeats Normans near Durazzo, Albania
    • 1084 – Normans under Robert Guiscard (20 vessels?) defeat Venetians or Byzantines in a series of battles off Albania/Corfu

    12th century Edit

    • 1123 Ibelin – Venetian fleet disperses Fatimid Egyptian fleet near Jaffa
    • 1137 Bigano – Venetians defeat Normans/Roger II of Sicily at Trani, Italy
    • 1149 Cape Malea – Venetians and Byzantine Greeks defeat Normans
    • 1153 Siege of Ascalon – Venetians defeat Fatimid Arabs near Tel Aviv
    • 1156 January – Celtic ships defeat Viking squadron north of Scotland
    • 1161 Nov 16 Tangdao – Song forces defeat Jin forces during the Jin–Song wars
      • Nov 26-27 Caishi – Song forces defeat Jin forces
      • April 25 Dan-no-ura – Decisive victory for Minamoto clan off present-day Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi, Japan, ends Genpei War
      • November 7 – Byzantines under Alexios Branas defeat Normans at Demetrias (Volos), Greece

      13th century Edit

      • 1213 May 30 and 31 Damme – English under William Longsword sink most of fleet of France's King Philip II in the harbor of Damme
      • 1217 August 24 Dover (South Foreland) – The "Fight off Sandwich". Fleet of English Hubert and Burgh defeat French fleet of Eustace the Monk off Dover. There were actually 2 battles – this describes the 2nd
      • 1241 May 3 (First) Meloria – Pisans under Ansaldo de Mari defeat Genoese
      • 1258 June 25 – Battle of Acre – Venetian fleet defeats Genoese fleet off Acre
      • 1263 – Settepozzi – A Venetian fleet of 38 ships under Gilberto Dandolo defeats a joint Byzantine-Genoese fleet of 48 ships off the Peloponnese
      • 1264 – Saseno – Genoese defeat Venetians
      • 1266 Trapani – Venetians defeat Genoese
      • c. 1273/1275 – Demetrias – Byzantine fleet defeats coalition of Lombard and Venetian lords of Euboea and Crete
      • 1278 July 25 – Algeciras – Castilians vs Morocco and Granada
      • Before 1279 – Conrad Lancia defeats Muslim fleet near Tunisia
      • 1279 March 19 Yamen – Yuan Dynasty defeats Song Dynasty
      • 1282 October 11 – Peter de Queralt defeats Angevin fleet near Reggio di Calabria (details)
        • October 14 – Peter de Queralt defeats Angevin fleet near Nicotera (details)
        • August 6 (Second) Meloria – Genoese utterly destroy the Pisan fleet near Tuscany, Italy
        • September 4 (probably) Les Formigues (Las Hormigas) – Aragonese-Sicilians under Roger of Lauria defeat French under di Mari and de Orreo near Barcelona

        14th century Edit

        • 1304 August 18 (2 days) Zierikzee – French fleet under Genoese admiral Renier Grimaldi destroys Flemish fleet
        • 1319 July 23 Chios – Knights Hospitaller and Genoese of the Lordship of Chios score a crushing victory over an Aydinid fleet
        • 1338 September 23 Arnemuiden – Philip VI of France beats English fleet of Edward III of England off the coast of Zeeland. It was the first naval battle using artillery. [3]
        • 1340 June 24 Sluys – Edward III of England beats Franco-Genoese fleet of Philip VI of France off the coast of Flanders and gains control of the English Channel
        • 1342 Guernsey
        • 1350 August 29 (Old Style) L'Espagnols-sur-Mer – 50 English ships under Edward III and the Black Prince defeat 40 Castilian ships
        • 1352 Bosporus – Genoese under Paganino Doria vs Venetians, Byzantine Greeks and Aragonese in Bosporus Strait
        • 1353 August 29 La Loiera – Venetians and Aragonese defeat Genoese near Sardinia
        • 1354 Sapienza Genoese under Paganino Doria defeat Venetians under Niccolò Pisani in the southern Peloponnese
        • 1363 August 30-October 4 Lake Poyang – Mings under Zhu Yuanzhang defeat Hans under Chen Youliang
        • 1372 June 22 and 23 La Rochelle – Castilian fleet defeats English fleet near La Rochelle
        • 1378 – Venetians under Vettor Pisani defeat Genoese near Cape d'Anzio
        • 1379 May 7 Pola – Genoese under Luciano Doria defeat Venetians under Vittore Pisani near Pula
        • 1380 June Chioggia – Venetians under Andrea Contarini defeat Genoese
        • 1387 March 24 and 25 Margate – English fleet under Richard, Earl of Arundel defeat Franco-Castilian-Flemishwine fleet under Sir Jean de Bucq

        15th century Edit

        • 1403 October 7 Modon – Genoese fleet under the French Marshal Boucicaut is defeated by the Venetians under Carlo Zeno
        • 1416 May 29 Gallipoli – Venetians defeat Ottoman Turks
          • August 15 (OS?) Harfleur – English defeat French near Harfleur
          • April 20 – Fall of Constantinople – Turks fail to prevent Genoese supply ships reaching Constantinople
          • 1509 February 3 Diu – Portugal's Indian viceroy defeats a combined Egyptian-Gujarat Sultanate fleet off Gujarat, India, and controls spice trade
          • 1510 – Maltese under Prégent de Bidoux defeat Venetians
          • 1512? – Genoese under Andrea Doria defeat Moors at Algiers
          • 1512 August 10 St Mathieu – English defeat French off Brest Regent and Marie la Cordelière sunk
          • 1521 Battle of Tunmen – Ming Chinese defeat Portuguese
          • 1522 Battle of Xicaowan – Ming Chinese defeat Portuguese
          • 1526 – Swedes and Lübeckers defeat pirate fleet
          • 1529 – Ottoman Turks under Khair-ad-Din (Barbarossa) defeat Spanish
          • 1535 early June – 20 Swedes/Danes/Prussians defeat 9 Lübeck ships
          • 1535 June? – Swedes/Danes/Prussians defeat 10 Lübeck ships at Fyen
          • 1538 September 28 Preveza – Ottoman Turk fleet under Khair-ad-Din defeats Spanish-Venetian-Papal fleet
          • 1541 – Tsuruhime led an army into naval battle and drove the Ōuchi Yoshitaka into the open sea.
          • 1545 July 18 and 19 The Solent – French attack English off Portsmouth Mary Rose sinks
            • August 15 – English fight French off Portsmouth
            • July 13 – English under Count Egmont defeat French under Marshal de Thermes off Gravelines

            Northern Seven Years War (1563–70) Edit

            Year Battle Description
            1563 Action of 30 May Swedes capture three Danes before war is declared.
            Action of 11 September Inconclusive [skirmish?] between Danes/Lübeckers and Swedes.
            1564 Action of 30 May Swedes under Bagge [clash with?] Danes/Lübeckers under Trolle.
            Action of 12 July A Swedish captain blows up his ship after a Danish attack.
            Action of 12 August Swedes under Klas Horn defeat Danes under Herluf Trolle, southeast of Öland.
            1565 Action of 4 June An indecisive battle between Danes/Lübeckers and Swedes near Buchow.
            Action of 7 July Swedes defeat Danes/Lübeckers between Bornholm and Rügen.
            1566 Action of 26 July Swedes defeat Danes/Lübeckers between Öland and Gotland.
            1568 Swedish fleet captures several Polish corsairs and drives off remainder. [4]

            Later 16th century Edit

            • 1568 September 23 – Spanish under Martin Enriquez defeat English under Hawkins at San Juan de Ulúa, Mexico Offsite link
            • 1570 – English under Burrough and Hodsdon defeat Danes in the Baltic Sea
              • July 15 – Turkish galliots under Uluch Ali defeat Maltese galleys under Saint-Clement near Gozo
              • October 7 Lepanto – Christian coalition decisively defeats Ottoman Turks in a large galley fight off western Greece
              • September/October – Several skirmishes between Spanish/Venetians and Turks
              • April 22 Borsele – Sea Beggars beat back a Spanish fleet under d'Avila
              • May 26 Haarlemmermeer – Spanish under Bossu defeat Sea Beggars
              • October 11 Zuiderzee – Sea Beggars under Cornelis Dirkszoon defeat Spanish under Bossu
              • May 30 Battle of lillo – Sea Beggars under Boisot defeat a Spanish fleet
              • June – Swedes capture 3 Lubeckers plus 15 merchantmen
              • 1582 July 27 Battle of Vila Franca Alvaro de Bazán wins a second battle at the Azores in as many days.
                navy defeats Shirahama Kenki pirate fleet.
              • September – Spanish Armada in Ireland
                – Spanish repel English near the Azores
            • May 29 Sacheon – Korean Navy defeats Japanese with the Turtle Ship.
            • August 14 Hansan Island – Korean navy defeats Japanese fleet in the bay of Hansan island.
            • November 1 Busan – Korean Naval demonstration to Japanese navy at the Busan bay. However, they could not occupy Busan.
            • October 26 Myeongnyang – 13 Korean ships under Yi Sun-sin defeats 330 Japanese ships.
            • – Bizertans vs Genoese and Romans
            • – Spanish defeat the English Islands Voyage near the Azores.

            Early 17th century Edit

            • 1601 December 27 Bantam – Dutch defeat Portuguese in Bantam Bay
            • 1602 October 3 Sluis – Dutch under Jacob van Duivenvoorde defeat Spanish under Frederik Spinola
            • 1603 May 26 Sluis – Dutch under Joos de Moor beat back Spanish under Frederik Spinola
            • ?? 1603 October – Tuscan galleys defeat Tunisians
            • 1604 October – Tuscans defeat Tunisians (details)
            • 1605 – Dutch fleet under Willem Haultain attacks and partly destroys a Spanish fleet of transport ships near Dover
            • 1605 November Attack on Salinas de Araya – Spanish under Luis Fajardo defeat a fleet of Dutch smugglers and privateers
            • 1606 June or October Battle of Cape St. Vincent – Spanish under Luis Fajardo defeat Dutch under Willem Haultain
            • 1606 August 17 Cape Rachado – Indecisive action between a Dutch fleet under Cornelis Matelief de Jonge and a Portuguese fleet near Malacca
              • September 21 Second battle of Cape Rachado – Dutch under Cornelis Matelief de Jonge destroy Portuguese ships
              • October 20 – Tuscans under Beauregard defeat Turkish trade fleet (details)
              • June 29 – Spanish-French raid on La Goulette, Tunisia (details)
              • – Venetians defeat Turks near Paxos (details)
              • (late)? – Turks under Khalil defeat French under Fressinet near Cyprus (details)
              • (late)? – Turks vs French under Beaulieu
              • October 10 – Tuscans vs Turks (details)
              • November 29–30 Swally – British East India Company fleet defeats Portuguese fleet near Surat, India
              • July 17 and 18 – Spanish vs Dutch (same as next?)
              • – Dutch under Spilbergen defeat Spanish under de Pulgar near Valdivia, Peru (details)
              • about March? – Spanish under Ribera defeat Tunisians at La Goulette (details)
              • April 29 – Tuscans under Inghirami defeat Turks near Euboea (details)
              • July 14–16 – Spanish under Ribera defeat Turks in the first regular action between galleys and sailing ships in the Mediterranean (details)
              • July – Spanish versus Dutch (details)
              • about October (possible engagement) – Neapolitans/Sicilian galleys defeat larger Turkish galley fleet
              • June 12 – Minor skirmish between Neapolitans/Sicilians and Venetians – Dutch defeat Spanish
              • November 19 and 20 – Inconclusive battle between Sicilians and Venetians (details)
              • July 2 and 3 – Dutch under Moy Lambert and Spanish under Vidazabal defeat Algerines
              • December 23–28 – English vs Dutch near Jakarta (details)
              • March 1 – English vs Dutch near Jakarta (details)
              • May 31 – Dutch defeat French at the mouth of the Vilaine River
              • – English defeat Portuguese
              • June 26 – Tuscans defeat Bizertans (details)
              • December 28 – English (East India Company) defeat Portuguese at Cape Jask
              • October – French vs Rochellais (Huguenot) rebels near La Rochelle (details)
              • Dutch ships under Joachim Swartenhondt escorting a convoy repel a Spanish squadron near Gibraltar
              • February 1 and 3 – Portuguese defeat English and Dutch (details)
              • June 26 – Bizertans defeat Maltese near Syracuse, Sicily (details)
              • September 15 – French under Soubise defeat hired Dutch ships near Rochelle
              • June 21 – English defeat Venetians/French at Scanderoon (details)
              • September 9 Dutch squadron under Piet Hein attacks and captures Spanish treasure fleet
              • September 29 – French defeat English near La Rochelle
              • September 16 – Swedes defeat Holy Roman Empire near Wismar (details)
              • September 12–13 The Slaak – Dutch Zeeland fleet under Marinus Hollare defeats Spanish invasion fleet
              • July 19 – Maltese galleys under Valdina defeat Tripolitans
              • – Maltese under Villages defeat Turks
              • – Maltese privateers defeat Turkish galleys
              • August 25 – Dunkirk frigates under Jacob Collaart defeats Dutch escort capturing 24 fishing trawlers
              • about September 25 – Spanish defeat Dutch West India Company convoy
              • Spanish convoy commanded by Lope de Hoces captures 32 enemy ships in the English Channel on its return voyage to Spain.
              • June – Maltese galleys defeat Tripolitan sailing ships near Calabria
              • September- French defeat Spanish in galley fight near Genoa
              • August 7 – Venetians under Capello defeat Algerians at Corfu
              • August 22 – French under de Sourdis destroy Spanish galleons under Lope de Hoces at Guetaría (details)
              • September 17–19 Calais – Running fight between Dutch under Maarten Tromp and Spanish under Antonio de Oquendo who seeks shelter at The Downs
              • September 30 Mormugão – Dutch defeat Portuguese near Goa
              • October 31 Battle of the Downs – Dutch under Tromp defeat Spanish under Antonio de Oquendo in the English Channel
              • end December – Spanish under Miguel de Horna defeat stronger French force
              • June 15 – Dunkerquers defeat Dutch in the Shetland Isles (details)
              • July? – French under Maillé Brézé defeat Spanish under Don Gomez de Sandoval
              • – Several French vs Spanish
              • May 17 and 18 – Spanish defeat French near Pensacola
              • September 1 and 2 ? – Spanish under Pietersen defeat French and Portuguese
              • November 4 – Dutch under Gijssels defeated by Spanish at Cape St Vincent (details)
              • October – Portuguese defeat Spanish?

              Danish-Swedish War (1643–45) Edit

              • 1644 May 16 – Danes defeat Dutch ships which have been hired to support Sweden (details)
                • May 25 – Danes get slightly the better of 33 hired Dutch ships
                • July 1 Colberger Heide (Colberg Heath) – Danish and Swedish fleets fight an inconclusive battle off NE Germany
                • July 7 – Danes defeat Swedes in small battle (details)
                • August 10 – Dutch fleet under Thijsen brushes past Danish fleet under King Christian IV in Kjoge Bay, Denmark (details)
                • October 13 – Femern, Germany – Combined Swedish/Dutch fleet badly defeats Danish fleet

                Cretan War (1645–69) Edit

                • 1644 September 28 – Maltese galleys defeat Turkish sailing ships near Rhodes their subsequent stay in Venetian-held Crete provoked the outbreak of war (details)
                • 1645 September 28 or 29 – Combined Christian fleet tries and fails to retake Canea (Chania) in Crete, from the Ottomans
                  • October 1 – Christians vs Turks near Canea, Crete
                  • August 14 – Inconclusive fight between Christians and the Ottoman fleet anchored at Chania Bay, Crete
                  • August 25 – Inconclusive skirmish between Christians and Turks
                  • September 9 – Inconclusive skirmish between Christians and Turks
                  • May 12 Focchies – Venetians defeat large Turkish fleet near western Turkey
                  • July 15 – Venetians vs Turks near Candia, Crete (details)
                  • July 18 – Venetians defeat Turks near Candia (details)
                  • May 16 – Turks under Murad defeat Venetians under Giuseppe Delfino in Dardanelles (details)
                  • June 21 – Turks retreat after skirmish with Venetians west of Milos
                  • May 18 – Venetians under Lazaro Mocenigo defeat Turks and Algerines at Suazich (details)
                  • July 17–19 – Venetians, Maltese and Papal forces under Lazaro Mocenigo defeat Turks in Dardanelles (details)
                  • May 18 – Venetians defeat Turks in minor skirmish
                  • August 27 – Venetians and Maltese defeat Turks near Milos, Greece (details)
                  • August – French under the Duc de Beaufort defeat Algerines at Cherchell, Algeria
                  • November 27 – French under d'Escrainville defeat Turks
                  • May 2 – French defeat Turks (details)
                  • about September – Barbary "Turks" defeat Venetians south of Crete (details)

                  Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652–74) Edit

                  • 1652 May 29 Dover – Clash between English under Robert Blake and Dutch under Maarten Tromp's off Dover initiates the First Anglo-Dutch War
                    • August 26 Plymouth – Michiel de Ruyter's 36 men-of-war hold off Ayscue's 45 men-of-war, driving them away
                    • September 7 Elba (Monte Cristo) – Dutch under Jan van Galen beat back English under Richard Badiley
                    • October 8 Kentish Knock (Zeeland Approaches) – English under Blake beat back Dutch under de With
                    • December 10 Dungeness – Dutch under Tromp defeat English under Blake
                    • March 13 Leghorn – Dutch under Johan van Galen defeat English under Badiley and Appleton
                    • June 12–13 Gabbard (North Foreland) – English defeat Dutch
                    • August 8–10 Scheveningen (Ter Heide, Texel) – Dutch under Maarten Tromp repulse English blockading fleet under George Monck with both sides retreating. Tromp is killed
                    • August 2 Vågen – English squadron repelled attempting to capture richly laden Dutch merchant fleet in the bay of Bergen, Norway
                    • June 15 James River (Virginia)-Dutch under Abraham Crijnssen attacks Virginia tobacco fleet (Details)
                    • June 11–14 Four Days – Dutch under de Ruyter defeats English fleet commanded by Albermarle and Prince Rupert of the Rhine
                    • August 4–5 St James's Day (North Foreland/Orfordness) – English under Albemarle and Prince Rupert of the Rhine defeat a Dutch fleet under de Ruyter
                    • June 9–14 Raid on the Medway – Dutch raid Medway river near London. The English flagship, Royal Charles, is captured
                    • June 7 – Solebay (Southwold) Dutch fleet under de Ruyter vs combined English/French under York
                    • August 21 Texel (Kijkduin)

                    Later 17th century Edit

                    • 1645 September 9 Tamandare – Dutch squadron under Jan Lichthart destroys a Portuguese squadron under Jerônimo Serrão de Paiva at TamandaréBrazil
                    • 1645 – Algerian Barbary pirates attempted an attack on Edinburgh, Scotland
                    • 1646 La Naval de Manila – Two Spanish galleons with Spanish & Filipino crew repel a Dutch invasion fleet in 5 separate actions over several months around the Philippines
                    • 1646? – French under du Mé defeat Spanish
                    • 1646 14–16 June, Battle of Orbetello, Spanish defeat French invasion fleet commanded by Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé
                    • 1647 June 10 Puerto de Cavite – Spanish defeat Dutch attack near Manila
                      • 1647 Neapolitan Republic (1647)- Spanish defeat French at Ischia, Pozzuoli, and Salerno and force French out of southern Italy.
                      • October 20 – Parliamentarians capture French frigate
                      • May 2 – Dutch defeat Portuguese near Colombo (details)
                      • – French under Vendôme defeat Spanish near Barcelona
                      • September 12 and 13 – Danes and Swedes fight inconclusively near Moen, Denmark (details)
                      • April 30 – Small running battle between Dutch and Danes against Swedes (details)
                      • – Dutch/Danes under de Ruyter defeat Swedes and liberate Nyborg
                      • July (possible engagement) – English defeat Tripolitans
                      • January – English defeat Tripolitans
                      • April 22 Agosta (Etna) – French fleet under Duquesne and Dutch/Spanish fleet under de Ruyter fight to a draw. De Ruyter is mortally wounded
                      • June 2 Palermo – French under Comte de Vivonne defeat Dutch/Spanish under De la Cerda and Den Haen
                      • May 25 and 26/June 3 and 4 – Dutch/Danish fleet under Niels Iuel defeat Swedes under Baron Creutz between Bornholm and Rugen in the Baltic Sea
                      • June 1/11 Öland – Dutch/Danish fleet defeats Swedish fleet south of Öland in the Baltic Sea
                      • May 31 and June 1/11 – Danes defeat Swedes between Femern and Warnemunde, Baltic Sea (details)
                      • July 1/11 and 2 Køge Bay – Danes and Dutch defeat Swedish fleet
                      • December Tobago – French under Jean II d'Estrées defeat Dutch under Jacob Binckes
                      • June 26, June 28, July 2 and July 20 – Series of skirmishes culminating in a Danish victory over Sweden
                      • September 30 – Spanish defeat Brandenburgers near Cape St Vincent (details)
                      • October 4 – Venetians vs Turks near Mitylene, Greece
                      • French vs English near Casquets
                      • July 10 Beachy Head (Beveziers) – French defeat Anglo-Dutch fleet
                      • – French vs English and Dutch near Madras
                      • September 8 – Venetians fight the combined fleet of Turkey, Algiers, Tripoli and Tunis near Mitylene, Greece (details)
                      • – French defeat Spanish near Cape Finisterre
                      • – French defeat Tripolitans near Malta
                      • April 16 – French defeat English (details)
                      • September 15 and 18 – Venetians under Contarini vs Turks under Mezzo Morto
                      • June 17 Dogger Bank – French defeat Dutch
                      • – French and English fight in Newfoundland
                      • – Fight near San Domingo
                      • July 14 Bay of Fundy – French under Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville defeat English
                      • August 22 – Venetians under Contarini vs Turks and their allies under Mezzo Morto near Andros (details)

                      Early 18th century Edit

                      • 1701 August 17 – Maltese raid on La Goulette
                      • 1702 August 19–24 (OS) – English under Benbow – French under Ducasse draw (details)
                        • October 23 Vigo Bay – Anglo-Dutch fleet defeat French and Spanish and destroy Spanish treasure fleet
                        • June 25 – Maltese defeat Tripolitans near Cape Santa di Leuca
                        • – Portuguese defeat Indians near Cheul (details)
                        • July 19 Matapan – Venetians and their allies vs Turks in Gulf of Laconia, Greece
                        • July 20–22 – Venetians vs Turks (details)
                        • August 11 Cape Passaro – British under George Byng defeat Spanish near Sicily
                        • August 9 and 10 – Turks defeat Russians

                        Great Northern War (1700–21) Edit

                        • 1702 June 26 – Small-ship action between Sweden and Russia on Lake Ladoga
                          • September 7 – Small-ship action between Sweden and Russia on Lake Ladoga
                          • July 31 and August 17 – Danes under Sehested fight and then defeat Swedes under Henck near Rugen (details)
                          • August 4 – Very minor engagement between Russia and Sweden
                          • September 28 – Very minor engagement between Denmark and Sweden
                          • July 19 – Danish attack on Strömstad is defeated
                          • July 13 – Danes under Rosenpalm defeat Swedes at Strömstad

                          War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) Edit

                          • 1741 January 7 and 8 – British vs French in West Indies
                            • February 12 – Minor British vs French in Gibraltar Strait
                            • March–May Cartagena de Indias – Decisive Spanish victory against a large British fleet during the War of Jenkins' Ear
                            • August 10 Colachel – Raja of Travancore in India defeats Dutch naval force at Colachel
                            • October 25 2nd Cape Finisterre – British under Hawke defeat French under de l'Etenduère
                            • October 12 – British vs Spanish near Havana (details)

                            Seven Years War (1756–63) Edit

                            • 1755 June 8 Gulf of St. Lawrence – British under Boscawen defeat French under Hocquart
                            • 1756 May 20 Minorca – French under la Galissonnière defeat British under John Byng
                            • 1757 early – French under Kersaint de Coëtnempren vs British at San Domingo
                            • 1758 – Minor French under Duchaffault vs British under Boscawen near Ushant
                              • – Minor French under Durevest vs British under Saunders near Gibraltar Strait
                              • April 29 Cuddalore – British under Pocock defeat French under d'Ache
                              • August 3 Negapatam – British under Pocock defeat French under d'Ache
                              • September 10 – Light Swedish force defeats similar Prussian force near Szczecin
                              • September 10 Pondicherry – British fight French but are too damaged to pursue
                              • November 20 Quiberon Bay/Cardinaux – British defeat French near St Nazaire

                              Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) Edit

                              • 1770 May 27 and 28 – Russians vs Turks near southern Greece (details)
                                • June 4 – Minor Russians vs Turks south of Athens (details)
                                • July 5–7 Chesma – Russian fleet defeats and burns Turkish fleet off western Turkey
                                • September 3 – Russians under Kinsbergen vs Turks (details)
                                • September? – Russians vs Turks (details)

                                American War of Independence (1776–83) Edit

                                • 1776 October 11 Valcour Island – Benedict Arnold escapes the British fleet under Guy Carleton
                                • 1777 September 26 to November 16, 1777 Siege of Fort Mifflin on the Delaware River American fleets under John Hazelwood, defending Philadelphia from British navy.
                                • 1778 April 19 Frederica Naval Action
                                  • July 27 First Ushant – British under Keppel with 30 ships of the line fight inconclusive action against French under d'Orvilliers with 28 ships
                                  • end – French vs British under Hyde Parker near Fort Royal, Martinique
                                  • April 17 Martinique – British under Rodney fail to defeat French under de Guichen
                                  • August 9 Spanish-French fleet under Luis de Córdova y Córdova captures 55 ship British convoy off Cape Santa María
                                  • Spanish-French fleet under Luis de Córdova y Córdova captures 29 ship British convoy
                                  • April 19 Fort Royal
                                  • – Minor French under de Grasse vs British under Hood
                                  • – Minor French under Destouches vs British under Arbuthnot
                                  • July 21 Cape Breton Island – French attack British convoy
                                  • August 5 (15 NS?) Dogger Bank – Draw between Dutch and British squadrons
                                  • September 5 Chesapeake Bay – French under de Grasse drive off British under Graves
                                  • December 12 Second Ushant – British under Kempenfelt capture part of a French convoy from de Guichen
                                  • February 17 Sadras – First fierce but indecisive fight between French under Suffren and British under Hughes near south-east India
                                  • April 9 and 12 The Saintes – British under Rodney decisively defeat French under de Grasse in the West Indies
                                  • April 12 Providien – 2nd fight between Suffren and Hughes off India
                                  • April 21 – British defeat French
                                  • July 6 Negapatam – 3rd fight between Suffren and Hughes off India
                                  • September 3 Trincomalee – Hughes fleet damages Suffren's but withdraws
                                  • October 20 Cape Spartel – Franco-Spanish fleet under Luis de Córdova y Córdova fights British fleet under Richard Howe in indecisive battle. Howe resupplies Gibraltar

                                  Russo-Turkish War (1787–92) Edit

                                  • 1787 August 30 – Russians vs Turks
                                    • September 27, 28 and 30 – Russians vs Turks
                                    • October 15 – Russians defeat Turks
                                    • July 14/25 Ochakov – Russia defeats Turkey near Fidonisi
                                    • September 8 and 9 Tendra – Russians defeat Turks
                                    • October 31 – Russians defeat Turks at the Sulina mouth
                                    • November 17, 18 – Russians defeat Turks at Tultcha
                                    • November 29 – Russians defeat Turks at Ismail (details)
                                    • November 30, December 1, 2, 4–7 – Russians defeat Turks
                                    • August 11 Cape Kaliakra – Slight Russian victory over Turks in a largely inconclusive battle near Bulgaria

                                    Russo-Swedish War (1788–90) Edit

                                    The Russian calendar was eleven days behind the Swedish during the 18th century, so Russian dates are eleven days earlier.

                                    1702–1710: Russia and the Baltic provinces [ edit | edit source ]

                                    The Battle of Narva dealt a severe setback to Peter the Great, but the shift of Charles XII's army to the Polish-Saxon threat soon afterwards, provided him with an opportunity to regroup and regain territory in the Baltic provinces. Russian victories at Erastfer and Nöteborg (Shlisselburg) provided access to Ingria in 1703, where Peter captured the Swedish fortress of Nyen, guarding the mouth of the River Neva. Thanks to General Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt, whose outnumbered forces fended the Russians off in the battles of Gemäuerthof and Jakobstadt, Sweden was able to maintain control of most of her Baltic provinces. Before going to war, Peter had made preparations for a navy and a modern-style army, based primarily on infantry drilled in the use of firearms.

                                    The Nyen fortress was soon abandoned and demolished by Peter, who constructed nearby a superior fortress as a beginning to the city of Saint Petersburg By 1704, other fortresses were situated on the island of Kotlin and the sand flats to its south. These became known as Kronstadt and Kronslot. The Swedes attempted a raid on the Neva fort on 13 July 1704 with ships and landing forces, but the Russian fortifications held. In 1705, repeated Swedish attacks were made against Russian fortifications in the area, to little effect. A major assault on 15 July 1705 resulted in the deaths of more than a third of a 1,500-strong Swedish landing force. ⎡]

                                    In view of continued failure to check Russian consolidation, and with declining manpower, Sweden opted to blockade Saint Petersburg in 1705. In the summer of 1706, Swedish General Georg Johan Maidel crossed the Neva with 4000 troops and defeated an opposing Russian force, but made no move on Saint Petersburg. Later in the autumn Peter I led an army of 20,000 men in an attempt to take the Swedish town and fortress of Viborg. Unfortunately, bad roads proved impassable to his heavy siege guns. The troops, who arrived on 12 October, therefore had to abandon the siege after only a few days. On 12 May 1708, a Russian galley fleet made a lightning raid on Borgå and managed to return to Kronslot just one day before the Swedish battlefleet returned to the blockade, after being delayed by unfavourable winds.

                                    In August 1708, a Swedish army of 12,000 men under General Georg Henrik Lybecker attacked Ingria, crossing the Neva from the north. They met stubborn resistance, ran out of supplies and, after reaching the Gulf of Finland west of Kronstadt, had to be evacuated by sea between 10–17 October. Over 11,000 men were evacuated but more than 5000 horses were slaughtered, which crippled the mobility and offensive capability of the Swedish army in Finland for several years. Peter I took advantage of this, and was able to redeploy a large number of men from Ingria to the Ukraine. ⎢]

                                    Charles spent the years 1702–06 in a protracted struggle with August the Strong he had already inflicted defeat on him at Riga in June 1701 and took Warsaw the following year, but trying to force a decisive defeat proved elusive. Charles wanted not just to defeat the army but to depose August (see above), whom he regarded as especially treasonous, and have him replaced with someone who would be a Swedish ally, and this goal proved hard to achieve. After years of marches and fighting around Poland he finally had to invade August's hereditary Saxony to bring him out of the war. In the treaty of Altranstädt (1706), August was indeed forced to step down from the Polish throne, but Charles had lost a valuable time advantage over his main enemy in the east, Peter I, who had had the time to recover and build up a new and better army.

                                    At this point, in 1707, Peter offered to retrocede everything he had so far occupied (essentially Ingria) except Saint Petersburg and the line of the Neva, to avoid a full-scale war, but Charles XII refused. Instead he initiated a march from Saxony to invade Russia. Though his primary goal was Moscow, the strength of his forces was sapped by the cold weather (the winter of 1708/09 being one of the most severe in modern European history) and Peter's use of scorched earth tactics. When the main army turned south to recover in the Ukraine, the second army with supplies and reinforcements was intercepted and routed at Lesnaya—and so were the supplies and reinforcements of Swedish ally Ivan Mazepa in Baturyn. Charles was crushingly defeated by a larger Russian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava and fled to the Ottoman Empire while the remains of his army surrendered at Perevolochna. ⎣]

                                    This shattering defeat did not end the war, although it decided it. Denmark and Saxony joined the war again and Augustus the Strong, through the politics of Boris Kurakin, regained the Polish throne. Peter continued his campaigns in the Baltics, and eventually he built up a powerful navy. In 1710 the Russian forces captured Riga, at the time the most populated city in the Swedish realm, and Tallinn, evicting the Swedes from the Baltic provinces, now integrated in the Russian Empire by the capitulation of Estonia and Livonia.


                                    Mary Beatrice d'Este, the second but eldest surviving child of Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena, and his wife, Laura Martinozzi, was born on 5 October 1658 NS [note 1] in Modena, Duchy of Modena, Italy. [3] Her only younger brother, Francesco, succeeded their father as Duke upon the latter's death in 1662, the year Mary turned four. [5] Mary and Francesco's mother, Laura, was strict with them and acted as regent of the duchy until her son came of age. [6] [7] Mary's education was excellent [8] she spoke French and Italian fluently, had a good knowledge of Latin and, later, mastered English. [9] [10]

                                    Mary was described by contemporaries as "tall and admirably shaped", and was sought as a bride for James, Duke of York by Lord Peterborough. [11] [12] Lord Peterborough was groom of the stole to the Duke of York. A widower, James was the younger brother and heir of Charles II of England. [13] Duchess Laura was not initially forthcoming with a reply to Peterborough's proposal, hoping, according to the French ambassador, for a "grander" match with the eleven-year-old Charles II of Spain. [14] [15] Whatever the reason for Laura's initial reluctance, she finally accepted the proposal on behalf of Mary, and they were married by proxy on 30 September 1673 NS. [16]

                                    Modena was within the sphere of influence of Louis XIV of France, who endorsed Mary's candidature and greeted Mary warmly in Paris, where she stopped en route to England, giving her a brooch worth £8,000. [17] [note 2] Her reception in England was much cooler. [19] Parliament, which was entirely composed of Protestants, reacted poorly to the news of a Catholic marriage, fearing it was a "Papist" plot against the country. [19] The English public, who were predominantly Protestant, branded the Duchess of York – as Mary was thereafter known as until her husband's accession – the "Pope's daughter". [20] Parliament threatened to have the marriage annulled, [20] leading Charles to suspend parliament until 7 January 1674 OS, to ensure the marriage would be honoured and safeguarding the reputation of his House of Stuart. [13]

                                    Household Edit

                                    The Duke of York, an avowed Catholic, was twenty-five years older than his bride, scarred by smallpox and afflicted with a stutter. [21] He had secretly converted to Catholicism around 1668. [22] Mary first saw her husband on 23 November 1673 OS, on the day of their second marriage ceremony. [23] [24] James was pleased with his bride. [25] Mary, however, at first disliked him, and burst into tears each time she saw him. [26] Nonetheless, she soon warmed to James. [4] From his first marriage to the commoner Anne Hyde, who had died in 1671, James had two daughters: Lady Mary and Lady Anne. [27] They were introduced to Mary by James with the words, "I have brought you a new play-fellow". [27] Unlike Lady Mary, Lady Anne disliked her father's new wife. [28] Mary played games with Anne, to win her affection. [28]

                                    The Duchess of York annually received £5,000 spending money and her own household, headed by Carey Fraser, Countess of Peterborough it was frequented by ladies of her husband's selection: Frances Stewart, Duchess of Richmond and Anne Scott, 1st Duchess of Buccleuch. [13] [29] [30] [31] That the Duchess of York loathed gambling did not stop her ladies compelling her to do so almost every day. [32] They believed that "if she refrained, it might be taken ill". [32] Consequently, Mary incurred minor gambling debts. [32]

                                    The birth of the Duchess of York's first child, Catherine Laura, named after Queen Catherine, on 10 January 1675 OS represented the beginning of a string of children that would die in infancy. [33] At this time she was on excellent terms with Lady Mary and she visited her in The Hague after the younger Mary had married William of Orange. She travelled incognito and took Anne with her. [34]

                                    Popish plot and exile Edit

                                    The Duchess of York's Catholic secretary, Edward Colman, was, in 1678, falsely implicated in a fictitious plot against the King by Titus Oates. [35] The plot, known as the Popish Plot, led to the Exclusionist movement, which was headed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury. [36] The Exclusionists sought to debar the Catholic Duke of York from the throne. [37] Their reputation in tatters, the Yorks were reluctantly exiled to Brussels, a domain of the King of Spain, ostensibly to visit Lady Mary—since 1677 the wife of Prince William III of Orange. [38] [39] [40] Accompanied by her not yet three-year-old daughter Isabella and Lady Anne, the Duchess of York was saddened by James's extra-marital affair with Catherine Sedley. [41] Mary's spirits were briefly revived by a visit from her mother, who was living in Rome. [42]

                                    A report that King Charles was very sick sent the Yorks back to England post-haste. [43] They feared the King's eldest illegitimate son, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, the commander of England's armed forces, might usurp the crown if Charles died in their absence. [43] [44] The danger was compounded by the fact that Monmouth enjoyed the support of the Exclusionists, who held a majority in the House of Commons of England. [43] Charles survived but, feeling the Yorks returned to court too soon, sent James and Mary to Edinburgh, where they stayed on-and-off for the next three years. [45] [46] Lodging in Holyrood Palace, the Yorks had to make do without Ladies Anne and Isabella, who stayed in London on Charles's orders. [47] The Yorks were recalled to London in February 1680, only to return again to Edinburgh that autumn this time they went on a more honourable footing: James was created King's Commissioner to Scotland. [48] Separated from Lady Isabella once again, Mary sank into a state of sadness, exacerbated by the passing of the Exclusion bill in the Commons. [49] [50] Lady Isabella, thus far the only one of Mary's children to survive infancy, died in February 1681. [51] Isabella's death plunged Mary into a religious mania, worrying her physician. [51] At the same time as news reached Holyrood of Isabella's death, Mary's mother was falsely accused of offering £10,000 for the murder of the King. [51] The accuser, a pamphleteer, was executed by order of the King. [51]

                                    The Exclusionist reaction that followed the Popish plot had died down by May 1682. [52] Exclusionist-dominated Parliament, suspended since March 1681, never again met in the reign of Charles II. [53] Therefore, the Duke and Duchess of York returned to England, and the Duchess gave birth to a daughter named Charlotte Mary in August 1682 Charlotte Mary's death three weeks later, according to the French ambassador, robbed James of "hope that any child of his can live"—all James's sons by Anne Hyde, his first wife, died in infancy. [54] James's sadness was dispelled by his revival in popularity following the discovery of a plot to kill the King and him. [55] The objective of the plot, known as the Rye House Plot, was to have Monmouth placed on the throne as Lord Protector. [56] The revival was so strong that, in 1684, James was re-admitted to the Privy Council, after an absence of eleven years. [57]

                                    Despite all the furore over Exclusionism, James ascended to his brother's thrones easily upon the latter's death, which occurred on 6 February 1685 OS, possibly because the said alternative could provoke another civil war. [58] Mary sincerely mourned Charles, recalling in later life, "He was always kind to me." [59] Mary and James's £119,000 coronation, occurring on 23 April OS, Saint George's day, was meticulously planned. [60] [61] Precedents were sought for Mary because a full-length joint coronation had not occurred since the ceremony performed for Henry VIII of England and Catherine of Aragon. [60]

                                    Queen Mary's health had still not recovered after the death of Lady Isabella. So much so, in fact, that the Tuscan envoy reported to Florence that "general opinion turns [for Mary's successor] in the direction of the Princess, Your Highness's daughter". [62] [63] France, too, was preparing for the Queen's imminent demise, putting forward as its candidate for James's new wife the Duke of Enghien's daughter. [62] The Queen was then trying to make her brother, the Duke of Modena, marry the former, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici. [64]

                                    In February 1687, the Queen, at the time irritated by the King's affair with Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester, moved into new apartments in Whitehall Whitehall had been home to a Catholic chapel since December 1686. [65] [66] Her apartments were designed by Christopher Wren at the cost of £13,000. [67] Because the palace's renovation was thus far unfinished, the King received ambassadors in her rooms, much to the Queen's chagrin. [68] Five months later, shortly after the marriage talks with Tuscany collapsed, the Queen's mother, Duchess Laura, died. [69] Therefore, the whole English court went into mourning. [69] Duchess Laura left Mary "a considerable sum of cash" and some jewellery. [70] William III of Orange, James's nephew and son-in-law, sensed popular discontent with James's government he used the death of Mary's mother as a guise to send his half-uncle, Count Zuylestein, to England, ostensibly to condole Queen Mary, but in reality as a spy. [71] [72]

                                    Having visited Bath, in the hope its waters would aid conception, Queen Mary became pregnant in late 1687. [73] When the pregnancy became public knowledge shortly before Christmas, Catholics rejoiced. [74] Protestants, who had tolerated James's Catholic government because he had no Catholic heir, were concerned. [75] The Protestant disillusion came to a head after the child was known to be male, and many Protestants believed the child was spurious [76] if not, James II's Catholic dynasty would have been perpetuated. [76] Popular opinion alleged that the child, named James Francis Edward, was smuggled into the birth chamber as a substitute to the Queen's real but stillborn child. [76] This rumour was widely accepted as fact by Protestants, despite the many witnesses of the birth. [76] [77] Mainly by mismanagement on James' part, these rumours had some excuse as from personal prejudice he had excluded many from the ceremony whose testimony must have been counted valid most of the witnesses were Catholics or foreigners, and several, such as his daughter Anne and the Protestant prelates, or the maternal relatives of his daughters, whom the new birth would remove from the direct succession, were not present. Anne and her elder sister, Mary, suspected that their father had thrust a changeling upon the nation. [71] Count Zuylestein, returning to the Netherlands shortly after the birth, agreed with Anne's findings. [71]

                                    Issued by seven leading Whig nobles, the invitation for William to invade England signalled the beginning of a revolution that culminated in James II's deposition. [78] The invitation assured William that "nineteen parts of twenty of the people throughout the kingdom" wished for an intervention. [78] The revolution, known as the Glorious Revolution, deprived James Francis Edward of his right to the English throne, on the grounds he was not the King's real son and, later, because he was a Catholic. [78] With England in the hands of William of Orange's 15,000-strong army, James and Mary went into exile in France. [78] There, they stayed at the expense of James's first cousin King Louis XIV, who supported the Jacobite cause. [78] [79]

                                    Reception at Louis XIV's court Edit

                                    James was formally deposed on 11 December 1688 OS in England and on 11 May 1689 OS in Scotland, and his daughter Mary II and her husband, William III, were made joint monarchs. [80] James, however, backed by Louis XIV of France, still considered himself king by divine right and maintained it was not within parliament's prerogative to depose a monarch. [81] Louis XIV gave the exiled royal couple the use of Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, where they set up court-in-exile. [79] [82]

                                    Mary quickly became a popular fixture at Louis XIV's court at Versailles, where diarist Madame de Sévigné acclaimed Mary for her "distinguished bearing and her quick wit". [83] Questions of precedence, however, marred Mary's relations with Louis XIV's daughter-in-law, Maria Anna of Bavaria. [83] Because Mary was accorded the privileges and rank of a queen, Maria Anna was outranked by her. [83] Therefore, Maria Anna refused to see Mary, etiquette being a sensitive issue at Versailles. [84] In spite of this, Louis XIV and his secret wife, Madame de Maintenon, became close friends with Mary. [83] As there was no queen at the French court, nor a dauphine after Maria Anna's death in 1690, Mary took precedence over all the female members of the French court and French royal house, as did her daughter in her capacity of a royal princess until the next French dauphine appeared in 1711. [85] James was largely excluded from French court life. His contemporaries found him boring, and French courtiers frequently joked that "when one talks to him, one understands why he is here." [83] [86] Mary gave birth to a daughter, Louise Mary, in 1692. [83] She was to be James and Mary's last child.

                                    Initially supported by Irish Catholics in his effort to regain the thrones, James launched an expedition to Ireland in March 1689. [87] He abandoned it upon his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. [87] During James's campaign, Mary supported his cause throughout the British Isles: she sent three French supply ships to Bantry Bay and £2,000 to Jacobite rebels in Dundee. [88] She financed those measures by selling her jewellery. [89] Money problems plagued the Stuart court-in-exile, despite a substantial pension from Louis XIV of 50,000 livres. [79] Mary tried her best to assist those of her husband's followers living in poverty, and encouraged her children to give part of their pocket money to Jacobite refugees. [90] [91] [92]

                                    Estensi succession Edit

                                    The collapse of James's invasion of Ireland in 1691 upset Mary. Her spirits were lifted by news of the marriage of her brother, the Duke of Modena. [93] He married Margherita Maria Farnese of Parma. [93] When, in 1695, Mary's brother died, the House of Este was left with one progenitor, their uncle Cardinal-Duke Rinaldo. [94] Queen Mary, concerned for the dynasty's future, urged the Cardinal-Duke to resign his cardinalate, "for the good of the people and for the perpetuation of the sovereign house of Este". [95] Duke Rinaldo's bride, Princess Charlotte Felicitas of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was, according to Mary, "of an easy disposition best suited to [the Duke]". [95]

                                    A bone of contention, however, arose over the Queen's inheritance and dowry. [96] Duke Rinaldo refused to release the former, and left the latter £15,000 in arrears. [97] In 1700, five years later, the Duke finally paid the Queen her dowry her inheritance, however, remained sequestered, and relations with Modena worsened again when Rinaldo allied himself with Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. [98] Leopold was an enemy of Louis XIV, James and Mary's patron. [98]

                                    Regency Edit

                                    In March 1701, James II suffered a stroke while hearing mass at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, leaving him partially paralysed. [101] Fagon, Louis XIV's personal physician, recommend the waters of Bourbon-l'Archambault, to cure the King's paralysis. [102] The waters, however, had little effect, and James II died of a seizure on 16 September 1701. [103] Louis XIV, contravening the Peace of Ryswick and irritating William, declared James Francis Edward King of England, Ireland and Scotland as James III and VIII. [104] Mary acted as nominal regent for her minor son. [105] She presided over his regency council, too, although she was uninterested in politics. [105] Before his death, James II expressed his wish that Mary's regency would last no longer than their son's 18th birthday. [106]

                                    Dressed in mourning for the remainder of her life, Queen Mary's first act as regent was to disseminate a manifesto, outlining James Francis Edward's claims. [107] It was largely ignored in England. [107] In Scotland, however, the confederate Lords sent Lord Belhaven to Saint-Germain, to convince the Queen to surrender to them custody of James Francis Edward and accede to his conversion to Protestantism. [107] The conversion, said Belhaven, would enable his accession to the English throne upon William's death. [108] Mary was not swayed by Belhaven's argument, so a compromise was reached: James Francis Edward, if he became king, would limit the number of Roman Catholic priests in England and promise not to tamper with the established Church of England. [108] In exchange, the confederate Lords would do all in their power to block the passing of the Hanoverian succession in Scottish parliament. [108] When, in March 1702, William died, Lord Lovat declared for James Francis Edward at Inverness. [109] Soon after, Lovat travelled to the court-in-exile at Saint-Germain, and begged Mary to allow her son to come to Scotland. [109] Lovat intended to raise an army of 15,000 soldiers in Scotland to seize the throne for James Francis Edward. [109] Mary refused to part with James Francis Edward, and the rising failed. [109] Mary's regency ceased with her son's reaching of the age of 16. [110]

                                    Having wished to become a nun in her youth, Queen Mary sought refuge from the stresses of exile at the Convent of the Visitations, Chaillot, near Paris, where she befriended Louis XIV's penitent mistress, Louise de La Vallière. [111] There, Mary stayed with her daughter for long periods almost every summer. [112] It was here, too, in 1711, that Queen Mary found out that, as part of the embryonic Treaty of Utrecht, James Francis Edward was to lose Louis XIV's explicit recognition and be forced to leave France. [112] The next year, when James Francis Edward was expelled and Louise Mary died of smallpox, Mary was very upset [113] according to Mary's close friend Madame de Maintenon, Mary was "a model of desolation". [113] Deprived of the company of her family, Queen Mary lived out the rest of her days at Chaillot and Saint-Germain in virtual poverty, unable to travel by her own means because all her horses had died and she could not afford to replace them. [114]

                                    Following her death from cancer on 7 May 1718, Mary was remembered fondly by her French contemporaries, three of whom, Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, the Duke of Saint-Simon and the Marquis of Dangeau, deemed her a "saint". [115] [116] Mary's remains were interred in Chaillot among the nuns she had befriended. [117]

                                    1709–1714: Ottoman Empire

                                    When his army surrendered, Charles XII of Sweden and a few soldiers escaped to Ottoman territory, founding a colony in front of Bender, Moldova. Peter I demanded Charles's eviction, and when the sultan refused, Peter decided to force it by invading the Ottoman Empire. Peter's army was trapped by an Ottoman army at the Pruth river. Peter managed to negotiate a retreat, making a few territorial concessions and promising to withdraw his forces from the Holy Roman Empire as well as allowing Charles's return to Sweden. These terms were laid out in the Treaty of Adrianople (1713). Charles showed no interest in returning, established a provisional court in his colony, and sought to persuade the sultan to engage in an Ottoman-Swedish assault on Russia. The sultan put an end to the generous hospitality granted and had the king arrested in what became known as the "kalabalik" in 1713. Charles was then confined at Timurtash and Demotika later he abandoned his hopes for an Ottoman front and returned to Sweden in a 14-day ride. [23]

                                    1710–1716: Northern Germany

                                    In 1710, the Swedish army in Poland retreated to Swedish Pomerania, pursued by the coalition. In 1711, siege was laid to Stralsund. Yet the town could not be taken due to the arrival of a Swedish relief army, which secured the Pomeranian pocket before turning west to defeat an allied army in the Battle of Gadebusch. Pursued by coalition forces, the Swedish army was trapped and surrendered in the Siege of Tönning. [ 14 ]

                                    In 1714, Charles XII returned from the Ottoman Empire, arriving in Stralsund in November. In nearby Greifswald, already lost to Sweden, Russian tsar Peter the Great and British king George I, in his position as Elector of Hanover, had just signed an alliance on 17 (OS)/28 (NS) October. [ 15 ] Previously a formally neutral party in the Pomeranian campaigns, Brandenburg-Prussia openly joined the coalition by declaring war on Sweden in the summer of 1715. [ 16 ] Charles was then at war with much of Northern Europe, and Stralsund was doomed. Charles remained there until December 1715, escaping only days before Stralsund fell. When Wismar surrendered in 1716, all of Sweden’s Baltic and German possessions were lost. [ 17 ]

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