Corrected line of the Channel above Island No. 10

Corrected line of the Channel above Island No. 10

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Corrected line of the Channel above Island No. 10

Corrected line of the Channel above Island No. 10

Victoria comes to the throne after the death of William IV

Victoria became queen at the age of 18 after the death of her uncle, William IV. She reigned for more than 60 years, longer than any other British monarch. Her reign was a period of significant social, economic and technological change, which saw the expansion of Britain's industrial power and of the British empire.

Charles Dickens' 'Oliver Twist' is published

Charles Dickens was one of the greatest Victorian novelists. 'Oliver Twist' was, like many of Dickens' other novels, originally published in serial form and brought to public attention contemporary social evils. Dickens' other works included 'The Pickwick Papers', 'A Christmas Carol', 'David Copperfield' and 'Great Expectations'.

The Idiocy, Fabrications and Lies of Ancient Aliens

Until now, I have assiduously avoided Ancient Aliens. I had a feeling that if I watched the show—which popularizes far-fetched, evidence-free idiocy about how human history has been molded by extra-terrestrial visitors—my brain would jostle its way out of my skull and stalk the earth in search of a kinder host. Or, at the very least, watching the show would kill about as many brain cells as a weekend bender in Las Vegas. But then I heard the History Channel’s slurry of pseudoscience had taken on dinosaurs. I steeled myself for the pain and watched the mind-melting madness unfold.

I’m actually glad that my editors don’t allow me to cuss a blue streak on this blog. If they did, my entire review would be little more than a string of expletives. Given my restrictions, I have little choice but to try to encapsulate the shiny, documentary-format rubbish in a more coherent and reader-sensitive way.

The episode is what you would get if you dropped some creationist propaganda, Erich von Däniken’s Chariots of the Gods and stock footage from Jurassic Fight Club into a blender. What results is a slimy and incomprehensible mixture of idle speculation and outright fabrications which pit the enthusiastic “ancient alien theorists,” as the narrator generously calls them, against “mainstream science.” I would say “You can’t make this stuff up,” but I have a feeling that that is exactly what most of the show’s personalities were doing.

There was so much wrong with the Ancient Aliens episode that I could spend all week trying to counteract every incorrect assertion. This is a common technique among cranks and self-appointed challengers of science it is called Gish Gallop after young earth creationist Duane Gish. When giving public presentations about evolution and creationism, Gish rapidly spouted off a series of misinterpretations and falsehoods to bury his opponent under an avalanche of fictions and distortions. If Gish’s opponent tried to dig themselves out, they would never be able to make enough progress to free themselves to take on Gish directly. Ancient Aliens uses the same tactic—the fictions come fast and furious.

Despite what basic cable cranks might say, Tyrannosaurus and Triceratops were not driven to extinction by aliens. (Courtesy of author, taken at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles)

While the main point of the episode is that aliens exterminated dinosaurs to make way for our species—a sci-fi scenario accompanied by some hilarious, mashed-together footage of dinosaurs fleeing from strafing alien craft, perhaps a preview of Dinosaurs vs. Aliens the movie—the various ancient alien experts do little more than assert that such an event must have happened. Surprise, surprise, they provide no actual evidence for their claims. Instead, they borrow evidence for fundamentalist Christians, who are never actually identified as such. Creationist Michael Cremo is identified only as the author of Forbidden Archeology, and Willie E. Dye is credited as a biblical archaeologist without any mention of his young earth creationist views. Ancient Aliens producers clearly did not care about the credentials or expertise of the talking heads they employed—just so long as someone said the right things in front of the camera.

And the creationists didn’t disappoint. About halfway through the program, Cremo says, “Some researchers found human footprints alongside the footprints of dinosaurs.” The quote is a line out of context from Cremo’s interview, but is played in a section claiming that American Museum of Natural History paleontologist Roland T. Bird found human footprints associated with dinosaur trackways in the vicinity of Glen Rose, Texas.

Bird didn’t find any such thing. He found many dinosaur footprints and trackways—one of which he and his crew partially excavated and anachronistically placed behind the AMNH’s “Brontosaurus“—but no human tracks. Strangely, though, hoaxed human tracks did have a role to play in Bird’s decision to initially visit the tracksites.

Bird wasn’t the first person to notice the dinosaur tracks, and selling the sauropod and theropod tracks was a cottage industry in the vicinity of Glen Rose. And a few local people carved fake human tracks in the same stone. Bird actually saw a pair of such forgeries at a trading post in Gallup, New Mexico, along with dinosaur tracks removed from the Glen Rose area, shortly before he left to investigate the site himself.

Bird wasn’t fooled by the fakes. He saw them for what they were, and was much more interested in the real dinosaur tracks imprinted in the same stone. But some creationists, blinded by dogma, have put their faith behind fakes and even dinosaur tracks that they have misinterpreted as being human footprints. When theropod dinosaurs squatted down, for example, the backs of their lower legs, the metatarsals, left slightly curved depressions in the Cretaceous sediment, and creationists have misconstrued these markings to be the footsteps of ancient people.

Dye takes up the standard creationist line that humans and dinosaurs coexisted and reappears a little later in the episode to throw his support to a different icon of creationist nonsense—the Ica stones from Peru. These famous fakes are stones engraved with images of dinosaurs and humans interacting. They were created by farmer Basilio Uschuya and his wife, using pop culture depictions of dinosaurs in books as their guides. Despite this, both Dye and the Ancient Aliens program present the stones as if they were authentic ancient artifacts that record the survival of dinosaurs such as Triceratops to almost the present day. Dye says that ancient people must have known a lot about dinosaurs because the stones are engraved so precisely, even though we know that precision came from Uschuya copying mid-20th century dinosaur art so carefully. Our narrator says that scientists are skeptical about the origin of the stones, but nothing more.

The show offers a few other awful gems. Our narrator goes on at length about how carbon-14 dating is unreliable for telling the age of dinosaurs, but paleontologists do not use carbon-14 to estimate the age of non-avian dinosaurs. Radiocarbon dating only works for carbon-bearing materials up to about 60,000 years old. Instead, paleontologists use different radiometric dating techniques to constrain the history of non-avian dinosaurs. In uranium-lead dating, for example, geologists investigate the relative abundance of uranium and lead, the element uranium decays into, to determine the age of the rock the materials were sampled from.

Different dating systems are used for rocks of different ages, and these techniques have put time estimates on when dinosaurs lived. The key is finding layers such as ash beds that contain radioactive materials and are above or below layers containing dinosaurs. Since dinosaur bones themselves can’t be reliably dated, geochronologists determine the age of the under- or overlying rock to constrain the timeframe for when the dinosaur lived. Ancient Aliens, reliant on tired creationist talking points, casts aspersions over a process that the show’s creators clearly don’t understand.

But my favorite bit of babble involves the ultimate fate of the dinosaurs. The show can’t even keep its own story straight. Fringe television personality Franklin Ruehl makes a case for the modern or recent existence of non-avian dinosaurs by way of the coelacanth. These archaic lobe-finned fish, which Ruehl rightly points out were around long before the first dinosaurs evolved, were thought to be extinct before a live one was hauled up off South Africa in 1938. Since then, a handful of fossil coelacanth finds has bridged the gap between their modern representatives and those that lived at the end of the Cretaceous 66 million years ago. Their unexpected reappearance has often been used by cryptozoologists and true-believers of various stripes to claim that some other prehistoric lineage may really still be out there, even if there’s no actual evidence to suggest this is so.

As paleontologist Darren Naish has pointed out multiple times, though, the coelacanth is a red herring. In strata from the past 66 million years or so, at least, coelacanth fossils are rare and hard to identify. It’s not really surprising that their fossil record appears to have petered out. Non-avian dinosaurs, however, had bones that were far more diagnostic. In fact, the resolution of prehistoric eras gets better as we investigate slices of time approaching the present. If creatures as large and distinctive as Triceratops, Stegosaurus, Apatosaurus and Tyrannosaurus really did thrive for millions of years after the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact, they would have turned up in the fossil record by now. The evidence is clear—with the exception of avian dinosaurs, all other dinosaur lineages went extinct about 66 million years ago.

Shortly after Ruehl makes his proclamation, however, the program entirely forgets what he said. Near the show’s conclusion, the narrator speculates that aliens manipulated dinosaur DNA to turn the imposing creatures into smaller, less-dangerous animals like the coelacanth. Never mind that coelacanths were already present in the world’s oceans more than 360 million years ago—more than 130 million years before the very first dinosaurs evolved. The suggestion is unadulterated bunk (as is they whole show, really). And then crazy-haired alien fanatic Giorgio Tsoukalos throws out another idea. The coelacanth really did go extinct, he suggests, but was revived by a “direct guarantee from extraterrestrials” millions of years later. Why? Tsoukalos doesn’t seem to care. And his talking head peers generally mutter about aliens clearing the way for our species somehow.

The show can’t seem to decide whether aliens exterminated dinosaurs 66 million years ago or whether dinosaurs somehow survived to the modern era. Which is it? Did aliens clear away dinosaurs so that we might live? Or did some dinosaurs escape extinction somehow? Competing ideas bounce around like ping-pong balls during the whole episode. Grandpa Simpson tells more coherent stories.

There were a few real scientists on the program. Paleontologists Luis Chiappe and Mark Wilson, for example, make appearances throughout the show. I can’t help but feel bad for them, and wonder whether scientists should simply boycott appearing on such programs. While I think it’s worthwhile and essential to call out false claims made in the name of science—such as intelligent design and myths of living dinosaurs—programs like Ancient Aliens only abuse scientists. Responsible researchers are typically taken out of context to help set up unsupported fictions spewed by the alien fan club. Shows like Ancient Aliens, MonsterQuest and Finding Bigfoot apparently have little or no interest in actually talking about science. The most sensationalist speculation will always triumph. On these shows, scientists just can’t win.

Ancient Aliens is some of the most noxious sludge in television’s bottomless chum bucket. Actual experts are brought in to deliver sound bites that are twisted and taken out of context while fanatics are given free reign. Fiction is presented as fact, and real scientific research is so grossly misrepresented that I can only conclude that the program is actively lying to viewers. To present the show as a documentary, on a non-fiction network, is a loathsome move by the History Channel spinoff. (Technically, Ancient Aliens airs on an offshoot of the History Channel called H2.) If the network and the show’s creators want to present Ancient Aliens as a light survey of fringe ideas and make it clear that the ideas aren’t meant to be taken seriously, I can’t quarrel with that. But Ancient Aliens and shows like it winnow away at actual scientific understanding by promoting absolute dreck. Ancient Aliens is worse than bad television. The program shows a sheer contempt for science and what we really know about nature.

About Riley Black

Riley Black is a freelance science writer specializing in evolution, paleontology and natural history who blogs regularly for Scientific American.

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Corrected line of the Channel above Island No. 10 - History


Founded by Prophet TB Joshua

About Prophet TB Joshua


The weather over the English Channel is highly variable. Often, but especially from October to April, it is cloudy, chilly, and wet, with strong winds and poor visibility. At other times, it is fair and dry, with light winds and good visibility. During periods of unsettled weather, daytime high temperatures rise to about 54 °F (12 °C) in winter and 68 °F (20 °C) in summer. When the weather is clear, temperature extremes can range from a winter morning low of 23 °F (−5 °C) to more than 86 °F (30 °C) on a summer afternoon. Precipitation averages 28 to 39 inches (700 to 1,000 mm) per year. Gales may blow from any direction but most commonly come from the southwest or west.

Decoding the Antikythera Mechanism, the First Computer

A fter 2,000 years  under the  sea, three flat, misshapen pieces of bronze at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens are all shades of green, from emerald to forest. From a distance, they look like rocks with patches of mold. Get closer, though, and the sight is stunning. Crammed inside, obscured by corrosion, are traces of technology that appear utterly modern:  gears with neat triangular teeth (just like the inside of a clock) and a ring divided into degrees (like the protractor you used in school). Nothing else like this has ever been discovered from antiquity. Nothing as sophisticated, or even close, appears again for more than a thousand years.

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For decades after divers retrieved these scraps from the Antikythera wreck from 1900 to 1901, scholars were unable to make sense of them. X-ray imaging in the 1970s and 1990s revealed that the device must have replicated the motions of the heavens. Holding it in your hands, you could track the paths of the Sun, Moon and planets with impressive accuracy. One investigator dubbed it “an ancient Greek computer.” But the X-ray images were difficult to interpret, so mainstream historians ignored the artifact even as it was championed by fringe writers such as Erich von Däniken, who claimed it came from an alien spaceship. It wasn’t until 2006 that the Antikythera mechanism captured broader attention. That year, Mike Edmunds of Cardiff University in Wales and his team published CT scans of the fragments, revealing more details of the inner workings, as well as hidden inscriptions—and triggering a burst of scholarly research. 

The Antikythera mechanism was similar in size to a mantel clock, and bits of wood found on the fragments suggest it was housed in a wooden case. Like a clock, the case would’ve had a large circular face with rotating hands. There was a knob or handle on the side, for winding the mechanism forward or backward. And as the knob turned, trains of interlocking gearwheels drove at least seven hands at various speeds. Instead of  hours and minutes, the hands displayed celestial time: one hand for the Sun, one for the Moon and one for each of the five planets visible to the naked eye—Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.  A rotating black and silver ball showed the phase of the Moon. Inscriptions explained which stars rose and set on any particular date. There were also two dial systems on the back of the case, each with a pin that followed its own spiral groove, like the needle on a record player. One of these dials was a calendar. The other showed the timing of lunar and solar eclipses.

The largest of the 82 pieces of the mechanism found so far, Fragment A has four spokes that would’ve rotated once per year, tracking the Sun relative to background stars. (Brett Seymour / WHOI ) A dial on the back (model shown) is for eclipses. (Losmi Chobi / AP Images)

Experts have been working to decipher inscriptions hidden inside the mechanism, in particular to understand the mechanism’s missing pieces, some destroyed, some probably still at the bottom of the sea. Though the pointers on the front face don’t survive, Alexander Jones, a historian at the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World in New York, says an inscription reveals that they carried colored balls: fiery red for Mars, gold for the Sun. 

Also missing are the parts that drove the planetary pointers, leading to debate about exactly how they moved. Because planets orbit the Sun, when viewed from Earth they appear to wander back and forth in the sky. The Greeks explained this motion with “epicycles”: small circles superimposed on a larger orbit. According to Michael Wright, a former curator at London’s Science Museum who has studied the mechanism longer than anyone, it modeled epicycles with trains of small gears riding around larger ones. Though some experts have dismissed this as beyond the Greeks’ abilities, Jones says he will publish evidence supporting the idea later this year.

Other inscriptions hint at where the mechanism was made. Paul Iversen, a classicist at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, reports that the calendar includes month names used in Corinth and its colonies in northwest Greece. A dial that displayed the timing of major athletic festivals, including the Olympics, lists Naa, a festival held in northwest Greece, and Halieia, held to the south on the island of Rhodes. Perhaps the mechanism hailed from Rhodes and was being shipped north. The ancient philosopher Posidonius had a workshop in Rhodes that could have been the source according to Cicero, Posidonius made a similar model of the heavens in the first century B.C.

The tradition of making such mechanisms could be much older. Cicero wrote of a bronze device made by Archimedes in the third century B.C. And James Evans, a historian of astronomy at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington, thinks that the eclipse cycle represented is Babylonian in origin and begins in 205 B.C. Maybe it was Hipparchus, an astronomer in Rhodes around that time, who worked out the math behind the device. He is known for having blended the arithmetic-based predictions of Babylonians with geometric theories favored by the Greeks. 

Regardless, the Antikythera mechanism proves that the ancient Greeks used complex arrangements of precisely cut wheels to represent the latest in scientific understanding. It’s also a window into how the Greeks saw their universe. They came to believe that nature worked according to predefined rules, like a machine—an approach that forms the basis of our modern scientific views. Edmunds argues that this “mechanical philosophy” must have developed as a two-way process. The ancient mechanics who captured the cosmos in bronze weren’t just modeling astronomical theories but were also inspiring them.

About Jo Marchant

Jo Marchant is an award-winning science journalist and former editor at New Scientist and Nature. She is the author of The Human Cosmos: Civilization and the Stars and The Shadow King: The Bizarre Afterlife of King Tut's Mummy.


The population is largely of African ancestry (black), with small numbers of people of European descent (white) and of mixed descent. The official language is English, but most Montserratians also speak a Creole language similar to that spoken in Jamaica. The main religious denominations are Christian: Anglicanism, Methodism, Pentecostalism, Roman Catholicism, and Seventh-day Adventism.

Prior to the mid-1990s, Montserrat’s population was relatively stable because of emigration and a low birth rate. Plymouth and its environs were the main centres of settlement. The island’s population exceeded 10,000 in the early 1990s, but during the volcano crisis more than two-thirds of Montserratians departed for the United Kingdom, neighbouring Antigua, and other parts of the Caribbean region. Some had returned by the late 1990s however, renewed eruptions discouraged resettlement, and access to the southern two-thirds of the island has since been restricted. There are about a dozen small settlements in the western and northern coastal regions, including Look Out, Brades, St. John’s, St. Peter’s, and Davy Hill.

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Snellius construction

Willebrord Snellius &ndash a 16th century mathematician from Leiden, the Netherlands &ndash became famous for implementing and co-inventing the loxodrome&hairsp/&hairsprhumb line and his method of triangulation.

The Snellius construction was first used to obtain the length of the meridian, and thus the earth's circumference, through measuring the distance between two Dutch cities by famously taking the angles from and to church towers of villages in between.

Nowadays we use the Snellius method to derive our position from three bearings without the use of LOPs, so that deviation and variation are left out → simplifying things.

On top of that, since only relative angles are needed, a sextant can be used to determine the angles between navigation aids at greater distances. Closer in, a compass will suffice as well.


  • Figure 1: compass bearings are 320° on A 360° on B 050° on object C.
  • the angle between A and B = 40°.
  • the angle between B and C = 50°.
  • draw lines from A to B and from B to C.
  • add the two light-blue perpendicular bisectors of lines AB and BC.
  • draw at object A a construction line 40° inland of line AB.
  • draw at object C a second construction line 50° inland of line CB.

  • Figure 2: at object A: draw a line perpendicular to the construction line.
  • at object C: draw another line perpendicular to the construction line.
  • the two intersections with the light-blue lines indicate the centres of two circles.
  • finally, draw the first circle using A and B and the second circle using B and C.
  • the offshore intersection of the two circle gives us our position fix.
  1. both deviation and variation can be left out since the angles (here 40° and 50°) are relative ones.
  2. a sextant can be used to obtain high precision angles between objects at greater distances, where it would be less precise with compass bearings.

Over the Air Digital TV

Get free TV with just an antenna . Pickup major networks, local stations, and a growing number of entertainment channels. Over 100 TV channels are available near large cities, over 70 channels near mid size cities, and over 30 channels near small cities (top 200 market cities). The number of available channels keeps on growing.

How It Works
A Digital Television station will transmit a 3 to 1000 kilowatt signal over the air (OTA) from a broadcast tower antenna typically mounted 300 to 2000 feet above the ground. Broadcast towers are often concentrated within a 10 mile radius near or in a city. Some towers broadcast more than one TV station, each TV station broadcast 1 to 4 or more channels. Reception range varies from about 30 miles or more for low power stations to over 80 miles for full power stations.

Picture Quality
Picture resolution is as good as or better than cable or satellite TV. Cable and satellite operators often compress local channels before re-broadcasting. The compression reduces picture quality. Compressing signals opens up more bandwidth and allows providers to squeeze in more channels nobody watches.

Channels are in High Definition (HD) or Standard Definition (SD), and use the ATSC 1.0 protocol. Televisions that are 4k UHD can also receive Ultra High Definition broadcast using the ATSC 3.0 protocol.

Viewing Devices
Most Digital Televisions have a Digital Tuner for receiving OTA broadcast. Television's that get OTA broadcast will have a coax connector labeled "RF In" or "Antenna". Set Top Digital Tuners are available to connect to your computer / network, or monitor. Analog TV's need a Digital to Analog TV Converter to receive OTA broadcast. See Digital Television's (includes set top tuners and converters) page.

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You need - an Antenna
- a Digital TV
Get - Major Networks
- Local TV Stations
- Entertainment Channels
- and More
Resolution - Ultra High Definition (4k UHD)
- High Definition (HD)
- Standard Definition (SD)
Audio - Multi Channel Surround Sound
- Stereo / Mono
Data - Program Guide
- TV Channel, Callsign, Network
- Closed Caption (CC)
Digital TV Channels

38-1 Network
1080i Stereo

The early Analog TV stations (1947 to 2009) used their FCC broadcast license RF Channel number as their station TV channel. One TV channel per RF channel. Digital broadcast can contain multiple TV channels in one RF channel and use 2 numbers for TV channel (Station channel - Sub channel), and another number for broadcast RF channel. During the transition from analog to digital most stations changed their RF channel but kept their old analog channel number as station channel.

Each TV station has 1 or more sub channels (e.g. 38-1, 38-2 etc.). The TV station Channel may or may not be (probably not) the same as the broadcast RF channel.

Your location and antenna are the main factors that determine the number of channels you can get. An indoor antenna will work when relatively close to a broadcast tower, within about 25 miles. Greater distances will require an attic or outside antenna.

A TV station will transmit in either the UHF or VHF frequency band. The VHF band can be sub divided into VHF-Lo and VHF-Hi TV bands. See Television Broadcast Frequencies.

Most stations transmit in the UHF band, and most antenna's are designed to receive UHF signals. Many antennas are designed to get both UHF and VHF signals. In some cases a UHF antenna will receive a VHF signal at reduced power, but still strong enough for reception.

Your antenna should be pointed in the general direction of the broadcast towers, and have a relatively clear path in the towers direction. TV signals are Line-of-Sight, large obstructions (hills, building, trees) can reduce or block reception. See Signal Factors.

Find towers in your area and
the direction to point your antenna:

Outdoor TV Antenna Restrictions Prohibited
Federal Communication Commission (FCC)
Over-the-Air Reception Devices Rule

Rule 47 C.F.R. Section 1.4000

  • Prohibits restrictions that impair installation, maintenance , or use of antennas.
  • Applies to,
    • state, local laws, or regulations including
      • zoning
      • land-use
      • building regulations
      • may prohibit drilling holes, etc.

      Watch the video: How to replace a broken gear case in an angle grinder? Power tool repair (September 2022).

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