As many Germans fled Nazism, did some spies mix in?

As many Germans fled Nazism, did some spies mix in?

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Many German citizens fled Germany in the 1930s to escape persecution or discrimination. Some among them got jobs in the industry, or other potentially sensitive positions. Albert Einstein obtained refugee status in 1933, and has been cited as having some kind of influence that eventually lead to the Manhattan Project.

QUESTION: Did some German spies mix among the refugees in order to infiltrate key positions in the USA or other countries?

According to my prior research, the Duquesne Spy Ring did not contain any people who came as refugees (double-check needed), but maybe other rings did?

Opinions were apparently divided, with Wikipedia saying the following (citing Lanouette & Silard 1992, pp. 238-242):

[… ] the director of the Manhattan Project, Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves, Jr., moved to dismiss Szilard, who was still a German citizen, but the Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson, refused to do so.

There were many people fleeing the Nazis in the 1930s, a lot of them Jewish. Mostly these people were welcomed by Britain. However what greatly complicated their assimilation into British society was that a lot of them were German speakers. Passports did not record people's religion, merely their nationality. So for official purposes, fleeing Jews from Vienna, were recorded as Austrians, and considered German. Often they had to explain to neighbours and others that they were Jewish and hence refugees. Equally among Czech or Polish refugees there may well have been people who were sympathetic to Hitler. Generally so far as the public were concerned anyone speaking German was suspect.

After war broke out parliament gave the government powers under the Defence of the Realm Act, to intern aliens. Anyone who was not British, (in practice mostly Germans, Austrians and Italians) was forced to register with the police. Their cases were considered and depending on what sort of threat each appeared to pose, they were categorised. The lowest category were free to live among the population and merely report at intervals to a police station. They were generally not allowed to live near the coast. However the highest category were put in internment camps for the duration of the war. To begin with, due to the pressures of events, all this was quite crudely done. Some Jews found themselves in internment camps where they were living cheek-by-jowl with Nazis. People who were seen as a risk were sent to such camps as the one on the Isle of Man, out of harm's way.

There is a considerable literature on this subject, but I am not really expert enough to point you to it.

I think you are right that a closer look at the makeup of the 33-member Duquesne Nazi Spy Ring might be instructive here.

While every member of the ring had pre-existing ties to foreign countries*, not one of them came to the USA as a refugee from Germany. Several in fact didn't come from Germany at all. The ringleader was South African.

There were in fact several people of Jewish extraction who were convicted of spying on the USA during this period. However, what they tended to have in common was that they were not themselves refugees but rather descendants of refugees, and they spied for the Soviets (their enemies), not for the Nazis.

There was at least one Nazi spy caught in England posing as a refugee from an occupied country, Willem Ter Braak. Presumably several more spies caught early on in their (often comically bad) infiltration attempts were planning on doing the same thing. Of particular interest would be Jose Walberg, Karl Meier, and two other Dutchmen (whose names I couldn't dig up), who again were comically incompetent, but had forged Dutch refugee papers on them. This spooked the British enough that they detained and started screening all Dutch refugees.

There was another set of refugee Nazi spies in England who, as per the pattern in the USA, were not refugees from Germany, but rather from the USSR (their enemies). Presumably they acquired their love of Nazism from their hatred of the Bolsheviks. Examples of this class are Marina Lee and Vera Von Schalburg

* - The exception here is one Kansas native who was the ringleaders girlfriend, and was convicted basically of not reporting on him.

I think if one is to take a lesson from all this, its that refugees themselves don't tend to be a danger, outside of spying for the enemies of the regime they fled. However, the existence of a refugee community does provide a tempting bit of cover for those who might try to sneak in through other means. The really big danger (such as it is) seems to be in your second-generation citizens.

Universities in Nazi Germany

Universities in Nazi Germany were strictly controlled by the authorities. Senior university professors were hand-picked Nazis. The subjects that were taught in universities had to fit in to Nazi ideology and few in the universities were prepared to openly defy the regime.

Historically, universities in Germany had been held in very high regard for their reputation for teaching students to think outside of the norm. University teachers and students were generally well thought of within German society and the standards set were copied throughout the world. Academic freedom was taken for granted and senior figures within German universities were quick to make comments when it was required. In 1837, seven professors at the University of Gőttingen were sacked because they spoke out against the suspension of the state constitution in Hanover. They felt that the rights of Hanoverians were at risk and made their views known. Their dismissal caused a lot of anger among the state’s population.

But German universities also developed a reputation for something else other than academic excellence. They were frequently breeding grounds for nationalism. In 1915, despite the slaughter that was occurring on the Western Front, 450 university professors signed a statement applauding Germany’s war aims. Many refused to either accept or believe that Germany had surrendered in November 1918 and few publicly expressed their support for Ebert’s Weimar government.

Adolf Hitler distrusted university professors and lecturers as he knew that by the very nature of their academic excellence that they could resist Gleichshaltung ( the coordination of the German population to do as the government wished so that they all thought in the same way). With a history of challenging accepted academic notions, professors were in Hitler’s mind a potential enemy. He determined to eradicate any form of Humanistic thinking in universities and replace it with the next stage of educational thinking that had been seen in schools etc. He wanted universities to teach in a Nazi way and for subjects to have a Nazi slant to them. They were to become political and racial institutions that would push the Nazi beliefs to the nation’s academic elite.

Hitler’s attack on the universities started shortly after he was appointed Chancellor on January 30 th 1933. Any lecturers who were Jewish, known liberals and Social Democrats were dismissed – around 1,200 people or 10% of the total. Reputation counted for nothing. The University of Gőttingen had a worldwide reputation for the work its scientists were doing on quantum physics. But they were dismissed. One university lecturer, Paul Kahle, was found helping out a Jewish friend in her shop. The harassment he suffered after this was so great that he emigrated to Great Britain. Hermann Oncken, a historian, was dismissed after he published a less than complimentary book about Robespierre. In this case, the Nazi government believed that he was openly criticising a regime where one man held great power within a country. Ironically, Oncken had been a frequent critic of the Weimar government. While 1,200 were dismissed, other lecturers believed that worse was to come and resigned before fleeing the country.

However, there were many within universities that openly supported the Nazis and Hitler. The economic collapse in Germany after the 1929 Wall Street Crash had hit universities hard. Many simply could not afford to be a student and money for research was hard to come by. The order and restoration of German greatness as promised by Hitler appealed to many. James Frank won a Nobel Prize for academic excellence. He was offered a university chair in recognition of his achievement but turned it down in protest of the government’s anti-Jewish stance. Frank was a Jew. Rather than support someone who had achieved such academic excellence, 33 professors from the University of Gőttingen signed a letter of protest and claimed that Frank was engaged in nothing less than academic sabotage. The rector of Freiburg University, Martin Heidegger, wrote that:

“The duty of students as well as professors is to serve the people under the triple form of labour service, military service and scientific service.”

Under the Nazi government, the university rector had total power within his university – all part of the leadership principle supported by the Nazis. Therefore, all university rectors were reliable Nazis who were empowered to do as they wished (as long as it fitted in with Nazi ideology) at their university. The new rector at the University of Berlin, Eugen Fischer, had been a member of the Brownshirts (SA) who had a veterinary background. He immediately introduced 25 new courses to do with ‘racial science’. There was no one within the university who could stop him. Nor would such a move anger the government.

Anyone appointed to a university post had to be effectively approved by the government. While a rector had full power within his university, he could only appoint someone who had successfully completed a six-week training course at a National Socialist Lecturers Alliance camp. Such camps required someone to complete fitness courses and learn rudimentary military drill.

University curriculums were strictly controlled so that they fitted in with Nazi beliefs. There was a great emphasis placed on German achievements and any achievement made by a Jew was either ignored or derided. The Theory of Relativity was described as a Jewish plot to achieve world domination and reduce Germans to the level of slaves. Very few were prepared to speak out against such an approach as most, if not all, would have known what the consequences were. The first concentration camp at Dachau was quickly followed by others built throughout Nazi Germany and some of the inmates of these camps were university intellectuals who had dared to speak out.

Some of the greatest academics in Nazi Germany fled, the most famous being Albert Einstein. He, along with another academic refugee Lise Meitner, would play a major role in the development of the atomic bomb. The number of university students also drastically fell from 1933 on. When Hitler came to power in 1933, there were 127,820 students. By 1939 this had fallen to 58,325. To what extent this hindered Nazi Germany can only be speculated. To get a place at university required a young male to have done military service and a young female to have completed labour service. Members of the White Rose resistance movement believed that the students at universities would rise up against Hitler once the truth about how the war was going came out. They were wrong and they paid the price.

Top 15 Most Evil Nazis

The Third Reich, which spanned from 1933 to 1945, was arguably the most heinous regime in history. Comprised of some equally malevolent characters, this administration was responsible for initiating the biggest and most costly war mankind has ever known, and perpetrated one of the worlds biggest acts of genocide, now referred to as the Holocaust. This list could have been bigger but I settled on these 15 (mostly) NSDAP members.

A WWI veteran, the Reichsmarschall was head of the luftwaffe, and the founder of the gestapo. After the fall of France he stole millions of pounds worth of art from Jews, and amassed a personal fortune. Goering took part in the beer hall putsch of 1923 and was wounded in the groin. Subsequently, taking morphine for pain relief, he became addicted to the drug for the rest of his life. In 1940, the Marshal ordered the bombing of the civilian population of Britain (the Blitz) and was involved in planning the holocaust. Goering was the highest-ranking defendant during the Nuremberg Trials. Sentenced to hang, he committed suicide in his cell the night before his execution by cyanide ingestion.

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Known as The &ldquoBitch of Buchenwald&rdquo because of her sadistic cruelty towards prisoners, Ilse Koch was married to another wicked Nazi SS, Karl Otto Koch, but outshone him in the depraved, inhumane, disregard for life which was her trademark. She used her sexual prowess by wandering around the camps naked, with a whip, and if any man so much as glanced at her she would have them shot on the spot. The most infamous accusation against Ilse Koch was that she had selected inmates with interesting tattoos to be killed, so that their skins could be made into lampshades for her home (though, unfortunately, no evidence of these lampshades has been found). After the war she was arrested and spent time in prison on different charges, eventually hanging herself in her cell in 1967, apparently consumed by guilt.

Dr. Paul Josef Goebbels was the Reich Minister of Propaganda, and a vehement antisemite. Goebbels speeches of hatred against Jews arguably initiated the final solution, and no doubt helped sway public opinion to the detriment of the Jewish people. A sufferer of polio, Goebbels had a club foot, but this did not effect his standing as the second best orator in The Reich. He coined the phrase &ldquoTotal War,&rdquo and was instrumental in convincing the nation to fight long after the war was effectively lost. At the end of the war, a devoted Goebbels stayed in Berlin with Hitler and killed himself, along with his wife Magda and their six young children.

Born in Austria, Stangl was a commandant of the Sobibor and Treblinka extermination camps. In 1940, through a direct order from Heinrich Himmler, Stangl became superintendent of the T-4 Euthanasia Program at the Euthanasia Institute at Schloss Hartheim where mentally and physically disabled people were sent to be killed. Stangl accepted, and grew accustomed to the killing of Jews, perceiving prisoners not as humans but merely as &ldquocargo.&rdquo He is quoted as saying, &ldquoI remember standing there, next to the pits full of black-blue corpses&hellip somebody said &lsquoWhat shall we do with rotting garbage?&rsquo that started me thinking of them as cargo. Stangl escaped Germany after the war and was eventually arrested in Brazil, in 1967. He was tried for the deaths of around 900,000 people. He admitted to these killings, but argued: &ldquoMy conscience is clear. I was simply doing my duty.&rdquo He died of heart failure in 1971, while serving a life sentence.

During the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Blobel commanded Sonderkommando 4a of Einsatzgruppe C, that was active in Ukraine. Following Wehrmacht troops into Ukraine, the Einsatzgruppen would be responsible for liquidating political and racial undesirables. Blobel was primarily responsible for the Babi Yar massacre at Kiev. Up to 59,018 executions are attributable to Blobel, though during testimony he was alleged to have killed 10,000 to 15,000 people. He was later sentenced to death by the U.S. Nuremberg Military Tribunal in the Einsatzgruppen Trial. He was hanged at Landsberg Prison on June 8, 1951.

Kramer was the Commandant of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Dubbed &ldquoThe Beast of Belsen&rdquo by camp inmates, he was a notorious Nazi war criminal, directly responsible for the deaths of thousands of people. Kramer adopted his own draconian policies at Auschwitz and Belsen and, along with Irma Grese, he terrorized his prisoners without remorse. After the war he was convicted of war crimes and hanged in Hameln prison by noted British executioner Albert Pierrepoint. Whilst on trial he stated his lack of feelings as he was &ldquojust following orders&rdquo.

Austrian born Kaltenbrunner was chief of security in The Reich where he replaced Reinhard Heydrich. He was president of Interpol from 1943 to 1945, and was there to destroy the enemies within the Reich. Kaltenbrunner was a physically imposing man with scars on his cheeks, which made him look like the tyrant he really was. Kaltenbrunner was one of the main perpetrators of the holocaust and he was hanged after the Nuremberg trials on October 16, 1946. He was the highest ranked SS man to be hanged.

Jeckeln led one of the largest collections of Einsatzgruppen, and was personally responsible for ordering the deaths of over 100,000 Jews, Slavs, Roma, and other &ldquoundesirables&rdquo of the Third Reich, in the occupied Soviet Union during World War II. Jeckeln developed his own methods to kill large numbers of people, which became known as the &ldquoJeckeln System&rdquo during the Rumbula, Babi Yar, and Kamianets-Podilskyi Massacres. After the war he was tried and hanged by the Russians in Riga on February 3, 1946.

WWI veteran Dr. Oskar Dirlewanger led the infamous SS Dirlewanger Brigade, a penal battalion comprised of the sickest most vicious criminals in the Riech. Dirlwanger raped two 13-year-old girls on separate occasions in the 1930s, and lost his Dr. title after being imprisoned, only to have it reinstated after his bravery in combat during the Spanish Civil War. He volunteered for the SS at the start of WWII, and was given his own battalion due to his excellent soldiery, Dirlewanger&rsquos unit was employed in operations against partisans in the occupied Soviet Union, but he and his soldiers are widely believed to have tortured, raped and murdered civilians (including children) and he allegedly fed female hostages strychnine in order to entertain his soldiers whilst they died in agony. Dirlewanger was captured by the French in a hospital after being injured at the front as he had always led his soldiers into battle. The French handed him over to the Polish, who locked him up and beat and tortured him over the next few days. He died from injuries inflicted by the Polish guards around June 5, 1945.

Odilo Globocnik was a prominent Austrian Nazi, and later an SS leader. He was one of the men most responsible for the murder of millions of people during the Holocaust. Globocnik was responsible for liquidating the Warsaw Ghetto, which contained about 500,000 Jews, the largest Jewish community in Europe, and the second largest in the world, after New York. He is also known for liquidating the Bialystok Ghetto, which stood out for its strong resistance to German occupation and resettling a large quantity of Poles under the premise of ethnic cleansing. He was in charge of the implementation and supervision of the Lublin reservation, to which 95,000 Jews were deported, with its adjacent network of forced labour camps in the Lublin district. He was also in charge of over 45,000 Jewish laborers. On May 21st, Shortly after capture, Globocnik committed suicide by means of a cyanide capsule hidden in his mouth.

Take a look inside one of the most horrific periods in human history with Doctors From Hell: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans at!

Eichmann was the organizational talent that orchestrated the mass deportation of Jews from their countries into waiting ghettos and extermination camps. A prodigy of Heydrich, he is sometimes referred to as &ldquothe architect of the Holocaust.&rdquo He learned Hebrew and studied all things Jewish in order to manipulate Jews, through his power of coercion, to leave their occupied territories and possessions in favor of a better life in the ghettos. At the end of the war he was doing the same to Hungarian Jews and, if it wasn&rsquot for the intervention of Raoul Wallenberg, the number of victims of the holocaust would have been much higher. He fled Germany at the end of the war via a ratline to South America, and was captured by the Mossad in Argentina. He was extradited to Israel and executed by hanging in 1962, after a highly-publicized trial. Eichmann&rsquos death was, and is, the only civil execution ever carried out in Israel.

Mengele initially gained notoriety for being one of the SS physicians who supervised the selection of arriving transports of prisoners, determining who was to be killed and who was to become a forced laborer, but is far more infamous for performing grisly human experiments on camp inmates, for which Mengele was called the &ldquoAngel of Death.&rdquo His crimes were evil and of many. When it was reported that one hospital block was infested with lice, Mengele gassed every single one of the 750 women assigned to it. Mengele used Auschwitz as an opportunity to continue his research on heredity, using inmates for human experimentation. He was particularly interested in identical twins. Mengele&rsquos experiments included attempts to take one twin&rsquos eyeballs and attach them to the back of the other twin&rsquos head, changing eye color by injecting chemicals into children&rsquos eyes, various amputations of limbs, and other brutal surgeries. He survived the war, and after a period living incognito in Germany, he fled to South America, where he evaded capture for the rest of his life, despite being hunted as a Nazi war criminal.

Heydrich was appointed Protector of Bohemia and Moravia. In August 1940, he was appointed and served as President of Interpol. Heydrich chaired the 1942 Wannsee Conference, which discussed plans for the deportation and extermination of all Jews in German occupied territory, thus being the mastermind of the holocaust. He was attacked by British trained Czech agents on May 27, 1942, sent to assassinate him in Prague. He died slightly over a week later from complications arising from his injuries. The foundations of genocide were laid by Heydrich and carried out in Operation Reinhard in his name.

Nazis Were Given ‘Safe Haven’ in U.S., Report Says

WASHINGTON — A secret history of the United States government’s Nazi-hunting operation concludes that American intelligence officials created a “safe haven” in the United States for Nazis and their collaborators after World War II, and it details decades of clashes, often hidden, with other nations over war criminals here and abroad.

The 600-page report, which the Justice Department has tried to keep secret for four years, provides new evidence about more than two dozen of the most notorious Nazi cases of the last three decades.

It describes the government’s posthumous pursuit of Dr. Josef Mengele, the so-called Angel of Death at Auschwitz, part of whose scalp was kept in a Justice Department official’s drawer the vigilante killing of a former Waffen SS soldier in New Jersey and the government’s mistaken identification of the Treblinka concentration camp guard known as Ivan the Terrible.

The report catalogs both the successes and failures of the band of lawyers, historians and investigators at the Justice Department’s Office of Special Investigations, which was created in 1979 to deport Nazis.

Perhaps the report’s most damning disclosures come in assessing the Central Intelligence Agency’s involvement with Nazi émigrés. Scholars and previous government reports had acknowledged the C.I.A.’s use of Nazis for postwar intelligence purposes. But this report goes further in documenting the level of American complicity and deception in such operations.

The Justice Department report, describing what it calls “the government’s collaboration with persecutors,” says that O.S.I investigators learned that some of the Nazis “were indeed knowingly granted entry” to the United States, even though government officials were aware of their pasts. “America, which prided itself on being a safe haven for the persecuted, became — in some small measure — a safe haven for persecutors as well,” it said.

The report also documents divisions within the government over the effort and the legal pitfalls in relying on testimony from Holocaust survivors that was decades old. The report also concluded that the number of Nazis who made it into the United States was almost certainly much smaller than 10,000, the figure widely cited by government officials.

The Justice Department has resisted making the report public since 2006. Under the threat of a lawsuit, it turned over a heavily redacted version last month to a private research group, the National Security Archive, but even then many of the most legally and diplomatically sensitive portions were omitted. A complete version was obtained by The New York Times.

The Justice Department said the report, the product of six years of work, was never formally completed and did not represent its official findings. It cited “numerous factual errors and omissions,” but declined to say what they were.

More than 300 Nazi persecutors have been deported, stripped of citizenship or blocked from entering the United States since the creation of the O.S.I., which was merged with another unit this year.

In chronicling the cases of Nazis who were aided by American intelligence officials, the report cites help that C.I.A. officials provided in 1954 to Otto Von Bolschwing, an associate of Adolf Eichmann who had helped develop the initial plans “to purge Germany of the Jews” and who later worked for the C.I.A. in the United States. In a chain of memos, C.I.A. officials debated what to do if Von Bolschwing were confronted about his past — whether to deny any Nazi affiliation or “explain it away on the basis of extenuating circumstances,” the report said.

The Justice Department, after learning of Von Bolschwing’s Nazi ties, sought to deport him in 1981. He died that year at age 72.

The report also examines the case of Arthur L. Rudolph, a Nazi scientist who ran the Mittelwerk munitions factory. He was brought to the United States in 1945 for his rocket-making expertise under Operation Paperclip, an American program that recruited scientists who had worked in Nazi Germany. (Rudolph has been honored by NASA and is credited as the father of the Saturn V rocket.)

The report cites a 1949 memo from the Justice Department’s No. 2 official urging immigration officers to let Rudolph back in the country after a stay in Mexico, saying that a failure to do so “would be to the detriment of the national interest.”

Justice Department investigators later found evidence that Rudolph was much more actively involved in exploiting slave laborers at Mittelwerk than he or American intelligence officials had acknowledged, the report says.

Some intelligence officials objected when the Justice Department sought to deport him in 1983, but the O.S.I. considered the deportation of someone of Rudolph’s prominence as an affirmation of “the depth of the government’s commitment to the Nazi prosecution program,” according to internal memos.

The Justice Department itself sometimes concealed what American officials knew about Nazis in this country, the report found.

In 1980, prosecutors filed a motion that “misstated the facts” in asserting that checks of C.I.A. and F.B.I. records revealed no information on the Nazi past of Tscherim Soobzokov, a former Waffen SS soldier. In fact, the report said, the Justice Department “knew that Soobzokov had advised the C.I.A. of his SS connection after he arrived in the United States.”

(After the case was dismissed, radical Jewish groups urged violence against Mr. Soobzokov, and he was killed in 1985 by a bomb at his home in Paterson, N.J. )

The secrecy surrounding the Justice Department’s handling of the report could pose a political dilemma for President Obama because of his pledge to run the most transparent administration in history. Mr. Obama chose the Justice Department to coordinate the opening of government records.

The Nazi-hunting report was the brainchild of Mark Richard, a senior Justice Department lawyer. In 1999, he persuaded Attorney General Janet Reno to begin a detailed look at what he saw as a critical piece of history, and he assigned a career prosecutor, Judith Feigin, to the job. After Mr. Richard edited the final version in 2006, he urged senior officials to make it public but was rebuffed, colleagues said.

When Mr. Richard became ill with cancer, he told a gathering of friends and family that the report’s publication was one of three things he hoped to see before he died, the colleagues said. He died in June 2009, and Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. spoke at his funeral.

“I spoke to him the week before he died, and he was still trying to get it released,” Ms. Feigin said. “It broke his heart.”

After Mr. Richard’s death, David Sobel, a Washington lawyer, and the National Security Archive sued for the report’s release under the Freedom of Information Act.

The Justice Department initially fought the lawsuit, but finally gave Mr. Sobel a partial copy — with more than 1,000 passages and references deleted based on exemptions for privacy and internal deliberations.

Laura Sweeney, a Justice Department spokeswoman, said the department is committed to transparency, and that redactions are made by experienced lawyers.

The full report disclosed that the Justice Department found “a smoking gun” in 1997 establishing with “definitive proof” that Switzerland had bought gold from the Nazis that had been taken from Jewish victims of the Holocaust. But these references are deleted, as are disputes between the Justice and State Departments over Switzerland’s culpability in the months leading up to a major report on the issue.

Another section describes as “a hideous failure” a series of meetings in 2000 that United States officials held with Latvian officials to pressure them to pursue suspected Nazis. That passage is also deleted.

So too are references to macabre but little-known bits of history, including how a director of the O.S.I. kept a piece of scalp that was thought to belong to Dr. Mengele in his desk in hopes that it would help establish whether he was dead.

The chapter on Dr. Mengele, one of the most notorious Nazis to escape prosecution, details the O.S.I.’s elaborate efforts in the mid-1980s to determine whether he had fled to the United States and might still be alive.

It describes how investigators used letters and diaries apparently written by Dr. Mengele in the 1970s, along with German dental records and Munich phone books, to follow his trail.

After the development of DNA tests, the piece of scalp, which had been turned over by the Brazilian authorities, proved to be a critical piece of evidence in establishing that Dr. Mengele had fled to Brazil and had died there in about 1979 without ever entering the United States, the report said. The edited report deletes references to Dr. Mengele’s scalp on privacy grounds.

Even documents that have long been available to the public are omitted, including court decisions, Congressional testimony and front-page newspaper articles from the 1970s.

A chapter on the O.S.I.’s most publicized failure — the case against John Demjanjuk, a retired American autoworker who was mistakenly identified as Treblinka’s Ivan the Terrible — deletes dozens of details, including part of a 1993 ruling by the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit that raised ethics accusations against Justice Department officials.

That section also omits a passage disclosing that Latvian émigrés sympathetic to Mr. Demjanjuk secretly arranged for the O.S.I.’s trash to be delivered to them each day from 1985 to 1987. The émigrés rifled through the garbage to find classified documents that could help Mr. Demjanjuk, who is currently standing trial in Munich on separate war crimes charges.

Ms. Feigin said she was baffled by the Justice Department’s attempt to keep a central part of its history secret for so long. “It’s an amazing story,” she said, “that needs to be told.”


William Sebold (double-agent) Edit

After the Duquesne Spy Ring convictions, Sebold was provided with a new identity and started a chicken farm in California. [2]

Impoverished and delusional, he was committed to Napa State Hospital in 1965. Diagnosed with manic-depression, he died there of a heart attack five years later at 70. [3] His life story as a double agent was first told in the 1943 book Passport to Treason: The Inside Story of Spies in America by Alan Hynd.

James Ellsworth Edit

Special Agent Jim Ellsworth was assigned as Sebold's handler or body man, responsible for shadowing his every move during the sixteen-month investigation. [4] [5]

William Gustav Friedemann Edit

William Gustav Friedemann was a principal witness in the Duquesne case. He began working for the FBI as a fingerprint analyst in 1935 and later became an agent after identifying a crucial fingerprint in a kidnapping case. [6]

After World War II, he was assigned to Puerto Rico, where he pinpointed the group behind the assassination attempt on President Harry Truman. [7] Friedemann died of cancer on August 23, 1989 in Stillwater, Oklahoma. [7]

Frederick Joubert Duquesne aka Fritz Joubert Duquesne Edit

Born in Cape Colony, South Africa, on September 21, 1877, and a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1913, Fritz Joubert Duquesne was a Captain in the Second Boer War [8] and later a Colonel in the Abwehr, Germany's division of military intelligence. [9]

Duquesne was captured and imprisoned three times by the British, once by the Portuguese, and once by the Americans in 1917, and each time he escaped. [8] In World War I, he was a spy and ring leader for Germany and during this time he sabotaged British merchant ships in South America with concealed bombs and destroyed several. [8] Duquesne was also ordered to assassinate an American, Frederick Russell Burnham, Chief of Scouts for the British Army, but failed to do so. [10] He was also known as "The man who killed Kitchener" since he claimed to have sabotaged and sunk HMS Hampshire, on which Lord Kitchener was en route to Russia in 1916. [11]

In the spring of 1934, Duquesne became an intelligence officer for the Order of 76, an American pro-Nazi organization, and in January 1935 he began working for U.S. government's Works Progress Administration. Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, head of the Abwehr, knew Duquesne from his work in World War I and he instructed his new chief of operations in the U.S., Col. Nikolaus Ritter, to make contact. Ritter had been friends with Duquesne back in 1931 and the two spies reconnected in New York on December 3, 1937. [2]

On February 8, 1940, Ritter sent Sebold, under the alias of Harry Sawyer, to New York and instructed him to set up a shortwave radio-transmitting station and to contact Duquesne, code-named DUNN. [2]

Once the FBI discovered through Sebold that Duquesne was again in New York operating as a German spy, director J. Edgar Hoover provided a background briefing to President Franklin Roosevelt. [9] FBI agent Raymond Newkirk, using the name Ray McManus, was now assigned to DUNN and he rented a room immediately above Duquesne's apartment near Central Park and used a hidden microphone to record Duquesne's conversations. [9] But monitoring Duquesne's activities proved to be difficult. As Newkirk described it, "The Duke had been a spy all of his life and automatically used all of the tricks in the book to avoid anyone following him . He would take a local train, change to an express, change back to a local, go through a revolving door and keep going on right around, take an elevator up a floor, get off, walk back to the ground, and take off in a different entrance of the building." [9] Duquesne also informed Sebold that he was certain he was under surveillance, and he even confronted one FBI agent and demanded that he stop tracking him, a story confirmed by agent Newkirk. [9]

In a letter to the Chemical Warfare Service in Washington, D.C., Duquesne requested information on a new gas mask. He identified himself as a "well-known, responsible and reputable writer and lecturer". At the bottom of the letter, he wrote, "Don't be concerned if this information is confidential, because it will be in the hands of a good, patriotic citizen." A short time later, the information he requested arrived in the mail and a week later it was being read by intelligence officers in Berlin. [12]

He served his sentence in Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary in Kansas, where he was mistreated and beaten by other inmates. In 1954, he was released due to ill health, having served 14 years, and died indigent, at City Hospital on Welfare Island (now Roosevelt Island), New York City on May 24, 1956, at the age of 78. [9]

Max Blank Edit

Blank boasted to agent Sebold that he had been in the espionage business since 1936, but that he had lost interest in recent years because payments from Germany had fallen off. [13]

Blank pleaded guilty to violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act. He received a sentence of 18 months' imprisonment and a $1,000 fine. [13]

Heinrich Clausing Edit

Around 1938, Heine was recruited to find American automobile and aviation industry secrets that could be passed to Germany through the Duquesne Spy Ring. [13]

Later it was discovered that Heine was also the mysterious "Heinrich" who supplied the spy ring with aerial photographs. [13]

After obtaining technical books relating to magnesium and aluminum alloys, Heine sent the materials to Heinrich Eilers. To ensure safe delivery of the books to Germany in case they did not reach Eilers, Heine indicated the return address on the package as the address of Lilly Stein. [13]

Upon conviction of violating the Registration Act, Heine received a $5,000 fine and a 2-year prison sentence.

Herman W. Lang Edit

Herman W. Lang had participated with Adolf Hitler in the Munich beer hall putsch of 1923. [2]

Until his arrest, Lang had been employed by the Carl L. Norden Corp., which manufactured the top secret Norden bombsight. Ritter then hid the plans in the wooden casing for an umbrella, and, on January 9, 1938, personally handed the umbrella off to a German steward and secret courier on the ship Reliance bound for Bremen. [2]

The Norden bombsight had been considered a critical wartime instrument by the United States Army Air Forces, and American bombardiers were required to take an oath during their training stating that they would defend its secret with their own life, if needed. [14] The Lotfernrohr 3 and the BZG 2 in 1942 used a similar set of gyroscopes that provided a stabilized platform for the bombardier to sight through, although the more complex interaction between the bombsight and autopilot was not used. Later in the war, Luftwaffe bombers used the Carl Zeiss Lotfernrohr 7, or Lotfe 7, which had an advanced mechanical system similar to the Norden bombsight, but was much simpler to operate and maintain. [ citation needed ] At one point, Sebold was ordered to contact Lang as it became known that the technology he had stolen from Norden was being used in German bombers. The Nazis offered to spirit him to safety in Germany, but Lang refused to leave his home in Ridgewood, Queens. [3]

Upon conviction, Lang received a sentence of 18 years in prison on espionage charges and a two-year concurrent sentence under the Registration Act. Lang was deported to Germany in September 1950. [2]

Evelyn Clayton Lewis Edit

A native of Arkansas, Evelyn Clayton Lewis had been living with Duquesne in New York City. Lewis had expressed her anti-British and anti-Semitic feelings during her relationship with Duquesne. She was aware of his espionage activities and condoned them. While she was not active in obtaining information for Germany, she helped Duquesne prepare material for transmittal abroad. Upon a guilty plea, Lewis was sentenced to serve one year and one day in prison for violation of the Registration Act. [13]

Rene Emanuel Mezenen Edit

Rene Emanuel Mezenen, a Frenchman, claimed U.S. citizenship through the naturalization of his father. Prior to his arrest, he was employed as a steward in the Pan American transatlantic clipper service. [13]

The German Intelligence Service in Lisbon, Portugal, asked Mezenen to act as a courier, transmitting information between the United States and Portugal on his regular commercial aircraft trips. As a steward he was able to deliver documents from New York to Lisbon in 24 hours. He accepted this offer for financial gain. In the course of flights across the Atlantic, Mezenen reported his observance of convoys sailing for England. He also became involved in smuggling platinum from the United States to Portugal. When discussing his courier role with agent Sebold, Mezenen boasted that he hid the spy letters so well that if they were found it would have taken two to three weeks to repair the airplane. [13]

Following a plea of guilty, Mezenen received an eight-year prison term for espionage and two concurrent years for registration violations. [13]

Carl Reuper Edit

Having come to the United States from Germany in 1929, Carl Reuper became a citizen in 1936. Prior to his arrest, he served as an inspector for the Westinghouse Electric Company in Newark, New Jersey. [13] Previously, he worked as a mechanic for the Air Associates Company in Bendix, New Jersey. [9]

Reuper obtained photographs for Germany relating to national defense materials and construction, which he obtained from his employment. He arranged radio contact with Germany through the station established by Felix Jahnke. On one occasion, he conferred with Sebold regarding the latter's facilities for communicating with German authorities. Upon conviction, Reuper was sentenced to 16 years' imprisonment on espionage charges and 2 years' concurrent sentence under the Registration Act. [13]

Everett Minster Roeder Edit

Born in the Bronx, New York, Everett Minster Roeder was the son of a celebrated piano instructor, Carl Roeder. [9] A child prodigy, when he was 15 years old he enrolled in engineering at Cornell University and there he met the brothers Edward and Elmer Sperry however he dropped out of school when he was 18 and married his pregnant girlfriend. [9] He was one of the first employees at the Sperry Gyroscope Company where he worked as an engineer and designer of confidential materials for the U.S. Army and Navy. [2] In his job as a gyroscope expert working on U.S. military contracts, Roeder built machines such as tracking devices for long range guns capable of hitting moving targets 10 miles away, aircraft autopilot and blind-flying systems, ship stabilizers, and anti-aircraft search lights. [9]

Sebold had delivered microphotograph instructions to Roeder, as ordered by German authorities. Roeder and Sebold met in public places and proceeded to spots where they could talk privately. In 1936, Roeder had visited Germany and was requested by German authorities to act as an espionage agent. Primarily due to monetary rewards he would receive, Roeder agreed. [13]

Among the Sperry development secrets Roeder disclosed were the blueprints of the complete radio instrumentation of the new Glenn Martin bomber, classified drawings of range finders, blind-flying instruments, a bank-and-turn indicator, a navigator compass, a wiring diagram of the Lockheed Hudson bomber, and diagrams of the Hudson gun mountings. [2] From Roeder the Abwehr also obtained the plans for an advanced automatic pilot device that was later used in Luftwaffe fighters and bombers.* [15] At the time of his arrest, Roeder had 16 guns in his Long Island home in New York. [9]

Roeder entered a guilty plea to the charge of espionage and was sentenced to 16 years in prison. In 1949, Roeder published his book, Formulas in plane triangles. [16]

Paul Alfred W. Scholz Edit

A German native, Paul Scholz went to the United States in 1926 but never attained citizenship. He had been employed in German book stores in New York City, where he disseminated Nazi propaganda. [13]

Scholz had arranged for Josef Klein to construct the radio set used by Felix Jahnke and Axel Wheeler-Hill. At the time of his arrest, Scholz had just given Gustav Wilhelm Kaercher a list of radio call letters and frequencies. He also encouraged members of this spy ring to secure data for Germany and arranged contacts between various German agents. [13]

Upon conviction, Scholz was sentenced to 16 years' imprisonment for espionage with 2 years' concurrent sentence under the Registration Act. [13]

George Gottlob Schuh Edit

George Gottlob Schuh, a native of Germany, went to the United States in 1923. He became a citizen in 1939 and was employed as a carpenter. [13]

As a German agent, he sent information directly to the Gestapo in Hamburg from the United States. Schuh had provided Alfred Brokhoff information that Winston Churchill had arrived in the United States on HMS King George V. He also furnished information to Germany concerning the movement of ships carrying materials and supplies to Britain. [13]

Having pleaded guilty to violation of the Registration Act, Schuh received a sentence of 18 months in prison and a $1,000 fine. [13]

Erwin Wilhelm Siegler Edit

Erwin Wilhelm Siegler went to the United States from Germany in 1929 and attained citizenship in 1936. He had served as chief butcher on the SS America until it was taken over by the U.S. Navy. [13]

A courier, Siegler brought microphotographic instructions to Sebold from German authorities on one occasion. He also had brought $2,900 from German contacts abroad to pay Lilly Stein, Duquesne, and Roeder for their services and to buy a bomb sight. He served the espionage group as an organizer and contact man, and he also obtained information about the movement of ships and military defense preparations at the Panama Canal. [13]

Subsequent to his conviction, Siegler was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment on espionage charges and a concurrent 2-year term for violation of the Registration Act. [13]

Oscar Richard Stabler Edit

Born in Germany, Oscar Richard Stabler went to the United States in 1923 and became a citizen in 1933. He had been employed primarily as a barber aboard transoceanic ships.

In December 1940, British authorities in Bermuda found a map of Gibraltar in his possession. He was detained for a short period before being released. A close associate of Conradin Otto Dold, Stabler served as a courier, transmitting information between German agents in the United States and contacts abroad. [13]

Stabler was convicted and sentenced to serve five years in prison for espionage and a two-year concurrent term under the Registration Act. [13]

Heinrich Stade Edit

Heinrich Stade went to the United States from Germany in 1922 and became a citizen in 1929. [13] He had been a musician and publicity agent in New York. He told agent Sebold he had been in the German Gestapo since 1936 and boasted that he knew everything in the spy business.

Stade had arranged for Paul Bante's contact with Sebold and had transmitted data to Germany regarding points of rendezvous for convoys carrying supplies to England. [13]

Stade was arrested while playing in the orchestra at an inn on Long Island, New York. Following a guilty plea to violation of the Registration Act, Stade was fined $1,000 and received a 15-month prison sentence. [13]

Lilly Barbara Carola Stein Edit

Born in Vienna, Stein was a Jewish immigrant who had escaped in 1939 with the help of a U.S. diplomat in Vienna, Vice Consul Ogden Hammond Jr. [9] She later met Hugo Sebold, the espionage instructor who had trained William Sebold (the two men were not related) in Hamburg, Germany. She enrolled in this school and was sent to the United States by way of Sweden in 1939. [13]

In New York, she worked as an artist's model and was said to have moved in New York's social circles. As a German agent her mission was to find her targets at New York nightclubs, sleep with these men, and attempt to blackmail them or otherwise entice them to give up valuable secrets. One FBI agent described her as a "good-looking nymphomaniac". [9] Stein was one of the people to whom Sebold had been instructed to deliver microphotograph instructions upon his arrival in the United States. She frequently met with Sebold to give him information for transmittal to Germany, and her address was used as a return address by other agents in mailing data for Germany. [13]

Stein pleaded guilty and received sentences of 10 years' and 2 concurrent years' imprisonment for violations of espionage and registration statutes, respectively. [13] She served 12 years and left for France where she found employment at a luxury resort near Strasbourg. [9]

Franz Joseph Stigler Edit

In 1931, Franz Joseph Stigler, left Germany for the United States, where he became a citizen in 1939. He had been employed as a crew member and chief baker aboard U.S. ships until his discharge from the SS America when the U.S. Navy converted that ship into USS West Point. [13] His constant companion was Erwin Siegler, and they operated as couriers in transmitting information between the United States and German agents aboard. Stigler sought to recruit amateur radio operators in the United States as channels of communication to German radio stations. He had also observed and reported defense preparations in the Panama Canal Zone and had met with other German agents to advise them in their espionage pursuits. [13] In January 1941, Stigler asked agent Sebold to radio Germany that Prime Minister Winston Churchill had arrived secretly in the U.S. on the H.M.S. King George V with Lord Halifax. [ citation needed ]

Upon conviction, Stigler was sentenced to serve 16 years in prison on espionage charges with 2 concurrent years for registration violations. [13]

Erich Strunck Edit

A seaman aboard the ships of the United States Lines since his arrival in the United States, Erich Strunck went to the United States from Germany in 1927. He became a naturalized citizen in 1935. As a courier, Strunck carried messages between German agents in the United States and Europe. He requested authority to steal the diplomatic bag of a British officer traveling aboard his ship and to dispose of the officer by pushing him overboard. Sebold convinced him that it would be too risky to do so. [13]

Strunck was convicted and sentenced to serve 10 years in prison on espionage charges. He also was sentenced to serve a two-year concurrent term under the Registration Act. [13]

Leo Waalen Edit

Leo Waalen was born in Danzig, Germany. He entered the United States by "jumping ship" about 1935. He was a painter for a small boat company which was constructing small craft for the U.S. Navy. [13]

Waalen gathered information about ships sailing for England. He also obtained a confidential booklet issued by the FBI which contained precautions to be taken by industrial plants to safeguard national defense materials from sabotage. He secured government contracts listing specifications for materials and equipment, as well as detailed sea charts of the United States Atlantic coastline. [13]

In May 1941, the SS Robin Moor was carrying nine officers, 29 crewmen, seven or eight passengers, and a commercial cargo from New York to Mozambique via South Africa, without a protective convoy. On 21 May, the ship was stopped by U-69 in the tropical Atlantic 750 miles west of the British-controlled port of Freetown, Sierra Leone. [ citation needed ]

Although the SS Robin Moor was flying the flag of a neutral country, her mate was told by the U-boat crew that they had decided to "let us have it". After a brief period for the ship's crew and passengers to board her four lifeboats, the U-boat fired a torpedo and then shelled the vacated ship. [ citation needed ]

Once the ship sank beneath the waves, the submarine's crew pulled up to Captain W.E. Myers' lifeboat, left him with four tins of ersatz bread and two tins of butter, and explained that the ship had been sunk because she was carrying supplies to Germany's enemy. [ citation needed ]

In October 1941, federal prosecutors adduced testimony that Waalen, one of the fourteen accused men who had pleaded not guilty to all charges, had submitted the sailing date of the SS Robin Moor for radio transmission to Germany, five days before the ship began her final voyage. [ citation needed ]

Following his conviction, Waalen was sentenced to 12 years in prison for espionage and a concurrent 2-year term for violation of the Registration Act. [13]

Adolf Henry August Walischewski Edit

A German native, Walischewski had been a seaman since maturity. He became a naturalized citizen in 1935. Walischewski became connected with the German espionage system through Paul Fehse. His duties were confined to those of courier, carrying data from agents in the United States to contacts abroad. [13]

Upon conviction, Walischewski received a five-year prison sentence on espionage charges, as well as a two-year concurrent sentence under the Registration Act. [13]

Else Weustenfeld Edit

Else Weustenfeld arrived in the United States from Germany in 1927 and became a citizen 10 years later. From 1935 until her arrest, she was a secretary for a law firm representing the German Consulate in New York City. [13]

Weustenfeld was thoroughly acquainted with the German espionage system and delivered funds to Duquesne which she had received from Lilly Stein, her close friend. [13]

She lived in New York City with Hans W. Ritter, a principal in the German espionage system. His brother, Nickolaus Ritter, was the "Dr. Renken" who had enlisted Sebold as a German agent. In 1940, Weustenfeld visited Hans Ritter in Mexico, where he was serving as a paymaster for the German Intelligence Service. [13]

After pleading guilty, Else Weustenfeld was sentenced to five years' imprisonment on charge of espionage and two concurrent years on a charge of registration violations. [13]

Axel Wheeler-Hill Edit

Axel Wheeler-Hill went to the United States in 1923 from his native Russia. He was naturalized as a citizen in 1929 and was employed as a truck driver. [13]

Wheeler-Hill obtained information for Germany regarding ships sailing to Britain from New York Harbor. With Felix Jahnke, he enlisted the aid of Paul Scholz in building a radio set for sending coded messages to Germany. [13]

Following conviction, Wheeler-Hill was sentenced to serve 15 years in prison for espionage and 2 concurrent years under the Registration Act. [13]

Bertram Wolfgang Zenzinger Edit

Born in Germany, Bertram Wolfgang Zenzinger went to the United States in 1940 as a naturalized citizen of the Union of South Africa. His reported reason for coming to the United States was to study mechanical dentistry in Los Angeles, California. [13]

In July 1940, Zenzinger received a pencil for preparing invisible messages for Germany in the mail from Siegler. He sent several letters to Germany through a mail drop in Sweden, outlining details of national defense materials. [13]

Zenzinger was arrested by FBI agents on April 16, 1941. Pleading guilty, he received 18 months in prison for violation of the Registration Act and 8 years' imprisonment for espionage. [13]

Takeo Ezima Edit

Lieut Commander Takeo Ezima of the Imperial Japanese Navy operated in New York as an engineer inspector using the name: E. Satoz [9] [ page needed ] code name: KATO. [17]

He arrived on the Heian Maru in Seattle in 1938. [9] On October 19, 1940, Sebold received a radio message from Germany that CARR (Abwehr Agent Roeder) was to meet E. Satoz at a Japanese club in New York. [18]

Ezima was filmed by the FBI while meeting with agent Sebold in New York, conclusive evidence of German-Japanese cooperation in espionage, in addition to meeting with Kanegoro Koike, Paymaster Commander of the Japanese Imperial Navy assigned to the Office of the Japanese Naval Inspector in New York. [9] [19] Ezima obtained a number of military materials from Duquesne, including ammunition, a drawing of a hydraulic unit with pressure switch A-5 of the Sperry Gyroscope, and an original drawing from the Lawrence Engineering and Research Corporation of a soundproofing installation, and he agreed to deliver materials to Germany via Japan. [17] [19] [20] The British had made the Abwehr courier route from New York through Lisbon, Portugal difficult, so Ezima arranged an alternate route to the West Coast with deliveries every two weeks on freighters destined for Japan. [18]

As the FBI arrested Duquesne and his agents in New York in 1941, Ezima escaped to the West Coast, boarded the Japanese freighter Kamakura Maru, and left for Tokyo. [20] One historian states that Ezima was arrested for espionage in 1942 and sentenced to 15 years [19] however, U.S Naval Intelligence documents state that "at the request [of] the State Department, Ezima was not prosecuted." [17]

Nikolaus Adolph Fritz Ritter Edit

Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant colonel) Nikolaus Ritter led spy rings in the United States, Great Britain, and North Africa from 1936 to 1941. Ritter was born in Germany and had served as an officer in the First World War on the Western Front in France where he was twice wounded. He emigrated to New York in 1924, married an American, and returned to Germany in 1936 to join the Abwehr as Chief of Air Intelligence based in Hamburg operating under the code name: DR. RANTZAU.

He first met Fritz Duquesne in 1931, and the two spies reconnected in New York on December 3, 1937. Ritter also met Herman Lang while in New York, and he arranged for Lang to later go to Germany help the Nazis finish their version of the topsecret Norden bombsight. Ritter achieved several major successes with the Abwehr, most notably the Norden bombsight, in addition to an advanced aircraft auto-pilot from the Sperry Gyroscope Company, and also intelligence operations in North Africa in support of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. But some of Ritter's recruits became double-agents who catastrophically exposed his spy rings. [9]

Ritter recruited William Sebold who later joined the FBI which resulted in the arrest of the 33 Abwehr agents of the Duquesne Spy Ring. In Great Britain, he recruited Arthur Owens, code named JOHNNY, who became an agent for MI5 (British Intelligence) operating under the code name SNOW. Owens exposed so many Abwehr covert agents operating in Britain that by the end of the war MI5 had enlisted some 120 double agents. Although Ritter was never captured, it was the arrest of the Duquesne Spy Ring that ultimately resulted in Ritter's fall from the Abwehr and his reassignment in 1942 to air defenses in Germany for the remainder of the Second World War. [9]

Nazis and Reptilians in Antarctica – Uncovering the Truth through Remote Viewing

The Farsight Institute has just released the results of multiple remote viewing sessions focusing on the true history of Antarctica in terms of a breakaway German colony established there with the help of extraterrestrials during the World War II era. The remote viewing sessions were conducted using a rigorous blind scientific protocol developed by Dr. Courtney Brown, and the results were, frankly, very impressive.

The consistency of the results with what whistleblowers and insiders had previously revealed, and the additional details they provide about the events that occurred in Antarctica leading up to and including Admiral Byrd’s Operation Highjump expedition from August 1946 to February 1947, makes the remote viewing data very helpful in reaching a more accurate understanding of our history.

Dr. Brown provided two targets to five remote viewers who were not given any details about the targets, so they could not front-load their own biases and opinions about it. Here is how he explains the scientific protocol used for all remote viewing sessions:

Blind Conditions for All Remote-Viewing Data: All remote viewing for this project (as with all projects conducted at The Farsight Institute) was conducted under totally blind conditions. The viewers were told nothing about the project or specific targets while they were conducting their remote-viewing sessions. They were only instructed that there is a target, and that they should remote view it.

In the Antarctica remote viewing sessions, there were two targets that the five remote viewers would focus on.

Target 1. The most advanced Nazi base in Antarctica, circa the end of World War II.

Target 2. The most significant battle between the Nazi forces in Antarctica and US forces, circa the end of World War II or after.

It’s important to emphasize that the five remote viewers were instructed to focus respectively on Target 1 and Target 2 without being told anything about either target.

It needs to also be pointed out that it is not unusual to get remote viewers to focus on historical events in remote locations. CIA documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act confirm that the CIA hired remote viewers to gain intelligence on events on Mars as far back as one million years ago. Clearly, those within the intelligence community appreciate the importance of remote viewing data to better understand events that transpired decades, centuries, and even millennia ago.

In the two-part video series that has just been released, Dr. Brown provides his introductory remarks to each target and what the five remote viewers found. At the end of each segment of five presentations, he gives his own summary and analysis about each target. The following trailer introduces the two-part video series that spans four hours and what was discovered.

In Part 1, the five remote viewers presented their data on what they had witnessed. They all described seeing large artificial structures in a remote cold, snow-covered mountainous region. Saucer-shaped craft were sighted in the vicinity, and several remote viewers witnessed them either landing or proceeding into a large underground facility that was accessed through a mountain entrance.

One of the underground facilities was a large urban dwelling, dwarfed by even larger industrial manufacturing areas nearby, all connected by a transportation system of some kind. The five remote viewers all described seeing humans and extraterrestrials interact in various situations and those key individuals in command positions. The attitude of the humans was a mix of fear, anger, and arrogance. The extraterrestrials had an attitude of superiority, dominance, and boredom in working with humans.

None of the remote viewers explicitly mentioned Antarctica or Nazis. However, the descriptions they gave of the location and people involved for Target 1 were clearly indicative of both. While there were some variations in reports of the area, structures, humans, and extraterrestrials each of the remote viewers witnessed, collectively, they provided impressive details on Target 1: “The most advanced Nazi base in Antarctica, circa the end of World War II.”

Dr. Brown provided his analysis and summary of what the five remote viewers had observed in relation to Target 1:

What we found out is that there was a huge Nazi presence in Antarctica at the end of World War II. Moreover, they had help, extraterrestrial help, and in fact, very surprising extraterrestrial help. Clearly, the Nazis could not have established a powerful military presence in Antarctica without outside assistance, the environment was just too inhospitable. So they got help but we ultimately found out that they got help from two very different extraterrestrial groups.

One of the extraterrestrial groups helping the Nazis was Reptilian, while the other group was a human-looking group working with both the Nazis and Reptilians.

The remote viewing data aligns closely with what William Tompkins said he, and members of a covert Naval espionage team stationed at Naval Air Station San Diego during World War II, was told by nearly 30 navy spies embedded in top aerospace corporations in Nazi Germany. The spies revealed that Reptilian extraterrestrials had helped Hitler’s regime establish a base in Antarctica during the war and guided the Germans to precise locations where they could establish a large base—Admiral Donitz’s impregnable Shangri-la from which the Germans could one day rebound from their impending military defeat in Europe: “The German submarine fleet is proud of having built for the Führer, in another part of the world, a Shangri-La on land, an impregnable fortress.”

Tompkins’ testimony is backed by multiple insiders and historical documents that I discuss in detail in Antarctica’s Hidden History: Corporate Foundations of Secret Space Programs (2018). Therefore, the remote viewing data is an additional source of evidence supporting claims that the Nazis had established a breakaway colony in Antarctica, which continued operations well beyond World War II.

The five remote viewers next proceeded to Target 2, again without being given any details of what they were looking for. This time the five witnessed large aerial battles over the remote mountainous region in a cold, snowy terrain. One side of the battle possessed flying saucers coming both from outer space and from undersea locations that were piloted by a mix of humans and extraterrestrials, while the other side comprised conventional aircraft piloted exclusively by humans, a number of naval ships, and ground forces.

The side led by humans was described as military in orientation and behavior, and possessed aircraft, ships, and ground troops. Before the battle, the leader of the human side was confident and determined to fulfill his mission of finding and destroying the underground facilities of the other side—the secret German Antarctic base.

The results are consistent with what is known about Admiral Byrd’s Task Force 68, which comprised 13 ships, 33 aircraft, and 4700 US servicemen in Operation Highjump, and the secret orders he had been given to find and subdue any German bases in Antarctica. Given memories of the comprehensive military defeat of Nazi Germany, it’s understandable why Byrd and his expedition would have had high confidence about their chances of success.

The remote viewers described the excitement and glee of the extraterrestrials whose craft were technologically vastly superior, as contrasted to the craft of the human (US Navy) pilots that were courageous but quickly became despondent as the battle progressed. The remote viewers described the extraterrestrial craft as possessing LASER weapons that disintegrated both the human aircraft and ground forces advancing towards the German base.

The remote viewers described a very one-sided affair where the flying saucers both toyed with and destroyed all the conventional aircraft. One of the remote viewers, Aziz Brown (Dr. Brown’s son), compared the battle to what was depicted in an episode of the popular sci-fi series, Stargate SG-1, where invading extraterrestrial spacecraft were met by human-piloted US Air Force fighters. In contrast to the genuine battle depicted in Stargate SG-1, Aziz Brown reported the battle he witnessed in association with Target 2 as a massacre.

The remote viewers described the aftermath of the battle and the attitudes of the respective leaders. The commander of one of the extraterrestrial flying saucer craft was in a very celebratory mood, while the human leader of the losing side was devastated. Several of the remote viewers described the top commander of the flying saucer craft as a very tall, powerful Reptilian who was ecstatic with the result.

There is one historical photo showing a downed US Navy airplane that crashed during Operation Highjump. While the Navy asserted that the downed craft was an isolated accident, according to the remote viewers, Antarctica was strewn with such debris from the destroyed aircraft and routed ground forces.

Wreckage and survivors of PBM Mariner crash on Jan 11, 1947

Dr. Brown again provided his analysis of the data at the end of Part 2 of the video series.

You have now seen all of our data regarding the Nazis in Antarctica and their extraterrestrial allies. To be honest, it is not too surprising to see that the Nazis found support from the Reptilians.

He went on to explain the dynamics of the evolving relationship between the Reptilians, the Nazis, and the US military as a result of Operation Highjump:

The Reptilians had no long-term interest in the Nazis, they were a means to an end…. You see by helping the Nazis with their Antarctica base they gained two things. First, they gained a small but dependable slave military force that they could dispatch wherever they wanted, even off-planet in the future. But second, and this is a really important part, they could scare the daylights out of the American military and political leadership. You see, it was clear at the end of the Antarctica battle that the Nazis could use their new aircraft and weapons to challenge the entire U.S. military. Indeed, the US military would be powerless against such a technological advantage.

Why then did the Nazis not actually do it? Why did they not actually invade the continental United States and blow the US military out of the water so to speak? Well, it’s simple, their Reptilian allies did not allow it. The Reptilians didn’t want the Nazis to control anything. They just wanted the US military and political leadership to be so frightened that they would agree to absolutely anything in order to get some of that advanced technology.

Brown’s analysis is consistent with insider reports that the Nazis and their extraterrestrial allies allowed most of the naval ships of Operation Highjump to escape the destruction inflicted on aircraft and ground forces. The ships and surviving personnel would be able to return to the US and warn national security leaders about the new enemy in Antarctica.

Indeed, Admiral Byrd revealed some of the truth when he stopped in Chile and gave an interview where he referred to significant casualties and a new enemy that the US would have to face.

Adm. Byrd declared today that it was imperative for the United States to initiate immediate defense measures against hostile regions.

The Admiral further stated that he didn’t want to frighten anyone unduly but it was a bitter reality that in case of a new war the continental United States would be attacked by flying objects which could fly from pole to pole at incredible speeds.

Admiral Byrd repeated the above points of view, resulting from his personal knowledge gathered both at the north and south poles, before a news conference held for International News Service.”

This takes me to the second group of extraterrestrials helping the Nazis that participated in the aerial battle witnessed by the five remote viewers. Dr. Brown said:

What is most surprising is that some of our data suggests that some support for the Nazis came from a group of extraterrestrials who we know as the Pleiadians. Now understand that we have a much broader view of the Pleiadians at the current time. They were not all of one mind during that time period. Moreover, the Pleiadians now seem to be thoroughly upset with everything that some of their kind did with the Nazis back in the day. In general, we have found that contemporary Pleiadians are good people who want the best for humanity, all of humanity.

Dr. Brown’s comments here are puzzling since none of the remote viewers mentioned Pleiadians helping the Nazis. All the remote viewers mentioned were human-looking extraterrestrials helping the humans (Nazis) in the underground structures and the subsequent battle in the remote cold snowy mountainous regions (Antarctica).

According to the available literature, the human-looking extraterrestrials helping the Germans described them as coming from the Aldebaran star system in the constellation Taurus, not the Pleiades constellation. This was made clear in the psychic communications of Maria Orsic, who established the initial contacts with the Aldebaran extraterrestrials that kickstarted the development of the advanced spacecraft that would eventually be incorporated into the secret weapons programs of Nazi Germany and taken secretly to Antarctica.

Is Dr. Brown simply mistaken in his assertion that a rogue Pleiadian group helped the Nazis? Possibly, but it’s worth pointing out that according to Elena Danaan, who claims to be a Pleiadian contactee, there is indeed a rogue group of Pleiadians that are working with Reptilians. She describes them as coming from Alcyone, one of the solar systems making up the Pleiades constellation, and also asserts that they have long been helping the Cabal/Deep State:

They named themselves “Taal Shiar”… and name their planet “Taalihara” orbiting around the star Alcyone…. They tried to build their own little empire from there, I think that was quasi impossible regarding to the overpowering threat of the Orion and Ciakahrr [Draco Reptilian] empires. By opposition to their brothers Taygetans [the main Pleiadian group], they did not join the GFW [Galactic Federation of Worlds] and instead allied with … malevolent groups. They are involved in the misdeeds of the Cabal on Terra [Earth] and a painful disgrace to the Man races. They also gave a world in the Alcyone system to a reptilian presence. [A Gift From the Stars, p. 250]

The information provided by the team of remote viewers working with Dr. Brown gives rich insights into historical events that took place in Antarctica around the end of World War II, the establishment of a secret German space program in underground locations, and the assistance to the Germans by both human-looking and Reptilian extraterrestrial groups.

The remote viewing data provided by Dr. Brown and his team of well-trained remote viewers following a rigorous scientific protocol provides a highly valuable means of intelligence gathering on esoteric topics and important historical events involving extraterrestrial life. The data provides answers to many important questions while also raising further controversial issues to explore. Most critically, remote viewing data helps us sidestep the blanket suppression of information about the true history of human extraterrestrial interactions implemented by national security forces in all major countries. For these reasons, Dr. Brown and his remote viewing team deserve our thanks and support.

[Note: Videos featuring remote viewing of Nazis and Reptilians in Antarctica are available at Farsight Institute]

Further Reading

New Webinar: Antarctica, the Dark Fleet & Humanity’s Liberation – May 22, 2021

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The Jews who cried when the Berlin Wall fell 30 years ago

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Police data reveals scope of German far-right extremist threat

Max Schwab has spent his entire life in Halle, a small city situated 150 kilometers (93 miles) southwest of Berlin. The 87-year-old former geologist was born here in 1932 and survived the Holocaust. When his father was taken to Buchenwald, never to return, his mother (herself a convert to Judaism) filed for divorce, in order to protect her children from a similar fate.

After the war, when Germany was split into separate capitalist and communist states, Max decided to stay in the east for one simple reason, his wife Jutta explains. (Max&rsquos 86-year-old, non-Jewish partner speaks for him these days since he is in poor health.) &ldquoHe always said he stays in the GDR because there are Nazi judges in the West,&rdquo she says.

The narrative in East Germany was simple: capitalists are fascists and communists aren&rsquot the West is bad, the East good. Indeed, it is widely recognized that while in West Germany a number of former Nazi officials resumed their old prewar positions, the GDR was far more diligent in its denazification process.

This wooden door saved the life of more than 50 people praying inside the synagogue in Halle on Yom Kippur. Felix Adler

Although Max Schwab and his family stayed in the east for a reason, he never stopped worrying. Working as a professor at the local university, he hid his Jewish identity from his colleagues. For him and his family, being Jewish meant staying active within the city&rsquos tiny Jewish community.

&ldquoIn the beginning, we had a very nice [community] chairwoman,&rdquo recounts Jutta. &ldquoBut when she left and a new one arrived in 1968, my mother-in-law stopped joining the services. &lsquoThere is something wrong with this lady,&rsquo she always used to say. Well, then we figured out that this woman was not Jewish but a spy.&rdquo

The Stasi, the GDR&rsquos notorious state security apparatus, maintained surveillance on all religious groups, including the various Jewish communities. During its 40-year existence, most of East Germany&rsquos Jewish communities were dissolved by their congregants &mdash the mistrust and struggles the members faced simply too great to overcome. When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, Halle&rsquos Jewish community numbered fewer than 10 members, not even enough for a minyan.

In July 1990, the East German government recognized Russian Jews in the former Soviet Union as refugees (reunified Germany followed a year later), and more than 150,000 Russian Jews immigrated over the next decade, most of them settling in eastern Germany. &ldquoWithout them, I don&rsquot think there would be any Jewish life in Halle today,&rdquo says Jutta Schwab.

For Jutta and Max, the reunification brought a huge Jewish revival and active community life. &ldquoMost of the new members are from Ukraine,&rdquo says Jutta. &ldquoThey&rsquore all so sweet with my husband &mdash although it is hard for us to follow the services now because we don&rsquot speak Russian,&rdquo she adds, referring to the lack of German-language services at Halle&rsquos synagogue.

Flowers left in front of the synagogue in Halle. Felix Adler

&lsquoI tried at least to be a good communist&rsquo

Anetta Kahane, 65, is a second-generation Holocaust survivor. Her parents had fled Nazi Germany for France in 1933, but when the GDR was founded in 1949, they returned &ldquohome&rdquo &mdash for ideological reasons. As communists, they believed in the idea of a &ldquoworkers and peasants&rdquo state, although their daughter (born in 1954) soon started questioning its anti-fascist narrative.

At home, Kahane says, she was faced with traumatized parents and whispered conversations about relatives being murdered in the war for being Jewish. But in the outside world, at school, she was being bullied and attacked because she was Jewish.

&ldquo&lsquoWhy are you always having so much trouble? You&rsquore surrounded by good communists,&rsquo my father used to ask me,&rdquo Kahane recounts. &ldquoHe told me just to adapt.&rdquo

So, in 1973 she took him at his word &mdash and started spying for the Stasi.

As Kahane explains it, when a close friend of hers tried to escape to the West, the regime blamed Kahane for not denouncing her &mdash a crime punishable by imprisonment. After being questioned for several hours, a Stasi official entered the room and offered her a very common deal in a system where blackmail was often seen as the easiest way to create loyalty: spy for the state.

&ldquoI agreed to work with them for two reasons,&rdquo says Kahane. &ldquoFirst, I had no other option. Second, and I know this is not an excuse, but I kind of wanted to &mdash because since I could not live my Jewish identity, at least I could try to be a good communist.&rdquo

In the months following the fall of the Berlin Wall, Kahane was part of the so-called Round Table &mdash where leading civil rights activists tried to find a way not to finish the GDR but to reform and sustain it.

Already regretting her Stasi activity, it was now the fight for a new awareness of the Holocaust and Jewish life in East Germany was taking shape. Instead of acknowledging the atrocities committed by the Nazis in the Holocaust, the GDR&rsquos official position had always been to ignore it and point the finger instead at its major enemy: the West. &ldquoThat was what made the GDR anti-Semitic in a structural way,&rdquo Kahane reflects.

During its first session in April 1990, the first (and final) democratically elected Volkskammer (East German Parliament) made a declaration no West German parliament had ever made: &ldquoWe, the first democratically elected parliament of the GDR, in the name of the citizens of our country, admit responsibility for the humiliation, expulsion and murder of Jewish men, women and children. We feel sorrow and shame and acknowledge this burden of German history. &hellip We ask all Jews of the world to forgive us.&rdquo

Max Schwab, 87 and wife Jutta, 86, at their home in Halle. Since the attack on the synagogue, Jutta says, her husband became very quiet. Felix Adler

In subsequent decades, Kahane has been chairwoman of the Amadeu Antonio Foundation, one of the most famous German nongovernmental organizations fighting right-wing extremism. She went public with her Stasi file and talks openly about it. For Kahane, who lives in Berlin, the decades in which East Germany refused to recognize or acknowledge its wartime crimes are visible as never before nowadays. &ldquoI&rsquove been saying this for the last 30 years: The reason why the far right is doing so well in the east is its GDR history,&rdquo she says.

&lsquoMaybe I&rsquove been a bit too optimistic&rsquo

When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, Uwe Dziuballa saw it as a sign that it was time to come home. He had spent his formative years in Karl-Marx-Stadt, before his family moved to the then-Yugoslavia in the 1980s. When he returned to the city in 1993, neither the name of his hometown nor any Jewish life remained. Dziuballa decided to stay and to reestablish Jewish life in Chemnitz (the city is situated close to the border with the Czech Republic).

In 1999, he and his younger brother Lars Ariel Dziuballa opened a kosher restaurant in Chemnitz, calling it Schalom. &ldquoI wanted to make Jewish life visible, in the most simple way,&rdquo Uwe explains.

For 20 years, he has operated one of the best kosher restaurants in eastern Germany, regularly featuring in the &ldquoMichelin Guide.&rdquo But it wasn&rsquot the quality of the food that made Schalom headline news in 2018: On August 27 last year, during one of the biggest neo-Nazi riots in Germany since World War II, Dziuballa&rsquos restaurant &mdash the most visible sign of Jewish life in Chemnitz &mdash became a target for the far right. A group of neo-Nazis converged on the restaurant, shouting, &ldquoGet out of Germany. Jewish Pigs.&rdquo

'I have stronger windows now,' says the owner of 'Schalom,' Uwe Dzuiballa. Felix Adler

&ldquoNow I have a safe word in case I have to call the police I have stronger windows,&rdquo says Dziuballa. &ldquoAnd I know that if something like this happens again, even The New York Times will report on it.&rdquo

Dziuballa is an optimist. He has tried to be, anyway. After the Chemnitz riots, he spoke to many journalists, went to events where AfD party leaders were also invited, tried to hold discussions with them. The rise of the far right party isn&rsquot just an east German problem. In fact, most of its leading politicians are from the West, while many of the estimated 6,000 neo-Nazis rioting in Chemnitz also reportedly came from there. &ldquoI live here and I&rsquom surrounded by nice and warm people,&rdquo says Dziuballa.

Yet late last month, the former East German state of Thuringia held its federal election and although the socialist Linke party won, the AfD received more than 23 percent, becoming the second-largest party. Björn Höcke, the local head of the AfD in Thuringia, previously made headlines after labeling Berlin&rsquos Holocaust memorial &ldquoa monument of shame&rdquo and stating that Germany must move away from &ldquoculture of remembering Nazi crimes&rdquo and stop apologizing for its past. Höcke is a former history teacher.

&ldquoI always thought that not all them support Nazis, that they&rsquore just disappointed because of all the problems the reunification [of Germany] caused,&rdquo Dziuballa reflects. &ldquoMaybe that&rsquos the reason I&rsquove been a bit too optimistic &mdash and maybe I was wrong.&rdquo

&lsquoI never felt as Jewish as I feel now&rsquo

The Schalom is the only kosher restaurant in the former East German federal state of Saxony and is recommended in the Michalin’s Guide. In some German Food guides it is listed as "foreign cuisine." Felix Adler

Dmitrij Kapitelman is a 33-year-old writer who moved with his parents from Ukraine to eastern Germany in 1994. Growing up in the post-communist east meant dealing with well-drilled, hate-filled skinheads and a police force that routinely ignored right-wing violence. &ldquoFor me, living in this east German reality meant living a more dangerous, more aggressive reality,&rdquo says the Leipzig resident.

Recently, the first generation of Germans from the post-reunification era has started to explore its East German roots. We Are the East, for example, is a new initiative by journalists and professionals with the aim of creating a more positive image of the area. Kapitelman says he &ldquokind of&rdquo feels East German, but for him it's a more intangible thing. &ldquoMost of these initiatives now are nothing more then self-assurance they won&rsquot solve any problems,&rdquo he says.

Since the October 9 Halle attack &mdash which left two dead and 80 Jewish worshippers grateful that the reinforced doors had prevented the gunman from gaining entry &mdash and the Thuringia election results, Kapitelman says he has started commenting on the political situation from a Jewish perspective.

While the media has in recent years tried to discuss the reasons why Germans (and especially eastern Germans) are supporting the AfD, he is now demanding more solidarity for minority groups, like Germany's Jews, than more calls to understand the far right.

&ldquoI never felt as Jewish as I feel now,&rdquo says Kapitelman. &ldquoI think I have to fight for my parents, I have to protect them. While Germany now debates what its political center is, the minorities find themselves in the center of this storm.&rdquo

One simple change

&ldquo&lsquoNever again,&rsquo they said &mdash but I&rsquom not sure we can still say that,&rdquo says Jutta Schwab, still in shock following last month's attack in Halle. This Saturday, she and husband Max will visit the ruins of the city&rsquos old synagogue, which was burned down on November 9, 1938, where they will mourn the deportation of Max&rsquos late father.

&ldquoIf you want a simple example of how Jewish life has changed because of the fall of the Wall, this is it,&rdquo says Jutta. &ldquoDuring the years of the GDR, we weren't allowed to hold this mourning ceremony. Now, at least, we are.&rdquo

Right after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the former district headquarters of the Stasi in Leipzig became a Memorial Museum, the 'Runde Ecke.' Felix Adler

The Nazis’ Plan to Infiltrate Los Angeles And the Man Who Kept Them at Bay

Men in armbands stand below an American flag, flanked by Nazi symbols and a portrait of Hitler. In another photograph, swastika flags line Broadway Street in Los Angeles. The cover of historian Steven J. Ross’s new book looks like something straight out of the beloved novel The Man in the High Castle and television series of the same name. 

But these aren’t doctored images and no, you’re not about to crack open Philip K. Dick’s alternative, dystopian tale. In Hitler in Los Angeles: How Jews Foiled Nazi Plots Against Hollywood and America, Ross, a professor at the University of Southern California, uncovers the fascinating, complex story of how Nazis infiltrated the region and recruited sympathetic Americans to their cause. While American Nazis were working on plans and ideas to subvert the government and carry out acts of anti-Semitic violence, Leon Lewis created a network of spies to stop them.

A Jewish lawyer and WWI veteran, Lewis was the founding executive secretary of the Anti-Defamation League. Throughout the 1920s and early '30s, he tracked the rise of fascism in Europe both for the organization and on his own. As Ross related in an interview, “I think it's safe to say nobody was watching Hitler more closely during those years than Lewis.”

Leon Lewis, 1918

After Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, Nazi officials sent agents to the United States to start the Friends of New Germany (FNG) organization—later renamed the German American Bund—intended to bolster support overseas. That July, Nazis held a rally in Los Angeles and started meeting and recruiting at their Deutsche Haus headquarters downtown—beginning a cycle Lewis was all too familiar with.

As Ross writes, “Lewis knew from years of monitoring the foreign press that the Nazi government encouraged Germans living in the United States to form ‘active cells wherever sufficient numbers of Nationalist Socialists can be gathered into proselytizing units.’” Central to the Nazis’ mission was cultivating fifth columnists—“disloyal forces within a nation’s border”—who could be called upon to side with Germany if war began. It was clear to Lewis that it was time to act, but he found the Jewish community divided as to how best to combat rising anti-Semitism, and the U.S. government was more concerned with tracking Communism than fascism.

Christmas Ball at Deutsches Haus Auditorium (National Archives, College Park, MD)

So Lewis organized a spy ring on his own, focusing on the same people the Nazis were hoping to recruit: German-Americans veterans. Just as Hitler had channeled the frustration of World War I veterans and struggling citizenry in Germany to help elect him, his supporters in Los Angeles hoped to stir up feelings of resentment among those who were disgruntled by cuts to their veteran benefits during the Depression.

Southern California was a particularly appealing locus: about one-third of disabled veterans lived there, and the region had 50 German-American organizations with 150,000 members, which the Nazis hoped to unite. Compared to New York City, the port of Los Angeles was largely unguarded, perfect for trafficking in propaganda from Germany. Additionally, the area was ripe for Nazi messaging: it was one of the strongest centers outside of the South for the Klu Klux Klan, with large gatherings held throughout the 1920s.

Hitler in Los Angeles: How Jews Foiled Nazi Plots Against Hollywood and America

The chilling, little-known story of the rise of Nazism in Los Angeles, and the Jewish leaders and spies they recruited who stopped it. No American city was more important to the Nazis than Los Angeles, home to Hollywood, the greatest propaganda machine in the world. The Nazis plotted to kill the city's Jews and to sabotage the nation's military installations: plans existed for hanging twenty prominent Hollywood figures such as Al Jolson, Charlie Chaplin, and Samuel Goldwyn for driving through Boyle Heights and machine-gunning as many Jews as possible and for blowing up defense installations and seizing munitions from National Guard armories along the Pacific Coast.

But Lewis, who knew a number of German-American vets from his work with the Disabled American Veterans, appealed to his spies’ sense of patriotism. The spies, Ross said, “risked their lives because they believed that when a hate group attacks one group of Americans, it's up to every American to rally to defend them.” And their loyalty to Germany didn’t translate to Hitler many despised him for what he had done to their ancestral nation. Save for one Jewish spy, Lewis’s network was comprised entirely of Gentiles.

Initially, Lewis planned to spy just long enough to find evidence to convince local and federal officials of the real danger Nazis posed to Los Angeles. But when he presented his first round of findings, he was met with ambivalence, at best he discovered a number of L.A. law enforcement personnel were sympathetic to Nazism and fascism—or were members of the groups themselves. Without serious government attention, Lewis realized he would need to keep his operation going. He decided to solicit financial support from Hollywood executives—who were also the targets of some of the unearthed plans and whose industry was at the core of Hitler’s machinations.

Before the various theaters of war opened in the late '30s and early '40s, the Nazis trained their eyes on the theaters in Hollywood. Hitler and his chief propagandist, Joseph Goebbels, realized the power of the film industry’s messaging, and they resented the unsavory portrayals of WWI-era Germany. Determined to curb negative portrayals of the nation and Nazis, they used their diplomats to pressure American studios to “create understanding and recognition for the Third Reich,” and refused to play films in Germany that were unfavorable to Hitler and his regime.

Lewis’s network of spies, many of whom were trusted by top Bund officials in L.A., reported on and worked to interrupt a wide range of haunting plots, including the lynching of film producers Louis B. Mayer and Samuel Goldwyn and star Charlie Chaplin. One called for using machine guns to kill residents of the Boyle Heights neighborhood (a predominantly Jewish area), and another conspired to create a fake fumigation company to surreptitiously kill Jewish families (a chilling precursor to the gas chambers of Nazi concentration camps). Lewis’s spies even uncovered plans to blow up a munitions plant in San Diego and to destroy several docks and warehouses along the coast.

Raising the Swastika at German Day Celebration, Hindenburg Park (Jewish Federation Council of Greater Los Angeles, Community Relations Committee Collection, Part 2, Special Collections and Archives, Oviatt Library, California State University, Northridge)

There was talk of seizing National Guard armories and setting up a West Coast fortress for Hitler after Germany’s planned invasion and ultimate takeover the U.S. government. The many plans were drafted by local fascists and Nazis but the leaders, Ross explained, “would have undoubtedly told officials in Berlin, most likely by handing over sealed letters to the Gestapo officer who accompanied every German vessel that docked in L.A. from 1933 until 1941.”

Lewis and his spies were able to break up these plots through a variety of means: by sowing discord between leaders of the Bund, getting certain plotters deported or into legal trouble and fostering a general sense of distrust among members that spies had infiltrated the group.

While Ross doesn’t think the Germans would have prevailed in overthrowing the government, he contends that many of the schemes were serious threats. “I uncovered so many plots to kill Jews that I absolutely believe, had Leon Lewis' spies not penetrated and foiled every single one of those plots, some of them would have succeeded,” he said.

On December 8, 1941—the day after Pearl Harbor and the U.S.’ entrance into the war—when the FBI needed to round up Nazi and fascist sympathizers, Lewis was able to provide crucial information on operations in California. Yet Lewis continued his spy ring even after the U.S. declared war on Germany, because he found a “dramatic rise in anti-Semitism as greater numbers of citizens blamed Jews for leading the nation into war.” His spy operations ceased in 1945, once the war came to a close.

America First Anti-War Rally, Philharmonic Auditorium, Sept. 3, 1941 (Jewish Federation Council of Greater Los Angeles, Community Relations Committee Collection, Part 2, Special Collections and Archives, Oviatt Library, California State University, Northridge)

At its core, Hitler in Los Angeles subverts the idea that there wasn’t active and significant resistance to Nazism in America before WWII. Even decades later, it’s easy to wonder why more wasn’t done to prevent Hitler’s rise and Nazi atrocities, and to point out the warning signs that now seem obvious. But Ross’s research makes clear there was a contemporary understanding and opposition, well before the rest of the US realized the scale of Hitler’s plans, even if the story went untold for so long.

The son of Holocaust survivors, Ross said that researching this book has changed how he thinks about resistance: “They stopped this without ever firing a gun, without ever using a weapon. They used the most powerful weapon of all…their brains.”

But the book also challenges an idea many Americans take comfort in—that “it can’t happen here.” In a sense, it did happen here: Nazism and fascism found a foothold in 1930s Los Angeles and attracted locals to its cause. And while Lewis’s dedication helped thwart it, it’s alarming to consider the alternate history wasn’t far off.

Cooperating With And Exploiting The CIA Through The Gehlen Org

Getty Images Reinhard Gehlen (center) and staff of Wermacht’s Counter Intelligence Unit.

After interviewing with high-ranking American officers, Reinhard Gehlen brokered a deal with them that protected him from being prosecuted for war crimes in exchange for collecting intelligence on the Soviets for the U.S.

By the end of 1946, the U.S. Army provided Gehlen with funding to build the so-called Gehlen Organization, or “Org,” which Gehlen populated with 350 ex-Nazi officers, some of who were considered war criminals.

Gehlen and his cronies were then allowed to pursue their own agenda on both sides of the West German border — and all under the authority of U.S. Army intelligence. In 1949, the CIA officially absorbed Gehlen’s group and gave them $5 million a year for their own intelligence projects.

Although The Org had value to the American intelligence community, the U.S. Army was nonetheless desperate to be rid of it. Not only was The Org quickly riddled with Soviet moles shortly after its inception, but American officers were wary of Wehrmacht and SS veterans.

Indeed, at least five associates of Adolf Eichmann, the “Architect of the Holocaust” who designed the systematic genocide of European Jews, worked for the CIA. The CIA allegedly also approached 23 other Nazis for recruitment, and at least 100 officers within the Gehlen Org were former SD or Gestapo officers.

The Army struggled to control the group as Gehlen’s men continued to pursue their own agendas, like helping other Nazi war criminals flee Europe via an underground escape network that included transit camps and fake ports supplied by the CIA. The CIA-funded side project helped over 5,000 Nazis flee Europe to South and Central America.

Wikimedia Commons CIA Director Richard Helms opposed the adoption of the Gehlen Organization by the CIA, noting “serious flaws in the security of the operation.”

“We did not want to touch [the Gehlen Organization],” noted Peter Sichel, the CIA chief of German operations. “It had nothing to do with morals or ethics, and everything to do with security.”

Although the CIA distrusted Gehlen, their temptation to strike a blow at Moscow grew, and Gehlen assured American intelligence officers that he could succeed where they had failed. “Given how hard it was for us,” one CIA operative noted, “it seemed idiotic not to try it.”

For eight years, Gehlen gathered some reliable intelligence from wartime informants in Eastern Europe. He also had some success with infiltrating East Germany and collecting valuable information about the Soviet’s military units for the Americans.

But overall, the Gehlen Org often had to resort to fantasy to keep the CIA satisfied with their work. They concocted wild stories based on “confessions” given by POWs returning from the Soviet Union, and told stories about advanced military technology and a nuclear program far ahead of the West’s.

Faced with this phantom of a massively powerful Soviet Union, American intelligence agents felt they had no choice but to stick with their German spies, despite whatever reservations they may have had about the men who populated its ranks.

The Female Spies of the SOE

After France signed an armistice with Germany in June 1940, Great Britain feared the shadow of Nazism would continue to fall over Europe. Dedicated to keeping the French people fighting, Prime Minister Winston Churchill pledged the United Kingdom’s support to the resistance movement. Charged with “set(ting) Europe ablaze,” the Special Operations Executive, or SOE, was born.

Headquartered at 64 Baker Street in London, the SOE’s official purpose was to put British special agents on the ground to “coordinate, inspire, control and assist the nationals of the oppressed countries.” Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton borrowed irregular warfare tactics used by the Irish Republican Army two decades before. The “Baker Street Irregulars,” as they came to be known, were trained in sabotage, small arms, radio and telegraph communication and unarmed combat. SOE agents were also required to be fluent in the language of the nation in which they would be inserted so they could fit into the society seamlessly. If their presence aroused undue suspicion, their missions could well be over before they even began.

Odette Sansom Hallowes, interrogated and tortured by the Gestapo and imprisoned in Ravensbruck concentration camp. The 1950 film ‘Odette’ is based on her war exploits.

Extensive training in resisting interrogation and how to evade capture underscored the gravity of their missions. Fear of the Gestapo was real and well-founded. Some agents hid suicide pills in their coat buttons in case they could not escape. They knew it was unlikely they would see their homes in the British Commonwealth again, but accepted the risk.

Irregular missions required irregular materiel. The SOE Operations and Research section developed unique devices for agents to use in sabotage and close-range combat. Their inventions, including an exploding pen and weapons hidden in everyday objects like umbrellas and pipes, would even inspire Ian Fleming’s James Bond novels. Operations and Research also developed a foldable bike called the Welbike, but it was unreliable on rough terrain. Most of the groups’ inventions, like waterproof containers that protected agents’ supplies during parachute jumps, were more practical.

The Welbike

Portable communication devices were of utmost importance as radio and telegraph communication ensured the French resistance (and SOE agents) were not cut off from the outside world. Radio operators had to stay mobile, often carrying their radio equipment on their backs as they moved from safe house to safe house. Their survival depended on their ability to transmit messages rapidly and move quickly.

Along with irregular tactics and unusual materiel, the British government knew an irregular war required irregular warriors. Women proved to be invaluable as couriers, spies, saboteurs and radio operators in the field. Though female agents received the same training as the men, some balked at the idea of sending women behind enemy lines. They grudgingly agreed female spies would have distinct advantages over the men on the ground. Women could travel freely because they were not expected to work during the day. Gender stereotypes also helped keep the women above suspicion. After all, who could possibly imagine a woman could be a viable combatant in war?

Violette Szabo, executed at Ravensbrück concentration camp, 1945. ‘Carve Her Name With Pride’ (1958), is a largely accurate portrayal of Szabo’s wartime life, after the book of the same name.

Women were more than viable, however: they were critical to SOE mission success. Though they would later be honored for their “conspicuous courage,” the female spies of the SOE were successful because they learned to be inconspicuous. They took on secret identities, went on secret missions and were trusted with their nation’s greatest secrets. Thirty-nine of the 470 SOE agents in France were women, with an additional sixteen deployed to other areas.

Nancy Grace August Wake

The Gestapo gave Nancy Grace August Wake the nickname “the white mouse” because of her uncanny ability to evade capture. When she learned one of the resistance groups no longer had a radio for communication, she rode almost 300 kilometers on a bicycle to make radio contact with the SOE headquarters and arrange for an equipment drop. Despite many close calls, Wake survived the war. First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY) member Odette Hallowes also cheated death. Embedded with the resistance in Cannes, Hallowes was captured and sent to the Ravensbrück concentration camp. She survived two years in prison, often in solitary confinement, before the camp was liberated by the Allied forces.

Noor Inayat Khan

Other women were not so fortunate. Noor Inayat Khan, code name Madeleine, was a radio operator in France. After her entire team was ambushed and arrested, she was betrayed to the Gestapo by a French national hoping for a large reward. Khan did not break during interrogation and attempted escape from her captors several times. Sent to Dachau in September 1944, she was executed upon arrival. Violette Szabo, an agent inserted into Limoges, faced a similar fate at Ravensbrück. She was 23 years old.

Plaque honouring Noor Inayat Khan, Memorial Hall, Dachau Concentration Camp

The stories of the SOE’s “irregular” women transcend male and female: they are human stories of daring, courage, and sacrifice. Sansom, followed by Szabo and Khan posthumously, were the first women to be awarded the George Cross, Britain’s highest bravery award for civilians and equivalent to the Victoria Cross for the Armed Forces others such as Wake got the next-ranked George Medal. Although fighting, they were not in the Armed Forces because the women’s corps were not allowed in combat: they had to join the volunteer FANY (still existing), the uniform you see in Sansom’s and Wake’s pictures.” The number of medals awarded posthumously is testament to the dangers SOE agents willingly accepted as the cost of protecting freedom. Their names are not common, but neither was their courage or accomplishments. The men and women of the Special Operations Executive dedicated their lives to helping Europe escape Hitler’s shadow.

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