Genes of 92 prehistoric Native Americans give further evidence of a terrible holocaust

Genes of 92 prehistoric Native Americans give further evidence of a terrible holocaust

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The genocide of Native Americans is considered by many to be the worst of any in history—outstripping the later Jewish and Roma Holocaust by as much as an order of magnitude. Now a study of the maternal genes of skeletal and mummified remains of 92 North and South Americans dating from 8,600 to 500 years ago shows that all those lineages were wiped out. No living person descended from any the individuals tested is known to be living today.

It is unknown how many people lived in the Americas when Columbus and the other conquistadors arrived. Estimates range from 1 million to 100 million. One middling estimate puts the North American number alone at about 12 million people, who were reduced to 237,000 by 1900.

Of the 84 genetic lineages among the 92 North and South American remains, not one lineage survived contact with Europeans, a new study says.

“When Europeans arrived, some of those populations were wiped out completely,” Bastien Llamas, an author of the study who is a geneticist with the University of Adelaide, told Science .

DeSoto claiming the Mississippi, as depicted in the United States Capitol rotunda

Mitochondrial DNA provides only part of the picture, the article states—the line of mother to child. You don’t see if male genes survived, or even what happened with women who didn’t have children. (Though if they didn’t have children obviously their genes would not survive in present-day people.)

The Science article tells how the study was conducted. The researchers took DNA from the 92 skeletons and mummies from western North and South America, from Mexico to Chile. The team sequenced the mitochondrial genome of each person’s remains. Mitochondrial genes descend from mother to child, “so the sequences open a window onto the matrilineal heritage of indigenous Americans extending all the way back to their roots in Siberia,” the article states.

Natives reject the idea that all of their ancestors arrived from Siberia, so this study has an element of controversy. The article states:

By tallying up the random mutations that accumulate in populations that have been separated, geneticists can count backwards and figure out when two groups last had a common ancestor. When the researchers applied that technique to the 92 mummies and skeletons, they found that their ancestors had last been in contact with Siberian populations about 23,000 years ago. After that, a group with about 2000 child-bearing females (perhaps about 10,000 people total) spent 6000 years or so genetically cut off from other groups of humans. That supports the idea that the ancestors of the earliest Americans spent a few millennia stranded in Beringia, the now submerged landmass that once stretched from Siberia to Alaska, before the ice sheets started to melt and open up passages to the New World.

Map showing the location of Bering Land Bridge National Preserve

About 16,000 years ago there was a population boom. Suddenly, lineages began branching off, a time when, the researchers believe, people began to move from Beringia, which is now submerged, into the Americas. There, with new land and untapped resources, the population spread rapidly to every corner of the New World.

Alan Cooper, an evolutionary biologist who was a lead author of the study, said the only possible route was along the Pacific coast because the ice sheets were so thick and there was no way through farther inland.

“Everybody settled down,” the article states. “Within a few thousand years, many of the ancient lineages had already diverged from one another, meaning that people from one group were not having babies with people from another (or at least, their mothers weren’t moving around, since we’re talking about mitochondrial DNA). The team found 84 separate genetic lineages represented by the 92 samples , they report today in Science Advances.”

So how did all those unfortunate people die? This is another area of controversy among natives of North and South America and the Caribbean. While some say most natives were accidentally wiped out by disease, t he fact is, beginning with Columbus in the Caribbean, Cortez in Mexico and Pizarro in Peru, Europeans killed and enslaved natives. And it was no different in later years. Some natives died from being worked to death. Others starved. History books are filled with one attack on and slaughter of innocent native villagers after another. And yes, many died from disease.

16th century Aztec drawing of smallpox victims

This writer has often thought that if the Europeans knew they were infecting and killing natives with disease, the only decent thing they could have done would have been to quarantine themselves from these continents. But if you look at American Founding Fathers’ statements and texts , they had a deliberate policy to “remove” Indians, steal their territory and kill them off.

The first U.S. president, George Washington, stated in 1779:

The immediate objectives are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible. It will be essential to ruin their crops in the ground and prevent their planting more.

Featured image: "The Last Days of Tenochtitlan, Conquest of Mexico by Cortez", a 19th-century painting by William de Leftwich Dodge.

By Mark Miller

A team of experts have made an important discovery about some Dead Sea Scroll fragments in the United Kingdom. They have found letters on four fragments that were believed to be &lsquoblanks&rsquo. This finding could help researchers to revisit other fragments of the texts and help them to better understand the enigmatic Dead Sea Scrolls and to fight against forgeries.

The Dead Sea Scrolls were found in the Qumran Caves, east of Jerusalem on the West Bank, in 1948, when the area was governed by Jordan. A Bedouin found the large body of scroll parchments in the cave, not far from the northern shore of the Dead Sea, after which the collection is named. Many of the texts are over 2000 years old, and include some incomplete books from the Old Testament and some other religious writings.

The Qumran Caves where the Dead Sea Scroll fragments were found in 1948. ( alon / Adobe stock)

It is believed that they were produced by the mysterious Jewish sect known as the Essenes, who possibly hid the scrolls in the cave for safety during the First Jewish Revolt against Rome (66-73 AD) and for an unknown reason never returned. The scrolls have provided many insights into the development of the Bible.


Native American tribes in the United States are typically divided into 8 distinct regions, within which tribes had some similarities across culture, language, religion, customs and politics.

Northwest Coast – Native Americans here had no need to farm as edible plants and animals were plentiful in the land and sea. They are known for their totem poles, canoes that could hold up to 50 people, and houses made of cedar planks.

California – Over 100 Native American tribes once lived there. They fished, hunted small game, and gathered acorns, which were pounded into a mushy meal.

The Plateau – The Plateau Native Americans lived in the area between the Cascade Mountains and the Rocky Mountains. To protect themselves from the cold weather, many built homes that were partly underground.

The Great Basin – Stretching across Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, the Native Americans of the Great Basin had to endure a hot and dry climate and had to dig for a lot of their food. They were one of the last groups to have contact with Europeans.

The Southwest – The Natives of the Southwest created tiered homes made out of adobe bricks. Many of the tribes had skilled farmers, grew crops, and created irrigation canals. Famous tribes here include [the Hopi,] the Navajo Nation, the Apache, and the Pueblo Indians.

The Plains – The Great Plains Indians were known for hunting bison, buffalo and antelope, which provided abundant food. They were nomadic people who lived in teepees and they moved constantly following the herds.

Northeast – The Native Americans of the Northeast lived in an area rich in rivers and forests. Some groups were constantly on the move while others built permanent homes.

The Southeast – The majority of the Native American tribes here were skilled farmers and tended to stay in one place. The largest [eastern] Native American tribe, the Cherokee, lived in the Southeast.

Native American indigenous cultures map by Paul Mirocha .

25-05-2020 om 22:55 geschreven door peter

This infrared image, taken by the Very Large Telescope in Chile, shows a giant spiral of planet-forming gas and dust around the young star AB Aurigae, about 520 light-years away in the constellation Auriga. The star itself is blocked out in the center of the image.


For the first time, astronomers may have seen direct evidence of a planet forming around a young star.

A spiral disk of gas and dust surrounding the star AB Aurigae contains a small S-shaped twist near the spiral&rsquos center, infrared telescope images show.

That twist &ldquois the precise spot where a new planet must be forming,&rdquo says astrophysicist Emmanuel Di Folco of the University of Bordeaux in France.

Previously, astronomers have seen gaps (SN: 11/6/14) and large-scale spirals (SN: 6/14/18) that are thought to be created by unseen planets in disks of gas and dust around young stars. Theories of how planets coalesce and gather material from these disks predict that planets&rsquo motions would further twist the gas around them like swirling skirts, pinpointing a planet&rsquos location (SN: 5/11/18).

Now, Di Folco and colleagues have used infrared observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and the Very Large Telescope, both in Chile, to find a spiral and zero in on one such S-shaped twist around AB Aurigae. The team describes its findings in the May Astronomy & Astrophysics.

A close-up of the disk of gas and dust (seen here in infrared light) around the young star AB Aurigae (left) reveals a bright knot (right, circled in white) where astronomers think a planet is coalescing. For scale, the blue circle represents the size of Neptune&rsquos orbit. A. BOCCALETTI ET AL/ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 2020, ESO

&ldquoIt was amazing,&rdquo Di Folco says. &ldquoIt was exactly as we were expecting from the theoretical predictions of planet formation.&rdquo

The star, about 520 light-years away in the constellation Auriga, is just 4 million years old, about one one-thousandths of the age of the sun. &ldquoIt&rsquos really a baby,&rdquo Di Folco says.

The potential planet&rsquos exact mass is not known, but it probably would have to be a gas giant like Jupiter rather than a rocky planet like Earth to make such big waves in the disk. And it might not be alone &mdash there&rsquos a hint of another planet near the disk&rsquos outer edge.

Zooming in on the star AB Aurigae, located about 520 light-years away in the constellation Auriga, reveals a swirl of gas and dust that includes a small S-shaped region where a new planet may be forming.

Questions or comments on this article? E-mail us at [email protected]


  • A. Boccaletti et al. Possible evidence of ongoing planet formation in AB Aurigae: A showcase of the SPEHRE/ALMA synergy. Astronomy & Astrophysics. Published online May 20, 2020. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202038008.

Present History.


The previous pages are designed as a glance at the Chicago of the past, and do not treat of the miraculous advance she made in the last decade in population, wealth, manufactures and trade. A retrospect of the last ten years of her history, properly detailed, would furnish matter for a ponderous volume, and we must therefore remain content with a very brief reference to the most salient points of her eminence. At the head of the immense artery of lake and river navigation of the country, with her web of railways that penetrates the whole land, even now binding the Atlantic and the far away Pacific in its iron bands, her facilities and opportunities, in spite of her recent disaster, seem positively unrivalled. It is abundantly demonstrated that the far off western prairie, even among the remotest of the territories, sends its products here, and comes here for its supplies, as well as the vast forests of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota that the copper and iron interests of the lake Superior country, the lead mines of the northwest, the coal fields of Illinois, and, to a considerable extent, the iron ores of Missouri, all find here their best and most natural center. Most of the millions of cattle and hogs that annually fatten in the great West, find their way to the slaughter pens of this city, and thence are shipped to the markets of the world. A greater share of all the mineral and agricultural wealth of the great West turns toward Chicago with the faithfulness of the needle to the magnet. Our railway system is the most perfect and far reaching in the world, and the invincible bulwark of our prosperity. Its great heart lives and pulsates here, and its iron arteries are sentient with the intelligent and sleepless energy of ten millions of producers, and with hundreds of millions of consumers, all keeping pace in the triumphal march of progress, and paying willing tribute to the ability that conceived and the energy that has erected our great mart of commerce. It is this admirable railway system that will do more toward rebuilding

Some fears are expressed that real estate will deteriorate now, and that lots in the burnt district will be less valuable than before the fire, for a year or two to come. Those who are badly involved, and therefore obliged to sell, will not realize as much for their property as under more favorable conditions, but prices generally will not recede, and the demand will soon bring about a material advance in really desirable property for strangers are even now coming here to invest capital and engage in trade, and this influx will increase more rapidly than ever before in our history when the world is convinced, as they soon will be, of our

For at least the last century archaeologists and anthropologists have generally agreed that the first humans arrived in North America having struggled across the icy wastes of Beringia , a vast land mass that bridged the seas between Siberia and Alaska . However, this has always been a &lsquogood theory&rsquo because nobody was quite sure of the exact origins of these first peoples. Did the first arrivers survive as an unbroken lineage for over 15,000 years, leading to today&rsquos Native Americans , or not, is the question?

Beringia formed about 34,000 years ago and the first humans hunted their way across it more than 15,000 years ago with major migrations of Paleo-Eskimos about 5,000 years who populated the American Arctic region and southern Greenland. However, it has been a thing of debate if today&rsquos Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speaking peoples are &lsquodirect ancestors&rsquo of these ancient wanderers, or are related to later migrations of what are known as Thule people (Neo-Eskimos), about 800 years ago.

Different groups have mixed and migrated throughout Siberia in Russia and into North America over the past 40,000 years.

Image: Martin Sikora/ Nature

A Strange Discovery by Dake, Charles Romyn

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Title: A Strange Discovery
Author: Charles Romyn Dake
Release Date: August, 2005 [EBook #8665]

[Date last updated: May 14, 2005]
Edition: 10
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

Charles Romyn Dake

It was once my good fortune to assist in a discovery of some importance
to lovers of literature, and to searchers after the new and wonderful.
As nearly a quarter of a century has since elapsed, and as two others
shared in the discovery, it may seem to the reader strange that the
general public has been kept in ignorance of an event apparently so full
of interest. Yet this silence is quite explicable for of the three
participants none has heretofore written for publication and of my two
associates, one is a quiet, retiring man, the other is erratic and

It is also possible that the discovery did not at the time impress
either my companions or myself as having that importance and widespread
interest which I have at last come to believe it really possesses. In
any view of the case, there are reasons, personal to myself, why it was
less my duty than that of either of the others to place on record the
facts of the discovery. Had either of them, in all these years, in ever
so brief a manner, done so, I should have remained forever silent.

The narrative which it is my purpose now to put in written form, I have
at various times briefly or in part related to one and another of my
intimate friends but they all mistook my facts for fancies, and
good-naturedly complimented me on my story-telling powers--which was
certainty not flattering to my qualifications as an historian.

In the year 1877 I was compelled by circumstances to visit the States.
At that time, as at the present, my home was near Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
My father, then recently deceased, had left, in course of settlement in
America, business interests involving a considerable pecuniary
investment, of which I hoped a large part might be recovered. My lawyer,
for reasons which seemed to me sufficient, advised that the act of
settlement should not be delegated and I decided to leave at once for
the United States. Ten days later I reached New York, where I remained
for a day or two and then proceeded westward. In St. Louis I met some of
the persons interested in my business. There the whole transaction took
such form that a final settlement depended wholly upon the agreement
between a certain man and myself but, fortunately for the fate of this
narrative, the man was not in St. Louis. He was one of those wealthy
so-called "kings" which abound in America--in this case a "coal king." I
was told that he possessed a really palatial residence in St.
Louis--where he _did not_ dwell and a less pretentious dwelling
directly in the coal-fields, where, for the most of his time, he _did_
reside. I crossed the Mississippi River into Southern Illinois, and very
soon found him. He was a plain, honest business man we did not split

And now, having explained how I came to be in surroundings to me so
strange, any further mention of business, or of money interests, shall
not, in the course of this narrative, again appear.

I had arrived at the town of Bellevue, in Southern Illinois, on a bright
June morning, and housed myself in an old-fashioned, four-story brick
hotel, the Loomis House, in which the proprietor, a portly, ruddy-faced,
trumpet-voiced man, assigned to me an apartment--a spacious corner
room, with three windows looking upon the main thoroughfare and two upon
a side street, and a smaller room adjoining.

Here, even before the time came when I might have returned to England
had I so desired, I acquired quite a home-like feeling. The first two
days of my stay, as I had travelled rapidly and was somewhat wearied, I
allotted to rest, and left my room for little else than the customary
tri-daily visits to the _table d'h te_.

During these first two days I made many observations from my windows,
and asked numberless questions of the bell-boy. I learned that a certain
old, rambling, two-story building directly across the side street was
the hotel mentioned by Dickens in his "American Notes," and in the lower
passage-way of which he met the Scotch phrenologist, "Doctor Crocus."
The bell-boy whom I have mentioned was the factotum of the Loomis House,
being, in an emergency, hack-driver, porter, runner--all by turns, and
nothing long at a time. He was a quaint genius, named Arthur and his
position, on the whole, was somewhat more elevated than that of our
English "Boots." During these two days I became quite an expert in the
invention of immediate personal wants for, as I continued my studies of
local life from the windows of my apartment, I frequently desired
information, and would then ring my bell, hoping that Arthur would be
the person to respond, as he usually was. He was an extremely profane
youth, but profane in a quiet, drawling, matter-of-fact manner. He was
frequently semi-intoxicated by noon, and sometimes quite inarticulate by
9 P.M. but I never saw him with his bodily equilibrium seriously
impaired--in plainer words, I never saw him stagger. He openly confessed
to a weakness for an occasional glass, but would have repelled with
scorn, perhaps with blows, an insinuation attributing to him excess in
that direction. True, he referred to times in his life when he had been
"caught"--meaning that the circumstances were on those occasions such as
to preclude any successful denial of intoxication but these occasions,
it was implied, dated back to the period of his giddy youth.

With little to occupy my mind (I had the St. Louis dailies, one of which
was the best newspaper--excepting, of course, our _Times_--that I have
ever read but my trunks did not arrive until a day or two later, and I
was without my favorite books), I became really interested in studying
the persons whom I saw passing and repassing the hotel, or stopping to
converse on the opposite street-corners and after forming surmises
concerning those of them who most interested me, I would ask Arthur who
they were, and then compare with my own opinions the truth as furnished
by him.

Dytrand’s Weblog

Bosnia Genocide – 1992-1995 – 200.000 Deaths In the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, conflict between the three main ethnic groups, the Serbs, Croats, and Muslims, resulted in genocide committed by the Serbs against the Muslims in Bosnia.

Bosnia is one of several small countries that emerged from the break-up of Yugoslavia, a multicultural country created after World War I by the victorious Western Allies. Yugoslavia was composed of ethnic and religious groups that had been historical rivals, even bitter enemies, including the Serbs (Orthodox Christians), Croats (Catholics) and ethnic Albanians (Muslims).

During World War II, Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany and was partitioned. A fierce resistance movement sprang up led by Josip Tito. Following Germany’s defeat, Tito reunified Yugoslavia under the slogan “Brotherhood and Unity,” merging together Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, along with two self-governing provinces, Kosovo and Vojvodina. Tito, a Communist, was a strong leader who maintained ties with the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War, playing one superpower against the other while obtaining financial assistance and other aid from both. After his death in 1980 and without his strong leadership, Yugoslavia quickly plunged into political and economic chaos.

A new leader arose by the late 1980s, a Serbian named Slobodan Milosevic, a former Communist who had turned to nationalism and religious hatred to gain power. He began by inflaming long-standing tensions between Serbs and Muslims in the independent provence of Kosovo. Orthodox Christian Serbs in Kosovo were in the minority and claimed they were being mistreated by the Albanian Muslim majority. Serbian-backed political unrest in Kosovo eventually led to its loss of independence and domination by Milosevic. In June 1991, Slovenia and Croatia both declared their independence from Yugoslavia soon resulting in civil war. The national army of Yugoslavia, now made up of Serbs controlled by Milosevic, stormed into Slovenia but failed to subdue the separatists there and withdrew after only ten days of fighting. Milosevic quickly lost interest in Slovenia, a country with almost no Serbs. Instead, he turned his attention to Croatia, a Catholic country where Orthodox Serbs made up 12 percent of the population. During World War II, Croatia had been a pro-Nazi state led by Ante Pavelic and his fascist Ustasha Party. Serbs living in Croatia as well as Jews had been the targets of widespread Ustasha massacres. In the concentration camp at Jasenovac, they had been slaughtered by the tens of thousands. In 1991, the new Croat government, led by Franjo Tudjman, seemed to be reviving fascism, even using the old Ustasha flag, and also enacted discriminatory laws targeting Orthodox Serbs. Aided by Serbian guerrillas in Croatia, Milosevic’s forces invaded in July 1991 to ‘protect’ the Serbian minority. In the city of Vukovar, they bombarded the outgunned Croats for 86 consecutive days and reduced it to rubble. After Vukovar fell, the Serbs began the first mass executions of the conflict, killing hundreds of Croat men and burying them in mass graves. The response of the international community was limited.

The U.S. under President George Bush chose not to get involved militarily, but instead recognized the independence of both Slovenia and Croatia. An arms embargo was imposed for all of the former Yugoslavia by the United Nations. However, the Serbs under Milosevic were already the best armed force and thus maintained a big military advantage. The end of 1991 brokered a U.S.-sponsored cease-fire agreement between the Serbs and Croats fighting in Croatia. In April 1992, the U.S. and European Community chose to recognize the independence of Bosnia, a mostly Muslim country where the Serb minority made up 32 percent of the population. Milosevic responded to Bosnia’s declaration of independence by attacking Sarajevo, its capital city, best known for hosting the 1984 Winter Olympics. Sarajevo soon became known as the city where Serb snipers continually shot down helpless civilians in the streets, including eventually over 3,500 children. Bosnian Muslims were hopelessly outgunned. As the Serbs gained ground, they began to systematically roundup local Muslims in scenes eerily similar to those that had occurred under the Nazis during World War II, including mass shootings, forced repopulation of entire towns, and confinement in make-shift concentration camps for men and boys. The Serbs also terrorized Muslim families into fleeing their villages by using rape as a weapon against women and girls.

The actions of the Serbs were labeled as ‘ethnic cleansing,’ a name which quickly took hold among the international media. Despite media reports of the secret camps, the mass killings, as well as the destruction of Muslim mosques and historic architecture in Bosnia, the world community remained mostly indifferent. The U.N. responded by imposing economic sanctions on Serbia and also deployed its troops to protect the distribution of food and medicine to dispossessed Muslims. But the U.N. strictly prohibited its troops from interfering militarily against the Serbs. Thus they remained steadfastly neutral no matter how bad the situation became. Throughout 1993, confident that the U.N., United States and the European Community would not take militarily action, Serbs in Bosnia freely committed genocide against Muslims. Bosnian Serbs operated under the local leadership of Radovan Karadzic, president of the illegitimate Bosnian Serb Republic. Karadzic had once told a group of journalists, “Serbs and Muslims are like cats and dogs. They cannot live together in peace. It is impossible.” When Karadzic was confronted by reporters about ongoing atrocities, he bluntly denied involvement of his soldiers or special police units.

On February 6, 1994, the world’s attention turned completely to Bosnia as a marketplace in Sarajevo was struck by a Serb mortar shell killing 68 persons and wounding nearly 200. Sights and sounds of the bloody carnage were broadcast globally by the international news media and soon resulted in calls for military intervention against the Serbs. The U.S. under its new President, Bill Clinton, who had promised during his election campaign in 1992 to stop the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia, now issued an ultimatum through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) demanding that the Serbs withdraw their artillery from Sarajevo. The Serbs quickly complied and a NATO-imposed cease-fire in Sarajevo was declared. The U.S. then launched diplomatic efforts aimed at unifying Bosnian Muslims and the Croats against the Serbs. However, this new Muslim-Croat alliance failed to stop the Serbs from attacking Muslim towns in Bosnia, which had been declared Safe Havens by the U.N. A total of six Muslim towns had been established as Safe Havens in May 1993 under the supervision of U.N. peacekeepers. Bosnian Serbs not only attacked the Safe Havens but also attacked the U.N. peacekeepers as well. NATO forces responded by launching limited air strikes against Serb ground positions.

The Serbs retaliated by taking hundreds of U.N. peacekeepers as hostages and turning them into human shields, chained to military targets such as ammo supply dumps. At this point, some of the worst genocidal activities of the four-year-old conflict occurred. In Srebrenica, a Safe Haven, U.N. peacekeepers stood by helplessly as the Serbs under the command of General Ratko Mladic systematically selected and then slaughtered nearly 8,000 men and boys between the ages of twelve and sixty – the worst mass murder in Europe since World War II . In addition, the Serbs continued to engage in mass rapes of Muslim females . On August 30, 1995, effective military intervention finally began as the U.S. led a massive NATO bombing campaign in response to the killings at Srebrenica, targeting Serbian artillery positions throughout Bosnia. The bombardment continued into October. Serb forces also lost ground to Bosnian Muslims who had received arms shipments from the Islamic world. As a result, half of Bosnia was eventually retaken by Muslim-Croat troops. Faced with the heavy NATO bombardment and a string of ground losses to the Muslim-Croat alliance, Serb leader Milosevic was now ready to talk peace. On November 1, 1995, leaders of the warring factions including Milosevic and Tudjman traveled to the U.S. for peace talks at Wright-Patterson Air Force base in Ohio. After three weeks of negotiations, a peace accord was declared. Terms of the agreement included partitioning Bosnia into two main portions known as the Bosnian Serb Republic and the Muslim-Croat Federation.

The agreement also called for democratic elections and stipulated that war criminals would be handed over for prosecution. 60,000 NATO soldiers were deployed to preserve the cease-fire. By now, over 200,000 Muslim civilians had been systematically murdered. More than 20,000 were missing and feared dead, while 2,000,000 had become refugees.

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