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Julio-Claudian Family Tree

Julio-Claudian Family Tree


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Descendancy of the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty

The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first dynasty of Roman emperors. All emperors of that dynasty descended from Julii Caesares and/or from Claudii. Marriages between descendants of Sextus Julius Caesar I and Claudii had occurred from the late stages of the Roman Republic, but the intertwined Julio-Claudian family tree resulted mostly from adoptions and marriages in Imperial Rome's first decades. Note that descendancy of the Julii Caesares before the generation of Julius Caesar's grandfather is in part conjectural, but as presented by scholars. [1]


Confused by Julio-Claudian Family Tree

OK, so I read the Twelve Caesars last year. And I just started I, Claudius and I still have no idea what Graves is talking about. I don't understand the relation between the characters. And then I go look at a diagram of the family tree and that only confuses me even more. Could someone direct me to a really clear diagram of the family? Or at least explain why it's so messy.

You know something went bad when there is a separated wikipedia page just about the family tree :D

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julio-Claudian_family_tree
I was very cautious and started with the simplified one, but still got lost.
Maybe it will help for you :)

According to this TED-ed video, Roman family trees are messed up because due to female naming traditions, which are confusing.

So it might be that there isn't a clear one available unfortunately.

Possibly you can make a list of several of the important ancestors and then for each ancestor make a separate chart of all their descendants.

And make a list of the important Julio-Claudians like the five emperors and those of their heirs who neevr got to be emperor and then copy their ancestral charts from Wikipedia.

The family tree in Wikpedia mentined by hEngulino is somewhat over simplified, I think. For example, it omits the first great great grandson of Augustus, who Augustus lived to see the birth of.


Julio claudian dynasty

Julio-Claudian dynasty, (ad 14-68), the four successors of Augustus, the first Roman emperor: Tiberius (reigned 14-37), Caligula (37-41), Claudius I (41-54), and Nero (54-68). It was not a direct bloodline. Augustus had been the great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar (of the Julia gens) The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of ancient Rome, consisting of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. The term Julio-Claudian refers to the general biological and adoptive family of the group, as they did not all rise to power through traditional biological secession

Julio-Claudian dynasty ancient Rome Britannic

Det julo-claudiske dynasti henviser til de fem første keiserne i Romerriket: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius og Nero.De hersket fra 27 f.Kr til 68, da den siste i rekken, Nero ble tvunget til å begå selvmord. Navnet på slekten kommer av at medlemmene av dynastiet har sitt utspring i to patrisiske slekter, Julius og Claudius.Stamfaren, Cæsar Augustus, var en Julo gjennom adopsjon av. The Julio-Claudian dynasty was created by the first Roman Emperor, Augustus who came from the gens Julia. None of the Julio-Claudian Emperors was succeeded by a direct male heir. Augustus was succeeded by his son-in-law and adopted son Tiberius from the gens Claudia

The Julio-Claudians were the first dynasty to rule the Roman Empire.After the death of the dictator-for-life Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, his adopted son Octavian - later to become known as Augustus (r. 27 BCE - 14 CE) - fought a civil war against his father's enemies to eventually prevail and become the first Roman emperor.He would be succeeded by his adopted son Tiberius (14-37 CE), his great. The Julio-Claudian principate commenced with Augustus (r. 27 B.C.-14 A.D.), and included the reigns of Tiberius (r. 14-37 A.D.), Gaius Germanicus, known as Caligula (r. 37-41 A.D.), Claudius (r. 41-54 A.D.), and Nero (r. 54-68 A.D.).During this time, Rome reached the height of its power and wealth it may be seen as the golden age of Roman literature and arts, but it was also a. The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first dynasty of Roman emperors.All emperors of that dynasty descended from Julii Caesares and/or from Claudii.Marriages between descendants of Sextus Julius Caesar I and Claudii had occurred from the late stages of the Roman Republic, but the intertwined Julio-Claudian family tree resulted mostly from adoptions and marriages in Imperial Rome's first decades The Julio-Claudian dynasty normally refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula (also known as Gaius), Claudius, and Nero, or the family to which they belonged they ruled the Roman Empire from its formation, in the second half of the 1st century (44/31/27) BC, until AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide Julio Claudian Period. 27 BC-68 AD. Depicts a sacrifice with a pig, sheep and bull. There are two parts with the other side having the opposite figure. The cloaked figure is the main priest and is either Augustus or Tiberius heading to the altar. The laurel trees present are associated with Apollo. The figures are overlapping which demonstrates.

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty: 6 Things You Should Kno

  1. The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero.They ruled the Roman Empire from 27 BC to AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide.. These five rulers were linked through marriage and adoption into the familial gens Julia and gens Claudia
  2. g emperor).. Augustus (adopted son of Caesar) Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero The Roman society was a class society, and almost all ruling figures were from the Patrician class. Therefore, for the next 100 years the dynasty had.
  3. Media in category Julio-Claudian dynasty The following 15 files are in this category, out of 15 total. 2345 - Milano - Museo archeologico - Principe della dinastia Giulia - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto, 30-Oct-2008.jpg 1,224 × 1,632 853 K
  4. Julio-Claudian dynasty: the first dynasty to reign the Roman Empire (31 BCE - 68 CE). Augustus The dynasty was founded by Octavian , who put an end to the Roman civil wars (in the naval battle of Actium ) and founded the monarchy, adopting for himself the honorific title Augustus
  5. The Roman emperors who attempted to follow in the footsteps of the great Augustus. They certainly were a mixed bag, and yet they each played a role in solidifying Rome's imperial system. I bought.

Julo-claudiske dynasti - Wikipedi

  1. His family would govern the new state for several generations and was known as the Julio-Claudian Dynasty
  2. The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors — Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero [1] — or the family to which they belonged. They ruled the Roman Empire from its formation under Augustus in 27 BC until AD 68 (95 years), when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide. [2] The name Julio-Claudian dynasty is a.
  3. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Julio-Claudian Dynasty a series of Roman emperors from AD. 14 to AD. 68 descendants of the emperor Augustus by blood or adoption. The members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty came from the aristocratic Julian and Claudian houses and were.
  4. Julio-Claudian dynasty. The first five Roman emperors who ruled the Roman Empire, including Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. Praetorian Guard. A force of bodyguards used by the Roman emperors. They also served as secret police, and participated in wars

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Principate- Augustus understood what Caesar did not = importance of the senate = no ostentatious displays of authority- Carefully keep the republic alive= January 27BC: he handed all of his authority back to the senate and the people senate freaked out and gave him his power back added Augustus and Princeps Augustus calls his rule the Principat . They ruled the Roman Empire from its formation under Augustus in the second half of the 1st century (44/31/27) BC, until AD 68 when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide.. The father-to-son form of succession is notably. Julio-Claudian dynasty. The first five Roman emperors who ruled the Roman Empire, including Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. Flavian dynasty. A Roman imperial dynasty that ruled the Roman Empire from 69 to 96 CE, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian and his two sons, Titus and Domitian

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty. Caius Julius Caesar (murdered 44 BC) CAESAR DICT PERPETUO, denarius Julius Caesar, Pontifex Maximus. Caius Julius Caesar, postumous portrait 42 BC, he was murdered in March 44 BC, denarius Marcus Antonius an early. Introduction to the Julio-Claudian Dynasty. In this lesson, we're going to tackle the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, the first imperial dynasty of the Roman Empire.In power from 27 BCE to 68 CE, the. The Flavian Dynasty (69-96 A.D.) The Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 B.C.-68 A.D.) List of Rulers of the Roman Empire. Luxury Arts of Rome. Palmyra. The Parthian Empire (247 B.C.-224 A.D.) The Roman Banquet. Roman Cameo Glass. The Roman Empire (27 B.C.-393 A.D.) Roman Glass. Roman Luxury Glass. Roman Paintin The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus (Octavian), Tiberius, Caligula (Gaius), Claudius, and Nero.They ruled the Roman Empire from 27 BC to AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide.These five rulers were linked through marriage and adoption into the familial gens Julia and gens Claudia. Julius Caesar is sometimes inaccurately seen as its.

The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero —or the family to which they belonged. Nero (Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) was a great-great-grandson of Augustus and Livia through his mother, Agrippina the Younger Despite of all that, such Roman Emperors from Julio-Claudian dynasty not only did they preserve Octavian Augustus heritage but they even made heritage bigger. Emperor Claudius, for example in 47 AD conquered Great Britain and turned it into the new Roman province, and with this act he finished the job Julius Caesar started with his invasion at Britain in 55/54 BC

27 BC-68 AD: The Julio-Claudian dynasty , which produced five emperors at the start of the Roman Empire (27 BCE - 68 CE)

Julio-Claudian Dynasty - World History Onlin

  • The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first dynasty to rule the Roman Empire, consisting of Roman emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, who ruled from 27 BC to 68 AD. Primogeniture succession was absent from the dynasty, with succession taking place through adoption Tiberius' son Drusus Julius Caesar died before him, and Claudius' son Britannicus was passed over in favor of.
  • The Julio-Claudian dynasty produced the first five emperors, who were all related through blood or marriage in an effort to consolidate power and keep inheritance within the family. The Julio came from the first emperor, Octavian, who was the great-nephew of Julius Caesar
  • Cultures > Julio-Claudian Dynasty. Julio-Claudian Dynasty Background. The Julio-Claudian Dynasty was the royal dynasty of the first emperors of the Roman Empire following the assassination of Julius Caesar and the breakup of the Roman Republic.Its founder was Augustus, whose descendants and successors Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero ruled over the empire until the later committed suicide
  • Dynasty: Julio-Claudian. Reign: AD 41 - AD 54. Short profile. Claudius was the brother of Germanicus and therefore Caligula's uncle. Following the success of the plot, and without waiting for the Senate's approval, the Praetorian Guard did not hesitate to take action
  • The term Julio-Claudian dynasty refers to the first five Roman emperors — Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero [1] — or the family to which they belonged. They ruled the Roman Empire from its formation under Augustus in the second half of the 1st century (44/31/27) BC, until AD 68 when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide. [2].
  • Julio-Claudian Dynasty. A Brief History of Imperium. In any political system where executive authority or stewardship of the state is inherited via selection rather than election, it is more common than not that an incumbent ruler will choose his own successor before death or the expiration of his/her office, and such rulers frequently choose from a pool of familial relations

Augustus founded the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The name says it all: Julio-Claudian, Julio for the Julian side of the family, Julius Caesar and Augustus the Claudian for the Claudian side of the family. That was Augustus' wife from-her side of the family, excuse me, the Claudian side of the family. And there were four emperors in the Julio. Although it's the men of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty--the first ruling family of the Roman Empire--that go down in history, they would not have gotten very far without the women in their lives. From the power-hungry schemer Livia to the saintly matron Octavia, the older women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty stood behind Augustus as he mad

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty Sunday, June 14, 2009. Gauis Caligula. Gaius Caligula ( 31 August 12 - 24 January 41), was the third Roman Emperor, reigning from 16 March 37 until his assassination on 24 January 41. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty Julio-Claudian dynasty The Julio-Claudian dynasty is a term that is used to describe the first five emperors of Rome. These five emperors were Tiberius, Caligula, Augustus, Nero, and Claudius. The Julio-Claudian dynasty lasted from 27 BC until AD 68. This dynasty ended once Nero committed suicide The term Julio-Claudian dynasty refers to the first five Roman emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero—or the family to which they belonged. They ruled the Roman Empire from its formation under Augustus in the second half of the 1st century (44/31/27) BC, until AD 68 when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide This category contains articles on the Julio-Claudian Dynasty (49 BC68) of rulers in some form or another of the Roman empire during the late Roman Republic and early Empire, particularly articles on individuals who were a member of it by blood, marriage alliance or association

Rome under the Julio-Claudian Dynasty - Ancient History

  • Julio-Claudian dynasty (376 words) [German version] This term describes the first five sole rulers of Rome (including their families) after the end of the Republic and the Civil Wars: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius [III 1], and Nero
  • Julio-Claudian dynasty and Julio-Claudian family tree · See more » Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC - 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire
  • Julio-Claudian dynasty (AD 14-68) Successors of Augustus, the first Roman emperor: Tiberius, Caligula,.
  • The Julio-Claudian dynasty normally refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula (also known as Gaius), Claudius, and Nero, [1] or the family to which they belonged they ruled the Roman Empire from its formation, in the second half of the 1st century (44/31/27) BC, until AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide

Below you will find the correct answer to Last ruler of the Julio-Claudian dynasty Crossword Clue, if you need more help finishing your crossword continue your navigation and try our search function. Crossword Answers for Last ruler of the julio-claudian dynasty Added on Saturday, August 15, 2020. NERO. Search clues The Julio-Claudian Dynasty. CK3. 1/5. Augustus. 1 comment. share. save. hide. report. 90% Upvoted. Log in or sign up to leave a comment Log In Sign Up. Sort by. best. level 1. Original Poster 3 points · 1 hour ago. You can view former Emperors by going to a specific empire title and viewing the title history

Julio-Claudian dynasty: | | | ||Roman imperial dynasties|| | | | World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and. Die Julio-Claudian Dynastie war die erste römische Kaiserdynastie, die aus dem ersten fünf Kaiser - Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius und Nero-oder die Familie, zu der sie gehörten.Sie beherrschten das Römische Reich von seiner Entstehung unter Augustus in 27 BC, bis 68 AD , wenn die letzte der Linie, Nero, begangen Selbstmord.Der Name Julio-Claudian Dynastie ist ein Begriff aus. The Julio-Claudian dynasty ruled the ancient Roman Empire from 27 BCE to 68 CE and includes the five emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. Ancient Roman politics were treacherous, so the family's rule was never passed from father to son

. Julius Caesar had established himself as dictator of Rome after winning a civil war. He was famously assassinated on the Ides of March (March 15) at a Senate meeting Julio-Claudian Dynasty a series of Roman emperors from AD. 14 to AD. 68 descendants of the emperor Augustus by blood or adoption. The members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty came from the aristocratic Julian and Claudian houses and were related. The dynasty included Tiberius, who ruled from 14 to 37 Caligula, who ruled from 37 to 41 Claudius, who ruled. This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article Julio-Claudian_dynasty it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA. Cookie-policy To contact us: mail to [email protected] Books shelved as julio-claudian-dynasty: I, Claudius by Robert Graves, Vipsania: A Roman Odyssey by Jasper Burns, Severance by Robert Olen Butler, Tiberi..

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 B

  • The Julio-ClaudianDynasty: The History and Legacy of the First Family to Rule the Ancient Roman Empire Paperback - July 10, 2018 by Charles River Editors (Author) › Visit Amazon's Charles River Editors Page. Find all the books, read about the.
  • This article is about the nephew of the Emperor Augustus. For other people with the same name, see Marcus Claudius Marcellus. Marcus Claudius Marcellus (43 BCE-September? 23 BCE) was a Roman and the nephew of the emperor, Augustus. He was the son of Octavia Thurina Minor (sister of Augustus) and Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor, a direct descendant of a famous general in the Second Punic War.
  • The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first dynasty of Roman emperors.All emperors of that dynasty descended from Julii Caesares and/or from Claudii.Marriages between descendants of Sextus Julius Caesar I and Claudii had occurred from the late stages of the Roman Republic, but the intertwined Julio-Claudian family tree resulted mostly from adoptions and marriages in Imperial Rome's first decades

This time we are looking on the crossword puzzle clue for: Last ruler of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. it's A 40 letters crossword definition. Next time when searching the web for a clue, try using the search term Last ruler of the Julio-Claudian dynasty crossword or Last ruler of the Julio-Claudian dynasty crossword clue when searching for help with your puzzles Crossword Clue The crossword clue Last ruler of the Julio-Claudian dynasty with 4 letters was last seen on the August 15, 2020.We think the likely answer to this clue is NERO.Below are all possible answers to this clue ordered by its rank. You can easily improve your search by specifying the number of letters in the answer

Julio-Claudian family tree - Wikipedi

Zugang kaufen Hilfe Info Kontaktieren Sie uns Cookies Enzyklopädien | Textausgabe Please find below the Last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty crossword clue answer and solution which is part of Daily Themed Crossword June 26 2020 Answers.Many other players have had difficulties withLast Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty that is why we have decided to share not only this crossword clue but all the Daily Themed Crossword Answers every single day A list of In Our Time episodes and clips related to Julio-Claudian dynasty Julio-claudian Dynasty photo and image search. Search six million images spanning more than 25,000 years of world history, from before the Stone Age to the dawn of the Space Age and find the perfect picture for your project from Granger Julio-Claudian family tree: | The |Julio-Claudian dynasty| of the early |Roman Empire| has a |family tree| complic. World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled

Julio-Claudian Dynasty - Crystalink

  1. Julio-Claudian Dynasty Agustus (First Emperor of Rome) Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero. The Year of Four Emperors (68 - 69) Servius Sulpicius Galba Marcus Salvius Otho Aulus Vitellius Germanicus. Vespasianus who started the Flavian Dynasty. Flavian Dynasty (69 - 96 AD) Vespasian.
  2. Julio-Claudians - Videos. Peter Wright of Blackpool Sixth has created some videos for the Julio-Claudian Emperors module. Peter has worked closely with Classics for All and the WCN in creating a suite of resources across the OCR Classics and Ancient History curricula
  3. The Julio-Claudian dynasty. Tiberius. Caligula. Claudius. Nero. Flavian dynasty. Vespasian. Titus. The final emperor in the Flavian dynasty, Domitian, began his reign reasonably, but when one of his subordinates betrayed him, he became suspicious of everyone. He also started a religion dedicated to the deities of himself and his entire family
  4. Last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. December 17, 2019 themed Crossword Clues. Welcome to our website for all Last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty . Since you are already here then chances are that you are looking for the Daily Themed Crossword Solutions
  5. The End of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty in Rome: The History of Nero's Reign and the Year of the Four Emperors [Charles River Editors] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The End of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty in Rome: The History of Nero's Reign and the Year of the Four Emperor

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty Flashcards Quizle

Toggle facets Limit your search Object name. Paduan medal Flavian Dynasty Galba Hadrian II CONQUEST OF ITALY (510-264 BC) II THE BEGINNINGS OF EMPIRE III A WORLD POWER (264-133 BC) IV INTERNAL CONFLICT (133-27 BC) Julio-Claudian Dynasty Lucius Verus Marcus Aurelius Nero Nerva Otho Pertinax Roman Empire Roman Republic Roman Senate Septimus Servus Severan Dynasty Tiberius Titus Trajan.

Julio-Claudian Dynasty Romapedia Fando

The first leader of the Imperial period was Augustus, who was from the Julian family of Rome. The next four emperors were all from his or his wife's (Claudian) family. The two family names are combined in the form Julio-Claudian. The Julio-Claudian era covers the first few Roman emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero Julio-Claudian dynasty. Gaius Flaminius C. f. L. n. was a leading Roman politician in the third century BC. Twice consul, in 223 and 217, Flaminius is notable for his Lex Flaminia land reform of 232, the construction of the Circus Flaminius in 221, and his battle against Hannibal's army in 217 during the Second Punic War where he was defeated and killed

. They ruled the Roman Empire as Princeps from its formation under Augustus in the second half of the 1st century (44/31/27) BC, until AD 68 when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 204. Chapters: Mark Antony, Augustus, Nero, Caligula, Roman conquest of Britain, Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, Battle of Actium, Julio-Claudian family tree, Claudius, Tiberius, Agrippina the Younger, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Second Triumvirate, Aeneid.

Add new page. Main. Philosophy & Religio Start studying Julio-Claudian dynasty. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools The Julio-Claudian Dynasty: The History and Legacy of the First Family to Rule the Ancient Roman Empire [Charles River Editors] on Amazon.com.au. *FREE* shipping on eligible orders. The Julio-Claudian Dynasty: The History and Legacy of the First Family to Rule the Ancient Roman Empir

Posts about julio-claudian dynasty written by tjwest3. In this, the final volume of my ongoing series about the women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, I take a look at the youngest generation of that most illustrious of Roman families The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus (Octavian), Tiberius, Caligula (Gaius), Claudius, and Nero. They ruled the Roman Empire from 27 BC to AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide. These five rulers were linked through marriage and adoption into the familial gens Julia and gens Claudia Julio-Claudian dynasty. Related topics. Grammy Award winners (299) Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients (270) Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (198

Julio-Claudian dynasty - Simple English Wikipedia, the

  1. Les Julio-Claudiens ou dynastie julio-claudienne sont les membres de la famille impériale formant la première dynastie impériale romaine régnant sur l'Empire romain entre 27 av. J.-C. et 68 ap. J.-C., entre Auguste et Néron.Cet ensemble familial, très complexe, puise sa désignation historique moderne dans l'alliance matrimoniale et familiale entre la gens Claudia et la gens Julia au.
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  5. Functions of Slavery The use of slavery was significant in ensuring the acquiescence of society and for building Roman infrastructure however, this led to the significant breakdown of traditional Roman society. Cultural accomplishments of the Julio-Claudian dynasty include ambitious adequate and road projects undertaken by the rule of Claudius
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Category:Julio-Claudian dynasty - Wikimedia Common

24.09.2017 - Julio-Claudian dynasty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi View Julio-Claudian Emperors Research Papers on Academia.edu for free Julio-Claudian — 1. adjective of or relating to the , which ended with the death of Nero in the year 68 AD 2. noun Someone from the Julio Flavian dynasty Wiktionary Dynasty (TV series) — Dynasty The iconic trio of Krystle, Blake and Alexis, as featured on the Season 3 (Part 1) DVD Genre Soap opera Created by Richard &am Julio-Claudian Dynasty (8) Flavian Dynasty 69-96 AD (5) Adoptive Emperors 96-138 AD (10) Antonine Dynasty 138-192 AD (27) Severan Dynasty 193-235 AD (19) Third Century Crisis 235-284 AD (302) The Tetrarchy 284-324 AD (64) Constantine Dynasty 305-363 AD (92) Late Empire.

Julio-Claudians - Liviu

Julio-Claudian Dynasty The first five years of Nero's reign are an era of relative stability, followed by nine terrible years. In 64 CE, a nine-day blaze, known as the Great Fire, engulfs two-thirds of Rome Your finding Last Roman Emperor Of The Julio-Claudian Dynasty crossword clue take a look at our page to get the correct answer. The Daily themed Crosswords are a popular game and here you get different puzzles every day. Our purpose in launching this web page is to solve all the puzzles The first dynasty to rule the Roman empire, the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Julius Caesar (49 B.C. - 44 B.C.) : The last dictator of the Roman Republic, although no emperor himself, he was vital for the establishment of the monarchy, which would be established by his heir, Octavian Flavian dynasty, (ad 69-96), the ancient Roman imperial dynasty of Vespasian (reigned 69-79) and his sons Titus (79-81) and Domitian (81-96) they belonged to the Flavia gens. The fall of Nero (ad 68) and the extinction of the Julio-Claudian dynasty had been followed by a war of succession tha The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the series of the first five Roman Emperors they ruled the Roman Empire from 27 BCE to 68 CE, when the last of the line, Nero, was assassinated.. The dynasty is so named from the nomina or family names of its first two emperors: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus and Tiberius Claudius Nero - the ruling line was founded upon an alliance between these two families

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty: Emperors of Rome - YouTub

Julio-Claudian. 1. adjective. of or relating to the , which ended with the death of Nero in the year 68 AD. 2. noun. Someone from the Julio-Flavian dynasty. Wikipedia foundation. puerility Julio-Claudian Dynasty. Books, LLC. General Books LLC, 2010 - 760 páginas. 0 Reseñas. Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 204 Jan 15, 2017 - The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero[1]—or the family to which they belonged. They ruled the Roman Empire from its formation under Augustus in 27 BC until AD 68 , when the last of the line, Nero, committe


Conclusions

The quindecemviri sacris faciundis was evidently an important priesthood in Julio-Claudian Rome, comprising of numerous illustrious individuals who often held a number of important positions concurrently with their priesthood, or prior to their admission. Moreover, the prolific nature of their careers leads to issues of ambiguity within the evidence concerning the priesthood’s roles. Roles which, in summary, were to care for and interpret the Sibylline books, and to organise, conduct, and oversee religious events and public sacrifices.

Ewan Coopey

Ewan is a Research Assistant and HDR student studying Roman Dalmatia. His passion for all things ancient and medieval arose in childhood when he would wander through the Roman forts and medieval castles which are scattered across the British Isles. His research interests include: provincial archaeology, the Roman military, identity in the ancient world, and the province of Dalmatia.


Lecture 20: Post-Aug Empire: Claudius (41-54 CE), Nero (54-68 CE).

Suetonius (Life of Claudius 10): When the assassins of Gaius shut out the crowd under pretence that the emperor wished to be alone, Claudius was ousted with the rest and withdrew to an apartment called the Hermaeum and a little later, in great terror at the news of the murder, he stole away to a balcony hard by and hid among the curtains which hung before the door. As he cowered there, a common soldier, who was prowling about at random, saw his feet, intending to ask who he was, pulled him out and recognized him and when Claudius fell at his feet in terror, he hailed him as emperor.

What kind of man is Claudius? What kind of ruler?

  • b. 10 BCE at Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon, France) — the emperor Caracalla (r. 211-217 CE) was also born there
  • Claudius = nephew of Tiberius, uncle of Caligula, younger brother of Germanicus
  • equestrian status until 37 CE when he was suffect consul with his nephew, emperor Caligula consul again in 42, 43, 47, 51 CE
  • by end of reign, had received 27 salutations as imperator — more than any other emperor until Constantine I
  • revived office of censor in 47-48 CE (his colleague was L. Vitellius, father of a future emperor, r. 69 CE for 8 months) — censorship had not been held since 22 BCE

Claims of physical and mental infirmity

Suetonius ( Life of Claudius 3 ): His mother Antonia often called him “a monster of a man, not finished but merely begun by nature” and if she accused anyone of dulness, she used to say that he was “a bigger fool than her son Claudius.” His grandmother Augusta [=Livia] always treated him with the utmost contempt, very rarely speaking to him and when she criticized him, she did so in short, harsh letters, or through messengers.

Dio Cassius ( 60.2.1-2 ): In mental ability he was by no means inferior, as his faculties had been in constant training (in fact, he had actually written some historical treatises) but he was sickly in body, so that his head and hands shook slightly. Because of this his voice was also faltering, and he did not himself read all the measures that he introduced before the senate, but would give them to the quaestor to read, though at first, at least, he was generally present. Whatever he did read himself, he usually delivered sitting down.

Suetonius ( Life of Claudius 38 ): He did not even keep quiet about his own stupidity, but in certain brief speeches he declared that he had purposely feigned it under Gaius, because otherwise he could not have escaped alive and attained his present station. But he convinced no one, and within a short time a book was published, the title of which was “The Elevation of Fools” and its thesis, that no one feigned folly.

Dio Cassius ( 60.2.4-5 ): From a child he had been reared a constant prey to illness and great terror , and for that reason had feigned a stupidity greater than was really the case (a fact that he himself admitted in the senate).

  • wrote a history of Rome in over 40 Books Etruscan history in 20 Books (in Greek) history of Carthage in 8 Books (in Greek) (Suet. Claudius 42)
  • he was encouraged in his writing of history by Livy (Suet. Claudius 41)

Tacitus ( Annales 11.13-14 ): After making the discovery that not even the Greek alphabet was begun and completed in the same instant, he invented and gave to the world some additional Latin characters. [14] The Egyptians, in their animal-pictures, were the first people to represent thought by symbols: these, the earliest documents of human history, are visible today, impressed upon stone. They describe themselves also as the inventors of the alphabet: from Egypt, they consider, the Phoenicians, who were predominant at sea, imported the knowledge into Greece, and gained the credit of discovering what they had borrowed. For the tradition runs that it was Cadmus, arriving with a Phoenician fleet, who taught the art to the still uncivilized Greek peoples. Others relate that Cecrops of Athens (or Linus of Thebes) and, in the Trojan era, Palamedes of Argos, invented sixteen letters, the rest being added later by different authors, particularly Simonides. In Italy the Etruscans learned the lesson from the Corinthian Demaratus, the Aborigines from Evander the Arcadian and in form the Latin characters are identical with those of the earliest Greeks. But, in our case too, the original number was small, and additions were made subsequently: a precedent for Claudius, who appended three more letters , which were used during his reign, then fell out of use, but still meet the eye on the official bronzes fixed in the forums and temples.

Suetonius ( Life of Claudius 41 ): he invented three new letters and added them to the alphabet, maintaining that they were greatly needed he published a book on their theory when he was still in private life, and when he became emperor had no difficulty in bringing about their general use. These characters may still be seen in numerous books, in the state registers, and in inscriptions on public buildings.

  1. An inverted digamma, , for the consonantal u, i.e. English ‘w’ ( VLGVS = VVLGVS )
  2. an “antisigma,” Ↄ , equivalent to the Greek Ψ (sound: ps ) and the sound bs — no known extant examples (and some uncertainty about what it really looked like: alternative theory = Ↄ Ϲ )
  3. the Greek sign for the spiritus asper , , to express the y ‑sound, between u and i , heard in such words as maximus ( maxumus ) (= MAX MVS ).

Pomerium boundary stone, Rome. 49 CE. Found in 1913 near the Via Flaminia. One of 8 or 9 discovered examples of boundary-stones set up by Claudius when he expanded Rome’s pomerium during his censorship 47-48 CE. The last line reads: ampliaℲit terminaℲitq[ue]. = ampliauit terminauitque, “he enlarged it and made a boundary” (Illustrated Introduction to Latin Epigraphy, 118).

  • his domestic policy aimed at remedying the damage done by Caligula and stressing the importance of the cult of the imperial family
    • at his accession, Claudius deified Livia (Suet. Claudius 11, Dio Cassius 60.5.2) Tiberius had not wanted to deify his mother…
    • abolished taxes introduced by Caligula (Dio Cassius 60.4.1)
    • brought back those exiled by Caligula, including Caligula’s sisters Agrippina and Julia Livilla (Dio Cassius 60.4.1)
    • he took an active role in overseeing court cases and finances (Dio Cassius 60.4.4)
    • he destroyed all of the poisons found in Caligula’s residence and the two books named Gladius (‘The Sword’) and Pugio (‘The Dagger’) belonging to Caligula’s freedman, Protogenes (Dio Cassius 60.4.5) which contained names of those marked out for judicial murder

    Dio Cassius ( 60.4.5-6 ) : And yet, when the senate desired to dishonour Caligula, he personally prevented the passage of the measure, but on his own responsibility caused all his predecessor’s images to disappear by night. [6] Hence the name of Caligula does not occur in the list of emperors whom we mention in our oaths and prayers any more than does that of Tiberius and yet neither one of them suffered disgraced by official decree.

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    • reorganized the central administration of empire into various departments for administrative tasks
    • provinces:
      • 42 CE: Mauretania organized into two procuratorial provinces (Caesariensis and Tingitana)
      • 43 CE: conquest of Britain begun with imperial cult at Camulodunum (modern Colchester)
      • 43 CE: Lycia + Pamphylia become a new imperial province
      • 43 CE: Anatolia integrated into the Empire
      • 46 CE: Thrace becomes a procuratorial province
      • by 54 CE Claudius’ eastern governers had allowed Parthia to control Greater Armenia, blow to Roman prestige
      • project to drain Lake Fucinus, large lake in central Italy: Claudius employed 30, 000 men over 11 years to execute Caesar’s plan to drain the lake emissarium of 3½ miles excavated through a mountain ridge to carry the lake waters to the River Liris (Suet. Iul. 44 Claudius20, 32)
      • built aqueducts (Suet. Claudius 20)
      • the port of Ostia (Suet. Claudius 20) completed by Nero

      Copper alloy coin of Nero (reverse), mid. 1st c. CE. Bird’s eye view of the harbour of Ostia begun by Claudius in 42 CE, completed by Nero. At the top, a statue of Neptune on a base or on top of a lighthouse at the bottom, reclining figure of River Tiber, holding rudder in right hand and dolphin in left hand to left, crescent-shaped pier with portico of fourteen pillars, terminating with figure sacrificing at altar before building to right, crescent-shaped row of fourteen breakwaters or slips terminating with figure seated on rock within the central harbour, seven ships (three left, one centre, three right). The inscription reads: AUGUSTI POROST = Portus Ostiensis Augustus, “Augustan harbour of Ostia”. The term “Augustan” here refers to Nero, not to Augustus himself. Image: British Museum.

      The advancement of provincial senators

      The Lugdunum tablet, or Lyon tablet (CIL XIII, 1668), discovered in 16th century near Lyon, France. Bronze tablet inscribed with a speech given by Claudius in 48 CE. Lugdunum, Gaul, was the city of Claudius’ birth and it also housed an imperial cult centre (see the image of the Lugdunum altar to Rome and Augustus on a coin in lecture 19 — this altar was consecrated in the year of Claudius’ birth, 10 BCE). Claudius’ speech made before the Roman senate argued that citizens from northern and central Gaul be allowed to become senators. The bronze tablet reflects the words which Claudius wanted his Gallic audience to hear. The historian Tacitus (Ann. 11.23-25) gives us his own version. This is another example of an extant inscription relating a historical event which was described by Tacitus, like the Senatus Consultum de Pisone patre. These points of contact allow us to analyze Tacitus as a historical source. Claudius’ speech shows his concern for the interest of provincial elites his antiquarianism and his literary/historical debt to Livy. Image: EDCS.

      Tacitus ( Ann. 11.24 ): “In my own ancestors, the eldest of whom, Clausus, a Sabine by extraction, was made simultaneously a citizen and the head of a patrician house, I find encouragement to employ the same policy in my administration, by transferring hither all true excellence, let it be found where it will. For I am not unaware that the Julii came to us from Alba, the Coruncanii from Camerium, the Porcii from Tusculum that — not to scrutinize antiquity — members were drafted into the senate from Etruria, from Lucania, from the whole of Italy and that finally Italy itself was extended to the Alps, in order that not individuals merely but countries and nationalities should form one body under the name of Romans…”

      The influence of women and freedmen…

      Dio Cassius ( 60.2.4 ): It was not these infirmities, however, that caused the deterioration of Claudius so much as it was the freedmen and the women with whom he associated for he, more conspicuously than any of his peers, was ruled by slaves and by women.

      • Narcissus : freedman secretary of correspondence to Claudius. Acquired 400 million sesterces and great political influence. Power weakened during the Messalina affair of 48 CE.
      • Gaius Julius Callistus : an influential freedman who took part in the conspiracy to assassinate Caligula in 41 CE in charge of petitions under Claudius.
      • Marcus Antonius Pallas : freedman of Claudius’ mother, Antonia, and financial secretary under Claudius. Wealth, success, arrogance made him unpopular. Devoted to Agrippina (sister of Caligula), and rumoured to be her lover, he successfully championed her as Claudius’ new wife after downfall of Messalina. Under Pallas’ influence, Claudius promoted Agrippina’s son, future emperor Nero, ahead of his bio son, Britannicus. After his influenced waned, he was put to death by Nero in 62 CE.

      The Messalina Affair (48 CE) — the marriage to Gaius Silius

      • Valeria Messalina = Claudius’ 3rd wife (married in 38 or 39 CE), great-granddaughter on both sides of Octavia (Aug.’s sister) and Mark Antony. Her children with Claudius: Octavia (b. 40 CE), Britannicus (b. 41 CE).
      • during the height of her power she arranged the destruction or exile of a number of prominent elite individuals including Caligula’s sister, Julia Livilla, and Seneca
      • 48 CE : Claudius’ wife Messalina “married” a consul-designate named Gaius Silius (attempt to replace Claudius as emperor). Tacitus gives an extended account of the public wedding celebrations and Messalina’s downfall.
      • Messalina and Silius were both executed — as well as 8 of their associates (Suet. Claud. 26, 39 Tac. Ann. 11.28-38 Dio 60(61).31.5)
      • her children were both later murdered by Nero: Britannicus (55 CE), Octavia (then Nero’s wife, 62 CE).
      • She was denied the title of Augusta (Dio Cassius 60.12.5), and suffered damnatio memoriae (Tac. Ann. 11.38.3 Varner 2004: 96)

      Tacitus (Ann. 11.31-32): But Messalina had never given voluptuousness a freer rein. Autumn was at the full, and she was celebrating a mimic vintage through the grounds of the house. Presses were being trodden, vats flowed while, beside them, naked women were bounding like Bacchanals excited by sacrifice or delirium. She herself was there with dishevelled tresses and waving a thyrsus at her side, Gaius Silius with an ivy crown, wearing the buskins and tossing his head, while around him rose the din of a wanton chorus. The tale runs that Vettius Valens, in some freak of humour, clambered into a tall tree, and to the question, “What did he spy?” answered: “A frightful storm over Ostia” — whether something of the kind was actually taking shape, or a chance-dropped word developed into a prophecy. [32] In the meanwhile, not rumour only but messengers were hurrying in from all quarters, charged with the news that Claudius knew all and was on the way, hot for revenge.

      Juvenal* ( Satire 6.115-132 ) : Then take a look at the rivals of the gods, listen to what Claudius put up with. When his wife [=Messalina] realised her husband was asleep, she would leave, with no more than a single maid as her escort. Preferring a mat to her bedroom in the Palace, she had the nerve to put on a nighttime hood, the whore-empress (meretrix Augusta). Like that, with a blonde wig hiding her black hair, she went inside a brothel reeking of ancient blankets to an empty cubicle—her very own. Then she stood there, naked and for sale, with her nipples gilded, under the trade name of “She-Wolf,” ( lupa ) putting on display the belly you came from, noble-born Britannicus. She welcomed her customers seductively as they came in and asked for their money. Later, when the pimp was already dismissing his girls, she left reluctantly, waiting till the last possible moment to shut her cubicle, still burning with her clitoris inflamed and stiff. She went away, exhausted by the men but not yet satisfied, and, a disgusting creature, with her cheeks filthy, dirty from the smoke of the lamp, she took back to the emperor’s couch the stench of the brothel.

      *Juvenal = c.55 or 60–c.130 CE, Roman verse satirist.

      Tacitus ( Ann. 11.38.3 ): His forgetfulness was assisted by the senate, which decreed that the name and statues of the empress should be removed from private and public places.

      Varner ( 2004: 96 ): “As a direct result of her damnatio memoriae and the virulence of the feeling against her, Messalina is the first empress for whom there is extant physical evidence for the deliberate mutilation of her images.”

      Agrippina (14-59 CE) married her uncle Claudius in 49 CE

      • b. Nov. 15 CE, she married Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus in 28 CE Nero was born from this marriage in 37 CE
      • Agrippina was banished by Caligula (39 CE) because of a conspiracy (Dio Cassius 59.22) recalled by Claudius, she married again (Passienus Crispus)
      • 49 CE: Agrippina married her uncle Claudius she used her influence to recall Seneca from exile
      • 50 CE: made Claudius adopt Nero, privileging him over his own biological son, Britannicus
      • she founded the Colonia Agrippinensium (modern Cologne: Tac. Ann. 12.25-27)
      • after Claudius’ death in 54 CE, she dominated politics but she was killed by Nero in 59 CE

      Suetonius ( Life of Claudius 44 ): That Claudius was poisoned is the general belief, but when it was done and by whom is disputed. Some say that it was his taster, the eunuch Halotus, as he was banqueting with the priests others that at a family dinner Agrippina served the drug to him with her own hand in mushrooms, a dish of which he was extravagantly fond. Reports also differ as to what followed. Many say that as soon as he swallowed the poison he became speechless, and after suffering excruciating pain all night, died just before dawn. Some say that he first fell into a stupor, then vomited up the whole contents of his overloaded stomach, and was given a second dose, perhaps in a gruel, under pretence that he must be refreshed with food after his exhaustion, or administered in a syringe, as if he were suffering from a surfeit and required relief by that form of evacuation as well.

      Dio Cassius ( 61.35.2, 4 ): Agrippina and Nero pretended to grieve for the man whom they had killed, and elevated to heaven him whom they had carried out on a litter from the banquet…[4] Nero, too, has left us a remark not unworthy of record. He declared mushrooms to be the food of the gods, since Claudius by means of the mushroom had become a god.

      • after death of Claudius 54 CE, Claudius is deified by senatorial decree, Agrippina becomes priestess of Divine Claudius, as Livia had been of Divine Augustus (Dio 61.35.2)
      • Nero (nearly 17 yo) was named emperor by the praetorian guard senate bestowed tribunicia potestas + imperium proconsulare
      • at Nero’s accession, he read speeches written for him by Seneca to the praetorians and to the senate (Dio Cassius 61.3.1)
      • Nero was consul in 55, 57, 58, 60, and 68 CE
      • Agrippina wanted to be in control — Agrippina is reported to have had a sexual relationship with her son in order to control him (Tac. Ann. 14.2.1, Dio 61.11.3)
      • 55 CE: Nero’s brother Britannicus died (poisoned by Nero, acc. to Tac. Ann. 13.15-17 and Suet. Nero 33)
      • 59 CE: Nero had his mother, Agrippina, killed (Tac. Ann. 14.1-9)

      Tacitus ( Ann. 14.3, 5 ): Nero began to avoid private meetings with his mother when she left for her gardens or the estates at Tusculum and Antium, he commended her intention of resting finally, convinced that, wherever she might be kept, she was still an burden,he decided to kill her, debating only whether by poison, the dagger, or some other form of violence …Anicetus the freedman pointed out that it was possible to construct a ship, part of which could be artificially detached, well out at sea, and throw the unsuspecting passenger overboard:— “Nowhere had accident such scope as on salt water and, if the lady should be cut off by shipwreck, who so captious as to read murder into the delinquency of wind and wave? The sovereign, naturally, would assign the deceased a temple and the other displays of filial piety.” …[5] . Suddenly the signal was given: the canopy above them, which had been heavily weighted with lead, dropped, and Crepereius was crushed and killed on the spot. Agrippina and Acerronia were saved by the height of the couch-sides, which, as it happened, were too solid to give way under the impact. Nor did the break-up of the vessel follow: for confusion was universal, and even the men accessory to the plot were impeded by the large numbers of the ignorant. The crew then decided to throw their weight on one side and so capsize the ship but, even on their own part, agreement came too slowly for a sudden emergency, and a counter-effort by others allowed the victims a gentler fall into the waves. Acerronia, however, incautious enough to raise the cry that she was Agrippina, and to demand aid for the emperor’s mother, was despatched with poles, oars, and every nautical weapon that came to hand. Agrippina, silent and so not generally recognised, though she received one wound in the shoulder, swam until she was met by a few fishing-smacks, and so reached the Lucrine lake, whence she was carried into her own villa .

      Tacitus ( Ann. 14.8 ): The centurion was drawing his sword to make an end, when she gave her womb to the blow. “ Strike here,”* she exclaimed, and was despatched with repeated wounds.

      Portrait of Nero from the Munich Glyptothek. Image: public domain via Wikimedia. Paul Zanker (2008: 76): “In his last years, Nero increasingly saw himself as an artist of rival talent. This subjective view comes across strongly in his final portrait type. Unlike his predecessors, Nero is not depicted with idealized features and a Classical hairstyle but rather with his own full, rather fleshy face and a hairstyle that could only have been made with a curling iron .”


      Option J: The Julio-Claudians AD14-69

      The Julio-Claudian Dynasty, named after the two families (or gens) in which the emperors were drawn from, was the first imperial dynasty to rule Rome. Though the family begins with Julius Caesar and the successive position of emperor was created by Caesar&rsquos adopted son, Caesar Octavian (renamed Augustus). The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians encompasses the four successive emperors of Augustus:

      Tiberius was perhaps the most able of Augustus&rsquo successors as he continued the prosperity and order his predecessor established on the frontiers and kept the finances stable. Despite this, however, in the later years of his reign, Tiberius became increasingly unpopular with the masses and was quickly seen as a cruel tyrant.

      Tiberius&rsquo successor, Caligula (otherwise known as Gaius) and the great-grandson of Augustus, was known for his wild impulses, uncontrolled passion and incredible insanity. Caligula was the first emperor to be assassinated by the Praetorian Guard &ndash elite soldiers who were meant to protect the imperial family. He was succeeded by his uncle Claudius who successfully conquered Britannia and absorbed client-states. His third marriage, however, rocked Roman society as he changed legal rulings in order to marry his niece, and Caligula&rsquos sister, Agrippina the Younger and adopt her son Nero (though he already had a male heir). Nero succeeded his adoptive father to be the last member of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty.

      Nero is remembered as a monstrous ruler who preferred luxury over leadership and played the fiddle while Rome burned. Though greatly loved by the people, Nero was hated by the Senate and eventually committed suicide in 68 when he learned he had been made a public enemy and condemned to death. Nero&rsquos suicide bought in a year of turmoil and civil war, now known as the Year of the Four Emperors (Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian), which ended after the victory of Vespasian.

      To see photorealistic recreations of the busts of these emperors, and the 54 emperors of The Principate, click here.

      Survey

      Map of the Roman Empire during the Age of Augustus
      Photo credit: Eck, W. 2007 &lsquoAge of Augustus&rsquo Blackwell Publishing: Malden and Oxford (second edition), page 90-91
      .

      Rome was built in a highly strategic position in the centre of the Mediterranean world. Founded on the West coast of what is now Italy, the centre of the vast Roman Empire was not built on the coast, but inland alongside the Tiber River. After its mythical beginnings and regal roots, Rome began its outward expansion in the third century BC. By the end of the Republic in 31 BC, the Roman Empire encapsulated Italy, Greece, North Africa, Asia Minor, Gaul, Hispania, Egypt and Judea. It was clearly a force to be reckoned with. Though these were not easily won battles (with total defeat in Rome&rsquos sights numerous times against Hannibal of Carthage, and Mithridates of Pontus during the Mithridatic Wars) Rome was always victorious. However, the one enemy Rome was never quite able to conquer throughout all this was their eventual eastern neighbours, the Parthians. It was this empire, and its later successor the Persian kingdom, that would forever challenge Rome for universal supremacy. For more on Rome&rsquos timeline, geographical setting and its wars of expansion, see the list of resources below:

      Chronology and Geographical Setting of Rome and its Empire:

        . A short video that shows the expansion and then regression of Rome throughout its history. provides more information on specific periods when the links are clicked.

      Key Powers in the Ancient Mediterranean:

        talks about the power of the pirates and their eventual suppression by Pompey the Great in 67 BC. who posed a serious threat to Rome&rsquos expansion between 89 BC &ndash 63 BC, when he was eventually defeated. , which Rome fought (and also lost) against Carthage
    • Rawson, E. 1988. &lsquoThe Expansion of Rome,&rsquo in J. Boardman, J. Griffin and O. Murray (eds.), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Page 39-59. This chapter, found on Google books, talks of Rome&rsquos expansion outside of Italy and how that influenced its culture and development.
    • The United Nations of Roma Victrix&rsquos entry on Pompey&rsquos suppression of the East with the defeat of the Seleucid Empire in 64 BC
    • Focus of Study

      Five Emperors of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero
      <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Julio-Claudian-Dynasty.jpg>

      The lives and reigns of the Julio-Claudians and the Four Emperors are well documented in our surviving ancient material. Whether it be from the history and biography writers, numismatic (coinage) material, statuary, inscriptions or monumental remains, this fifty-year period is well documented. Some of your primary literary source material can be found from Suetonius&rsquo Lives of the Twelve Caesars Tacitus Annals and The Histories Cassius Dio Roman History 57-66. For the surviving numismatic material see the Roman Imperial Coinage database for Tiberius Roman Imperial Coinage database for Caligula Roman Imperial Coinage database for Claudius and Roman Imperial Coinage database for Nero. Below is further resources and information on the (i) Role of the Princeps and Senate (ii) The Imperial Women (iii) the Princeps and the Army and (iv) The Imperial Cult.

      Development of the Princeps and Senate:

      As a teacher (K-12), you can receive free access to six articles a month on JSTOR by registering for the site here. This membership will allow you access to a great range of scholarship, including some listed below!


      A history of the Roman people, 7th edition

      Already the most comprehensive single-volume textbook on Roman history, the seventh edition of A History of the Roman People, expanded 197 pages, seems a formidable update to its hefty predecessor—but appearances deceive. Most changes are cosmetic, while substantive ones are not always improvements. This is an excellent text – but so was the last, which is not so different from this new edition as the publisher might wish to admit.

      Fritz M. Heichelheim and Cedric A. Yeo first published A History of the Roman People in 1962. After Heichelheim’s death, Allen M. Ward collaborated on 1984’s second edition, which extended the scope from Constantine to Justinian. Following Yeo’s passing, Ward produced the third through sixth editions of 1999, 2003, 2009, and 2014. The seventh edition, now under Celia E. Schultz’s stewardship, covers Roman history to 602 CE. The narrative proceeds chronologically through political and military history (Chapters 1-3, 5-9, 12-17, 19-20, 22-25, 27-28, 30-32, 35-36), with socio-cultural overviews interspersed (Chapters 4, 10-11, 18, 21, 26, 29, 33-34, 37-38). Separate volumes on the Republic and Empire, promised in the preface to the sixth edition (xvii), but never printed, are here deferred to the eighth (xxv).

      Schultz’s volume joins a recent bumper crop of textbooks on Roman history. Single-volume treatments from the past dozen years include the fifth and sixth editions of A History of the Roman People[1] the first, second, and third editions of Potter’s Ancient Rome: A New History[2] second editions of Boatwright et al.’s The Romans[3] and its abridgement A Brief History of the Romans[4] a fourth edition of Le Glay et al.’s A History of Rome[5] a second edition of Nagle’s Ancient Rome: A History[6] and first editions of Dunstan’s Ancient Rome[7], Martin’s Ancient Rome: From Romulus to Justinian,[8] and Mathisen’s Ancient Roman Civilization.[9] (This, of course, leaves aside the multi-volume offerings of Routledge,[10] Blackwell,[11] Edinburgh,[12] and Belknap/Profile[13] – to say nothing of period-specific treatments of the Republic,[14] the Empire,[15] and Late Antiquity.[16]) Each of these volumes has its own particular strengths,[17] but A History of the Roman Peoplehas long stood out for its unparalleled level of detail presented with great clarity.

      The marketing copy promises a text “[r]ichly illustrated … fully updated”, newly endowed with informative boxes, and placing greater emphasis on women, religion, and new archaeological discoveries (i). Close analysis challenges these claims.[18]

      Schultz notes “the most significant change in this latest edition is the inclusion of sidebars” (xxv) covering the Etruscan brontoscopic calendar (29), auspices (130), novi homines (186), voting (217), Pompey’s politics (227), provincial commands (262), supplicationes (280), women’s social networks (328), Augustus’ ludi saeculares (351) and his funeral (381), publishing (412), poisoning (427), latrines (445), the Vindolanda tablets (459), incubation cults (488), damnatio memoriae (522), the Codex Calendar of 354 CE (627), Jerome’s schooling (629), and chariot racing (677-8). Though interesting, these tangential asides represent but ten of 720 pages of the main text.

      Most changes are copy edits: BCE/CE dating replaces BC/AD cross-references reflect the repagination. Less frequent, but more important are changes to style and tone: removing instances of editorializing and speculation simplifying terms like “forthwith” (ch. 20) and “contumacious” (ch. 15) using less Latin and translating it more removing tactless analogies to “hoodlums” (ch. 16) or “modern motorcycle and street gangs” (ch. 18) and modernizing terminology (e.g., “dark age” becomes “early iron age” [ch. 3], “alien” becomes “foreigner” [ch. 25], “Rumanians” becomes “Romanians” [ch. 25][19]).

      Brief clarifications are inserted sporadically, but there are fewer revisions than one might expect, as passages are more often deleted than rewritten. Of 38 chapters, only Chapter 4 (“Early Roman society, religion, and values”) is rewritten extensively, particularly its sections on religion and family. Elsewhere, perhaps a paragraph or three in a chapter have been reworked, or, more commonly, a few scattered clauses. Despite being the topics revised most thoroughly, there is less material on religion and women in this edition than before – perplexing, given the publisher’s promises of an enhanced focus in these areas (i). Rather, recharacterization seems the goal. Schultz recasts anything related to sexuality (prostitution, eunuchs, homosexuality, etc.) in a less sensationalist manner or eliminates it altogether when not crucial to the narrative. Mentions of women are also removed if raised solely in reference to childbearing and infertility or mariticide and other scandals.

      Schultz tempers the outmoded treatment of Christianity to accommodate a diverse audience, e.g., reframing overtly Christian phrasing (“Jesus” replaces “Christ”). Yet, Chapter 38 (“The Church and the Legacy of Rome”) still concludes that Rome endures solely in the institution of the Church. Overall, the scattered presentation of Christian doctrine, schisms, heresies, and ecumenical councils can be difficult to follow. More systematic chapters on church history (as in Dunstan 2011) might clarify these matters Chapters 34 (“Christianity and Classical culture in the fourth century”) and 38 are insufficient in this regard.

      Archaeological material and recent discoveries receive less attention than religion – Schultz is, in her own words, “a student of religion in the Roman Republic” and “not an archaeologist”.[20] Some boxes add new material (e.g., the Vindolanda tablets [459]), but additions to the main text are rare and brief: passing mentions of the lack of destruction evidence for the Gallic sack (103) and evidence for Hannibal’s route through the Alps (142). Such material is presented uncritically, rather than engaging students in scholarly debates. There is also inconsistency as to what constitutes recent. Bronze Age occupation at Poggiomarino excavated from 2000-2004, but not fully published until 2012[21] was “recent” in the sixth edition (5), but not here (6) while work from 2009 on coin hoards as demographic indicator[22] remains “recent” (357). The Senatus Consultum de Cn. Pisone Patre, was found “recently” in the sixth edition (298), but now “in the late 1980s” (407) whereas the claim that Nubian Christianity has “only recently received serious scholarly attention” (716) hints at research from 1985.[23] These discussions of scholarship – and others throughout – lack citations, making it difficult for inquisitive students (or pedantic reviewers) to follow up on them.

      If the text is mostly unchanged, how is the book so much longer? Absent still are the primary sources, keywords, glossaries, genealogical charts,[24] timelines, gazetteers, and annotated bibliographies found in other textbooks. Gone are the lengthy subject bibliography of prior editions and, inconveniently, the chapter numbers in page headings. It is cosmetic changes that stretch the text. Published originally by Prentice-Hall and, one corporate acquisition later, by Pearson, the seventh edition is the first produced by Routledge. Formatting changes abound: the two-column layout used since 1962 abandoned, margins more generous, ever-so-slightly increased line spacing, headings distanced from their paragraphs, type set in Times Ten LT Std replaced with the roomier Bembo and Frutiger. These changes – more likely reflecting corporate standards than the final recourses of a student against a deadline and short of their page count – yield fewer words per page, more white space, and nearly 200 pages in bulk.

      The first edition had 265 images, which Scullard noted were “placed where they are relevant”.[25] The present edition has 67, spread unevenly. (Discounting maps, Chapter 2 has more images than the next eighteen combined). Most images are as in the sixth edition (and earlier editions still). Gone now are Antinous, Livia as Ceres, Melitine (priestess of Cybele), Caracalla, Isis suckling Horus, and Mary suckling Jesus. In their stead: an Etruscan hut urn (12), Ostian latrines (446), the Circus Maximus (677), and Mary not suckling Jesus (712).[26] Many of the images (particularly portraits) aid little in comprehending history. Scholars of, e.g., Archimedes or the Corpus Agrimensorum know well how images can be integral to understanding texts – future editions would benefit from visuals that elucidate complex points: the structure of Roman government, the organization of the Roman military, the changing boundaries of Roman territory, the succession of third century emperors and tetrarchs.

      The maps have been “exasperating” reviewers for six decades[27] the continued lack of any maps covering the interval c. 217 BCE-180 CE is particularly egregious. Supplementing the text with a historical atlas will benefit students.[28] (A note on the e-book editions: endpaper maps of Rome and Italy, legible in the sixth edition, are pixelated to the point of illegibility in the seventh maps within the text are unaffected.)

      The best textbooks not only introduce topics but serve as reference works once students have advanced to higher levels of study. A revised textbook should aim to improve its accuracy, accessibility, and utility. Schultz makes gains with the first two, but falters with the third. Valuable features of the sixth edition are removed or undermined. Notably, the subject bibliography of almost 500 entries is replaced by chapter-specific bibliographies of just over 100 entries in aggregate. As before, entries are limited to English-language monographs. Likewise, references to primary texts and passages thereof, scarce before, are expunged almost entirely, even removed from the overviews of sources for each period.[29] Primary passages are omitted, being “a poor substitute for having students read the whole document” (xxv) – but this underestimates the value of linking the narrative explicitly to texts that substantiate it. These choices provide readers with fewer paths to outside resources. Thankfully, the incomparable multi-thousand entry index (721-755) is preserved. Already exhaustive, it reflects the repagination – a heroic, but unenviable labor – and is ever-so-slightly expanded. Five entries disappear, while 22 are added (among them, perennial favorite “chickens, sacred”).

      With a seventh edition one expects incremental change and, indeed, many of the emendations catalogued above are subtle. Unlike Wheelock’s Latin, which went through a “6 th Edition, Revised” on its way to a seventh, the present volume recalls Microsoft Windows version 6.1, branded “Windows 7” and featuring great cosmetic changes, but more modest structural ones. The narrative account – the product of decades of refinement – has changed little, but our fundamental understanding of Roman antiquity is much as the same as it was five years ago. Whom do such frequent textbook revisions benefit? Surely not instructors, constantly evaluating and adjusting to new texts. Surely not students, deprived of campus ecosystems of cheap used copies.

      Lest I sound dismissive, I wholeheartedly endorse this text for an instructor switching from another book or teaching a Roman history course for the first time. In scope and detail, there is no rival among single-volume textbooks. This makes it an excellent choice for year-long surveys of Roman history, where the continuity of a monograph might be preferred to a series of period-specific volumes – but this recommendation must be tempered due to the limited engagement with primary sources and the inadequate paratextual materials. The text is most effective in conjunction with a sourcebook and a historical atlas. For someone already using the sixth edition, I do not know that enough has changed to justify the switch and I note that my students this year used the sixth and seventh editions interchangeably without incident.

      Schultz has done admirable work here cleaning up the text to make it more readable and making changes in her areas of expertise. I hope the inevitable eighth edition will offer students more insight into the documents and artifacts from which our understanding of antiquity derives and that the visual aids will do more to illuminate this magisterial account.

      [1] Allen M. Ward, Fritz M. Heichelheim, Cedric A. Yeo. (2010 5 , 2014 6 ). A History of the Roman People. Pearson.

      [2] David Potter. (2009, 2014 2 , 2018 3 ). Ancient Rome: A New History. Thames & Hudson.

      [3] Mary T. Boatwright, Daniel J. Gargola, Noel Lenski, Richard J. A. Talbert (2012 2 ). The Romans: From Village to Empire: A History from Earliest Times to the End of the Western Empire. Oxford University Press.

      [4] Mary T. Boatwright, Daniel J. Gargola, Noel Lenski, Richard J. A. Talbert. (2014 2 ). A Brief History of the Romans. Oxford University Press.

      [5] Marcel Le Glay, Jean-Louis Voisin, Yann Le Bohec, David Cherry, Donald G. Kyle, Eleni Manolaraki. (2009 4 ). A History of Rome. Translated by Antonia Nevill. Wiley-Blackwell.

      [6] D. Brendan Nagle. (2013 2 ). Ancient Rome: A History. Sloan Publishing.

      [7] William E. Dunstan. (2011). Ancient Rome. Rowman & Littlefield.

      [8] Thomas R. Martin. (2012). Ancient Rome: From Romulus to Justinian. Yale University Press.

      [9] Ralph W. Mathisen. (2019). Ancient Roman Civilization: History and Sources: 753 BCE to 640 CE. Oxford University Press. [BMCR 2020.01.26].

      [10] The “Routledge History of the Ancient World” includes T. J. Cornell (1995) The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC) [BMCR 1997.03.26] Edward Bispham (forthcoming) The Roman Republic 264-44 BC Martin Goodman (2011 2 ) The Roman World 44 BC-AD 180 David S. Potter (2013 2 ) The Roman Empire at Bay AD 180-395 [BMCR 2014.10.38] and Averil Cameron (2011 2 ) The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity 395-700 AD [BMCR 2012.11.06]. .

      [11] The “Blackwell History of the Ancient World” includes John Rich (in preparation) A History of the Roman Republic Michael Peachin (in preparation) A History of the Roman Empire and Stephen Mitchell (2014 2 ) A History of the Later Roman Empire AD 284-641.

      [12] “The Edinburgh History of Ancient Rome” is nearing completion: Guy Bradley (forthcoming 2020) Early Rome to 290 BC: The Beginnings of the City and the Rise of the Republic Nathan Rosenstein (2012) Rome and the Mediterranean 290 to 146 BC: The Imperial Republic [BMCR 2014.05.13] Catherine Steel (2013) The End of the Roman Republic 146 to 44 BC: Conquest and Crisis J. S. Richardson (2012) Augustan Rome: 44 BC to AD 14: The Restoration of the Republic and the Establishment of the Empire [BMCR 2012.09.45] Jonathan Edmondson (in preparation) Imperial Rome AD 14 to 192: The First Two Centuries Clifford Ando (2012) Imperial Rome AD 193 to 284: The Critical Century [BMCR 2012.11.31] Jill Harries (2012) Imperial Rome AD 284 to 363: The New Empire A. D. Lee (2013) From Rome to Byzantium AD 363 to 565: The Transformation of Ancient Rome [BMCR 2014.06.23].

      [13] The newest series, the “Belknap [in the US]/Profile [in the UK] History of the Ancient World“ offers four volumes: Kathryn Lomas (2018) The Rise of Rome: From the Iron Age to the Punic Wars David Potter (2019) The Origin of Empire: Rome from the Republic to Hadrian Michael Kulikowski (2016) The Triumph of Empire: The Roman World from Hadrian to Constantine [BMCR 2017.06.04] Michael Kulikowski (2019) The Tragedy of Empire: From Constantine to the Destruction of Roman Italy.

      [14] E.g. Joel Allen. (2019). The Roman Republic and the Hellenistic Mediterranean: From Alexander to Caesar. Wiley-Blackwell.

      [15] E.g. John Matthews. (2020, forthcoming). Empire of the Romans: From Julius Caesar to Justinian: Six Hundred Years of Peace and War (Volume I: A History Volume II: Select Anthology). Wiley-Blackwell.

      [16] E.g. Hugh Elton. (2018). The Roman Empire in Late Antiquity: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. [BMCR 2019.07.06].

      [17] E.g, Le Glay et al. present bullet-point models to explain historical phenomena, Potter features clear maps and diagrams, Mathisen complements his concise overview with primary sources and useful charts.

      [18] Access to the .pdf versions of the sixth and seventh editions (which appear page-for-page identical to their print counterparts) facilitated character-level comparison using the “Compare Documents” feature of Microsoft Word.

      [19] The spelling “Rumanian” endures, of course, in descriptions of pastrami at finer New York delis.

      [21] Publication culminated with Caterina Cicirelli, Claude Albore Livadie, eds. (2012). L’Abitato protostorico di Poggiomarino: Localita Longola Campagne di scavo 2000-2004 (Studi Della Soprintendenza Archeologica Di Pompei 32). L’Erma di Bretschneider.

      [22] Peter Turchin, Walter Scheidel. (2009). “Coin hoards speak of population declines in Ancient Rome,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106.41:17276-17279.

      [23] Paul Bowers. (1985). “Nubian Christianity: The Neglected Heritage,” East Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology 4.1:3-23.

      [24] A Julio-Claudian family tree is provided, but no other dynasties receive such attention.

      [25] H. H. Scullard. (1963). “F. M. Heichelheim and Cedric Yeo. A History of the Roman People. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1962. Pp. 480, 265 illustrations and 4 maps. $7.95.” The Journal of Roman Studies, 53: 180-181.

      [26] Though there are fewer women than before, the promised focus on women is reinforced by the cover of the paperback edition, which now shows a lone woman, rather than two women and two men.

      [27] Robert E. Wolverton. (1963). “A history of the Roman people, by Fritz M. Heichelheim and Cedric A. Yeo. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-hall 1962. Pp. xv, 480. $10.60.” The Classical Journal, 58.8:374-376.

      [28] English language options include: Chris Scarre. (1995). The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome. Penguin. Richard J. A. Talbert. (1985/2013). Atlas of Classical History. Routledge. and Michael Grant. (1994 5 ). The Routledge Atlas of Classical History: From 1700 BC to AD 565. Routledge [BMCR 1995.01.09]. For the student who can manage French, there are two excellent volumes: Christophe Badel. (2020 3 ). Atlas de l’Empire romain: Construction et apogée: 300 av. J.-C. – 200 apr. J.-C . Autrement. and Hervé Inglebert. (2018 2 ). Atlas de Rome et des barbares (IIIe-VIe siècle): La fin de l’Empire romain en Occident. Autrement.

      [29] While some authors prefer an introductory chapter on sources for all periods, this text provides overviews as students encounter the monarchy (38-40), the early republic (75-6), the middle republic (121-3), the Gracchi (209-10), the Social Wars (225-6), Marius and Sulla (241-2), the final republic (252-3), Augustus (343), the Julio-Claudians (402-4), the Flavians (438), and, roughly, the second (453), third (508), fourth (564-5), fifth (650-1), and sixth (671) centuries CE.


      Notes

      Individual Note

      Nero Caesar
      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

      Nero Julius Caesar Germanicus (630) was a close relative of the Roman Emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

      Nero was born in 6 to Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. His paternal grandparents were Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. His maternal grandparents were Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder, daughter of Caesar Augustus.

      Nero's siblings included four brothers (Tiberius and Gaius Julius, who died young Drusus and the future Emperor Caligula) and three sisters (Julia Livilla, Drusilla and Agrippina the younger). In 20, he married Julia, daughter of Livilla and Drusus "Castor" (Tiberius' only son by Vipsania).

      Nero was uncle to Julia Drusilla and Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus).

      His father Germanicus was heir apparent to his own adoptive father Emperor Tiberius, but Germanicus predeceased the Emperor in 19. He was replaced as heir by Julius Caesar Drusus, son of Tiberius and his first wife Vipsania Agrippina. But he too predeceased the Emperor on September 14, 23.

      Nero was the oldest adoptive grandson of Tiberius, and was seen as the emperor's most obvious successor. However, he was accused of treason along with his mother in 29. Nero was exiled to the island of Ponza where in 30 he was either induced to commit suicide or else starved to death.

      [edit] Portraiture
      Rose, Charles Brian, Dynastic Commemoration and Imperial Portraiture in the Julio-Claudian Period. Cambridge, 1997, nr. 17, pp.66-67.


      Notes

      Individual Note

      Caligula
      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

      Caligula
      Emperor of the Roman Empire

      Bust of Gaius Cæsar in the Louvre
      Reign 16 March 37 AD
      24 January 41 AD
      (Consul from 39)
      Full name Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
      Born August 31, 12(12-08-31) AD
      Died January 24, 41 (aged 28) AD
      Predecessor Tiberius
      Successor Claudius
      Wife/wives 1) Junia Claudilla, 3334
      2) Livia Orestilla, 37 or 38
      3) Lollia Paulina, 38
      4) Caesonia, ?41
      Issue Julia Drusilla
      Dynasty Julio-Claudian
      Father Germanicus
      Mother Agrippina the Elder

      Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 January 24, 41), more commonly known by his nickname Caligula (pronounced /k?'l?gj?l?/, meaning "little [soldier's] boots"), was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 16 March 37 until his assassination on 24 January 41. Caligula was the third emperor of the Roman Empire, and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty which descended from Augustus.

      Caligula's father, Germanicus, was the adopted son of emperor Tiberius and one of Rome's most beloved generals. The young Gaius earned his nickname, meaning little soldier's boot, while travelling with his father on military campaigns in Germania. When Germanicus died in Antioch in 19, his mother Agrippina the Elder returned to Rome with her six children, where she became entangled in an increasingly bitter feud with Tiberius. During the course of the 20s and 30s, many of Caligula's relatives, including Agrippina and two elder brothers, died in mysterious circumstances. Caligula withdrew to the island of Capri in 31, where Tiberius himself had retired since 26, and eventually succeeded his adoptive grandfather upon his death on 16 March 37.

      Although Caligula was popular with the Roman public throughout his reign, the scarce surviving sources focus upon anecdotes of his alleged cruelty, extravagance and sexual perversity, presenting him as an insane tyrant. While the reliability of these sources has been difficult to assess, what is known is that during his brief reign, Caligula worked to increase the authority of the Principate, but struggled to maintain his position in the face of several conspiracies to overthrow him. He focused much of his attention on ambitious construction projects, and annexed Mauretania but failed to conquer Britain.

      On 24 January 41, Caligula was assassinated as the result of a conspiracy involving members of his own bodyguard and the Roman Senate. The conspirators' attempt to use the opportunity to restore the Roman Republic was thwarted, as the same day the Praetorian Guard declared Caligula's uncle Claudius emperor in his place.

      Contents [hide]
      1 Early life
      1.1 Family
      1.2 Youth and early career
      2 Emperor
      2.1 Early reign
      2.2 Illness, conspiracies and a change in attitude
      2.3 Public reform
      2.4 Financial crisis and famine
      2.5 Construction
      2.6 Feud with the Senate
      2.7 Western expansion
      2.8 Acting like a god
      2.9 Eastern policy
      2.10 Scandals
      2.11 Assassination and aftermath
      3 Legacy
      3.1 Historiography
      3.2 Question of insanity
      3.2.1 Epilepsy
      3.2.2 Hyperthyroidism
      4 Ancestry
      5 Notes
      6 References
      6.1 Primary sources
      6.2 Secondary material

      [edit] Family
      Roman imperial dynasties
      Julio-Claudian dynasty Augustus
      Children
      Natural - Julia the Elder
      Adoptive - Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Agrippa Postumus, Tiberius
      Tiberius
      Children
      Natural - Julius Caesar Drusus
      Adoptive - Germanicus
      Caligula
      Children
      Natural - Julia Drusilla
      Adoptive - Tiberius Gemellus
      Claudius
      Children
      Natural - Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, Britannicus
      Adoptive - Nero
      Nero
      Children
      Natural - Claudia Augusta

      See Julio-Claudian Family Tree.
      Born as Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus on August 31, 12, at the resort of Antium.[1] He was the third of six surviving children born to Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder.[2] Gaius' brothers were Nero and Drusus.[2] His sisters were Julia Livilla, Drusilla and Agrippina the Younger.[2] Gaius was also nephew to Claudius (the future emperor).[3]

      Gaius' father, Germanicus, was a prominent member of the Julio-Claudian family and was revered as one of the most beloved generals of the Roman Empire.[4] He was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor. Germanicus was grandson to Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, as well as the adoptive grandson of Augustus.[5]

      Agrippina the Elder was the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder.[2] She was also a granddaughter of Augustus and Scribonia.[2]

      [edit] Youth and early career

      A caliga.As a boy of just two or three, Gaius accompanied his father, Germanicus, on military campaigns in the north of Germania and became the mascot of his father's army.[6] The soldiers were amused that Gaius was dressed in a miniature soldier's uniform, including boots and armor.[6] He was soon given his nickname Caligula, meaning "Little (Soldier's) boots" in Latin, after the small boots he wore as part of his uniform.[7] Gaius, though, reportedly grew to dislike this nickname.[8]

      At the age of seven, Caligula also accompanied Germanicus on his expedition to Syria.[9] Upon return, Caligula's father died on October 10, 19. Suetonius claims that Germanicus was poisoned in Syria by an agent of Tiberius who viewed Germanicus as a political rival.[10]

      After the death of his father, Caligula lived with his mother until relations between her and Tiberius deteriorated.[9] Tiberius would not allow Agrippina to remarry for fear her husband would be a rival.[11] Agrippina and Caligula's brother, Nero Caesar, were banished in 29 on charges of treason.[12][13] The adolescent Caligula was then sent to live first with his great-grandmother, and Tiberius' mother, Livia.[9] Following Livia's death, he was sent to live with his grandmother Antonia.[9] In 30, his brother, Drusus Caesar, was imprisoned on charges of treason and his brother Nero died in exile from either starvation or suicide.[14][13] Suetonius writes that after the banishment of his mother and brothers, Caligula and his sisters were nothing more than prisoners of Tiberius under close watch of soldiers.[15]

      In 31, Caligula was remanded to the personal care of Tiberius on Capri, where he lived for six years.[9] To the surprise of many, Caligula was spared by Tiberius.[16] According to historians, Caligula was an excellent natural actor and, recognizing danger, hid all his resentment towards Tiberius.[17][9] An observer said of Caligula, "Never was there a better servant or a worse master!"[9][17]

      In 33, Tiberius gave Caligula an honorary quaestorship, a position he held until his reign.[18] Meanwhile, both Caligula's mother and brother, Drusus, died in prison.[19][20] Caligula was briefly married to Junia Claudilla in 33, though she died in childbirth the following year.[21] Caligula spent time befriending the Praetorian Prefect, Naevius Sutorius Macro, an important ally.[21] Macro spoke well of Caligula to Tiberius, attemping to quell any ill will or suspicion the Emperor felt towards Caligula.[22]

      In 35, Caligula was named joint heir to the throne along with Tiberius Gemellus.[23]

      Caligula Depositing the Ashes of his Mother and Brother in the Tomb of his Ancestors, by Eustache Le Sueur, 1647When Tiberius died on March 16, 37, his estate and the titles of the Principate were left to Caligula and Tiberius' own grandson, Gemellus, who were to serve as joint heirs. Despite Tiberius being 77 and on his death bed, some ancient historians still claim he was murdered.[24][21] Tacitus writes that the Praetorian Prefect, Macro, smothered Tiberius with a pillow to hasten Caligula's accession, much to the joy of the Roman people,[24] and Suetonius writes that Caligula may have carried out the killing.[21] Philo and Josephus, though, record Tiberius dying a natural death.[25] Backed by Macro, Caligula had Tiberius will nullified with regards to Gemellus on grounds of insanity, but otherwise carried out Tiberius' wishes.[26]

      Caligula accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate and entered Rome on March 28 amid a crowd that hailed him as "our baby" and "our star," among other nicknames.[27] Caligula is described as the first emperor who was admired by everyone in "all the world, from the rising to the setting sun."[28] Caligula was loved by many for being the beloved son of the popular Germanicus,[27] but also because he was not Tiberius.[29] It was also said by Suetonius that over one-hundred and sixty thousand animals were sacrificed during three months of public rejoicing to usher in his reign.[30][31] Philo describes the first seven months of Caligula's reign as completely blissful.[32]

      Caligula's first acts were said to be generous in spirit, though many were political in nature.[26] To gain support, he granted bonuses to those in the military including the Praetorian Guard, city troops and the army outside of Italy.[26] He destroyed Tiberius' treason papers, declared that treason trials were a thing of the past and recalled exiles.[33] He helped those who had been harmed by the Imperial tax system, banished sex offenders from the empire and put on lavish spectacles for the public, such as gladiator battles.[34][35] Caligula also collected and brought back the bones of his mother and of his brothers and deposited their remains in the tomb of Augustus.[36]

      [edit] Illness, conspiracies and a change in attitude
      Following an auspicious start to his reign, Caligula fell seriously ill in October of 37. Philo is the sole historian to describe this illness,[37] though Cassius Dio mentions it in passing.[38] Philo claims that Caligulas increased bath-taking, drinking, and sex after becoming emperor caused him to catch the virus.[39] It was said that the entire empire was paralyzed with sadness and sympathy over Caligulas affliction.[40] Caligula completely recovered from this illness, but Philo highlights Caligula's near-death experience as a turning point in his reign.[41] There is some debate if and when a change in Caligula occurred. Josephus claims that Caligula was a noble and moderate ruler for the first two years of his rule before a turn for the worse occurred.[42]

      Shortly after recovering from his illness, Caligula had several loyal individuals killed who had promised their lives for his in the event of a recovery.[43] Caligula had his wife banished and his father-in-law, Marcus Silanus, and his cousin, Tiberius Gemellus, were forced to commit suicide.[44][43]

      There is evidence that the deaths of Silanus and Gemellus were prompted by plots to overthrow Caligula. Philo claims Gemellus, in line to become emperor, plotted against Caligula while he was ill.[45] Silanus, prior to killing himself, was formally put on trial by Caligula.[46] Julius Graecinus was ordered to prosecute Silanus, but refused and was executed as well.[46] It is unknown if the plans of Gemellus and Silanus were related or separate. Suetonius claims that the plots were nothing more than Caligula's imagination.[47]

      Quadran celebrating the abolishment of a tax in 38 AD by Caligula. The obverse of the coin contains a picture of the liberty cap which refers the liberation of the people from the tax burden.In 38, Caligula focused his attention on political and public reform. He published the accounts of public funds, which had not been made public during the reign of Tiberius. He aided those who lost property in fires, abolishing certain taxes and gave out prizes to the public and gymnastic events. He also allowed new members into the equestrian and senatorial orders.[48]

      Perhaps most significantly, he restored the practice of democratic elections.[49] Cassius Dio said that this act "though delighting the rabble, grieved the sensible, who stopped to reflect, that if the offices should fall once more into the hands of the many . many disasters would result".[50]

      During the same year, though, Caligula also was criticized for executing people without full trials. The most significant execution was that of Macro, to whom, in many ways, Caligula owed his status as emperor.[38]

      [edit] Financial crisis and famine
      According to Cassius Dio, a financial crisis emerged in 39.[38] Suetonius claims that this crisis began in 38.[51] Caligulas political payments for support, generosity and extravagance had exhausted the states treasury. Ancient historians claim that Caligula began falsely accusing, fining and even killing individuals for the purpose of seizing their estates.[52] A number of other desperate measures by Caligula are described by historians. In order to gain funds, Caligula asked the public to lend the state money.[53] Caligula levied taxes on lawsuits, marriage and prostitution.[54] Caligula began auctioning the lives of the gladiators at shows.[52][55] Wills that left items to Tiberius were interpreted now to leave the items to Caligula.[56] Centurions who had acquired property during plundering were forced to turn over spoils to the state.[56] The current and past highway commissioners were accused of incompetence and embezzlement and forced to repay money.[56]

      The Vatican Obelisk was first brought from Egypt to Rome by Caligula. It was the centerpiece of a large racetrack he built.A brief famine of an unknown size occurred, perhaps caused by this financial crisis. Suetonius claims that it was from public carriages being seized by Caligula.[52] Seneca claims grain imports were disturbed by Caligula using boats for a pontoon bridge.[57]

      [edit] Construction
      Despite financial difficulties, Caligula embarked on a number of construction projects during his reign. Some were for the public good while others were for himself.

      Josephus claims Caligula's greatest contribution was having the harbours at Rhegium and Sicily improved which allowed grain imports from Egypt to increase.[58] These improvements may have been in response to the famine.

      Caligula completed the temple of Augustus and the theatre of Pompey and began an amphitheatre beside the Saepta.[59] He also had the imperial palace repainted.[60] He began the aqueducts Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus, which Pliny the Elder considered engineering marvels.[61] He built a large racetrack known as the circus of Gaius and Nero and had an Egyptian obelisk (now known as the Vatican Obelisk) transported to Rome by sea and erected in the middle of it.[62] At Syracuse, he repaired the city walls and the temples of the gods.[59] He had new roads built and pushed to keep roads in good condition.[63] He had planned to rebuild the palace of Polycrates at Samos, to finish the temple of Didymaean Apollo at Ephesus and to found a city high up in the Alps.[59] He also planned to dig a canal through the Isthmus in Greece and sent a chief centurion to survey the work.[59]

      The hull of one of two ships recovered from Lake Nemi during the 1930s. This massive vessel served as an elaborate floating palace to the emperor.In 39, Caligula performed a spectacular stunt by ordering a temporary floating bridge to be built using ships as pontoons, stretching for over two miles from the resort of Baiae to the neighboring port of Puteoli.[64] It was said that the bridge was to rival that of Persian King Xerxes' crossing of the Hellespont.[64] Caligula, a man who could not swim,[65] then proceeded to ride his favorite horse, Incitatus, across, wearing the breastplate of Alexander the Great.[64] This act was in defiance of Tiberius' soothsayer Thrasyllus of Mendes prediction that he had "no more chance of becoming emperor than of riding a horse across the Bay of Baiae".[64]

      Caligula also had two large ships constructed for himself. These two sunken ships were found at the bottom of Lake Nemi. The ships are among the largest vessels in the ancient world. The smaller of the ships was designed as a temple dedicated to Diana. The larger ship was essentially an elaborate floating palace that counted marble floors and plumbing among its amenities.

      [edit] Feud with the Senate
      In 39, relations between Caligula and the Roman Senate deteriorated.[66] On what they disagreed is unknown. A number of factors, though, aggravated this feud. Prior to Caligula's appointment, The Roman Senate was accustomed to ruling without an emperor in Rome since Tiberius' departure for Capri in 26.[67] Additionally, Tiberius' treason trials had eliminated a number of pro-Julian senators such as Gallus Asinius.[68]

      Caligula reviewed Tiberius' records of treason trials and decided that numerous senators, based on their actions during these trials, were not trustworthy.[66] He ordered a new set of investigations and trials.[66] He replaced the consul and had several senators put to death.[69] Suetonius claims that other senators were degraded by being forced to wait on him and run beside his chariot.[69]

      Soon after his break with the Senate, Caligula was met with a number of additional conspiracies against him.[70] A conspiracy involving his brother-in-law, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, was foiled in late 39.[70] Soon after, the governor of Germany, Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, was executed for connections to a conspiracy.[70]

      [edit] Western expansion
      In 40, Caligula expanded the Roman Empire into Mauretania and made a significant attempt at expanding into Britannia. The later action was fully realized by his successors.

      Mauretania was a client kingdom of Rome ruled by Ptolemy of Mauretania. Caligula invited Ptolemy to Rome and then had him suddenly executed.[71] Mauretania was annexed by Caligula and divided into two provinces.[72] This annexation of Mauretania led to a rebellion of some magnitude that was put down under Claudius.[73] Details on these events are unclear. Cassius Dio had written an entire chapter on the annexation of Mauretania by Caligula, but it is now lost.[74]

      There also seemed to be a northern campaign to Britannia that was aborted.[74] This campaign is derided by ancient historians with accounts of Gauls dressed up as Germanic tribesmen at his triumph and Roman troops ordered to collect sea-shells as "spoils of the sea".[75] Due to the lack of sources, what precisely occurred and why is a matter of debate even among the primary sources for Caligula's reign. Modern historians have put forward numerous theories in an attempt to explain these actions. This trip to the English Channel could have merely been a training and scouting mission.[76] The mission may have been to accept the surrender of the British chieftain Adminius.[77] It is possible that his troops refused to embark on a mission across the channel and hence Caligula ordered them to collect seashells as a sarcastic reward.[78] "Seashells", or conchae in Latin, may be a metaphor for something else such as female genitalia (perhaps the troops visited brothels) or boats (perhaps they captured several small British boats).[79]

      Ruins of the temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum Romanum. Ancient resources as well as recent archeological evidence suggest that, at one point, Caligula had the palace extended to annex this structure.In 40, Caligula began implementing very controversial policies that introduced religion into his political role. Caligula began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as Hercules, Mercury, Venus and Apollo.[80] Reportedly, he began referring to himself as a god when meeting with politicians and he was referred to as Jupiter on occasion in public documents.[81][82] A sacred precinct was set apart for his worship at Miletus in the province of Asia and two temples were erected for worship of him in Rome.[82] The Temple of Castor and Pollux on the Forum was linked directly to the Imperial residence on the Palatine and dedicated to Caligula.[82][83] He would appear here on occasion and present himself as a god to the public.

      Caligula's religious policy was a subtle, but important departure from the policy of his predecessors. According to Cassius Dio, living Emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead Emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome.[84] Augustus also had the public worship his spirit on occasion, but Dio describes this as an extreme act that emperors generally shied away from.[84] Caligula took things a step further and had those in Rome, including Senators, worship him as a physical living god.[85]

      [edit] Eastern policy
      Caligula needed to quell several riots and conspiracies in the eastern territories during his reign. Aiding him in his actions was his good friend, Herod Agrippa, who became governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis after Caligula became emperor in 37.[86]

      The cause of tensions in the east was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture, Roman law and the rights of Jews. Philo, though, placed the blame with Caligula and claimed that Caligula's desire to be worshiped was at odds with Jewish monotheism.[87] He said that Caligula "regarded the Jews with most especial suspicion, as if they were the only persons who cherished wishes opposed to his."[87]

      Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists.[88] In 38, Caligula sent Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus.[89] According to Philo, the visit was met with jeers from the Greek population who saw Agrippa as the king of the Jews.[90] Flaccus tried to placate both the Greek population and Caligula by having statues of the emperor placed in Jewish synagogues.[91] As a result, riots broke out in the city.[92] Caligula responded by removing Flaccus from his position and executing him.[93]

      In 39, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories and now controlled most of Judea. [42]

      Riots again erupted in Alexandria in 40 between Jews and Greeks.[94] Jews were accused of not honoring the emperor.[95] Also, disputes occurred in the city of Jamnia.[96] Jews were angered by the erection of a clay altar and destroyed it.[96] In response, Caligula ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem.[97]

      Fearing civil war if the order were carried out, it was delayed for nearly a year by the governor of Syria, Publius Petronius.[98] Agrippa finally convinced Caligula to reverse the order.[99]

      Roman sestertius depicting Caligula, c. 38. The reverse shows Caligula's three sisters, Agrippina, Drusilla and Iulia Livilla, with whom Caligula was rumoured to have carried on incestuous relationships.Surviving sources present a number of outlandish stories about Caligula that attempt to illustrate cruelty, debauchery and insanity.

      The contemporary sources, Philo of Alexandria and Seneca the Younger, describe an insane Emperor who was self-absorbed, angry, killed on a whim, and who indulged in too much spending and sex.[100] He is accused of sleeping with other men's wives and bragging about it,[101] killing for mere amusement,[102] purposely wasting money on his bridge, causing starvation,[103] and wanting a statue of himself erected in the Temple of Jerusalem for his worship.[97]

      While repeating the earlier stories, the later sources of Suetonius and Cassius Dio add additional tales of insanity. They accuse Caligula of incest with his sisters, Agrippina, Drusilla and Julia Livilla, and say he prostituted them to other men.[104] They claim he sent troops on illogical military exercises.[105][74] They also allege he made the palace into a literal brothel.[106] Perhaps most famous, they say that Caligula tried to make his horse, Incitatus, a consul and a priest.[107]

      The validity of these claims is debatable. In Roman political culture, insanity and sexual perversity were often presented hand-in-hand with poor government.[108]

      [edit] Assassination and aftermath

      Renaissance picture of Caligula.Caligula's actions as Emperor were described as being especially harsh to the Senate, the nobility and the equestrian order.[109] According to Josephus, these actions led to several failed conspiracies against Caligula.[110] Eventually, a successful murder was planned by officers within the Praetorian Guard led by Cassius Chaerea.[111] The plot is described as having been planned by three men, but many in the Senate, army and equestrian order were said to have been informed of it and involved in it.[112]

      According to Josephus, Chaerea had political motivations for the assassination.[113] Suetonius, on the other hand, only claims Caligula called Chaerea derogatory names.[114] Caligula considered Chaerea effeminate because of a weak voice and for not being firm with tax collection.[115] Caligula would mock Chaerea with watchwords like "Priapus" and "Venus".[116]

      On January 24, 41, Chaerea and other guardsmen accosted Caligula while he was addressing an acting troupe of young men during a series of games and dramatics held for the Divine Augustus.[117] Details on the events vary somewhat from source to source, but they agree that Chaerea was first to stab Caligula followed by a number of conspirators.[118] Suetonius records that Caligula's death was similar to that of Julius Caesar. He claims that both the elder Gaius Julius Caesar (Julius Caesar) and the younger Gaius Julius Caesar (Caligula) were stabbed 30 times by conspirators led by a man named Cassius (Cassius Longinus and Cassius Chaerea).[119] By the time Caligula's loyal Germanic guard responded, the emperor was already dead. The Germanic guard, stricken with grief and rage, responded with a rampaging attack on the assassins, conspirators, innocent senators and bystanders alike.[120]

      The Senate attempted to use Caligula's death as an opportunity to restore the Republic.[121] Chaerea attempted to convince the military to support the Senate.[122] The military, though, remained loyal to the office of the emperor.[122] The grieving Roman people assembled and demanded that Caligula's murderers be brought to justice.[123] Uncomfortable with lingering imperial support, the assassins sought out and stabbed Caligula's wife, Caesonia, and killed their infant daughter, Julia Drusilla, by smashing her head against a wall.[124] They were unable to reach Caligula's uncle, Claudius, who was spirited out of the city to a nearby Praetorian camp.[125] Claudius became emperor after procuring the support of the Praetorian guard and ordered the execution of Chaerea and any other known conspirators involved in the death of Caligula.[126] According to Suetonius Caligula's body was placed under turf until it was burned and entombed by his sisters. He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus in 410 AD during the sack of Rome, the tomb's ashes were scattered.

      [edit] Historiography
      The history of Caligulas reign is extremely problematic. Only two sources have surived that were contemporary with Caligula the works of Philo and Seneca. Philos works, On the Embassy to Gaius and Flaccus, give some details on Caligulas early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes. Senecas various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligulas personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators.[127]

      At one time, there were detailed contemporary histories on Caligula, but they are now lost. Additionally, the historians who wrote them are described as biased, either overly critical or praising of Caligula.[128] Nonetheless, these lost primary sources, along with the works of Seneca and Philo, were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Caligula written by the next generations of historians. A few of the contemporary historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus and Cluvius Rufus both wrote condemning histories on Caligula that are now lost. Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation.[129] Cluvius Rufus was a senator involved in the assassination of Caligula.[130] Caligulas sister, Agrippina the Younger, wrote an autobiography that certainly included a detailed explanation of Caligulas reign, but it too is lost. Agrippina was banished by Caligula for her connection to Marcus Lepidus, who conspired against Caligula.[131] The inheritance of Nero, Agrippina's son and the future emperor, was seized by Caligula. Gaetulicus, a poet, produced a number of flattering writings about Caligula, but they too are lost.

      The bulk of what is known of Caligula comes from Suetonius and Cassius Dio, who were both of the Patrician class. Suetonius wrote his history on Caligula eighty years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 180 years after Caligulas death. Though Cassius Dios work is invaluable because it alone gives a loose chronology of Caligulas reign, his surviving work is only a summary written by John Xiphilinus, an 11th century monk.

      A handful of other sources also add a limited perspective on Caligula. Josephus gives a detailed description of Caligulas assassination. Tacitus provides some information on Caligulas life under Tiberius. Tacitus, the most objective of ancient historians, did write a detailed history of Caligula, but this portion of his Annals is lost. Pliny the Elders Natural History also has a few brief references to Caligula.

      There are few surviving sources on Caligula and no surviving source paints Caligula in a favorable light. The paucity and bias of sources has resulted in significant gaps in the reign of Caligula. Little is written on the first two years of Caligulas reign. Additionally, there are only limited details on later significant events, such as the annexation of Mauretania, Caligulas military actions in Britannia, and his feud with the Roman Senate.

      [edit] Question of insanity
      All surviving sources, except Pliny the Elder, claim Caligula was insane. It is not known whether they are speaking figuratively or literally, though. Additionally, given Caligula's unpopularity among the surviving sources, it is difficult to separate fact from fiction. Recent sources are divided in attempting to ascribe a medical reason for Caligula's behavior, citing as possibilities encephalitis, epilepsy or meningitis. The question of whether or not Caligula was insane remains unanswered.

      Bust of Caligula, 1st century.Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and Seneca also claim Caligula was insane, but claim this madness was a personality trait that came through experience.[42][132][133] Seneca claims that Caligula became arrogant, angry and insulting once becoming emperor and uses his personality flaws as examples his readers can learn from.[134] Josephus claims power made Caligula incredibly conceited and led him to think he was a god.[42] Philo of Alexandria reports that Caligula became ruthless after nearly dying of his illness in 39.[135] Juvenal claims he was given a magic potion that drove him insane.

      [edit] Epilepsy
      Suetonius said that Caligula suffered from "falling sickness" when he was young.[136] Modern historians have theorized that Caligula lived with a daily fear of seizures.[137] Despite swimming being a part of imperial education, Caligula could not swim.[138] Epileptics are encouraged not to swim because light reflecting off water can induce seizures.[139] Additionally, Caligula reportedly talked to the full moon.[140] Epilepsy was also long associated with the moon.[141]

      [edit] Hyperthyroidism
      Some modern historians claim that Caligula suffered from hyperthyroidism.[142] This diagnosis is mainly attributed to Caligula's irritability and his "stare" as described by Pliny the Elder.

      [edit] Ancestry
      8. Tiberius Nero

      12. Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa

      6. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa

      [edit] Notes
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 8
      ^ a b c d e Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 7
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.6
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 4
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 1
      ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 9
      ^ "Caligula" is formed from the Latin word caliga, meaning soldier's boot, and the diminutive infix -ul.
      ^ Seneca the Younger, On the Firmness of a Wise Person XVIII 2-5
      ^ a b c d e f g Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 10
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 2
      ^ Tacitus, Annals IV.52
      ^ Tacitus, Annals V.3
      ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 54
      ^ Tacitus, Annals V.10
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 64
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 62
      ^ a b Tacitus, Annals VI.20
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.23
      ^ Tacitus, Annals VI.23
      ^ Tacitus, Annals VI.25
      ^ a b c d Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 12
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius VI.35
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 76
      ^ a b Tacitus, Annals VI.50
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius IV.25 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIII.6.9
      ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.1
      ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 13
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius II.10
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius 75
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 14
      ^ Philo mentions widespread sacrifice, but no estimation on the degree, Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius II.12
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius II.13
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 15
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 16
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 18
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.3
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius IIIII
      ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.10
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius II.14
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius III.16
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius IV.22
      ^ a b c d Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.7.2
      ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.8
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius V.29
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius V.28
      ^ a b Tacitus, Agricola 4
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 23
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.910
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 16.2
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.9.7
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 37
      ^ a b c Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 38
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 41
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 40
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.14
      ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.15
      ^ Seneca the Younger, On the Shortness of Life XVIII.5
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.2.5
      ^ a b c d Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 21
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 22
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 21, Life of Claudius 20 Pliny the Elder, Natural History XXXVI.122
      ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History XVI.76
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.15 Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 37
      ^ a b c d Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 19
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 54
      ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.16 Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 30
      ^ Tacitus, Annals IV.41
      ^ Tacitus, Annals' IV.41
      ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 26
      ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.22
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 35
      ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History V.2
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LX.8, LX.24 Pliny the Elder, Natural History V.11
      ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.25
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 45-47
      ^ P. Bicknell, "The Emperor Gaius' Military Activities in A.D. 40", Historia 17 (1968), 496-505
      ^ R.W. Davies, "The Abortive Invasion of Britain by Gaius", Historia 15 (1996), 124-128 See Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 44
      ^ J.P.V.D. Balsdon, The Emperor Gaius (Caligula) (Oxford, 1934) 90-92 Troops were reluctant to go under Claudius in 43 as well, Cassius Dio, Roman History LX.19
      ^ D. Wardle, Suetonius' Life of Caligula: a Commentary (Brussels, 1994), 313 David Woods "Caligula's Seashells", Greece and Rome (2000), 80-87
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XI-XV
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.26
      ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.28
      ^ Sanford, J.: "Did Caligula have a God complex?, Stanford Report, September 10, 2003
      ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LI.20
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.26-28
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.6.10 Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus V.25
      ^ a b Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XVI.115
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus III.8, IV.21
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus V.26-28
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus V.29
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus VI.43
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus VII.45
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, Flaccus XXI.185
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.8.1
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.8.1
      ^ a b Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXX.201
      ^ a b Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXX.203
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXXI.213
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.8.1
      ^ Seneca the Younger, On Anger xviii.1, On Anger III.xviii.1 On the Shortness of Life xviii.5 Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXIX
      ^ Seneca the Younger, On Firmness xviii.1
      ^ Seneca the Younger, On Anger III.xviii.1
      ^ Seneca the Younger, On the Shortness of Life xviii.5
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.11, LIX.22 Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 24
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 46-47
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 41
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 55 Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.14, LIX.28
      ^ Younger, John G. (2005). Sex in the Ancient World from A to Z. Routledge, p. xvi. ISBN 0415242525.
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.1
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 56 Tacitus, Annals 16.17 Josephus, Antiquities of Jews XIX.1.2
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.3
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.10, XIX.1.14
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.6
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 56
      ^ Seneca the Younger, On Firmness xviii.2 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.5
      ^ Seneca the Younger, On Firmness xviii.2 Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 56
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 58
      ^ Seneca the Younger, On Firmness xviii.2 Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 58 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.14
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 57, 58
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.15 Suetonius, Life of Caligula 58
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.2
      ^ a b Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.4.4
      ^ Tacitus, Annals XI.1 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.20
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 59
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.2.1
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.3.1
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.19
      ^ Tacitus, Annals I.1
      ^ Tacitus, Life of Gnaeus Julius Agricola X, Annals XIII.20
      ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.13
      ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.22
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XIII
      ^ Seneca the Younger, On the Firmness of the Wise Person XVIII.1 Seneca the Younger, On Anger I.xx.8
      ^ Seneca the Younger, On the Firmness of the Wise Person XVII-XVIII Seneca the Younger, On Anger I.xx.8
      ^ Philo of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius III-IV
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 50
      ^ D. Thomas Benediktson, "Caligula's Phobias and Philias: Fear of Seizure?", The Classical Journal (1991) p. 159-163
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Augustus 64, Life of Caligula 54
      ^ J.H. Pearn, "Epilepsy and Drowning in Childhood," British Medical Journal (1977) p. 1510-11
      ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 26
      ^ O. Temkin, The Falling Sickness (2nd ed., Baltimore 1971) 3-4, 7, 13, 16, 26, 86, 92-96, 179
      ^ R.S. Katz, "The Illness of Caligula" CW 65(1972),223-25, refuted by M.G. Morgan, "Caligulas Illness Again", CW 66(1973),327-29.

      [edit] References
      Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
      Caligula
      [edit] Primary sources
      Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book 59
      Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, (trans. W.Whiston), Books XVIIIXIX
      Philo of Alexandria, (trans. C.D.Yonge, London, H. G. Bohn, 18541890):
      On the Embassy to Gaius
      Flaccus
      Seneca the Younger
      On Firmness
      On Anger
      To Marcia, On Consolation
      On Tranquility of Mind
      On the Shortness of Life
      To Polybius, On Consolation
      To Helvia, On Consolation
      On Benefits
      On the Terrors of Death (Epistle IV)
      On Taking One's Own Life (Epistle LXXVII)
      On the Value of Advice (Epistle XCIV)
      Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
      Tacitus, Annals, Book 6

      [edit] Secondary material
      Caligula: the corruption of power by Anthony A. Barrett (Batsford 1989) ISBN 0-7134-5487-3
      Grant, Michael, The Twelve Caesars. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1975
      Hurley, Donna W., An Historical and Historiographical Commentary on Suetonius' "Life of C. Caligula". Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press. 1993.
      Biography from De Imperatoribus Romanis
      Biography of Gaius Caligula
      Straight Dope article
      Caligula
      A chronological account of his reign
      A critical account of a number of his reported activities
      His genealogical tree
      Caligula at BBC History
      Preceded by
      Tiberius Roman Emperor
      3741 Succeeded by
      Claudius
      Julio-Claudian Dynasty
      3741
      Preceded by
      Marcus Aquila Iulianus and Gaius Nonius Asprenas Consul of the Roman Empire
      3941 Succeeded by
      Claudius and Gaius Caecina Largus


      Watch the video: The Julio-Claudian Dynasty (September 2022).

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