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Remus von Woyrsch, 1847-1920

Remus von Woyrsch, 1847-1920

Remus von Woyrsch, 1847-1920

Remus von Woyrsch was a German general of the First World War who fought on the Silesian border and in southern Poland. Woyrsch was born at Pilsntiz near Breslau in Silesia. He entered the army in 1860, and fought in the war with Austria of 1860 and the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. He rose through the ranks, reaching major general in 1987, lieutenant general in 1901 and general of infantry in 1905, at which time he commanded VI Army Corps at Breslau. He retired in 1911.

He was reactivated on 1 August 1914, and given command of the Silesian Landwehr Corps, a force in part formed from the garrisons of the German fortresses in Silesia. His initial orders were to form up opposite Chenstokhov in the south west of Russian Poland (now Czestochowa, southern Poland) and then on 13 August to invade Russia, advancing north east towards Radom, while keeping in touch with the Austrians on his right.

This involved him in the battle of Krasnik (23-24 August 1941), a minor victory won by the Austrian First Army during their advance from Galicia (battles of Lemberg). This moderate success was soon negated by the dramatic Russian victory at Rava Ruska (3-11 September 1914), which forced the Austro-Hungarians into a rapid and increasingly chaotic retreat back to the Carpathians. Woyrsch’s Landwehr Corps played in covering the retreat of the Austrian First Army, helping to maintain a connection between the Austrian and German forces.

In October Woyrsch’s corps returned to German control. He was given command of Army Section Woyrsch, and held the right of the German line in Silesia. The Austro-Hungarian retreat left Silesia vulnerable to Russian invasion. Hindenburg and Ludendorff made two attempts to ward off this threat. The first, in October, was an invasion of Poland from the south west (First battle of Warsaw, 19-30 October 1914), involving forces from the German Ninth Army, transferred from East Prussia. This invasion ended in a retreat in the face of vastly superior Russian forces, and still left Silesia vulnerable.

Hindenburg and Ludendorff decided to move the Ninth Army back to the north, and use it to attack the right flank of the Russian invasion. Woyrsch was left on the southern front, holding the line north from Chenstokhov. His Army Section, which now included the Austrian Second Army, was able to hold the Russians east of the Silesian border for long enough to allow the main counterattack to take place around Thorn (Second battle of Warsaw, 7-25 November 1914 and battle of Lodz, 11-25 November). Woyrsch’s force took some part in the fighting around Lodz, on the far right of the German lines.

Woyrsch was award the Pour le mérite for his part in the fighting in Poland, and was promoted to colonel general. Army Section Woyrsch took part in the German advance through Poland after the breakthrough victory at Gorlice-Tarnow (2-10 May 1915), advancing 250 miles in one month. On 21/22 July his troops captured Ivangorod (south east of Poland) and in June reached Baranovichi (now in Belarus), on the railway between Warsaw and Moscow.

Once the great advance was over, Woyrsch was promoted to command Army Group Woyrsch, which took part in the occupation of Southern Poland. On 31 December 1917 the Army Group was disbanded during the reorganisation of the German armies in the east that followed the collapse of Russia. At this point Woyrsch retired for a second time, with the rank of Field Marshal. He returned to active duty once more after the war, as commander of the southern wing of the small force of border guards allowed to Germany on her eastern borders. He died at Pilsntiz on 6 August 1920.

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History

The Bohemian noble family von Woyrsch originally came from the parent company Protivetz near Písek ( South Bohemia ). It appeared for the first time on February 22, 1417 in a document with Bohuslav von Protivetz (around 1370-1417), with whom the direct line of trunks begins.

From his sons Bohuslav and Peter von Protivetz (1400–1463), Peter first took the name Woyrsch (Old Slavic Wojierz / Wojirz for the German baptismal name Hoier ). Nikolaus Woyrsch von Protivetz moved to the Troppau region in Moravian Silesia around 1500 .


Remus von Woyrsch rođen je 4. veljače 1847. godine u Pilsnitzu (danas Pilczyce u Poljskoj). Sin je Karla Wilhelma von Woyrsch i Cäcilie von Websky. U prusku vojsku stupio je 1866. godine i svega nekoliko tjedana nakon što se pridružio pruskoj vojsci sudjelovao je u Austrijsko-pruskom ratu. S činom poručnika sudjelovao je i u Prusko-francuskom ratu gdje je kod Saint Privata ranjen zajedno sa svojim suborcem Friedrichom von Scholtzom također istaknutim njemačkim zapovjednikom u Prvom svjetskom ratu. U navedenom ratu odlikovan je i Željeznim križem. Woyrsch je čin pukovnika dostigao je 1894. godine, dok je 1901. godine promaknut u čin general poručnika kada je dobio i zapovjedništvo nad 12. pješačkom divizijom. Godine 1903. dobio je zapovjedništvo nad VI. korpusom smještenim u Breslauu, nakon čega je 1905. godine unaprijeđen u generala pješaštva. Nakon 51 godina službe u vojski Woyrsch je 1911. godine u 64. godini života umirovljen.

Početkom Prvog svjetskog rata Woyrsch je zbog svog vojničkog iskustva aktiviran, te mu je dodijeljeno zapovjedništvo nad šleskim Landverskim korpusom koji je bio u sastavu austrougarske 1. armije pod zapovjedništvom generala Viktora Dankla. Zapovijedajući navedenim korpusom sudjelovao je u Bitci kod Krasnika manjoj pobjedi austrougarske 1. armije u borbama u Galiciji. Međutim, Danklova 1. armija pretrpjela je poraz u Bitci kod Rava Ruske, te je prisiljena na povlačenje pri čemu je Woyrschov korpus štitio njezino povlačenje. Nakon toga Woyrschov korpus je vraćen pod njemačko zapovjedništvo, te je u okviru njemačke 9. armije pod zapovjedništvom generala Paula von Hindenburga sudjelovao u Bitci na Visli. Woyrschov korpus je sudjelovao i u Bitci kod Lodza boreći se na desnom krilu njemačkog rasporeda.

Woyrsch je za sudjelovanje u borbama u Poljskoj u listopadu 1914. odlikovan ordenom Pour le Mérite, te je u prosincu promaknut u čin general pukovnika. Sa svojim jedinicama Woyrsch je sudjelovao u ofenzivi Gorlice-Tarnow u kojem su njemačke snage probile rusku frontu. Woyrsch je napredovao gotovo 400 km u dubinu, te u lipnju zauzeo Ivangorod doprijevši do Baranoviča na pruzi Varšava-Moskva.

U lipnju 1916. Woyrsch je postao zapovjednikom Grupe armija Woyrsch (Heeresgruppe Woyrsch) kojom je sudjelovao u suzbijanju ruskog napredovanja u Brusilovljevoj ofenzivi. Nakon potpisivanja mira sa Rusijom i reorganizacije njemačke vojske na Istočnom bojištu Grupa armija Woyrsch je raspuštena, a Woyrsch na vlastiti zahtjev ponovno umirovljen s 1. siječnjem 1918. godine. Prije ponovnog umirovljenja Woyrsch je zbog zasluga u suzbijanju ruskih snaga u Brusilovljevoj ofenzivi unaprijeđen u feldmaršala.

Nakon završetka Prvog svjetskog rata Woyrsch je na vlastiti zahtjev ponovno izišao iz mirovine, te je dobio zapovjedništvo nad njemačkim graničnim snagama na južnoj granici Njemačke.

Remus von Woyrsch je preminuo 6. kolovoza 1920. godine. Bio je oženjen s Theklom von Massow. Njegov nećak Udo von Woyrsch bio je važni SS dužnosnik tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata. Remus von Woyrsch je proglašen počasnim građaninom Breslaua (danas Wroclaw u Poljskoj) i Neissea (danas Nysa u Poljskoj), te je u razdoblju od 1908. do 1918. bio član pruskog Doma lordova.

Ronald Pawly, Kaiser's Warlords: German Commanders of World War I, Osprey publishing, 2003., str. 56


World War 1 Leaders: The 10 Greatest German Generals of 1914-1918

Following the unification of Germany in 1871, the scene was set for the powers in Central Europe to begin flexing their collective muscles. With imperial aspirations running rampant, events in the Balkans in 1914 rapidly escalated into a full-blown conflict between Germany/Austro-Hungary and the Entente of Britain, France and Russia.

In the ensuing war, Germany could call upon a rich vein of military experience: men who had fought for Prussia and Austria, and who could trace their lineage back through distinguished military backgrounds across the various Germanic states.

There were many notable commanders of German forces during the First World War, many of whom had come from nobility. Among the Dukes, Archdukes, Barons and Counts, the Germans also fielded several members of royal families: Prince Heinrich of Prussia served in the Kaiserliche Marine but was limited during the war to an appointment as Inspector-General of the Navy the 69-year-old Prince Leopold of Bavaria commanded the German Ninth Army on the Eastern Front Crown Prince Rupprecht was considered a fine tactical leader, and his Sixth Army inflicted heavy casualties on the French forces at Lorraine while Crown Prince Wilhelm – son of Kaiser Wilhelm II – led the Fifth Army at Verdun, appointed to the task by Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn.

From the “Blood-Miller of Verdun” to the “Lion of Africa”, we remember some of Germany’s greatest military masterminds.

10. Karl von Bülow (1846-1921)

Stalwart of the Second Army

According to the tradition of his Prussian family, Karl von Bülow entered the military as a young man. By the time the First World War started, he was something of a veteran, having seen action in both the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian Wars. In 1914, he was given command of the German Second Army that would lead the attack into Belgium in accordance with the Schlieffen Plan. His forces enjoyed great success, capturing the fortress of Namur and later defeating Charles Lanrezac’s Fifth Army at the Battle of Charleroi.

However, von Bülow refused to follow up on these successes at Marne unless supported by Alexander von Kluck’s First Army, which was 50km west and heading for Paris. Von Bülow ordered von Kluck to turn towards him, resulting in the First Army exposing its flanks to Allied attack at the Battle of the Marne. Fearing a French breakthrough, von Bülow ordered a withdrawal and is generally held responsible for the German defeat at Marne. Despite this, he was promoted to Field Marshal, but a heart attack in 1915 prevented him taking further action in the war.

9. Remus von Woyrsch (1847-1920)

German Hero of the Eastern Front

Remus von Woyrsch’s career with the Prussian Army had already ended by 1914, but he was recalled from retirement when the First World War broke out, aged 68. Born of minor nobility, he had served in both the Austro-Prussian and Franco- Prussian Wars, receiving the Iron Cross for his actions in the latter. His experience with infantry resulted in him being placed in command of the Silesian Landwehr Corps on the Eastern Front. Operating alongside the Austro-Hungarian First Army, he served with distinction at the Battle of Rava-Ruska, covering the army’s retreat under Victor Danki, at the cost of 8,000 of his own men. He was duly appointed head of “Army Group Woyrsch” in Silesia, which was followed by successes at the battles of Thorn and Sienno, plus a victory against Alexei Evert’s forces during the Brusilov Offensive of 1916.

After the war, he retired for a second and final time, before dying in 1920.

8. Felix Graf von Bothmer (1852-1937)

Nemesis of the Russians

Born into Bavarian nobility, Count Felix Graf von Bothmer spent 40 years in the military, serving with Bavarian and
Prussian forces, largely on the general staff. He was made Lieutenant-General in 1905 and General of the Infantry in
1910, and with the outbreak of war was appointed commander of the Sixth Bavarian Reserve Division at Ypres. Four months later, he was placed in charge of II Reserve Corps in Galicia (modern-day western Ukraine), before taking
control of the “Sudarmee”, or South Army, in 1915 – a mixture of German, Austrian, Hungarian and Turkish troops on the Eastern Front.

Von Bothmer enjoyed some success against the numerically superior Russians, winning the Battle of Zwinin, and most notably during the Brusilov Offensive of 1916 – a massive assault by the Russian Imperial Army that saw von Bothmer’s line pushed back but unbroken. In 1917, his forces repelled the Kerensky Offensive, routing the demoralised Russians. During his time on the Eastern Front, he was awarded the Pour le Mérite with Oak Leaves and the Grand Cross of the Bavarian Military Order of Max Joseph. However, his final actions were to oversee the retreat of the 19th Army in Lorraine, and the eventual demobilisation of the Bavarian Army.

7. Erich von Falkenhayn (1861-1922)

The Blood-Miller of Verdun

Another native of Prussia, von Falkenhayn was born in Burg Belchau (in the north of modern-day Poland) and, in accordance with the region’s military tradition, duly joined the army. He spent seven years as a military instructor in China during the Boxer Rebellion, before being posted back to various posts in Germany. In 1913, he was promoted to Prussian Minister of War and was one of the key architects of the First World War, following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand.

As Chief of the General Staff of the German Army, he was responsible for the “Race to the Sea”, where German and Allied troops tried to outflank one another but ended up entrenched along a front extending from Switzerland to the North Sea. In an attempt to “bleed France white”, he organised the nine-month attritional Battle of Verdun.

But he underestimated French resolve and casualties on both sides were colossal, earning him the nickname “the Blood-Miller of Verdun”. With the battle indecisive and the losses huge, von Falkenhayn was replaced as Chief of Staff by Paul von Hindenburg.

6. Reinhard Scheer (1863-1928)

The Man with the Iron Mask

Having served in the German Navy since 1879, Reinhard Scheer – nicknamed “the man with the iron mask” because of his stern looks – was given command of the Second Battle Squadron at the outbreak of the First World War. In 1915, he was moved to the Third Battle Squadron with its newer, more powerful dreadnoughts. A year later, he was promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the High Seas Fleet when Hugo von Pohl was forced to step down due to ill health.

Scheer’s first act was to push for greater U-boat activity against British warships, in an attempt to lure the Royal Navy’s Grand Fleet out to engage with the Germans. The two navies finally clashed at the Battle of Jutland, which was seen as a minor tactical victory for the Germans, although it was only Scheer’s strategic manoeuvring that saved the High Seas Fleet from destruction. Neither the Kaiser nor Scheer felt the desire to take on the Grand Fleet in open combat again.

5. Erich Ludendorff (1865-1937)

Once the Most Powerful Man in Germany

Descended from Pomeranian merchants, Erich Ludendorff was a gifted student who graduated from Cadet School at the top of his class. In 1885, he was made Lieutenant of the 57th Infantry Regiment, before joining various other units, and was frequently commended for his service. In 1894, he was appointed to the German General Staff, rising to the rank of Senior Staff Officer.

With the outbreak of war, Ludendorff was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff to the Second Army, where he helped secure a victory over the Belgian forts at Liège, earning himself the Pour le Mérite medal for gallantry. He was then seconded to the Eighth Army on the Eastern Front, where he was instrumental in Paul von Hindenburg’s success against the Russians. In 1916, Ludendorff assumed the title First Generalquartiermeister, and is regarded as being the most powerful man in Germany at that time. However, his planned offensives in the west overstretched the German Army, leading to huge Allied advances.

After the armistice, he wrote several essays on the war and is largely responsible for the “stab in the back” myth that suggests the German military was betrayed by the Kaiser’s poor leadership and undermined by sinister political forces.

4. Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg (1865-1939)

The Noble Warrior

Another member of German nobility, Albrecht von Württemberg was the eldest son of Duke Philipp and his wife, the Archduchess Maria Theresa. At the outbreak of war, Albrecht was in command of the German Fourth Army and saw action in the Battle of the Ardennes, where the French defenders were heavily defeated. However, his forces would be driven back at the Battle of the Marne, which would then result in a stalemate and the entrenching “Race to the Sea”. Albrecht and his men were then transferred to Flanders, where they saw action in the Battle of the Yser and the Second Battle of Ypres. The latter is notable for the first large-scale use of gas on the battlefield

During the army-command reorganisation of 1915, Albrecht was promoted to Field Marshal and given control of a newly formed “Army Group Albrecht”. His force was posted to the southern sector of the Western Front, where he remained until the armistice. Following the cessation of hostilities, the German revolutions meant that he lost his royal inheritance to the Kingdom of Württemberg.

3. Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière (1886-1941)

The Most Successful Submarine Captain Ever

Although he only had a handful of men under his command, our list wouldn’t be complete without the number-one U-boat ace, Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière. Born in Posen (Poznán in modern-day Poland) and a descendant of French nobility, he was educated at the cadet schools of Wahlstatt and Gross-Lichterfelde. Aged 17, he entered the Kaiserliche Marine – the German Imperial Navy – with whom he served on a series of battleships, and also as Torpedo Officer on a light cruiser.

When war broke out, von Arnauld de la Perière was transferred to the Navy’s airship division, and in 1915 he moved to U-boats, where he was given command of U-35. Over the next three years, he made 14 voyages and sank more than 190 ships. After transferring to U-139 in 1918, he sank a further five vessels, bringing his tally to nearly half a million tons. However, he always acted according to the “prize rules”, allowing ships’ crews to board lifeboats and giving them directions to the nearest port before torpedoing the vessel. He received numerous medals, including the Austrian Order of Leopold, the Iron Cross and the Pour le Mérite, and his record number of tonnage makes him the most successful submarine commander of all time.

2. Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck (1890-1964)

The Lion of Africa

The son of a minor Pomeranian noble, Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck attended cadet school in Potsdam and Berlin-Lichterfelde before being commissioned as a Lieutenant in the Imperial Army. He served in China as part of the Allied forces sent to help quell the Boxer Rebellion, and it was here that he got his first taste of guerrilla warfare. In the decade prior to the war, he was posted to German South-West Africa and modern-day Cameroon, before being moved to German East Africa, where he was put in control of Imperial forces plus a dozen companies of native Askari troops.

During the war, von Lettow-Vorbeck harried British colonies in Rhodesia and Kenya in a series of guerrilla raids, often outnumbered by as much as 8:1. His men were often forced to live off the land, resupplying at ammunition dumps, and von Lettow-Vorbeck only surrendered when news of the armistice reached him. He returned home a hero but would end up destitute, supported by a pension paid for by former rivals from Africa and Britain.

1. Paul von Hindenberg (1847-1934)

The Saviour of East Prussia

At the outbreak of WWI, Paul von Hindenburg was retired, having served with the Prussian Army during the Franco- Prussian War, with whom he attained the rank of General. On his recall, aged 66, he was sent to the Eastern Front as commander of East Prussia, and immediately scored a huge victory at the Battle of Tannenberg. Although outnumbered almost 2:1, von Hindenburg’s Eighth Army practically destroyed Russia’s Second Army. This was followed up by the Battle of the Masurian Lakes, which drove the Russians out of German territory with huge losses.

Von Hindenburg was hailed as the “Saviour of East Prussia” and promoted to Field Marshal, then to Army Chief of Staff. During this time, thanks largely to the direction of Erich Ludendorff, he managed to stem the Allied advance in the west, defeat Romania and force Russia out of the war, securing his place as a national hero. Von Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but he remained in office and was elected President of the Weimar Republic in 1925

For more on history’s greatest military leaders, pick up the new issue of History of War here or subscribe now and save 25% off the cover price.


Nazi career [ edit | edit source ]

According to Richard Grunberger Woyrsch had been involved in the Freikorps during the 1920s. ΐ] Early on Woyrsch joined the NSDAP (Membership number 162,349) and the SS (Member Number 3,689). Himmler charged him with organising the SS in the Nazi Gau Silesia as such von Woyrsch became the first commander of the SS-Oberabschnitt Südost.

In 1933 von Woyrsch was elected to the Reichstag. Ώ] He was the SS and Police Leader in Elbe, and in 1934 Von Woyrsch participated in the Night of the Long Knives, ordering the execution of his SS rival Emil Sembach. On 30 June 1934 "he took command in Silesia, and on the orders of Göring arrested a number of SA leaders, disarmed all SA headquarters' guards and occupied the Breslau police headquarters. Von Woyrsch's men murdered some of the SA officers as a result of an on-going private feud." Α]

Udo von Woyrsch had a close friendship with Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich, and was on Himmler's personal staff. Ώ] On 1 January 1935 he was promoted to SS Obergruppenführer (then the second-highest rank in the SS). Ώ]

In September 1939 Woyrsch commanded the Einsatzgruppen ("Special Purpose Operational Group") specifically charged with, and adept at, terrorizing and murdering the Jewish population of Poland. The brutality of this Einsatzgruppen in Kattowitz was such that outraged Wehrmacht officers interceded with the Gestapo to have it withdrawn. Β]

Between 20 April 1940 and February 1944 Woyrsch was the Higher SS and Police Leader in military district IV and district leader in Dresden. According to Richard Grunberger Woyrsch was part of Himmler's entourage trailing about northern Germany in 1945. Γ]


PRUSSIA – ENGINEERING OFFICER PROMOTION PATENT – KÖNIG WILHELM I SIGNATURE – 1870-1871 FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR

What makes this a special document is that it falls during the time of the Franco-Prussian War. The war began on 19 July 1870 and ended on 10 May 1871. While not as short as the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, it was every bit as decisive, since the French Army was no match for the German Army. [This did not relate to the French soldiers’ efforts on the front lines, but instead to those of the French government and Army. French soldiers were poorly trained and poorly equipped. Also, the French general staff and its generals in the field had no real concept of modern tactics. Thus, French soldiers were poorly led and equipped to face an army which was the world’s best at the time. This patent promotes a Hauptmann to major in the Engineer (Ingenieur) Corps. Our man’s last name is Richter. The document was signed by Prussia’s König Wilhelm I. Wilhelm I became Kaiser on 18 January 1871 in an elaborate coronation at Versailles. Interestingly, this patent was signed by Wilhelm on 22 December 1870 at his Versailles’ Headquarters. Versailles played a continuing role in Franco-German history during the 20th Century’s first half. It was where the German surrender took place during November 1918 in a railway car. In 1940 Adolf Hitler sat in the same railway car to accept the French surrender. The document measures 14 1/8″ x 8 3/4″ when folded, and 14 1/8″ x 17 1/4″ when unfolded.

What makes this a special document is that it falls during the time of the Franco-Prussian War. The war began on 19 July 1870 and ended on 10 May 1871. While not as short as the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, it was every bit as decisive, since the French Army was no match for the German Army. [This did not relate to the French soldiers’ efforts on the front lines, but instead to those of the French government and Army. French soldiers were poorly trained and poorly equipped. Also, the French general staff and its generals in the field had no real concept of modern tactics. Thus, French soldiers were poorly led and equipped to face an army which was the world’s best at the time. This patent promotes a Hauptmann to major in the Engineer (Ingenieur) Corps. Our man’s last name is Richter. The document was signed by Prussia’s König Wilhelm I. Wilhelm I became Kaiser on 18 January 1871 in an elaborate coronation at Versailles. Interestingly, this patent was signed by Wilhelm on 22 December 1870 at his Versailles’ Headquarters. Versailles played a continuing role in Franco-German history during the 20th Century’s first half. It was where the German surrender took place during November 1918 in a railway car. In 1940 Adolf Hitler sat in the same railway car to accept the French surrender. The document measures 14 1/8″ x 8 3/4″ when folded, and 14 1/8″ x 17 1/4″ when unfolded.


Family

Woyrsch came from an old South Bohemian noble family . He was the son of the royal Prussian chamberlain and landowner Günther von Woyrsch (1858–1923) and his wife, Gertrud Countess von Pfeil and Klein-Ellguth (1866–1956). The Prussian field marshal Remus von Woyrsch (1847–1920) was his uncle.

On June 25, 1924 he married Marie-Eva von Eichborn (* 1902 †?), A daughter of the landowner Wolfgang von Eichborn auf Pischkowitz and the Edelgard von Rosen (House Neudorf) at Gut Pischkowitz in Lower Silesia . This marriage was divorced again on May 19, 1933 in Brieg (Lower Silesia).

On September 21, 1934 Woyrsch married in Bad Salzbrunn (Lower Silesia) Inez Freiin von Tschammer and Quaritz (* 1908 † 2001), a daughter of the landowner Siegfried Freiherr von Tschammer and Quaritz auf Quaritz and Edith von Lieres and Wilkau ( Stephanshain House). From this marriage there were four children.


Remus von Woyrsch

Martin Wilhelm Remus von Woyrsch, född den 4 februari 1847 på godset Pilsnitz vid Breslau, död där den 6 augusti 1920, var en tysk general.

von Woyrsch inträdde 1866 i krigstjänst vid 1:a gardesregementet till fot och gjorde med detta kriget mot Österrike. Officer 1867, överfördes von Woyrsch 1882 som kapten till generalstaben, som han med ett avbrott tillhörde till 1896, då han förflyttades som chef till gardesfysiljärregementet. Chef för 12:e infanteridivisionen 1901 och för 6:e armékåren 1904, blev von Woyrsch 1906 general av infanteriet och lämnade 1911 aktiv tjänst. Vid krigsutbrottet 1914 kallades von Woyrsch åter till verksamhet, som chef för schlesiska lantvärnskåren, med vilken han tryggade Schlesiens gräns. Vid första anfallet in i Polen oktober 1914 bildades av lantvärnskåren och andra trupper en arméavdelning under von Woyrschs befäl, vilken mellan de österrikiska och tyska stridskrafterna deltog i fortsättningen av kriget mot ryssarna till framryckningens avbrytande 1915 och i det fortsatta ställningskriget. Särskilt tog von Woyrschs trupper verksam del i erövringens av fästningen Ivangorod i augusti 1915 och i avvisandet av de ryska anfallen vid Baranovitji i juni och juli 1916. von Woyrsch övertog i slutet av augusti samma år hertig Leopolds av Bayern armégrupp och bibehöll med denna sin plats i främsta linjen. von Woyrsch, som under tiden blivit generalöverste, återgick, med generalfältmarskalks grad, efter krigets slut till skötseln av sitt gods i Schlesien.


Remus von Woyrsch

Remus von Woyrsch (4. helmikuuta 1847 – 6. elokuuta 1920 Pilsnitz, lähellä Breslauta) [1] oli saksalainen sotamarsalkka, joka palveli komentajana ensimmäisessä maailmansodassa.

Woyrsch liittyi Preussin armeijaan vuonna 1866 ja valmistui upseeriksi seuraavana vuonna. Hän osallistui sotaan Itävaltaa vastaan 1866 ja Ranskan–Saksan sotaan 1870–1871. Vuosina 1882–1896 hän palveli pääesikunnassa ja oli sen jälkeen rykmentin sekä vuodesta 1901 divisioonan ja vuodesta 1904 armeijakunnan komentajana. Woyrsch ylennettiin 1906 jalkaväenkenraaliksi ja hän ehti jo vetäytyä eläkkeelle vuonna 1911. Maailmansodan sytyttyä 1914 hänet kuitenkin kutsuttiin takaisin palvelukseen ja hän sai komentoonsa Sleesian Landwehr-joukot, jotka sijoitettiin itärintamalle. Woyrschin joukot alistettiin Itävalta-Unkarin armeijalle, ja hän pelasti Viktor von Danklin Itävalta-Unkarin ensimmäisen armeijan tuholta tappiollisen Rava Russkan taistelun jälkeen suojaamalla sen perääntymisen. Tämän jälkeen Woyrschille muodostettiin lokakuussa 1914 oma armeijaryhmä, joka osallistui seuraavan kahden vuoden aikana sotatoimiin Venäjää vastaan. Woyrsch voitti venäläiset Thornin ja Siennon taisteluissa kesäkuussa 1915 ja osallistui Ivangorodin valtaukseen saman vuoden elokuussa sekä venäläisten hyökkäyksen torjumiseen Baranowiczessa kesällä 1916. Hänet ylennettiin näiden ansioiden seurauksena kenraalieverstiksi. [1] [2]

Elokuussa 1916 Woyrsch sai komennettavakseen Baijerin prinssi Leopoldin entisen armeijaryhmän eteläisesä Puolassa. Venäjän tehtyä aselevon Woyrschin armeijaryhmä hajotettiin joulukuussa 1917 ja hän siirtyi eläkkeelle sotamarsalkaksi ylennettynä. [2] [1]


Pochodził ze szlacheckiej rodziny pruskiej. Najstarsza wzmianka o szlacheckim rodzie Woyrschów pochodzi z ok. 1500 z Opawy na Śląsku Czeskim. Jego ojcem był ziemianin, rzeczywisty tajny radca (niem. Wirklicher Geheimrat) i członek Izby Panów Karl Wilhelm Remus von Woyrsch (1814–1899), a matką Cäcilie von Websky (1825–1903), córka znanego wrocławskiego przemysłowca – Martina Websky'ego. Remus był ich najstarszym synem.

W 1873 Remus von Woyrsch wziął ślub w Poczdamie z Theklą von Massow (1854–1943), córką królewskiego leśniczego Hermanna von Massow i Thekli von Websky.

Majątek rodowy Woyrschów znajdował się w Pilczycach, wówczas w powiecie wrocławskim prowincji śląskiej, przyłączonych do miasta w 1928 (niem. Pilsnitz Landkreis Breslau, obecnie osiedle we Wrocławiu). Na jego cześć nazwano tam ulicę – Woyrsch Strasse (obecnie ulica Hutnicza).

Von Woyrsch wstąpił do armii po ukończeniu szkoły średniej. 5 kwietnia 1866 zaciągnął się do 1 Poczdamskiego Regimentu Grenadierów Gwardii. Jeszcze tego samego roku dosłużył się stopnia podporucznika na wojnie siedmiotygodniowej z Austrią. Pierwsze odznaczenie zdobył na wojnie francusko pruskiej (1870–71), później służył w sztabie generalnym. W 1896 został pułkownikiem Regimentu Fizylierów Gwardii, rok później otrzymał stopień generalski. W 1901 został dowódcą 12 Dywizji mającej sztab w Nysie. W latach 1903–04 dowodził VI Korpusem we Wrocławiu, w 1905 otrzymał stopień generała piechoty. W 1911 po 45 latach służby został zwolniony z armii.

Ze względu na doświadczenie powtórnie powołano go w 1914, kiedy wybuchła I wojna światowa. Dowodził Śląskim Korpusem Landwehry (niem. Landwehrkorps Woyrsch, później Armeeabteilung Woyrsch), który działał na froncie wschodnim [2] pod komendą austriacką. Jego zadaniem było zabezpieczenie Śląska przed atakiem Rosjan. W 1915 Odznaczył się podczas operacji pod Rawą Ruską, osłaniając odwrót sojusznika, co uratowało Austriaków od klęski [3] . Korpus przemianowano w 1916 na Grupę Armijną – Woyrsch (Heeresgruppe Woyrsch) [4] . Stoczył wiele zwycięskich bitew, m.in. pod Toruniem. W 1917 za działania podczas ofensywy Brusiłowa otrzymał stopień feldmarszałka. Grupa została zdemobilizowana w grudniu 1917, już po klęsce wojsk rosyjskich. Von Woyrsch został zwolniony na własną prośbę.

Mający już ponad 70 lat weteran został ostatni raz powołany po zawieszeniu broni w 1918, by objąć dowództwo nad południowymi granicami Niemiec.

Ogółem z siedemdziesięciu trzech lat życia pięćdziesiąt spędził w czynnej służbie. Najważniejsze odznaczenia jakie zdobył to Krzyż Żelazny (1871), Order Orła Czarnego z łańcuchem, Order Wojskowy Świętego Henryka, order Pour le Mérite (1914) i rok później Liście Dębowe do niego.


Watch the video: Emil Jannings u0026 Henry Porten 1920 (January 2022).

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