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Jessie Applegate

Jessie Applegate


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Jessie Applegate was born in Kentucky on 5th July, 1811. After studying mathematics at the Rock Spring Seminary he worked as a schoolteacher before becoming the deputy surveyor of Missouri.

In 1843, along with his brothers, Charles and Lindsey, he joined a party that travelled to Oregon. As he had one of the largest herds, Applegate was elected captain of the cow column, and therefore was seen as one of the pioneers of the Oregon Trail.

He purchased a farm in the Willamette Valley but continued to work as a surveyor. He also helped to open a southern road to Fort Hall, Idaho, by the way of the Rogue River and the Humboldt River (the Applegate Trial).

He also became involved in politics and became a member of Oregon's provisional government in 1845. Applegate was also an influential support of Abraham Lincoln when he campaigned to become president in 1860.

Applegate published his book, A Day on the Oregon Trial, in 1877.

Jessie Applegate died on 22nd April, 1888.

The migrating body numbered over 1,000 souls, with about 120 wagons, drawn by six ox teams, averaging about six yokes to the team, and several thousand loose horses and cattle.

The emigrants first organized and attempted to travel in one body, but it was soon found that no progress could be made with a body so cumbrous, and as yet so averse to all discipline. And at the crossing of the "Big Blue" it divided into two columns, which traveled in supporting distance of each other as far as Independence Rock, on the Sweet Water.

From this point, all danger from Indians being over, the emigrants separated into small parties better suited to the narrow mountain paths and small pastures in their front. Before the division on the Blue River there was some just cause for discontent in respect to loose cattle. Some of the emigrants had only their teams, while others had large herds in addition which must share the pastures and be guarded and driven by the whole body.

This discontent had its effect in the division on the Blue, those not encumbered with or having but few loose cattle attached themselves to the light column; those having more than four or five cows had of necessity to join the heavy, or cow, column. Hence the cow column, being much larger than the other and encumbered with its large herds, had to use greater exertion and observe a more rigid discipline to keep pace with the more agile consort. It is with the cow, or more clumsy, column that I propose to journey with the reader for a single day.

It is 4 a.m.; the sentinels on duty have discharged their rifles - the signal that the hours of sleep are over; and every wagon and tent is pouring forth its night tenants, and slow-kindling smokes begin largely to rise and float away on the morning air. Sixty men start from the corral, spreading as they make through the vast herd of cattle and horses that form a semicircle around the encampment, the most distant perhaps two miles away.

The herders pass to the extreme verge and carefully examine for trails beyond, to see that none of the animals have strayed or been stolen during the night. This morning no trails lead beyond the outside animals in sight, and by 5 o'clock the herders begin to contract the great moving circle and the well-trained animals move slowly toward camp, clipping here and there a thistle or tempting bunch of grass on the way. In about an hour, 5,000 animals are close up to the encampment, and the teamsters are busy selecting their teams and driving them inside the "corral" to be yoked. The corral is a circle 100 yards deep, formed with wagons connected strongly with each other, the wagon in the rear being connected with the wagon in front by its tongue and ox chains. It is a strong barrier that the most vicious ox cannot break, and in case of an attack of the Sioux would be no contemptible entrenchment.

From 6 to 7 o'clock is a busy time; breakfast is to be eaten, the tents struck, the wagons loaded, and the teams yoked and brought up in readiness to be attached to their respective wagons. All know when, at 7 o'clock, the signal to march sounds that those not ready to take their proper places - in the line of march must fall into the dusty rear for the day.

There are sixty wagons. They have been divided into fifteen divisions, or platoons, of four wagons each, and each platoon is entitled to lead in its turn. The leading platoon of today will be the rear one tomorrow and will bring up the rear unless some teamster, through indolence or negligence, has lost his place in the line and is condemned to that uncomfortable post. It is within ten minutes of 7; the corral but now a strong barricade is everywhere broken, the teams being attached to the wagons. The women and children have taken their places in them. The pilot (a borderer who has passed his life on the verge of civilization and has been chosen to the post of leader from his knowledge of the savage and his experience in travel through roadless wastes) stands ready, in the midst of his pioneers and aids, to mount and lead the way. Ten or fifteen young men, not today on duty, form another cluster. They are ready to start on a buffalo hunt, are well mounted, and well armed as they need be, for the unfriendly Sioux have driven the buffalo out of the Platte, and the hunters must ride fifteen or twenty miles to reach them. The cow drivers are hastening, as they get ready, to the

rear of their charge to collect and prepare them for the day's march.

It is on the stroke of 7; the rushing to and fro, the cracking of the whips, the loud command to oxen, and what seems to be the inextricable confusion of the last ten minutes has ceased. Fortunately everyone has been found, and every teamster is at his post. The clear notes of the trumpet sound in the front; the pilot and his guards mount their horses, the leading division of wagons moves out of the encampment, and takes up the line of march, the rest fall into their places with the precision of clockwork, until the spot so lately full of life sinks back into that solitude that seems to reign over the broad plain and rushing river as the caravan draws its lazy length toward the distant El Dorado.

It is with the hunters we will briskly canter toward the bold but smooth and grassy bluffs that bound the broad valley, for we are not yet in sight of the grander but less beautiful scenery (of the Chimney Rock, Courthouse, and other bluffs, so nearly resembling giant castles and palaces) made by the passage of the Platte through the Highlands near Laramie. We have been traveling briskly for more than an hour. We have reached the top of the bluff and now have turned to view the wonderful panorama spread before us. To those who have not been on the Platte, my powers of description are wholly inadequate to convey an idea of the vast extent and grandeur of the picture and the rare beauty and distinctness of its detail. No haze or fog obscures objects in the pure transparent atmosphere of this lofty region.

The migration of a large body of men, women, and children across the Continent to Oregon was, in the year 1843, strictly an experiment not only in respect to the numbers, but to the outfit of the migrating party.

Before that date two or three missionaries had performed the journey on horseback, driving a few cows with them. Three or four wagons drawn by oxen had reached Fort Hall, on Snake river, but it was the honest opinion of most of those who had traveled the route down Snake river that no large number of cattle could be subsisted on its scanty pasturage, or wagons taken over a route so rugged and mountainous.

The emigrants were also assured that the Sioux would be much opposed to the passage of so large a body through their country, and would probably resist it on account of the emigrants destroying and frightening away the buffaloes, which were then diminishing in numbers.

The migrating body numbered over one thousand souls, with about one hundred and twenty wagons, drawn by six ox teams, averaging about six yokes to the team, and several thousand loose horses and cattle.

The emigrants first organized and attempted to travel in one body, but it was soon found that no progress could be made with a body so cumbrous, and as yet so averse to all discipline. And at the crossing of the "Big Blue," it divided into two columns, which traveled in supporting distance of each other as far as Independence Rock, on the Sweet Water.

From this point, all danger from Indians being over, the emigrants separated into small parties better suited to the narrow mountain paths and small pastures in their front.


Jesse A. Applegate Collection, 1861-1934

Jesse Applegate Applegate (often referred to as "Jesse A." to differentiate him from his famous pioneer uncle), was born in 1836 in St. Clair County, Missouri. In 1843, his father, Lindsay Applegate, and his uncles, Jesse and Charles Applegate, migrated with their families to the Oregon Country. During the journey, three members of the Applegate family, including Jesse's brother, Warren, drowned on the Columbia River. This tragedy was the catalyst for the founding of the Applegate Trail, a route from Idaho to southern Oregon through Nevada and northeastern California, bypassing the dangerous Columbia River.

After reaching Oregon, the Applegates settled temporarily in the Willamette Valley before relocating to the Umpqua Valley in southern Oregon. In 1853, the settlement was attacked by Rogue River Indians and Jesse joined a volunteer regiment led by his father to protect the white settlers in the area. Jesse went on to marry Virginia Watson and fathered two children, Warren and Arthur. Jesse died in Jacksonville, Oregon in 1919.


Applegate, Jesse

Jesse Applegate was born to Daniel and Rachel Lindsey Applegate July 5, 1811 in Kentucky. He is important to southern Oregon history as the founder of the small town of Yoncalla and as one of the men who blazed the Applegate Trail through the Rogue Valley. He was also a legislator, a school teacher, a diplomat with the Indians and the British Hudson's Bay Company, a campaigner for Abraham Lincoln, a member of Oregon's provisional government and a surveyor with the Oregon & California Railroad. He was educated at the Rock Creek Seminary in Shiloh, Illinois.

Applegate married Cynthia Ann Parker March 13, 1831, and they had a large family that included Edward, Gertrude, Peter, Daniel, Alexander, William, Henry, Robert, Sarah, Rozelle, Milburn, Ellen and Flora. In 1843, Applegate joined one of the first large wagon trains to Oregon with his family and 100 head of cattle. He served as captain for half the train. Toward the end of the trip, at a set of rapids on the Columbia River, one of Applegate's sons was swept off a raft and drowned. His death seemed to be the impetus for the Applegate brothers search for a way into Oregon that would avoid the turbulent and dangerous river. In 1844, Jesse homesteaded on a claim near Dallas, Ore. and in 1845 was elected to the 13-member legislative council of the Oregon territorial government and became known as a "true founder of Oregon's pioneer government." He handled negotiations between the Hudson's Bay Company and the Indians during this time.

In 1846, along with his brother Lindsay, he established the Applegate Trail which left Fort Hall in modern-day Idaho, traversed the Black Rock Desert of Nevada and entered Oregon near Goose Lake. From there the trail came through the southern Cascades and Siskiyou Mountains to the Rogue Valley, where it turned north to the Willamette Valley. In 1851, Applegate founded the town of Yoncalla, Oregon. During the Rogue River Indian Wars in 1855-1856, Applegate raised volunteers. Later, he fought for Oregon to be admitted to the Union as a non-slavery state. During his lifetime, Jesse remained close to his brother and was a friend of Wilson Price Hunt, founder of the city of Astoria, of Jedediah Smith of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, and Edward Bates, a member of Lincoln's cabinet. Jesse Applegate died April 22, 1888.

Sources: Oregonian: April 25, 1965 University of Oregon Bulletin, "Jesse Applegate" February, Vol 9, No. 6 by Joseph Schafer.


Related Historical Records

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Further Reading

Hartwig, Paul, and David W. Powers III. "Charles Applegate House." National Register of Historic Places nomination form, Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, 1974.

Historic American Building Survey. &ldquoCharles Applegate House.&rdquo Washington, D.C.: U.S. Heritage Documentation Programs, Library of Congress, 1934.

©2020 Portland State University and the Oregon Historical Society

The Oregon Historical Society is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Federal Tax ID 93-0391599

©2020 Portland State University and the Oregon Historical Society

The Oregon Historical Society is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Federal Tax ID 93-0391599


Jessie Applegate - History

This letter of December 12, 1883, was written by Oregon pioneer Jesse Applegate to pioneer and Oregon State legislator John Minto. Applegate was responding to a letter Minto had written him that questioned pioneer motivations for traveling overland along the Oregon or Applegate trails to settle in the Oregon Country. Many settlers, as Applegate described, wanted to believe that their being in the Oregon Country had helped to solidify the U.S. claim to the territory. Applegate cynically concluded, however, that he did not think that these pioneers made the &ldquolong and arduous journey across the plains to secure their ideal Oregon only to their country, but to possess it themselves.&rdquo

Jesse Applegate and his family migrated to Oregon from Missouri in 1843. He built a farm and a mill, and worked as a surveyor in the Willamette Valley. In 1846, Jesse, his brother Lindsay, and Levi Scott identified a trail to serve as an alternative and less arduous route into the Oregon Territory. This new route bypassed the difficult Northern Cascade Mountains by traveling down the Willamette Valley into Southern Oregon, and turning east through the Klamath Basin. Where Klamath Falls now stands, the trail turned southeast into California and on to Nevada where it connected to the California Trail.

John Minto, an English immigrant, landed in the U.S. in 1840 and traveled overland to Oregon four years later. By 1847, he had established a claim near Salem and built a farm. Minto was active in Oregon politics from the early 1860s until the 1890s, and was elected to the state legislature four times. At the turn of the century, Minto turned to writing and offered detailed descriptions of conditions, events, and personalities of early Oregon settlement. He was a frequent contributor to the Oregon Historical Quarterly.

Further Reading:
Minto, John. &ldquoFrom Youth to Age as an American: John Minto in the Willamette Valley,&rdquo Oregon Historical Quarterly 101, 2000: 237.

Applegate, Jesse A. A Day with the Cow Column: Recollections of My Boyhood. Fairfield, Wash, 1990.


Jesse Applegate

JESSE APPLEGATE. - The following brief obituary sketch of the late "Uncle" Jesse Applegate was written by General E.L. Applegate, than whom none is better fitted to perform the task, - unwelcome in the occasion of its necessity, yet grateful in the opportunity it offers to pay the well-earned tribute of respect and veneration to the wisdom, the worth and the influence of the "Sage of Yoncalla."

The subject of this sketch was born near Lexington, Kentucky, in 1810, and died in Yoncalla valley, Oregon, on the 23d of April 1888, being in his seventy-eighth year. He was the youngest son of Daniel Applegate, a revolutionary soldier who served in that memorable struggle for human liberty for seven years, and then volunteered to help Jackson beat the British at New Orleans, in which campaign he lost his eldest son, Elisha. His ancestors belonged among the charter proprietors who founded the province of Maryland and the city of Baltimore. Upon the close of the revolutionary war Daniel, along with the Boone's and others of their relations and acquaintances, pioneered his way into the wilderness of Kentucky. In 1819, he moved on with his large family, consisting of Milton, Lisbon, Lucy, Charles, Lindsay and Jesse, to the then territory of Missouri, and settled near St. Louis.

Jesse, while yet a boy, attracted the attention of leading men of St. Louis and it was believed that he gave indications of uncommon abilities. He graduated in his eighteenth year at Rock spring Seminary, an institution of learning founded by the celebrated Doctor Peck of St. Louis. By the kind offices of his friend Milburn, who was chief clerk in the surveyor-general's office, he was introduced to Edward Bates, who was then surveyor-general of the western territory, and who appointed Jesse to be the draughtsman in his office. Being now situated in a good position the young man, before he was twenty, was married to Miss Cynthia Parker, and settled down to house-keeping and the prosecution of his work in the office, in which he displayed great thoroughness and proficiency, and at the time was regarded by men of learning as a prodigy in the mathematical sciences. But the monotony of office routine was too confining for his restless disposition and, therefore, he soon took the field as a United States deputy surveyor, and prosecuted the work with such energy and success that in a few years he was regarded as a wealthy man.

In 1843 we find him located upon his magnificent home farm on the Osage river, within three miles of the town of Osceola, the county-seat of St. Clair county, Missouri, surrounded by all the comforts and then elegancies of life. His house was the open resort of the great people of the state and of the western territory. Such guests were frequently found at his hospitable board as Bates, Doctor Peck, Benton, Doctor Linn, Doctor Redman and Colonel Beal, the Bells, the Dodges, the Marmadukes, the Jackson's, the Hutchings, the Breckenridge's, the Waldos, the Sappingtons, the Austins, the Ashworths, the Mayos and the McKinzies. Here national affairs were discussed and among other matters the exceedingly captivating subject of the Oregon country.

During the severe winter of 1842-43 letters were received from Oregon from Robert Shortess, descriptive of the comparatively mild climate and, above all, the perpetually green hills of this wonderfully favored land. Carried away by the enthusiasm of romance and adventure, he, together with his brothers Charles and Lindsay, with Waldo, Looney and many others, resolved to rent out their farms, trade off their personal property for oxen, wagons and stock cattle, and roll out for the perpetually green and grassy hills and plains of the far-off Oregon. Accordingly by the middle of May, 1843, their trains were winding their way westward upon the broad plains beyond the western settlements. At the first encampment west of the Big Blue, Jess Applegate was chosen captain of the emigration, and held that office and discharged its arduous duties to the disbanding of the emigration on the Umatilla river at the western foot of the Blue Mountains, after the severe struggle of cutting the road through the forests of that mountain. It was understood that Lieutenant Fremont, a son-in-law of Senator Benton, being selected by him for that purpose, should go before, with a cannon, to look out the way, and awe off the Indians with his big gun. But, going too far up the South Platte, he fell behind, and never caught up with the emigration until he reached Soda Springs in Bear river valley. Then he found he could not "proceed in the advance," because his carriages were too light to break the sage so he quietly followed along behind to the encampment on Grande Ronde river, about two miles north of where the city of La Grande now stands. Here Fremont crossed the river and struck through the mountain in a northwest course for the headwaters of the Walla Walla river, while the emigrant train pulled up the mountain where the city just mentioned now stands, on to the head of Rock creek and from thence they cut their way through the forest.

From Umatilla, Jesse Applegate, his brothers and their immediate friends, proceeded northward by way of the Whitman Mission to Fort Walla Walla with the view of leaving their cattle for the winter under the protection of Captain Armintinger of the Hudson's Bay Company. Thus leaving their wagons and cattle, they proceeded down the river by water but at Celilo Falls they met with a great calamity which cast a shadow over the whole company and over Jesse Applegate's whole life. Bringing with them a complete supply of a variety of tools, when these people arrived at Fort Walla Walla, located at a point on the river where the town of Wallula now stands, they were prepared to readily work both wood and iron. Therefore, immediately erecting shops and saw-pits, in an incredible short time they had built and launched a sufficient number of well-constructed boats, some of them quite large, in which to navigate the waters of the Columbia. They had built, also, for light and contingent purposes, a couple of small skiffs. It was one of these that went over Celilo Falls. among those of the families lost was his son Edward, named after his benefactor, Edward Bates. His first son he had named Milburn, to honor his friend Milburn of St. Louis. This son was burnt to death by his clothes catching fire when he was a mere child. He used to mournfully say: "Thus by the elements of fire and water have I lost the pledges of my gratitude for my early benefactors and this I regard as a bad omen upon my life." This Columbia river calamity led to that most expensive and severe expedition to explore and open the south road in 1846, that a safer way for emigrants might be found to Oregon than by way of the Columbia cañon.

In the early days of Oregon, Jesse Applegate took an active part in the foundation of the Provisional government and the direction of public affairs. His house was resorted to by leading men and chiefs of tribes for council. He entertained, during the summer of 1845, the Envoy of the British Minister and his suit, when out to this country upon a trip of exploration and observation. In pursuance of his report, the claims of the British government were so modified that they were adopted by Polk's administration and in a convention of the two powers held on the 15th of June, 1846, those long-pending and dangerous questions pertaining to Oregon were definitely settled by treaty.

The summer of 1846 was spent in the explorations for the southern route to Oregon. At that time the country from Pilot Rock eastward to the sink of the Humboldt was noted on the standard map of the United States as an unexplored region. Upon the desert the company came near perishing for want of water and the captain of the expedition received such injuries from thirst and the heat of the sun that periodically it effected his mind ever after. The route was found and the way opened through the Siskiyou Mountains, the Grave creek hills, the Umpqua canon, and the Calopooia Mountains, altogether about eighty miles of forests being cut through. It cost very largely the responsible parties in the great undertaking but for it all, including the escort sent out in 1847 to meet, pilot and defend the immigrants, including also beef cattle and other supplies sent to the immigrants, no Applegate ever received a quarter of a dollar by way of pay or assistance for all that effort and expense.

In the winter of 1847, when the Whitman massacre occurred, Jesse Applegate was one of the foremost men in establishing a territorial credit by the formation of personal bonds by which supplies could be procured for the Oregon army, that the country might be defended from an uprising of the savages, the prisoners rescued from among the Indians, and the Cayuses chastised for their blood-thirsty outrage. During the same winter he made an attempt, at the head of a small company of bravemen, to beat through the snow-drifts of the Siskiyou to California, to call upon the United States officers there, for help for Oregon in her emergency.

The early summer of 1849 was spent in explorations and road-building, with the Klamath commonwealth. This was a company organized among the leading spirits of the Yamhill country, mainly to locate somewhere in Southern Oregon or Northern California, where gold-mining, agriculture and manufacturing could all be carried on as a mutual operation, - in a word, to plant all the elements of civilization in the wilderness, and at the same time be strong enough to defend it against the hordes of savages then inhabiting that country. Upon the plain near where Jacksonville now stands, the company, consisting of about one hundred and twenty men, with fifty wagons, formed their corral and proceeded to vote upon the question of location. One side maintained that within the circle of a few miles were to be found all the elements of success, - gold, soil and water-power. the other side admitted the elements, but urged that the climate would not do. A showing of snow had appeared on the 20th of May on the tops of the surrounding hills. It indicated too cold weather for the growth of domestic plants, - a country only fit for the abode of the wild man. In vain did the affirmative point to the splendid oak timber, the natural plum orchards and vineyards, and urge that wherever such growth is found domestic plants must succeed, and civilization always find a safe and successful home. Nevertheless the negative prevailed with a decisive majority and the great enterprise was abandoned.

In the fall of 1849, uncle Jesse, as he was, by this time, universally called, gathered up his herds, and with his large family of boys and girls moved off from the Willamette valley, crossed the Calopooia Mountains, and settled down as a pioneer of Yoncalla valley, in the Umpqua country. Here he obtained his section of land, the reward of the Oregon pioneer promised to them by Benton and Linn before he left Missouri. Here he built up a fine home, embracing the comforts and elegancies of an advanced civilization. His house was open and resorted to y distinguished personages all up and down the coast, and, in fact, from one side of the continent to the other.

He was a member of the constitutional convention. He was opposed to the extension of slavery. He was in favor of internal improvements and the protection of American industry by the general government and upon the outbreak of the rebellion he was loyal to the very core. But in the zenith of his influence and success in life, he trusts the unworthy, he is betrayed by the designing and treacherous and struck deep with the poisoned fang of ingratitude, - his property swept from him, his affairs and himself a ruin. Thus the mighty hath fallen! As the tall Pillar, or the grand Colussus, under the awful pressure of the hand of time, must crumble and fall, - must finally mingle its particles with the common kindred dust of the plain, - so we give him up, as we must all give up each other, to a fate that cannot be stayed, to a destiny which we cannot know. Then, farewell, Uncle Jess! Thou grand man, with thy great heart, with they bright and wonderful intellect and universal knowledge, thou prince of lofty conversationalists, far thee well!

"I will start with my family to the Oregon Territory this spring. Lindsay and perhaps Charles go with me. This resolution has been conceived and matured in a very short time, but it is probably destiny to which account I place it, having neither time nor good reasons to offer in defense of so wild an undertaking. We are well, and I only snatch this opportunity to write to you for this purpose of ascertaining if the same species of madness exists on your side of the Missouri."

Letter from Jesse Applegate to his brother Lisbon in April 1843.

Published in the Oregon Journal, October 12, 1933.

The Great Emigration of 1843 by the Applegates:

One of the leaders of the Great Emigration of 1843 Jesse Applegate wrote down his memoirs, A Day with the Cow Column in 1843.

Jesse Applegate's 7-year-old nephew and namesake Jess, when he was in his 70s, wrote Recollections of My Boyhood, in which the same journey is seen through the eyes of an old man remembering when he was a young boy.

The Applegate wagon train began to assemble in late April, and departed on May 13, 1843. Over 900 emigrants bound for Oregon elected Peter Burnett as captain. The 𠇌ow column” for the livestock and slower wagons was led by Jesse Applegate. Former trapper John Gant would guide them as far as Fort Hall. He would follow the trail used by mountain men Meek and Newell in 1840. The group possessed over 200 wagons, 700 oxen and about 800 cattle.

In 1843 the Appelgate’s crossing of the Blue Mountains was hard going as they needed to enlarge the trail cut through the forest and experienced adverse weather conditions. A snowstorm made them cold and wet, at first drifting made progress difficult and when it melted the wagons became bogged down in the mud.

At Soda Springs they met the group led by explorer John Charles Fremont. Jess recorded: "There was a soda spring or pool between the camps, and Fremont's men were having a high time drinking soda water. They were so noisy that I suspected they had liquor mixed with the water."

In October they finally reached Fort Walla Walla where they stayed for a fortnight to build timber skiffs on which to ride the Columbia River down to Fort Vancouver and the Willamette Valley, which was reckoned to be more viable than traversing the steep sided gorges through which the river surged. Animals and Wagons had to be left behind.

In November this last hazardous stage of the journey was begun. After the dreary plodding pace of the wagons riding the turbulent waters must have been an exhilarating experience. After a few days they heard the deafening roar of gushing waters ahead. The current carried them out of control, they could only try to avoid the large boulders which jumped out at them midstream. One of the craft, capsized and was sucked down into the raging waters by and eddying whirlpool. Three of the six occupants survived but shooting rapids. Young Jess Applegate's brother Warren and his cousin Edward drowned, the latter despite the best efforts of 70-year-old Alexander McClellan. McClennan could have saved himself but refused to do so and also perished in trying to save the youngster.

In the Willamette Valley they built log cabins and spent their first winter at what they called “The Mission” which is where the modern town of Gervais, Oregon lies.

1996 marks the 150th anniversary of the Applegate Trail, the southern route of the Oregon Trail. It was blazed in 1846 as an alternate, and hopefully safer route to Oregon. Three brothers, Lindsay, Jesse, and Charles Applegate and their extended families came to Oregon on the original Oregon Trail during the first major migration in 1843. As the party was rafting through the rapids on the Columbia River just outside The Dalles one of their rafts capsized in the current and Lindsay's son Warren, age 9, Jesse's son Edward, also age 9, along with Alexander Mac (Uncle Mac, age 70) drowned. This tragedy made the brothers determined to save others similar grief and find a safer route to the Oregon Territory.

By the Spring of 1846, the brothers had settled in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, planted crops and built cabins, but they were determined to find a safer, more secure route for emigration. Charles stayed home to care for the family and land. Lindsay and Jesse, along with Levi Scott and ten others formed a scouting party to be known as the the South Road Expedition. On June 20, 1846, they left La Creole Creek (now Rickreall) near Dallas, Oregon on their journey south. They traveled down the Willamette Valley through what is now Corvallis and Eugene. They continued on to just south of Ashland, then turned east, reaching Greensprings Mountain about where Highway 66 crosses today. On they traveled across Oregon and Nevada until they reached the Humboldt River, then they turned north along the river for 200 miles.

Being short on supplies, Jesse Applegate was chosen to lead the party continuing onto Fort Hall, Idaho to get supplies and inform emigrants about the new trail. The others proceeded up the Humboldt to where Winnemucca is now and set up a rendezvous and rested the stock. (The Applegate Trail runs from Humboldt, Nevada to Dallas, Oregon. Near Humboldt it joins the California Trail, running from near Fort Hall, Idaho to the gold country of California.

On August 9, 1846 a group of as many as 100 wagons set out from Fort Hall to cross the new Applegate Trail. In September, the first of the wagons left the Humboldt River and headed across the Black Rock Desert, a treacherous section of the trail filled with Indian attacks, overpowering heat, and very little forage for the animals. Next the wagons rolled into Surprise Valley, then onto Goose Lake and Tule Lake. The party crossed the Lost River on a natural stone bridge, the bridge and a marker to record the expedition are near Merrill, Oregon. The wagons then swung southwest around lower Klamath Lake and on towards Greensprings (in the southeast corner of what is now Jackson County).

Levi Scott led the wagon train on from present day Ashland towards the Willamette Valley. The rains had started by the time the wagons reached the Rogue Valley and from here on it would be either rain or snow for weather conditions. Brush and trees made the the trail hard to clear, but the men who joined the Applegate Train had to guarantee to do the road building and clearing needed to be done before more travelers could use the trail. The train lost Meadow's Vanderpool's flock of sheep at Rock Point to the Indians, and Martha Leland Crowley, a young girl, died October 18, 1846, while the train was moving across present day Sunny Valley, Oregon. The creek where Martha Crowley died was aptly named Grave Creek. A covered bridge (built in 1920) still spans the creek. The wagon train continued through the southwestern valleys of Oregon until they reached their final destination in the Willamette Valley. The group had survived much hardship and trouble, but they created a new passage to the Oregon Territory that would be used for many years.

In 1853 alone over 3500 men, women, and children took this route. Today, Interstate 5 and Highway 66 travel the same route. The Applegate was designated a National Historic Trail by the US Congress on August 3, 1992. Known as the southern route of the Oregon Trail, the Applegate Trail provided an alternative for settlers who wanted to avoid the perils of the Columbia River. Not all settlers appreciated the trail some even felt the Applegates had hindered rather than helped them on their way. Time proved the real test, however. After nearly 150 years the Applegate Trail endures as the basis for the state's major transportation routes, allowing today's traveler the opportunity to retrace the steps of Oregon's early trailblazers.

Applegate established a primitive raft service in 1843-44 when he occupied the former Methodist Mission at Mission Bottom. Daniel Matheny later started the Wheatland Ferry in the 1850s around the same location. How long it remained in operation, and when Matheny succeeded him, are lost to history.

In 1843, Jesse and Lindsay Applegate, members of the first wave of Oregon Trail emigrants, watched helplessly as their ten-year-old sons drowned in the Columbia River when a boat overturned in rapids near The Dalles. The Applegates, like so many overland emigrants who lost loved one on the Trail, continued sadly toward the Willamette Valley.

The Applegate brothers vowed to find a better route into the Willamette Valley -- one that bypassed the Columbia River altogether. The Provisional Government of Oregon also hoped an alternate route would be opened because the Hudson's Bay Company essentially controlled the Columbia River corridor, and so controlled a significant segment of the only overland route connecting the American settlements with the United States. By 1846, after settling on Salt Creek (near present-day Dallas), the Applegate brothers felt the time was right to follow through on their commitment to search for a new route.

In mid-June, Jesse and Lindsay Applegate met with other trailblazers at La Creole Creek (today called Rickreall Creek) to prepare for the trip. Eleven of the party had scouted the route earlier in the year as far south as Calapooya Creek in the Umpqua River valley. Jesse Applegate was elected leader of the group which included Lindsay Applegate, Henry Boygus, Benjamin Burch, David Goff, Samuel Goodhue, Moses "Black" Harris, John Jones, Bennett Osborn, John Owens, William Parker, John Scott, Levi Scott, Robert Smith, and William Sportsman.

The fifteen men, each with their own saddle horse, packhorse and supplies, followed Hudson's Bay Company trappers' routes, working their way south from the central Willamette Valley to the Bear Creek Valley in southern Oregon. From there, the group knew they would be blazing an entirely new trail. Turning east, their plan was to intersect the Oregon Trail near Soda Springs (in present day Idaho). Instead they intersected the California Trail on the Humboldt River and continued eastward to meet emigrant parties and guide them onto the new route.

The trailblazers crossed the Cascade Mountains approximately where Oregon State Route 66 crosses today and then headed south around lower Klamath Lake. Local Indians led them to a natural crossing of Lost River where the water flowed over a shelf of solid rock, making a substantial natural underwater bridge that wagons could traverse safely. This bridge was the critical key to establishing a wagon road through the Lakes Country. After crossing Lost River, the party rounded the north end of Tule Lake and headed east again, eventually crossing the Black Rock Desert to reach the Humboldt River.

There, the trailblazers decided some of the party should stay behind to rest their stock while others continued on to Fort Hall to replenish supplies and tell Oregon-bound travelers of the new route. Jesse Applegate led the advance group to Fort Hall and persuaded more than 200 men, women, and children -- some historians report nearly 100 wagons -- to travel over the southern road.

The trailblazers who stayed behind could hardly believe their eyes when they saw the number of people, wagons, and cattle coming down the trail to meet them. There had been no attempt while the supply party was at Fort Hall to clear a road for wagons. The emigrants of the new wagon train would have to do that themselves.

Levi Scott and David Goff agreed to stay behind to guide the wagon train. Meanwhile, equipped with pack horses and a few tools, the trailblazers had about sixty days before winter storms set in to open more than 500 miles of road and to blaze the trail for the wagons. To make matters worse, the winter of 1846-47 was a year of record snowfall, with heavy storms starting early. (These storms were the same ones that trapped the Donner Party heading over the Sierras not far south of where Scott was crossing the mountains with his wagon train.)

The wagon train did not move as fast as Scott would have liked. By the time the wagons reached the Rogue Valley, the winter rains had set in and from then on it rained or snowed most of the way. Supplies were running out and game was scarce. The trail had become harder to clear with brush and trees everywhere. The weather was cold and everything was slippery and muddy. Trying to start a fire to get warm was almost impossible. The emigrants were strung out for miles and Scott tried to persuade those who were stopped to keep moving because things could get worse. When word reached the Willamette settlements, relief parties headed down the trail to rescue those in need.

Although the trailblazers always referred to this route as the "Southern Road," critics such as J. Quinn Thornton chose to belittle the Applegates' name by referring to it as the "Applegate Trail." Thornton blamed Jesse Applegate for hardships members of the first wagon train endured and felt that Applegate should suffer for what the emigrants endured. Thornton began a war of words through the newspaper that nearly led to a duel between him and an Applegate supporter, James Nesmith. Although people such as Levi Scott and David Goff supported the Applegates, remnants of those hard feelings survive to the present day among some of the descendants of survivors of the '46 wagon train.

Despite its detractors, the Applegates' alternate route through Oregon contributed substantially to the development of the Northwest. At the urging of the provisional government, Levi Scott agreed to return over the Southern Road to Fort Hall in 1847 to lead additional emigrants back over the new route. In doing this, Scott made noticeable improvements to the route. In 1848 with the discovery of gold in California, Peter Hardeman Burnett led 150 pioneers with fifty heavily laden wagons from Oregon City over the Applegate Trail going south to the gold fields. They were followed a few days later by a smaller group of men and wagons from north of the Columbia River. Intersecting Peter Lassen's wagon tracks south of Tule Lake, Burnett's cavalcade helped Lassen blaze a new trail to his rancho in the Sacramento Valley, establishing the first route for wheeled vehicles between the valleys of California and Oregon. This remained a major wagon route for more than a decade. In 1852, a group blazed a trail off the Applegate route south of lower Klamath Lake to the Yreka area this trail was used for many years to help populate that part of northern California. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesse_Applegate Founded Applegate Trail with Lindsay

In 1843, Jesse and Lindsay Applegate, members of the first wave of Oregon Trail emigrants, watched helplessly as their ten-year-old sons drowned in the Columbia River when a boat overturned in rapids near The Dalles. The Applegates, like so many overland emigrants who lost loved one on the Trail, continued sadly toward the Willamette Valley.

The Applegate brothers vowed to find a better route into the Willamette Valley -- one that bypassed the Columbia River altogether. The Provisional Government of Oregon also hoped an alternate route would be opened because the Hudson's Bay Company essentially controlled the Columbia River corridor, and so controlled a significant segment of the only overland route connecting the American settlements with the United States. By 1846, after settling on Salt Creek (near present-day Dallas), the Applegate brothers felt the time was right to follow through on their commitment to search for a new route.

In mid-June, Jesse and Lindsay Applegate met with other trailblazers at La Creole Creek (today called Rickreall Creek) to prepare for the trip. Eleven of the party had scouted the route earlier in the year as far south as Calapooya Creek in the Umpqua River valley. Jesse Applegate was elected leader of the group which included Lindsay Applegate, Henry Boygus, Benjamin Burch, David Goff, Samuel Goodhue, Moses "Black" Harris, John Jones, Bennett Osborn, John Owens, William Parker, John Scott, Levi Scott, Robert Smith, and William Sportsman.

The fifteen men, each with their own saddle horse, packhorse and supplies, followed Hudson's Bay Company trappers' routes, working their way south from the central Willamette Valley to the Bear Creek Valley in southern Oregon. From there, the group knew they would be blazing an entirely new trail. Turning east, their plan was to intersect the Oregon Trail near Soda Springs (in present day Idaho). Instead they intersected the California Trail on the Humboldt River and continued eastward to meet emigrant parties and guide them onto the new route.

The trailblazers crossed the Cascade Mountains approximately where Oregon State Route 66 crosses today and then headed south around lower Klamath Lake. Local Indians led them to a natural crossing of Lost River where the water flowed over a shelf of solid rock, making a substantial natural underwater bridge that wagons could traverse safely. This bridge was the critical key to establishing a wagon road through the Lakes Country. After crossing Lost River, the party rounded the north end of Tule Lake and headed east again, eventually crossing the Black Rock Desert to reach the Humboldt River.

There, the trailblazers decided some of the party should stay behind to rest their stock while others continued on to Fort Hall to replenish supplies and tell Oregon-bound travelers of the new route. Jesse Applegate led the advance group to Fort Hall and persuaded more than 200 men, women, and children -- some historians report nearly 100 wagons -- to travel over the southern road.

The trailblazers who stayed behind could hardly believe their eyes when they saw the number of people, wagons, and cattle coming down the trail to meet them. There had been no attempt while the supply party was at Fort Hall to clear a road for wagons. The emigrants of the new wagon train would have to do that themselves.

Levi Scott and David Goff agreed to stay behind to guide the wagon train. Meanwhile, equipped with pack horses and a few tools, the trailblazers had about sixty days before winter storms set in to open more than 500 miles of road and to blaze the trail for the wagons. To make matters worse, the winter of 1846-47 was a year of record snowfall, with heavy storms starting early. (These storms were the same ones that trapped the Donner Party heading over the Sierras not far south of where Scott was crossing the mountains with his wagon train.)

The wagon train did not move as fast as Scott would have liked. By the time the wagons reached the Rogue Valley, the winter rains had set in and from then on it rained or snowed most of the way. Supplies were running out and game was scarce. The trail had become harder to clear with brush and trees everywhere. The weather was cold and everything was slippery and muddy. Trying to start a fire to get warm was almost impossible. The emigrants were strung out for miles and Scott tried to persuade those who were stopped to keep moving because things could get worse. When word reached the Willamette settlements, relief parties headed down the trail to rescue those in need.

Although the trailblazers always referred to this route as the "Southern Road," critics such as J. Quinn Thornton chose to belittle the Applegates' name by referring to it as the "Applegate Trail." Thornton blamed Jesse Applegate for hardships members of the first wagon train endured and felt that Applegate should suffer for what the emigrants endured. Thornton began a war of words through the newspaper that nearly led to a duel between him and an Applegate supporter, James Nesmith. Although people such as Levi Scott and David Goff supported the Applegates, remnants of those hard feelings survive to the present day among some of the descendants of survivors of the '46 wagon train.


Applegate Trail

[9] While attempting to reach his destination of California, Applegate had to turn back due to the mountain passes being difficult to traverse in the winter. [2] to deliver a memorial written by Applegate appealing for military support.Washington, D.C. and Applegate were appointed to request aid from other parts of the United States. Meek traveled to Joseph Meek Due to the isolation of the settler communities in the Willamette Valley [9] The

The Provisional Government had tense relations with the Hudson's Bay Company centered on Fort Vancouver across the Columbia River, and Applegate led the way for a political settlement. He created a new oath for members of the government that was inclusive for British subjects as well as American citizens. In a meeting with John McLoughlin and James Douglas the Yamhill legislator was able to induce the men to join the Provisional Government. A previous episode of an American squatting on Fort Vancouver's farmland and his subsequent threat of burning the Fort down helped produce the agreement. [4] The Provisional Government was to tax the Hudson's Bay Company only on transactions with the settlers. [7] Douglas was one of the judges elected of the newly established Vancouver district, encompassing the lands of north of the Columbia. Upon hearing of an upcoming battle between two men over a woman, Applegate was able to get dueling banned. [8]


The Applegate Trail

In 1846, Jesse Applegate and fourteen others from near Dallas, Oregon, established a trail south from the Willamette Valley and east to Fort Hall. This route offered emigrants an alternative to the perilous "last leg" of the Oregon Trail down the treacherous Columbia River.
The first emigrants to trek the new “Southern Road” left with the trailblazers from Fort Hall in early August 1846. With Levi Scott acting as guide, while Jesse Applegate traveled ahead to mark the route, the hardy emigrants blazed a wagon trail through nearly 500 miles of wilderness arriving in the upper Willamette Valley in November. Emigrant travel continued along the Applegate Trail in later years and contributed greatly to the settlement of southern Oregon and the Willamette Valley.

Travelers through Time
Native Americans and fur trappers trekked through this region long before emigrants settlers. Between 1846 and 1853 Applegate Trail emigrants passed nearby on a route that followed Coyote Creek for a mile then crossed a divide to upper Wolf Creek. In 1853 Major Benjamin Alvord and Jesse Applegate surveyed a military road from Myrtle Creek in Douglas County through the site of present-day Wolf Creek and on to Camp Stuart in Jackson County. Road construction began immediately and a wagon road soon

replaced the Applegate Trail through this area.

. passed down a hansom Brook (Wolf Creek). crossed the Brook and immediately took (up) the mountain steep ruged and Brushy this ridge has several snow drifts yit visible on its summit a short distance South of the trail. The desent was not Quite so steep crossed a small Brook (Coyote Creek) and assended another mountain not Quite so high as the first but verry difficult on account of the logs and undergrothe. Partially desended the second a small cove and then mounted a third high ridge at the bottom of which opens a small vally of handsome Prairie (on Grave Creek) whare we encamped. -- James Clyman, Fur Trapper June 19 1844

Erected by Applegate Trail Coalition.

Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Exploration &bull Roads & Vehicles. In addition, it is included in the Applegate Trail series list. A significant historical date for this entry is June 19, 1844.

Location. 42° 41.718′ N, 123° 23.733′ W. Marker is in Wolf Creek, Oregon, in Josephine County. Marker is at the intersection of Old State Highway 99 South and Front Street, on the left when traveling north on Old State Highway 99 South. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Wolf Creek OR 97497, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 5 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Feeble, Hungry, and Haggard (a few steps from Paid Advertisement

this marker) Early Traveler Accommodations (a few steps from this marker) Wolf Creek Tavern (within shouting distance of this marker) City of Glendale (approx. 3.3 miles away) Golden (approx. 3.4 miles away) GOLD! (approx. 3.4 miles away) Grave Creek Ranch (approx. 4.2 miles away) a different marker also named The Applegate Trail (approx. 4.2 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Wolf Creek.

More about this marker. The marker is located in a small park across from the Historic Wolf Creek Inn.


Jesse Applegate Net Worth

Jesse Applegate estimated Net Worth, Salary, Income, Cars, Lifestyles & many more details have been updated below. Let’s check, How Rich is Jesse Applegate in 2019-2020?

According to Wikipedia, Forbes, IMDb & Various Online resources, famous Celebrity Jesse Applegate’s net worth is $1-5 Million before died. Jesse Applegate earned the money being a professional Celebrity. Jesse Applegate is from the United States.

Jesse Applegate’s Net Worth:
$1-5 Million

Estimated Net Worth in 2020$1-$3million
Previous Year’s Net Worth (2019)Under Review
Annual SalaryUnder Review.
Income SourcePrimary Income source Celebrity (profession).
Net Worth Verification StatusNot Verified


Jesse A. Applegate letter

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Biographical / Historical

Jesse Applegate was born in Kentucky and attended the Rock Creek Seminary in Illinois. He later worked as a school teacher and a clerk before serving as deputy surveyor to the Missouri surveyor general. In 1832 he married Cynthia Ann Parker who became mother to their 13 children. Applegate's brothers, Charles and Lindsay, and their families joined Jesse and his family on the Oregon Trail in what was known as the "Great Migration" of 1843. Jesse led a company of immigrants across the plains and mountains to The Dalles on the Columbia River in Oregon. The next year he started a farm in what is now western Polk County. He also built a mill and worked as a surveyor, including the 1844 survey of the Oregon City townsite.

Applegate played a key part in opening the South Road to Oregon that is also known as the Applegate Trail (Scott-Applegate Trail). The route started at Fort Hall in present day Idaho and followed the Humboldt River before crossing the Klamath Basin. Advocates saw it as a way to encourage settlement in southern Oregon and the upper Willamette Valley. The route had fewer obstacles for wagons than the northern route to the Willamette Valley but offered its own set of problems.

Oregon politics attracted Applegate's attention beginning in 1845 with his service in the provisional government where he helped in the complete revision of the government that increased its influence in the Oregon Country. He later helped shape the development of the Oregon Territory as part of the United States and worked to elect Abraham Lincoln president.

Applegate settled on a land claim in the Umpqua Valley in 1849 in a place he called Yoncalla after the local Indian tribe. There he farmed and raised cattle. A student and writer, Applegate maintained a large library in his house. He continued his influence over public issues and gained the title "Sage of Yoncalla" from his friends.


Applegate Family Trees, Crests, Genealogies, Biographies, DNA, and More

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Biographies of Howard County, Indiana (names starting with A to F)
. , Indiana Surnames Starting with A to F Alyea, Robert T. Armfield, Calvin C. Applegate, Bartholomew W .
http://www.onlinebiographies.info/in/how/part-1.htm

Oregon Public Libraries
. Alsea Libraries Amity Libraries Applegate Libraries Arlington Libraries Ashland Libraries Astoria .
http://library.public-libraries.org/Oregon/OR.html

Pennsylvania Biographies . bios and history of men and women in PA penna
. . Anstine, Henry Appleby, George Applegate, Charles C. Appleman, Emanuel L. Appleman, George W. Arbogast .
http://www.historicpa.net/bios/a-z/biosA.html

Applegate, Charles C.
. Applegate, Charles C. .
http://www.historicpa.net/bios/2c/charles-c-applegate.html

Pine Hill - Ghost Town
. miles south of Port Sanilac)at the intersection of Applegate & Lakeshore(M-25) roads. REMAINS: Cemetary .
http://www.ghosttowns.com/states/mi/pinehill.html

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Watch the video: Jesse Applegate a Dialog with Destiny (September 2022).

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