Kristallnacht: What Happened on the 'Night of Broken Glass'

Kristallnacht: What Happened on the 'Night of Broken Glass'

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Herschel Grynszpan carried a revolver and thoughts of revenge with him as he walked through the streets of Paris on the morning of November 7, 1938. The 17-year-old German refugee had just learned that his Polish-Jewish parents, along with thousands of other Jews, had been herded into boxcars and deported from Germany. From the day Adolf Hitler rose to power in 1933, anti-Semitism had become encoded in the governmental policies of Nazi Germany. For years, Jews experienced state-sponsored discrimination and persecution, and Grynszpan had seen enough.

The young man who had emigrated to France two years earlier walked into the German Embassy on Rue de Lille in search of the German ambassador. When Grynszpan was informed that the ambassador was out on his daily walk, he was brought in to meet with diplomat Ernst vom Rath. Pulling out his revolver, Grynszpan fired five times at vom Rath and shouted, “You are a filthy kraut, and here, in the name of 12,000 persecuted Jews, is your document!”

Hitler sent his personal physicians to Paris to treat vom Rath, but two days later the diplomat died from his wounds. The Nazi regime found the murder to be a welcome excuse to launch a vast pogrom against the Jews living inside its borders. Until then, Nazi policies toward the Jews, such as boycotts and deportations, had been primarily nonviolent, but that all changed in the hours after vom Rath took his last breath.

Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels orchestrated a “spontaneous” reaction to the political assassination. He sent a teletype message to state police stations and secret service headquarters with detailed instructions on organizing and executing a massive attack on Jewish properties. Goebbels ordered the burning of Jewish houses of worship, businesses and homes. He ordered the storm troopers to arrest as many Jews as the prisons could hold—“especially the rich ones”—and to prepare the concentration camps for their arrivals. Firemen were told to do nothing to stop the blazes unless the fires began to threaten Aryan-owned properties.

Starting in the late hours of the night of November 9, 1938, and continuing well into the next day, Nazis in Germany and Austria torched approximately 1,000 synagogues and vandalized thousands of Jewish homes, schools and businesses. Nearly 100 Jews were murdered during the violence, and approximately 30,000 were arrested and sent to concentration camps. Following the night of terror, the shattered windows of vandalized Jewish businesses littered the sidewalks of Germany and Austria, which led to the rampage being known as Kristallnacht, German for “crystal night.”

After ruining their property and their temples in a murderous attack, the Nazis then made their victims pay for all the damage from the “night of broken glass.” The insurance companies paid the Jews in full, but the Nazi government confiscated all the money to pay back the insurance companies to prevent them from bankruptcy due to the catastrophic losses. The Nazis also fined Germany’s Jews $400 million for their “abominable crimes,” including the killing of vom Rath in Paris. Hermann Göring, Hitler’s second-in-command, said the sanctions would ensure “the swine won’t commit another murder.”

Foreign countries issued statements of condemnation. Hugh Wilson, the American ambassador to Germany, was summoned home for “consultations” and never returned. In spite of the words, though, most countries, including the United States, kept their restrictive immigration policies against European Jews in place, and there were few ramifications for the Nazis.

A week following the assassination in Paris that was used as a pretense for the state-sponsored “spontaneous demonstration,” vom Rath’s coffin, draped with the Nazi swastika flag, was paraded through the streets of Dusseldorf as thousands of mourners raised their arms in salute of the murdered diplomat. Grynszpan was transferred from prison to prison in France until the Nazi invasion during World War II when he was extradited to Germany where he was incarcerated in a concentration camp. His ultimate fate is unknown, but he may well have been among the 6 million killed during the Holocaust, the genocide that was foreshadowed on that November “night of broken glass.”

A Timeline of the Holocaust

Nazi Germany 1933-1939: Early Stages of Persecution

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The unprecedented pogrom of November 9-10, 1938 in Germany has passed into history as Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass). Violent attacks on Jews and Judaism throughout the Reich and in the recently annexed Sudetenland began on November 8 and continued until November 11 in Hannover and the free city of Danzig, which had not then been incorporated into the Reich. There followed associated operations: arrests, detention in concentration camps, and a wave of so-called Aryanization orders, which completely eliminated Jews from German economic life.

The November pogrom, carried out with the help of the most up-to-date communications technology, was the most modern pogrom in the history of anti-Jewish persecution and an overture to the step-by-step extirpation of the Jewish people in Europe.

Consequences of Kristallnacht

Kristallnacht – the Night of the Broken Glass – took place on November 9 th and 10 th 1938. It was in reprisal for the death of Ernst von Rath, the Third Secretary of the German Embassy in Paris, who was shot on November 7 th by Herschell Grynszpan, a Polish Jew. The Night of the Broken Glass caused a great amount of damage to property with thousands of homes and shops being destroyed along with 586 synagogues. Joseph Goebbels said that “the patience of the German people has been exhausted” in an attempt to justify the destruction. However, not everyone was as enthused about the Night of the Broken Glass. Hermann Goering was angered by the widespread destruction of homes and shops. While he fully supported the attack against the Jews of Nazi Germany, he believed that an empty and gutted shop offered little to Germany whereas one that had been cleared of its Jewish owner but was left intact for a German occupier far better served the Reich. Goering was the minister in charge of the economy and saw the two nights of damage to property as a chance lost to the Nazis as no one would want a burnt out shop that offered little to anyone. He had been emphasising to loyal Germans the importance of not wasting anything and here was an example that clearly went against such a philosophy. On November 12 th 1938, Goering called a conference to discuss the whole issue. In attendance, amongst others, were Reinhard Heydrich, representing the SS, and Joseph Goebbels. A secretary kept minutes of what was discussed.

Goering complained to Goebbels – who had celebrated what had occurred – that his position as the minister in charge of the economy had been made a lot harder by the destruction caused by Kristallnacht. However, all three men agreed on one thing – it was ultimately the fault of the Jews that the destruction occurred. Goering, according to the minutes, stated that “all measures (should be taken) to eliminate the Jew from the German economy.” Goebbels added that a law needed to be introduced that barred Jews from most beaches, parks, holiday resorts, forests and that there should be clearly marked “For Jews Only” parks and benches. It seems that Heydrich’s role in this meeting was minimal in terms of what he said. However, he was to make one comment, according to the minutes, that was to have a huge impact on the Jews:

“I’d like to make a proposal regarding police measures which are important also because of their psychological effect on public opinion. For example, anyone who is Jewish according to the Nuremburg Laws will have to wear a certain badge.”

On the same day as the meeting, Goering issued three decrees:

1. “ All damage to Jewish businesses or dwellings on 8,9 or 10 November 1938 through the indignation of the people over the agitation of the international Jews against national Socialist Germany, must be repaired at once by the Jewish occupant or Jewish businessman. The cost of restoration will be borne by the occupants of the Jewish businesses and dwellings concerned. Insurance claims by Jews of German nationality will be confiscated in favour of the Reich.

2. The hostile attitude of Jewry towards the German people and Reich, which does not even shrink from committing cowardly murder, requires harsh atonement. Therefore I make the following order: the payment of a contribution of 1,000,000,000 Reichmarks to German Reich has been imposed on the Jews of German nationality as a whole.

3. From January 1 st , 1939, on, a Jew cannot remain a businessman any longer. If a Jew has been a leading employee in a business enterprise, he will be dismissed after six months notice.”

World War II : The Holocaust

horrific Holocaust and all the painful treatment and torture the Jews had to endure, but life before the Holocaust was not all that great for the Jewish citizens of Germany. There was much discrimination and hatred towards the Jews during that time, and there were many events that happened before the Holocaust, and many of those events were part Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi 's plan that would lead up to the horrible genocide, known as the Holocaust. Kristallnacht or also called the Night of Broken

Goebbels' statement after the attacks

Dr Goebbels, the propaganda minister, did not deny the good faith of the eyewitness reports of the devastation of Jewish property yesterday when he received the foreign press at the ministry this afternoon. He declared that they were spontaneous manifestations of indignation against the murder of Herr vom Rath by the young Jew Grynszpan. He added that the accounts of witnesses varied even in good faith. He himself was in Munich and only heard about the demonstration by telephone.

He thought the Jews were stupid people. If they had a clever head among them they would be advised never to mention Germany at all. He himself counselled foreign newspapers not to insult the Reich if they wished to serve the interests of the Jews. But, while Germany did not intend to give an example to the world, Goebbels declared that the antisemitic instinct slumbered among all nations.

Remembering Kristallnacht

Nov. 9, 2018 — In the night of 9-10 November 1938 Nazis set fire to hundreds of synagogues and destroyed thousands of Jewish-owned shops. Antisemitism in Nazi Germany expressed itself in broken glass.

Eighty years ago

More than a hundred Jews were murdered, and over 30,000 Jewish men were arrested. Today we remember Kristallnacht, exactly eighty years ago.

The Frank family

The night has gone down in history as Kristallnacht (the Night of Broken Glass), because of the glass of shattered shop windows that littered the streets. Many Jews sought a safe refuge, including relatives of the Frank family who were then still living in Germany. Two of Anne’s uncles, Julius and Walter Holländer, managed to flee Germany after their arrest and emigrated via Amsterdam to the USA in 1939. Grandmother Holländer, the mother of Anne’s mother, moved in with the Frank family in Amsterdam in March 1939.

The Netherlands

Nazi Germany was preparing for war. In the night of 9-10 May 1940 the Nazis attacked the Netherlands, and by 14 May 1940 the occupation was a reality. In the Netherlands too, Jews were no longer safe.

The legacy of Kristallnacht

A vandalised shop in Berlin on November 17 1938. Businesses and properties owned by Jews were target of vicious Nazi mobs during the night of vandalism that is known as 'Kristallnacht'. Photograph: Corbis

A vandalised shop in Berlin on November 17 1938. Businesses and properties owned by Jews were target of vicious Nazi mobs during the night of vandalism that is known as 'Kristallnacht'. Photograph: Corbis

B erliners went wild that day, 19 years ago. The impossible had happened. The Wall had come down. It was November 9 1989. I wasn't there. But I was there on that same date in 1938, 70 years ago. Germans went wild on that day, too. They let loose an orgy of destruction. The synagogues were set ablaze. Jewish shops were smashed up and pillaged. Jewish men were rounded up, beaten up, some to death, many sent to concentration camps. What eventually followed was unthinkable. The streets that night were strewn with broken glass. The Germans called it Kristallnacht, the night not of broken glass but broken crystal, to symbolise the "ill-gotten Jewish riches" Germans would now take from them. Never mind the many Jewish poor. Never mind that Jews such as my grandparents were Germans as deeply patriotic as any of their neighbours.

My Christian father, born to Jewish parents, was in 1938 forbidden, as all Jews were, to continue working as a doctor. From a small provincial town we fled to Berlin with one aim, common to thousands of Jews at that time, to find asylum anywhere beyond the reach of Hitler. An only child, six years old, I was given refuge by kindly non-Jewish friends. Life in their basement flat bore no horrors for me. I simply wondered why I was not allowed to go to school.

My parents had gone underground. My non-Jewish mother had resisted the pressure to divorce her husband and quit a marriage defined by the Nazis as rassenschande, racial disgrace. My father, hoping not to be picked up on the street, as many were, trudged from consulate to consulate, wearing the miniatures of his two iron crosses won in the first world war. Ruefully he said: "In 1918, as a German officer, I fled from the French. Twenty years later, I am fleeing from the Germans."

Now a visa was priceless. The state had confiscated our bank account. We could not bribe our way to safety. With that visa, Nazi Germany could say good riddance. If Kristallnacht had a definable purpose, beyond its pure explosion of hate, it was to make the Jews go away. But, except for the few who had somehow rescued great wealth, the world did not want them.

The day of the great pogrom started much like any other. But a rare treat was in store. My mother came to take me for a walk. As a non-Jew she was not directly threatened. Berlin was bathed in autumn sunshine. We walked to the

Tauentzienstrasse, Berlin's Regent Street. For me, the big city was full of wonder - until terror struck. Trucks pulled up at exact intervals. Jack-booted men wielding wooden clubs ran up and down the street and began to smash the windows of the Jewish-owned department stores. My mother grabbed hold of me. We fled. I was soon back in a safe place. My parents left Berlin before the day was out and were hidden in Leipzig by a sympathetic member of the Nazi party. In times of crisis, people are not always what they seem to be.

The search for asylum became more desperate. It took us another three months. Many were not so lucky. Nations met at Evian on Lake Geneva to discuss the plight of Germany's Jews but shrank from their responsibility. No effective policy emerged. At least the Australian delegate was frank: "We have no race problem and we don't want to import one." He and many others around the world bought into Hitler's fanciful racial doctrine. Antisemitism was not just a German aberration. "Why should we import a problem the Germans are so keen to get rid of?" By early 1939, Britain felt "we have done our bit". President Roosevelt firmly refused to increase the American quota.

Our choice narrowed down to Venezuela and New Zealand. The New Zealand government's attitude was like that of its neighbour. Jewish applicants were told explicitly: "We do not think you will integrate into our society. If you insist on applying, expect a refusal." My father did insist. The barriers were high. Either you had a job to come to, at a time of high unemployment, or you had to produce two wealthy guarantors and in addition bring with you, at today's values, £2,000 per head. We were only able to take that hurdle thanks to the generosity of a remarkable Frenchman, a friend of a distant relative. This was the sort of money most refugees could not possibly raise. At a total of 1,000 German, Austrian and Czech Jews, the New Zealand government drew the line. We were lucky. My grandmother, who hoped to follow us, was not. It was too late. She did not survive the Holocaust. Like many others, she chose suicide rather than the cattle-truck journey to Auschwitz. Britain, thanks to a group of persistent lobbyists, at the last moment agreed to take a substantial number of Jewish children. Most were never to see their parents again. Their contribution to British life was significant, now that the stories of the kindertransport are being told.

I tell my story on this anniversary not just for its historic and personal interest, but because it brings into sharp focus the far from humane attitude of Britain, the European Union and many other rich countries to the asylum seekers of today. True, there are now international conventions that did not exist in 1938, but they are seldom obeyed in spirit or in letter. The German sentiment "send them away" has given way in Britain and in many other parts of Europe to "send them back", sometimes to more persecution and even death. Lessons from history are seldom learned.

Dr Peter Selby, president of the National Council of Independent Monitoring Boards, has written with justifiable anger of his experience of Britain's immigration removal centres at ports and airports, which are prisons in all but name. We lock up children, separated from their parents, hold detainees for indefinite periods, and many are made ill by the experience. Those who advocate tougher immigration policies, such as Frank Field's Migration Watch, are accountable, writes Selby, for the coercive instruments - the destitution and detention - that are already being used and will be used even more to enforce it. This is not quite our 1938, but the parallels are deeply disquieting.

An even sadder consequence of this story of anti-Jewish inhumanity is that many of the survivors who fled to Palestine did so at the expense of the local people, the Palestinians, half of whom were driven into exile and their villages destroyed. Their children and children's children live in the refugee camps that now constitute one aspect of the Israeli-Palestinian impasse that embitters Islam and threatens world peace: all that a consequence of Nazi terror and indirectly of the Christian world's persecution of the Jewish people over many centuries.

With fear bred into every Jewish bone, it is tragic that today many Israelis say of the Palestinians, as once the Germans said of them: "The only solution is to send them away." However understandable this reaction may be, to do so, or even to contemplate it, is a denial of all that is good in Judaism. To create another victim people is to sow the seeds of another holocaust. When, in the 1930s, the Right Rev George Bell, Bishop of Chichester, pleaded in vain for active British support for the German opposition to Hitler, many accused him of being anti-German. The opposite was true. He did not tar all Germans with the Nazi brush. Today, those of us who offer our solidarity to the minority of Israelis working - in great isolation - for justice for the Palestinian people, are often accused of being antisemitic. The opposite is true. It is a tragic parallel.

November 9 is deeply etched into German history. On that day in 1918 the Kaiser abdicated. Germany had lost the first world war. Five years later to the day, Hitler's followers were shot down in the streets of Munich. The Nazis, year by year, celebrated their martyrs. Then came 1938: Kristallnacht. Berlin's Holocaust Memorial and other memorials in many German towns and villages, where once the synagogue stood, are mute reminders of what began that day. But the significance and the shame of that day stretches far beyond those who set the synagogues alight. Who, we need to ask, are the victims now, both near and far, and what is our response?


Barbara Russum is a longtime reader and supporter of People's World and works on the production team. As a cancer survivor she makes health care for all a high priority. Former manager of the late, great Modern Bookstore, she values books, public libraries and the struggle for universal literacy. She occasionally writes book reviews and articles for People's World. She is a proud member of the Chicago News Guild/CWA Local 34071.

Remembering Kristallnacht

Nov. 9, 2018 — In the night of 9-10 November 1938 Nazis set fire to hundreds of synagogues and destroyed thousands of Jewish-owned shops. Antisemitism in Nazi Germany expressed itself in broken glass.

Eighty years ago

More than a hundred Jews were murdered, and over 30,000 Jewish men were arrested. Today we remember Kristallnacht, exactly eighty years ago.

The Frank family

The night has gone down in history as Kristallnacht (the Night of Broken Glass), because of the glass of shattered shop windows that littered the streets. Many Jews sought a safe refuge, including relatives of the Frank family who were then still living in Germany. Two of Anne’s uncles, Julius and Walter Holländer, managed to flee Germany after their arrest and emigrated via Amsterdam to the USA in 1939. Grandmother Holländer, the mother of Anne’s mother, moved in with the Frank family in Amsterdam in March 1939.

The Netherlands

Nazi Germany was preparing for war. In the night of 9-10 May 1940 the Nazis attacked the Netherlands, and by 14 May 1940 the occupation was a reality. In the Netherlands too, Jews were no longer safe.


Type of Holiday: Historic
Date of Observation: November 9-10
Where Celebrated: Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States, and by Jewish communities all over the world
Symbols and Customs: Antiracism Demonstrations, Candlelight Vigils, Marches, Synagogue Ceremonies

European Jews, particularly those living in Germany, suffered greatly during the 1930s. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), the chancellor of Germany, started passing laws early in the decade that prevented Jews from observing the customs of their faith, and by 1935 they had lost their citizenship rights and could no longer vote in parliamentary elections. Laws passed in 1938 made it increasingly difficult for them to earn a living, and by 1939 all Jews living in Germany had to carry identification cards. But the situation reached crisis proportions later in 1938, when thousands of Polish Jews who had been living in Germany for many years were rounded up, loaded into boxcars, and sent to "relocation camps" on the Polish border because the Polish government refused to allow them back into their homeland.

When Herschel Grynszpan, a seventeen-year-old Polish Jew living with his uncle in Paris at the time, found out that his parents were among those who had been forced to leave their homes, he decided to seek revenge. He went to the German embassy and assassinated a German diplomat-an act that Germany's Nazi leaders used as an excuse to launch a "pogrom" or violent, organized attack against German Jews. On the night of November 9, 1938, Nazi storm troopers and members of the Nazi secret police and Hitler Youth groups went on a rampage through Kristallnacht

Jewish neighborhoods in Germany, Austria, and other areas controlled by the Nazis. They broke into Jewish homes and businesses, smashing the windows, beating or murdering the inhabitants, and destroying whatever they found inside. They even entered synagogues and destroyed sacred Torah scrolls, setting the buildings themselves on fire. All told, nearly 100 Jews were killed that night, 7,500 Jewish businesses were ruined, and about 200 synagogues were destroyed- although Jewish groups claim that more than 1,000 were seriously damaged. About 25,000 Jewish men were torn from their homes and families and later sent to concentration camps, where many of them died.

The night of November 9-10 became known as "Kristallnacht," which is German for "Crystal Night," because of the broken glass strewn in the streets in the wake of the attacks. It was actually a Nazi who came up with the name, which some scholars believe was designed to mock the seriousness of the event in the same way that the concentration camp victims were said to receive Sonderbehandlung or "special treatment" when they were gassed to death. In any case, the name stuck, and this event is widely acknowledged as the beginning of the Holocaust, which would eventually claim the lives of six million Jews.

Kristallnacht commemorates a significant historical event. Peoples throughout the world commemorate such significant events in their histories through holidays and festivals. Often, these are events that are important for an entire nation and become widely observed. The marking of such anniversaries serves not only to honor the values represented by the person or event commemorated, but also to strengthen and reinforce communal bonds of national, cultural, or ethnic identity. Victorious, joyful, and traumatic events are remembered through historic holidays. The commemorative expression reflects the original event through festive celebration or solemn ritual.

Today, Kristallnacht is commemorated in cities throughout Germany as well as by Jewish communities all over the world. Many of the commemoration ceremonies are held at synagogues or Jewish cemeteries and involve the recitation of the Kaddish, an ancient Jewish prayer for the dead. In Germany, Kristallnacht observations coincide with those surrounding another, more recent, event: the 1989 breaching of the Berlin Wall, the ninety-six-mile-long concrete wall built in 1961 to prevent East Germans from escaping Communist rule after World War II (1939-45).

Antiracism Demonstrations

Because the Holocaust stands as a symbol for racism and hate crimes, many antiracist organizations choose to hold demonstrations on Kristallnacht. Colleges and universities often invite Holocaust survivors to give lectures, and speakers at other public venues remind people of the connection between what happened in 1938 and the treatment that many minority groups are receiving today.

These demonstrations are particularly noticeable in Berlin, where the neo-Nazi movement and recent attacks on immigrants and Jewish synagogues have been a sad reminder of the 1938 anti-Jewish pogrom.

Candlelight Vigils

Candlelight vigils are a popular way to commemorate any historic event in which lives have been lost. Kristallnacht is often observed with the lighting of torches or candles, their flames symbolizing the souls of those who lost their lives not only on November 9, 1938, but afterward in the Holocaust.

Solemn marches, especially in large cities, are another way in which Jews and others commemorate Kristallnacht. In Berlin, the capital of Germany, more than 200,000 people marched through the city on November 9, 2000, both in memory of the event's Jewish victims and as a form of protest against more recent attacks on Jews and other minority groups.

Synagogue Ceremonies

Special ceremonies in honor of the victims of Kristallnacht are held in the historic synagogues at Wroclaw, Cracow, and Auschwitz, Poland, as well as in synagogues throughout the world. The Polish city of Wroclaw, which used to be the German city of Breslau was at one time the site of Germany's second largest Jewish congregation and two of its most historic synagogues, which have recently been restored.

Blackburn, Bonnie, and Leofranc Holford-Stevens. The Oxford Companion to the Year. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Bowker, John, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Crim, Keith R. The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989. Trawicky, Bernard, and Ruth W. Gregory. Anniversaries and Holidays. 5th ed. Chicago: American Library Assocation, 2000. Kristallnacht

Kristallnacht, the ‘Night of Broken Glass’

On Thursday, Nov. 14, Wagner College marked the 75th anniversary of Kristallnacht, the “Night of Broken Glass,” with a luncheon lecture by Reni Hanau, a survivor of the Nazi terror. New York 1 multimedia journalist Colleen Hagerty reported in this story about the program:

Complete Video of the Event:

The program featuring Kristallnacht survivor Reni Hanau opened with a candlelighting ceremony in remembrance of all those killed during the Holocaust.

Also speaking were history professor Lori Weintrob and students Anna Huddle and Julia Teichman. Teichman’s family includes several Holocaust survivors, including her paternal grandfather, who fought in the Resistance movement in Austria.

Here is a rough video recording of the complete program:

[brightcove videoID=2839037703001 playerID=1497052592001 width=80 align="aligncenter"]

On Kristallnacht — Nov. 9-10, 1938 — Nazi storm troopers and sympathizers raided and destroyed thousands of Jewish homes, shops and synagogues. Ninety-one Jews were killed and 30,000 Jewish men were taken away. Many of those men were released a few months later they and their families were encouraged to leave Germany. Among those men was Reni Hanau’s father, who had been interned at Buchenwald.

Hanau’s family lived in Fulda, in central Germany, a medium-sized city that had 1,100 Jewish residents in 1930 — and just 17 in 1967.

Reni Hanau remembers watching her home burn down on Kristallnacht. After her father was released from Buchenwald, in June 1939, her family fled to England, where they were interned for more than a year on the Isle of Mann as “enemy aliens.” They left for the United States in September 1940.

Reni Hanau graduated from the City College of New York and taught for 30 years in the New York City school system. From the time she retired, in 1991, until 1994, she taught ESL to Russian immigrants. She is a Museum of Jewish Heritage gallery educator and Speakers Bureau member.

Watch the video: Kristallnacht on Film: From Reportage to Reenactments, 1938-1988 with Lawrence Baron (December 2022).

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