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BORN: 1828 in Cedar Valley, OH.
DIED: 1902 in Washington, DC.
CAMPAIGNS: Wilson's Creek, New Madrid, Island No. 10, Corinth,
Atlanta, Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Kenasaw Mountain, Vining's Station,
Jonesborough, Columbia, Spring Hill and Franklin.
David Sloane Stanley was born on June 1, 1828, in Cedar Valley, Ohio. He grew up on a farm, and was apprenticed to a physician when he was 14 years old. Stanley was interested in a military career, however, and was excited to receive an appointment to the US Military Academy at West Point. Graduating in 1852, in the West Point class known for having produced 15 future generals, he became an officer in the 2d US Dragoons. In the years before the Civil War, Stanley served at frontier garrisons in Arkansas, California, Texas and Kansas. He refused a commission in the Confederate army in 1861, and fought for the Union at Wilson's Creek, under Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont. Promoted to brigadier general of volunteers on September 28, 1861, Stanley participated in the fighting at New Madrid and Island No. 10, under Maj. John Pope; and fought under Maj. William S. Rosecrans at Corinth, Mississippi. Rosecrans appointed Stanley chief of cavalry of the Army of the Cumberland, whose strength Stanley greatly enhanced. Stanley became a major general in April of 1863, and led a division through the Atlanta Campaign, but Maj. Sherman thought he was too slow at Jonesborough in September of 1863. Stanley improved his reputation when he served well in the Tennessee campaign in November, and was seriously wounded at Franklin. After the Civil War, Stanley commanded the 22d US Infantry, and served in Texas during the French occupation of Mexico, and in different frontier posts. In 1873, he led the Yellowstone Expedition, and retired from the service in June of 1892, having held the rank of brigadier general in the US Army for eight years. Stanley later became governor of the soldiers' home in Washington, D.C., and died in that city, on March 13, 1902.

Comptroller General of the United States

The Comptroller General of the United States is the director of the Government Accountability Office (GAO, formerly known as the General Accounting Office), a legislative-branch agency established by Congress in 1921 to ensure the fiscal and managerial accountability of the federal government.

How was Jefferson Davis a Union General and The Confederate President?

One Union general in the American Civil War, Jefferson Davis, obviously shared a name with the Confederate president. This circumstance didn’t cause as much confusion as might be expected—with one notable exception.

During the Battle of Chickamauga in 1863, as dusk descended upon Horseshoe Ridge, soldiers of the 21st Ohio noticed a bevy of men approaching their position. Their first instinct was to assume that they formed a part of much-anticipated Union reinforcements. Still, a few of the more cautious types feared they were a force of Confederates, looking to overrun the ridge.

As the unidentified troops moved closer like wraiths in the twilight, one Union soldier hailed, “What troops are you?” The collective response was “Jeff Davis’ troops.”

The Ohio soldiers let out a sigh of relief and relaxed, confident that the oncoming men referred to their Union general. A short while later, they found themselves staring down the muzzles and bayonets of the 7th Florida. The Ohioans promptly surrendered.

Battle of Chickamauga, Part of the Western Theater of the American Civil War

The Battle of Chickamauga resulted in the second highest number of casualties after Gettysburg. Ultimately, it was a Confederate victory, albeit a costly one with 18,450 fatalities on their side. The name mix-up that portended the outcome was only a minor sideshow in the grander scheme of things.

The name blunder was really a stroke of luck. The Confederate soldiers could just as well have identified themselves using another general’s name, like Braxton Bragg, since he was the overall commander of the Confederate army facing the Union at Chickamauga. Or they might have said the name of the tenacious Confederate General James Longstreet, who had just arrived with reinforcements.

General Braxton Bragg

The two aforementioned officers would have made more sense because President Jefferson Davis never commanded an army on the field during the American Civil War. Yet, it goes to show how the men revered the politician and his dream of a separate nation.

General James Longstreet in 1865

But who were these two men who shared the same name?

One was called Jefferson Finis Davis and he was the President of the Confederate States of America. The other was Jefferson Columbus Davis, a commander in the Union Army.

The two Davises had another thing in common apart from their shared first and last names. Both of them had their origins in the state of Kentucky. The Confederate president was born there, and the Union general’s parents were originally from there before moving to Indiana.

Jefferson Finis Davis, 1861

Moreover, both men had military ties and might have even met during the American-Mexican War of 1846-1848. The future Union general served with distinction, which earned him high prestige. Jefferson Finis Davis, on the other hand, served as a colonel in a voluntary regiment.

However, that is where the comparisons end. Jefferson Finis Davis was a Southerner and a wealthy slave owner. He was also a twice-married family man who had six children with his second wife, Varina Howell.

Wedding photograph (a daguerrotype) of Jefferson Davis and Varina Howell, 1845

After serving bravely at the Battle of Buena Vista where he was shot in the foot, he was offered a brigadier general’s commission by President Polk, which he declined. Instead, he entered politics and became a senator.

Under President Franklin Pierce he became the US Secretary of War. During this tenure, he made some significant changes to the US military, raising the servicemen’s pay scale and enlarging the army by four regiments.

Battle of Buena Vista – February 1847.

With the election of Abraham Lincoln, the secessionist movement in the South gained traction. And although Davis believed that each state had the right to determine its own fate, he was against seceding from the Union.

When South Carolina on December 20, 1860, and then Mississippi on January 9, 1861, adopted ordinances of secession, he called Mississippi’s secession “the saddest day of my life.” He delivered his farewell address to the United States Congress, and a few months later, the Civil War started.

Jefferson Davis is sworn in as Provisional President of the Confederate States of America on February 18, 1861, on the steps of the Alabama State Capitol.

Jefferson Columbus Davis witnessed the start of hostilities at Fort Sumter–he was a captain at the time. He quickly rose through the ranks, succeeding Brigadier General Ulysses Grant as commander of forces in Northwest Missouri. However, he would never rise above the rank of brigadier general because he killed his superior officer during a disagreement concerning a slight to his character.

Jefferson Columbus Davis, 1st Commander of the Department of Alaska

Davis entered into an argument with a man nicknamed the “Bull” because of his incredible height and bulk. General Nelson, or the Bull, was unimpressed by Davis’s account of troop dispositions at Louisville, becoming enraged, and ultimately expelled Davis from his position.

Major General William “Bull” Nelson

“Go away you damned puppy, I don’t want anything to do with you!” snarled the Bull when Davis approached him a week later with a demand for an apology at Galt House, which Nelson used as his command post.

Jefferson C. Davis

Davis tried to suppress his anger at this insult and even managed to return to his room without further incident. However, the respite was brief. He appeared a short while later with a pistol and shot General Nelson in the chest. Nelson died half an hour later.

Davis escaped conviction by the skin of his teeth because of the need for experienced officers during the war. He ended up serving in the army for the rest of his life.

Fanciful depiction of General William “Bull” Nelson being shot by fellow Union General Jefferson C. Davis at the Galt House in Louisville, Kentucky on September 27, 1862

The other Jefferson Davis was not as fortunate. He was accused of treason for his role during the American Civil War and spent two years in prison.

Upon his release, he wrote the book The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government and focused his attention on reconciliation by telling Southerners to be loyal to the Union. The postbellum South considered him a hero and many statues in the region attest to his celebrity.

Records of the Army Air Forces [AAF]

Established: In the War Department, to consist of the Air Force Combat Command (AFCC) and the Air Corps, by revision of Army Regulation 95-5, June 20, 1941.

Predecessor Agencies:

In the Office of the Chief Signal Officer (OCSO), War Department:

  • Aeronautical Division (1907-14)
  • Aviation Section (1914-15)
  • Aeronautical Division (1915-17)
  • Air Division/Air Service Division (1917-18)
  • Division of Military Aeronautics (1918)
  • Bureau of Aircraft Production (1918)
  • Division of Military Aeronautics (1918-19)
  • Bureau of Aircraft Production (1918-19)
  • Air Service (1919-26)
  • Air Corps (1926-41)
  • General Headquarters Air Force (GHQAF, 1935-41)
  • Air Force Combat Command (AFCC, 1941)

Abolished: By Transfer Order 1, Office of the Secretary of Defense, September 26, 1947, implementing reorganization provisions of the National Security Act of 1947 (61 Stat. 495), July 26, 1947.

Successor Agencies: U.S. Air Force (USAF) under the newly created Department of the Air Force, pursuant to provisions of the National Security Act of 1947 (61 Stat. 502), July 26, 1947.

Finding Aids: Kathleen E. Riley, comp., "Preliminary Inventory of the Records of Headquarters Army Air Forces," NM 6 (1962) Maizie H. Johnson, comp., "Preliminary Inventory of the Textual Records of the Army Air Forces," NM 53 (1965) Maizie H. Johnson and Sarah Powell, comps., "Supplement to Preliminary Inventory No. NM-53, Textual Records of the Army Air Forces," NM 90 (Oct. 1967).

Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Army Air Forces in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government. Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force, RG 340.
Records of Headquarters U.S. Air Force (Air Staff), RG 341.
Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations, RG 342. Records of the U.S. Air Force Academy, RG 461.


History: Aeronautical Division established in Office of the Chief Signal Officer by OCSO Memorandum 6, August 1, 1907, with responsibility for all aspects of military aviation. Recognized in law as the Aviation Section by an act of July 18, 1914 (38 Stat. 514). Aviation Section organized as the Aeronautical Division, November 4, 1915.

Under provisions of the National Defense Act (39 Stat. 174), June 3, 1916, and the Aviation Act (40 Stat. 243), July 24, 1917, aviation support functions were gradually transferred from the Aeronautical Division to newly established OCSO organizations: Procurement and distribution of aviation supplies to Engineering Division, April 6, 1917 later designated Finance and Supply Division and redesignated Engineering Division, August 2, 1917. Air field construction and maintenance to Construction Division, May 21, 1917 redesignated Supply Division, October 1, 1917, with added responsibility for procurement and distribution of aviation supplies transferred from Engineering Division and vested in subordinate Materiel Section, organized January 24, 1918. Research and design to Aircraft Engineering Division, May 24, 1917 redesignated Science and Research Division, October 22, 1917. Airplane lumber contracts to Wood Section, August 1917 expanded and redesignated Spruce Production Division (SEE 18.4.3), November 15, 1917.

Aeronautical Division redesignated Air Division (also known as Air Service Division), with functions limited to operation, training, and personnel, October 1, 1917. Air Division abolished by order of Secretary of War, April 24, 1918, and OCSO aviation functions realigned to create Division of Military Aeronautics (SEE 18.3), with responsibility for general oversight of military aviation and Bureau of Aircraft Production (SEE 18.4), which had charge of design and production of aircraft and equipment.

18.2.1 General records

Textual Records: Extracts of letters, telegrams, and memorandums of War Department offices, relating to regulations and authorities for U.S. flying schools, 1917-18. Reports, drawings, photographs, blueprints, and other records relating to airplanes and airplane performance, 1914-18.

Related Records: For aviation correspondence of the Chief Signal Officer, 1917-18, SEE 18.5.1.

18.2.2 Records of the Planning Section of the Equipment Division

Textual Records: Charts, reports, and correspondence relating to the organization and duties of the section and to a program of airplane production, 1917-18.

18.2.3 Records of the Balloon Section of the Air Division

Textual Records: Correspondence relating to balloon instruction, 1917-18.


History: Established as part of reorganization of OCSO aviation functions, April 24, 1918. Separated from OCSO as an autonomous unit within the War Department by EO 2862, May 20, 1918. Responsible for all aviation functions except aircraft production. Consolidated with Bureau of Aircraft Production (SEE 18.4) to form Air Service by EO 3066, March 19, 1919. SEE 18.5.

18.3.1 General records

Textual Records: Letters and memorandums relating to the establishment of the Division of Military Aeronautics, 1916-18. Orders and memorandums relating to policies and procedures governing military aviation, 1918. Balloon bulletins, 1914-18.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Division of Military Aeronautics in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

18.3.2 Records of the Information Section

Textual Records: Correspondence and other records relating to foreign and domestic air services, airplane construction and equipment, flight training, and schools of military aeronautics, 1917-19.

18.3.3 Records of the Radio Branch of the Training Section

Textual Records: Reports and other records relating to radio development and the training of radio officers, 1918-19.


History: Established as part of reorganization of OCSO aviation functions, April 24, 1918. Separated from OCSO as an autonomous unit within the War Department by EO 2862, May 20, 1918. Responsible for aircraft production. Consolidated with Division of Military Aeronautics (SEE 18.3) to form Air Service by EO 3066, March 19, 1919. SEE 18.5.

18.4.1 Records of the Administration Division

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1917-19, and issuances, 1918-19, of the Executive Department, including correspondence of the Executive Department of the Signal Corps Equipment Division and of the Director and Assistant Director of Aircraft Production. General correspondence of the Program and Statistics Department, 1917-18.

18.4.2 Records of the Production Division

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1917-18. Organizational histories of the Production Division, its subdivisions, and its field units, 1917-19. Diaries of the Detroit district office, 1918 (in Chicago).

18.4.3 Records of the Spruce Production Division (SPD)

History: Established in OCSO, November 15, 1917, from predecessor Wood Section (August 1917), with headquarters in Portland, OR, to increase the output of timber for airplane construction. Transferred to the Bureau of Aircraft Production (BAP), May 20, 1918. Functions and properties of the SPD passed to the U.S. Spruce Production Corporation (SEE 18.7.9), November 1, 1918, with formal demobilization of SPD, August 31, 1919. Spruce Production Section, originally the Washington, DC, office of the SPD, functioned until 1921.

Textual Records (in Seattle): Issuances, 1917-19. Organizational history, 1917-18. Medical records, 1917-19, including records of camp hospitals and infirmaries of Spruce Squadrons 9-150. General correspondence of the Spruce Production Section, 1917-21. Correspondence, issuances, and other records of Spruce Production Districts headquartered at Clatsop, 1918 Coos Bay, 1918 Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay, 1918 Puget Sound, 1918-19 Vancouver Barracks, 1918 and Yaquina Bay, 1918-19. Records of Spruce Production units, including 1st-4th Provisional Regiments, 1918- 19 Casual Detachment, 1918-19 and 1st-98th and 100th-150th Spruce Squadrons, 1917-19.

18.4.4 Records of the Airplane Engineering Division

Textual Records: Correspondence, reports, and other records of the Chemistry Section, Science and Research Department, relating to chemical products used in aircraft production, 1917-18.

18.4.5 Records of the Aircraft Board

Textual Records: Minutes of the board and its predecessor, the Aircraft Production Board, May 1917-April 1919. General correspondence, 1917-18. Resolutions of the board, 1917-18.


History: Air Service established by EO 3066, March 19, 1919, consolidating Division of Military Aeronautics and Bureau of Aircraft Production. Confirmed as a combat arm by the National Defense Act (41 Stat. 759), June 4, 1920. Name changed to Air Corps by the Air Corps Act (44 Stat. 780), July 2, 1926. Responsibility for unit training and tactical air employment transferred to General Headquarters Air Force, established March 1935. GHQAF renamed Air Force Combat Command and placed with Air Corps under newly established Army Air Forces by revision to Army Regulation 95-5, June 20, 1941. AFCC and Office of the Chief of the Air Corps abolished in the general reorganization of the army, effective March 9, 1942, by Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942, implementing EO 9082, February 28, 1942. Air Corps formally abolished by transfer of functions to newly established United States Air Force pursuant to the National Security Act of 1947 (61 Stat. 502), July 26, 1947. SEE 18.1.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Office of the Chief of the Air Service in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

18.5.1 Records of the Administrative Group (Air Service) and the
Administrative Division (Air Corps)

Textual Records: General correspondence of the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps and the Office of Chief of the Air Service, and their predecessors, including the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 1917-38 (624 ft.). Project files for correspondence relating to airfields (666 ft.), camps, forts, corps areas, territorial departments, districts, aviation schools, National Guard units, and aviation examining boards, 1917-38 aero squadrons, 1917-22 balloon schools, 1919-22 and district offices of the BAP and Air Service, 1918-21. Document collection of the Air Corps Library, 1917-38 (341 ft.), with related indexes and card catalogs, 1917-44. Annual reports, 1925- 40. Issuances, 1924-42.

18.5.2 Records of the Information Group (Air Service) and the
Information Division (Air Service, Air Corps)

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1917-23, 1929-39. Histories, reports, and studies of the Air Service, American Expeditionary Forces, 1917-19. Historical files relating to the activities of the Division of Military Aeronautics and the BAP in World War I, 1917-21.

18.5.3 Records of the Supply Group (Air Service) and the Material
Division (Air Corps)

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1919-21. Records relating to airplane programs and production, 1939-41. Proceedings and related correspondence of the Procurement Planning Board, 1925-36. Catalogs and inventories of aircraft and spare parts, 1921. Claims files of the Material Disposal and Salvage Division, Supply Group, 1919-20. General correspondence, 1919-26, and correspondence relating to stock liquidation, 1919- 24, of the Procurement Section, Supply Division, Supply Group.

18.5.4 Records of the Training and Operations Group (Air Service)
and the Training and Operations Division (Air Corps)

Textual Records: Correspondence and reports relating to cross- country flights, training, and exhibition flights, 1918-21. Correspondence relating to the 1920 Alaskan Flying Expedition, 1920, and to the sinking of USS Alabama ("Project B"), 1919. Correspondence and other records relating to balloon companies and balloon training, 1918-21. Monthly reports from training fields and centers, 1921-39.

18.5.5 Records of the Training and War Plans Division (Air
Service) and the Plans Division (Air Corps)

Textual Records: Correspondence, reports, and maps relating to defense and mobilization plans, 1919-35. Correspondence, reports, and other records relating to lighter-than-air craft and to helium, 1919-26, including records of the 1924 Round-the-World Flight. General correspondence and correspondence of the Airways Section relating to commercial aviation, 1921-26. General correspondence and other records of the Photographic Section, 1918-25.

18.5.6 Records of miscellaneous Air Service boards

Textual Records: Correspondence and reports of the Air Service Advisory Board, 1919-21. Minutes of meetings, 1918-19, and miscellaneous records, 1918-21, of the Air Service Claims Board. Correspondence of the Air Service Control Board, 1918-19.

18.5.7 Records relating to the Air Corps mail operations

Textual Records: Correspondence relating to handling of mail by the Air Corps, February-May 1934, including records of Headquarters of the Eastern, Central, and Western Zones.


History: GHQAF established March 1, 1935, by instructions from Headquarters Air Corps, February 19, 1935, in compliance with recommendations of the War Department Special Committee on the Army Air Corps (Baker Board), as approved by the Secretary of War, July 18, 1934, with responsibility, transferred from Air Corps, for unit training and tactical air employment. Renamed AFCC and assigned with Air Corps to newly created Army Air Forces by Army Regulation 95-5 (revised), June 20, 1941. Formally abolished in the reorganization of the AAF, effective March 9, 1942, by Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942, implementing provisions of EO 9082, February 28, 1942. SEE 18.1.

18.6.1 Records of the Office of the Commanding General

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1939-42 (115 ft). Declassified correspondence, 1936-42. Declassified reports relating to intelligence and training, 1935-42. Issuances, 1936- 40.

18.6.2 Records of the General Staff

Textual Records: Records of G-2 (Intelligence), consisting of general correspondence, 1935-42 security-classified correspondence and reports from army and navy intelligence units relating to foreign aviation, 1939-41 security-classified military intelligence instructional material, 1936-41 and security-classified meteorological and climatological studies, 1941. Office file of the section chief, G-3 (Operations), 1941- 42. Security-classified G-4 (Supply) airplane and engine specifications, 1936-42.

18.6.3 Records of the Special Staff

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1941-42 and security-classified correspondence and reports, 1938-42, of the Air Defense Section, including security-classified correspondence and reports relating to the Aircraft Warning Service, 1941-42. Records of the Signal Section, including general correspondence, 1935-42 correspondence relating to codes and ciphers, 1936-42 message file, 1939-42 security-classified air maneuver files, 1935-41 radio equipment and systems files, 1936-42 and issuances, 1935- 42.


18.7.1 Records of the Office of the Commanding General

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1939-48 (2,268 ft.), with cross- reference sheets to correspondence with air force officers, 1942-44, and a microfilm copy of cross-reference sheets to correspondence with federal agencies and members of Congress, 1939-42 (20 rolls). Security-classified general correspondence, 1939-48 (1,624 ft.). Separate project files for correspondence relating to airfields (300 ft.), camps and forts, corps areas, territorial departments, and foreign bases and air forces, 1939- 42. Security-classified project file relating to foreign countries, 1942-44. Unclassified, confidential, and secret incoming and outgoing messages, 1941-47, with microfilm copy, 1941-45 (631 rolls). Top secret incoming and outgoing messages, 1941-47. AAF World War II combat operations records ("Mission Reports"), consisting of narrative and statistical summaries, intelligence reports, field orders, loading lists, and other records, arranged by unit, 1941-46 (1,855 ft.). Statistical summaries and other papers relating to World War II combat operations of the various air forces, 1942-45. Eighth Bomber Command "Day Raid" reports, 1942-43. Eighth Air Force tactical mission reports, 1943-45. General correspondence, 1939-42 and AAF policy letters, 1946-47, of the Air Adjutant General. Security-classified document collection of the Air Corps and AAF Library, 1939-49, with indexes.

Microfilm Publications: M1065.

Related Records: For additional records of the Air Corps Library, SEE 18.5.1.

18.7.2 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air
Staff, A-1 (Personnel)

Textual Records: Personnel correspondence, 1939-46. Correspondence and other records relating to ground safety programs, 1943-48.

18.7.3 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air
Staff, A-2 (Intelligence)

Textual Records: Records relating to German, French, and Austrian industrial installations, 1940-45.

18.7.4 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air
Staff, A-4 (Materiel and Services)

Textual Records: Records relating to the Congressional investigation of the wartime activities of Maj. Gen. Bennett E. Myers, Director of Aircraft Production, 1942-47. Research and development records, 1941-46. Records of the Office of the Air Engineer relating to overseas air base construction, 1943-46, and construction in the European and Mediterranean Theaters of Operations, 1942-45. Correspondence and other records of the International Branch of the Supply Division, including minutes of the Munitions Assignment Committee and Joint Munitions Assignment Committee, relating to allocations of aircraft, engines, and spare parts under the Lend-Lease Act, 1941-48.

18.7.5 Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of the Air
Staff, Plans

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1942-45. Correspondence relating to aircraft procurement, production, and program requirements, 1941-46. Correspondence of the Operational Plans Division relating to AAF strategic planning, 1944-45.

18.7.6 Records of the Budget Office

Textual Records: Budget estimates of the Division of Military Aeronautics, BAP, Air Service, and Air Corps, 1918-42.

18.7.7 Records of the Office of the Air Judge Advocate

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1943. Records of the Patent Branch, including security-classified records relating to patent applications ("Inventors File"), 1918-45 and correspondence and other records concerning disclosures on inventions furnished through the Office of Scientific Research and Development college programs, 1941-46.

18.7.8 Records of the Director of Aircraft Production

Textual Records: General correspondence and other records, 1941- 44.

18.7.9 Records of the U.S. Spruce Production Corporation

History: Established August 20, 1918, as a corporation under the laws of the State of Washington by the Director of Aircraft Production pursuant to an act authorizing the creation of marketing corporations (40 Stat. 888), July 9, 1918, to facilitate business activities of lumber production and sale of timber products to Allied governments and airplane factories, with Brig. Gen. Brice P. Disque, director of the Spruce Production Division (SEE 18.4.3), serving as corporation president. Acquired functions and properties of Spruce Production Division, November 1, 1918. Last meeting held November 1946, at which time provision was made for liquidation.

Textual Records (in Seattle): General correspondence, 1918-46, with name and subject card indexes. Minutes of meetings of corporation stockholders, 1918- 46. Progress reports, 1918-19. Field survey notebooks, 1917-23. Contracts, 1917-43. Miscellaneous financial reports, vouchers, and records, 1918-46.

18.7.10 Records of Headquarters, Twentieth Air Force

Textual Records: Correspondence relating to the use of B-29's in the Pacific incoming and outgoing messages and mission reports of the 20th and 21st Bomber Commands, 1944-45.

18.7.11 Records of AAF participation in boards and committees

Textual Records: Report of the Reprogramming Committee of the Air Board relating to the long-range AAF program, February 1947. Records accumulated by Theodore Von Karman, Director of the AAF Scientific Advisory Board and its predecessor, the AAF Scientific Advisory Group, relating to the long-range AAF science research and development program, 1941-47.


Textual Records: Briefs of incoming and outgoing messages of primary interest to Gen. Henry Harley ("Hap") Arnold, Commanding General, AAF ("General Arnold's Logs"), 1942-45. Issuances, reports, messages, and other documents concerning the assignments and activities of Lt. Col. Frank Andrews, 1932 Lt. Gen. Ira C. Eaker, 1945-47 Maj. Gen. James R. Fechet, 1925-30 Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Giles, 1945-46 Maj. Gen. Millard F. Harmon, 1939-45 Lt. Gen. Harold A. McGinnis, 1944-45 Maj. Gen. Mason M. Patrick, 1922-27 Gen. Carl A. Spaatz, 1946-47 Lt. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer, 1942 and Brig. Gen. Lyman P. Whitten, 1941-46.


18.9.1 Records of air fields and air bases

Note: Additional records described below are candidates for transfer to regional archives. Please consult the National Archives to determine current locations.

Textual Records: Records of Albrook Field, Balboa, CZ, 1932-39 Barksdale Field, Shreveport, LA, 1933-39 Barron Field, Everman, TX, 1917-21 Bolling Field, Washington, DC, 1918-39 Brindley Field, Commack, Long Island, NY, 1918 Brook Field, San Antonio, TX, 1918-22, 1929-39 Call Field, Wichita Falls, TX, 1917-19 Carlstrom Field, Arcadia, FL, 1918-21 (in Atlanta) Carruthers Field, Benbrook, TX, 1918-19 Chandler Field, Essington, PA, 1917- 19 Chanute Field, Rantoul, IL, 1917-39 (in Chicago) Chapman Field, Miami, FL, 1918-19 (in Atlanta) Crissy Field, Presidio of San Francisco, CA, 1922- 23 (in San Francisco) Henry J. Damm Field, Babylon, Long Island, NY, 1918 Dorr Field, Arcadia, FL, 1918-19 (in Atlanta) Duncan Field, San Antonio, TX, 1926-27, 1930-39 Eberts Field, Lonoke, AR, 1917-20 Ellington Field, Houston, TX, 1917-22 Flying Field, Park Place, Houston, TX, 1918-19 Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, LA, 1917-19 Hamilton Field, San Rafael, CA, 1929-40 (in San Francisco) Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, Long Island, NY, 1918-19 Hickam Field, Honolulu, HI, 1939 (in San Francisco) Kelly Field, San Antonio, TX, 1917- 39 Langley Field, Hampton, VA, 1917-39 Lindbergh Field, San Diego, CA, 1925-41 Love Field, Dallas, TX, 1917-21 Lowry Field, Denver, CO, 1937-39 (in Denver) Lufbery Field, Mineola, Long Island, NY, 1918 Luke Field, Ford's Island, HI, 1931-38 (in San Francisco) McCook Field, Dayton, OH, 1918-20 (in Chicago) March Field, Riverside, CA, 1918-39 Mather Field, Sacramento, CA, 1918-23 Maxwell Field, Montgomery, AL, 1925-40 (in Atlanta) Mitchel Field, Garden City, Long Island, NY, 1917-39 Offut Field, Fort Crook, NE, 1936-39 (in Kansas City) Park Field, Millington, TN, 1917-20 (in Atlanta) Patterson Field, Fairfield, OH, 1920-39 (in Chicago) Payne Field, West Point, MS, 1918-19 (in Atlanta) Pope Field, Fayettville, NC, 1918-1919 (in Atlanta) Post Field, Fort Sill, OK, 1918-19 (in Atlanta) Randolph Field, San Antonio, TX, 1920-39 Rich Field, Waco, TX, 1918-19 Rockwell Field, Coronado, CA, 1917-35 Roosevelt Field, Mineola, Long Island, NY, 1918 Ross Field, Arcadia, CA, 1918-29 Scott Field, Belleville, IL, 1917-39 (in Chicago) Selfridge Field, Mt. Clemens, MI, 1917-37 (in Chicago) Souther Field, Americus, GA, 1918-20 (in Atlanta) Taliaferro Field, Hicks, TX, 1917-20 Taylor Field, Montgomery, AL, 1918-19 Wilbur Wright Field, Fairfield, OH, 1917-19 (in Chicago) and Wright Field, Dayton, OH, 1920-39 (in Chicago).

18.9.2 Records of aviation schools

Note: Additional records described below are candidates for transfer to regional archives. Please consult the National Archives to determine current locations.

Textual Records: Records of the School of Military Cinematography, Columbia University, New York, NY, 1917-18 Aerial Photography School, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 1918 Aerial Photography School, Rochester, NY, 1918 Collegiate Balloon School, Macon, GA, 1918 (in Atlanta) U.S. Army Balloon School, Fort Crook, NE, 1918-19 (in Kansas City) U.S. Army Balloon School, Fort Omaha, NE, 1918-21 (in Kansas City) U.S. Army Balloon School, Lee Hall, VA, 1918-20 School of Military Aeronautics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 1917-19 School of Military Aeronautics, Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1917-18 (in Atlanta) School of Military Aeronautics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 1917-19 (in Chicago) School of Military Aeronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 1917-18 (in Boston) School of Military Aeronautics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 1917-18 (in Chicago) School of Military Aeronautics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1917- 18 School of Military Aeronautics, Texas University, Austin, TX, 1917-19 Aviation Mechanics Training School, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY, 1918 Aviation Mechanics Training School, St. Paul, MN, 1918-19 (in Chicago) Signal Corps Detachment, David Rankin School of Mechanical Arts, St. Louis, MO, 1918 (in Kansas City) Air Service Radio School, Columbia University, New York, NY, 1918-19 Air Service School for Radio Operators, University of Texas, Austin, TX, 1918-19 School for Radio Mechanics, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, PA, 1918-19 and Officers School, Vancouver Barracks, WA, 1918-19 (in Seattle).

18.9.3 Records of air depots

Note: Additional records described below are candidates for transfer to regional archives. Please consult the National Archives to determine current locations.

Textual Records: Records of the Americus Air Intermediate Depot, Americus, GA, 1921-22 (in Atlanta) Buffalo Aviation General Supply Depot and Acceptance Park, NY, 1918-19 Fairfield Air Intermediate Depot, Fairfield, OH, 1921-31 (in Chicago) Garden City Air Service Depot, Garden City, Long Island, NY, 1917-19 Hawaiian Air Depot, Honolulu, HI, 1936-39 (in San Francisco) Little Rock Aviation General Supply Depot, Little Rock, AR, 1918- 21 Long Island Air Reserve Depot, Long Island City, NY, 1919-23 Middletown Air Depot, Middletown, PA, 1917-39 Panama Air Depot, France Field, Canal Zone, 1927-40 Rockwell Air Depot, Coronado, CA, 1920-39 Sacramento Air Depot, Sacramento, CA, 1938-39 (in San Francisco) Sam Houston Aviation Supply Depot, Houston, TX, 1918 San Antonio Air Depot, Duncan Field, TX, 1918-39 Speedway Aviation Repair Depot, Indianapolis, IN, 1918-21 (in Chicago) and Wilbur Wright Field Aviation General Supply Depot, Fairfield, OH, 1917-19 (in Chicago).

18.9.4 Records of aviation examining boards

Note: Additional records described below are candidates for transfer to regional archives. Please consult the National Archives to determine current locations.

Textual Records: Records of the Aviation Examining Board, Chicago, IL, 1917- 18 (in Chicago) Aviation Examining Board, Cincinnati, OH, 1917-18 (in Chicago) Aviation Examining Board, Cleveland, OH, 1917-18 (in Chicago) Aviation Examining Board, Dallas, TX, 1918 Aviation Examining Board, Denver, CO, 1917-18 (in Denver) Aviation Examining Board, Detroit, MI, 1918 (in Chicago) Aviation Examining Board, Fort Sam Houston, TX, 1917- 18 Aviation Examining Board, Indianapolis, IN, 1917-18 (in Chicago) and Aviation Examining Board, Kansas City, MO, 1917-18 (in Kansas City).

18.9.5 Records of Headquarters, I Concentration Command, Luken
Field, Cincinnati, OH

Textual Records: General records, 1941-42. Records of the Chief of Staff, 1942. Records of A-1 Section (Personnel) and A-2 Section (Intelligence), General Staff, 1942. Records of the Communications Section and Medical Section, Special Staff, 1942. Records of Baer Field Detachment, Fort Wayne, IN, 1942.

18.9.6 Records of Air Service and Air Corps units

Textual Records: Records of the 1st, 2d, 3d, and 18th Wings, 1934-41 3d, 17th, and 90th Attack Groups, 1920-37 Headquarters, Balloon Group, VI Army Corps, 1918-19 2d, 5th, 7th, and 20th Bombardment Groups, 1917-39 IV Army Corps Observation Group, 1918-19 1st, 8th, 17th, 18th, and 20th Pursuit Groups, 1918-45 1st-1111th Aero Squadrons, 1917-19 37th Attack Squadron, 1933- 38 11th, 14th, 23d, 72d, and 96th Bombardment Squadrons, 1918- 39 808th and 816th Depot Aero Squadrons, 1918-22 1st, 4th, 12th, 15th, 16th, 21st, 44th, 50th, 82d, and 99th Observation Squadrons, 1918-40 95th Pursuit Squadron, 1920-27 58th, 59th, and 69th Service Squadrons, 1922-36 31st, 32d, 33d, 35th, 40th, and 42d Air Intelligence Sections, 1921-24 1st-30th, 32d, 35th, 37th, 44th, 46th, 50th, 52d, 55th-57th, 62d, 63d, 65th, 67th-72d, 74th, 76th, 101st-105th, and 107th-109th Photographic Sections, 1918-37 1st-20th and 22d-39th Aero Construction Companies, 1918- 19 and 1st-10th, 12th-41st, 43d-81st, 91st-99th, 101st, and 102d Balloon and Airship Companies, 1917-30.


Maps (6,084 items): Airfields in Texas, collected by the Aviation Section, OCSO, 1917-18 (5 items). Maps prepared by the Air Service showing landing fields and other military activities in the United States, plus experimental air navigation "strip" maps, 1918-25 (19 items). Army Air Corps "strip" maps, 1929-36 (24 items). Weather maps and climatic atlases compiled by the Weather Division, 1942-46 (434 items). Sets of published aeronautical charts at various scales prepared by the Aeronautical Chart Service, including World Aeronautical, World Outline, Regional Aeronautical, Pilotage, and Approach series, with index charts, 1939-47 (4,902 items). World War II aeronautical and target charts created by the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, A-2 (Intelligence) and several of the AAF Commands, including 13th and 14th Army Air Forces, 20th and 21st Bomber Commands, and U.S. Army Air Forces Pacific Ocean Areas-Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas (CINCPOA), 1942-45 (700 items).

Aerial Photographs (573 items): Mosaic negatives and prints prepared by the 15th Photographic Section, Crissy Field, CA, and 15th Observation Squadron, Scott Field, IL, covering military reservations and airfields in several states, 1922-39.


Training in swimming through burning oil and surf, U.S. Coast Guard, n.d. (3 reels). Last Rites of the Battleship Maine, Selig Corporation, 1912 (2 reels). Development and use of lighter-than- air craft, 1925-35 (5 reels). Arkansas flood, Air Corps, 1938 (1 reel).

World War II training films illustrating the coordination of operational units of the U.S. Eighth Air Force in preparing and completing a bombing mission, and containing instructions in flight and gunnery and the maintenance and use of aircraft and equipment, 1942-44 (124 reels).

Air Transport Command briefing films, consisting of aerial and ground views of terrain and flight routes and landing facilities worldwide and animation for the briefing films, showing particular flight routes, locations of landing strips, radio beams, and the principal geographic configuration of specific areas, 1943-45 (743 reels).

World War II combat films and postwar films of prisoner-of-war and internee camps, concentration camps, Axis atrocities, operations in Europe filmed for the documentary Thunderbolt, V-E and V-J Days, the occupation of Germany and Japan, atomic scientists, the atomic bomb blast over Nagasaki, and damage to Nagasaki and Hiroshima, 1942-49 (5,181 reels).

Information films discussing aspects of Army Air Force personnel's daily life at home and abroad, including interaction with surrounding communities, sports activities, air operations and equipment, and relevant current events, 1943-55 (99 reels).

91 items

Radio programs in The Fighting AAF and Your AAF series, which include air combat accounts obtained by radio reporters and other eyewitness accounts of combat, 1945.


Photographs (75,455 images): Foreign and domestic aircraft, 1903- 39 (WP, 13,800 images). U.S. Army balloon and airship facilities and school, 1908-20 (MA, 250 images). Early aircraft developed by Glenn H. Curtiss and Glenn L. Martin activities and personnel at the Army-Navy Aviation School, Rockwell Field, CA and prominent individuals, photographed by H.A. Erickson and Harold A. Taylor, 1914-18 (HE, 1,230 images). Aviation activities during World War I, including aerial photographs, taken by the Photographic Division, Signal Corps, and the Photo Section, Air Service, American Expeditionary Forces, under the direction of Maj. Edward Steichen, 1918-19 (E, 6,335 images). Logging and other activities of the Spruce Production Corporation, 1918-20 (SPCA, SPCB, SPCC, SPCD 500 images). Important figures in history of aviation, 1918-45 (HP, 500 images). Flight personnel identification photographs, 1911-41 (P, PU 50,177 images). History and activities at Scott Field, IL and landscapes of nearby areas, including military and civilian structures, in IL, KY, MI, MO, IN, FL, and WI, 1923-39 (SF, 1,500 images). In-flight refueling operations, 1923 (HER, 10 images). Civil and military installations in various states and DC, including a photograph of the airship Graf Zeppelin over Oakland, CA, 1929, and the damage to Santa Barbara, CA, by a 1925 earthquake, 1925-47 (LMU, 430 images). Tuskeegee, AL, Training Field graduates, 1943-46 (T, 723 images).

Aerial and Ground Photographs (41,025 images): Airscapes of population centers, landmarks, national parks, geographical features, and the aftermath of natural disasters, 1917-64 (AA, AN 14,750 images). Activities at Air Transport Command facilities and bases, and topographical features for guiding pilots along military air routes around the world, 1943-45 (AG, AM, AO, ATC, ZC 26,275 images).

Lantern Slides (2,200 images): History of military aviation, including persons significant in aviation history, 1903-27 (AH).

Filmstrip (1 item): "Round the World Flight," about aviators Gatty and Wiley Post and their Lockheed-Vega monoplane, 1931 (LMU).

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.

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Wounded Knee: Trouble continues at Pine Ridge

The troubles at Wounded Knee were not over after the siege. A virtual civil war broke out between the opposing Indian factions on the Pine Ridge reservation, and a series of beatings, shootings and murders left more than 100 Indians dead. When two FBI agents were killed in a 1975 gunfight, the agency raided the reservation and arrested AIM leader Leonard Peltier for the crime. The FBI crackdown coupled with AIM’s own excesses ended its influence at Pine Ridge. In 1977, Peltier was convicted of killing the two FBI agents and sentenced to life in prison. To this day, Peltier’s supporters continue to maintain his innocence and seek a presidential pardon for him.

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Purple Heart Timeline

February 22, 1932
General Order #3, signed by General Douglas MacArthur creates the modern Purple Heart

December 3, 1942
Executive Order 9277 by President Roosevelt authorizes the Purple Heart for all branches of service and authorizes posthumous awards, back dated to 6 December 1941.

November 12, 1952
Executive Order 10409 authorizes posthumous Purple Heart awards to Navy, Coast Guard or Marine Corps personnel killed on or after April 5, 1917. (The Army and the Air Force are not formally included until 1962)

April 25, 1962
Executive Order 11016 authorizes civilian Purple Hearts for those under competent military authority it also authorized posthumous awards to those killed on or after April 5, 1917 upon application by their next of kin.

February 23, 1984
Executive Order 12464 authorizes the Purple Heart to be awarded for acts of terror as well as for wounds or death resulting from US Armed Forces personnel acting as part of a peacekeeping force outside of the United States or its territories.

November 30, 1993
Purple Hearts may be awarded for wounds or death resulting from "friendly fire" (unless it from willful misconduct).US Code 10 section 1129, per PL 103-160

February 10, 1996
PL 104-106 Section 521 expands Purple Heart eligibility to POWs wounded during capture or during captivity prior to April 25, 1962. (Policy interpretations had considered, and awarded the Purple Heart, on case by case bases to POWs captured after April 25, 1962)

May 19, 1998
Effective this date, the Purple Heart is limited to American military personnel and civilian awards are eliminated.

October 1, 2008
The Department of Defense authorizes the Purple Heart for POWs (after December 7, 1941) who subsequently die in captivity. Information is from the Memo this date to secretaries of the military departments.

April 28, 2011
The Department of Defense announces a standard to evaluate a wounded individual for a Purple Heart resulting from a "non-penetrating wound".

February 6, 2015
The Department of Defense announces that eligibility has been extended to those wounded or killed by certain kinds domestic terrorist activities.

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GE Powered the American Century—Then It Burned Out

Thomas Gryta

Ted Mann

They came by the dozens in luxury sedans, black Ubers and sleek helicopters. As they did each August, General Electric’s most important executives descended on a hilltop above the Hudson River for their annual leadership gathering.

Just an hour’s drive from New York City or a short flight from Boston, Crotonville, N.Y., is the home of GE’s management academy, famed for culling and cultivating a cadre of leaders the company saw as its most valuable product.

Crotonville is where Jack Welch, GE’s larger-than-life former chief executive, held his lecture sessions in “The Pit,” a large sunken auditorium where he coached the future CEOs of companies such as Boeing and Home Depot . Welch remade and expanded the campus during his two decades running GE.

Opened in 1956, the 60-acre property is half conference center, half country retreat. Behind a guard house lolls a mix of low-slung brick residence halls, classroom buildings and restaurants, a fieldstone plaza with a fireplace, hiking trails and a helipad.

Welch and other GE bosses would visit nearly every month to lead programs for middle managers, customers and executives from other companies who wanted to learn the GE leadership magic. For the 300,000 people who work at GE, a trip to Crotonville is an ardent desire and a treasured accomplishment.

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Watch the video: The Legacy of Americas Founding Fathers (October 2022).

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