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February 20, 2014 Day 31 of the Sixth Year - History

February 20, 2014 Day 31 of the Sixth Year - History


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President Barack Obama talks on the phone with Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany in the Oval Office, Feb. 20, 2014.


5:35PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks and answers questions at the Democratic Governors Association dinner
The St. Regis, Washington, DC


Franco-American alliances signed

During the Revolutionary War, representatives from the United States and France sign the Treaty of Amity and Commerce and the Treaty of Alliance in Paris.

The Treaty of Amity and Commerce recognized the United States as an independent nation and encouraged trade between France and the America, while the Treaty of Alliance provided for a military alliance against Great Britain, stipulating that the absolute independence of the United States be recognized as a condition for peace and that France would be permitted to conquer the British West Indies.

With the treaties, the first entered into by the U.S. government, the Bourbon monarchy of France formalized its commitment to assist the American colonies in their struggle against France’s old rival, Great Britain. The eagerness of the French to help the United States was motivated both by an appreciation of the American revolutionaries’ democratic ideals and by bitterness at having lost most of their American empire to the British at the conclusion of the French and Indian Wars in 1763.

In 1776, the Continental Congress appointed Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee to a diplomatic commission to secure a formal alliance with France. Covert French aid began filtering into the colonies soon after the outbreak of hostilities in 1775, but it was not until the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777 that the French became convinced that the Americans were worth backing in a formal treaty.

On February 6, 1778, the treaties of Amity and Commerce and Alliance were signed, and in May 1778 the Continental Congress ratified them. One month later, war between Britain and France formally began when a British squadron fired on two French ships. During the American Revolution, French naval fleets proved critical in the defeat of the British, which culminated in the Battle of Yorktown in October 1781.


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In February and March, we support a very exciting, informative and celebratory month, to educate out prejudice and make LGBT+ people, in all their rich diversity, visible.


Leap Year Explained

The Gregorian calendar, which now serves as the standard calendar for civil use throughout the world, has both common years and leap years. A common year has 365 days and a leap year 366 days, with the extra--or intercalary--day designated as February 29. A l

designated as February 29. A leap year occurs every four years to help synchronize the calendar year with the solar year, or the length of time it takes to complete the Earth's orbit around the sun, which is about 365 days and a quarter of a day.

The length of the solar year, however, is slightly less than 365 days-by about 11 minutes. To compensate for this discrepancy, the leap year is omitted three times every four hundred years.

In other words, a century year cannot be a leap year unless it is divisible by 400. Thus 1700, 1800, and 1900 were not leap years, but 1600, 2000, and 2400 are leap years.

What are your chances of being born on leap day?

About 1 in 1,500. People who are may be called leaplings or leapers

When is the birthday party?

If you are born on a Leap Year, can you get your driver's license as early as February 28th? Well, each state decides whether or not February 28 or March 1 will be the day you are eligible to get your license. Most states, however, consider March 1st the official day. For instance, the Michigan Vehicle Code states that people born on February 29th "are deemed to have been born on March 1st." Another fun fact: Leap year babies yet their driver's licenses when they are officially four years old (16)! There are no rules on when you have a party, however, so really in day in February or March is fair game to celebrate a leap year birthday.

How many people were born on leap day?

There are about 187,000 people in the US and 4 million people in the world who were born on Leap Day.

The rules for determining a leap year

Most years that can be divided evenly by 4 are leap years.

Exception:Century years are NOT leap years UNLESS they can be evenly divided by 400.

When did leap year originate?

The Gregorian calendar is closely based on the Julian calendar, which was introduced byJulius Caesar in 45 BC to fix the Roman calendar (including adding a couple extra months). The Julian calendar featured a 12-month, 365-day year, with an intercalary day inserted every fourth year at the end of February to make an average year of 365.25 days. But because the length of the solar year is actually 365.242216 days, the Julian year was too long by .0078 days (11 minutes 14 seconds).

This may not seem like a lot, but over the course of centuries it added up. Until in the 16th century, the vernal equinox was falling around March 11 instead of March 21. In 1582,Pope Gregory XIIIadjusted the calendar by moving the date ahead by 11 days and by instituting the exception to the rule for leap years. This new rule, whereby a century year is a leap year only if divisible by 400, is the sole feature that distinguishes the Gregorian calendar from the Julian calendar.

Following the Gregorian reform, the number of days in the year was 365.2425 days, an even closer approximation to the solar year. At this rate, it will take more than 3,000 years for the Gregorian calendar to gain one extra day in error.


Sunday/Special Days Citation Index in Canonical Order

Scripture texts are from the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible. Lections are from the Revised Common Lectionary Daily Readings. See the Terms of Use for copyright details.

The online Revised Common Lectionary is a project of the Vanderbilt Divinity Library, a division of the Jean and Alexander Heard Libraries.


February 20, 2014 Day 31 of the Sixth Year - History

Chinese New Year - Spring Festival

Chinese New Year (Chinese: 春節, 春节, Chūnjíe 農曆新年, 农历新年, Nónglì Xīnnián or 過年, 过年, Guònián), also known as the Lunar New Year or the Spring Festival is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. It consists of a period of celebrations, starting on New Year's Day, celebrated on the first day of the first month of the Chinese calendar, i.e. the day of the second new moon after the day on which the winter solstice occurs, unless there is an intercalary eleventh or twelfth month in the lead-up to the New Year—in such a case, the New Year falls on the day of the third new moon after the solstice. (The next time this occurs is in 2033.) The Chinese New Year period ends with the Lantern Festival, the fifteenth day of the month.

Some Chinese believe that Nian ("Nyehn") was a reptilian predator that could infiltrate houses silently like the infamous man-eating leopards of India. The Chinese soon learned that Nian was sensitive to loud noises, and they scared it away with explosions and fireworks.

The Chinese New Year Day falls on the following dates in the Gregorian calendar:

Year 2011ThursdayFebruary 3, 2011Chinese New Year Day
Year 2012MondayJanuary 23, 2012Chinese New Year Day
Year 2013SundayFebruary 10, 2013Chinese New Year Day
Year 2014FridayJanuary 31, 2014Chinese New Year Day
Year 2015ThursdayFebruary 19, 2015Chinese New Year Day
Year 2016MondayFebruary 8, 2016Chinese New Year Day
Year 2017SaturdayJanuary 28, 2017Chinese New Year Day
Year 2018FridayFebruary 16, 2018Chinese New Year Day
Year 2019TuesdayFebruary 5, 2019Chinese New Year Day
Year 2020SaturdayJanuary 25, 2020Chinese New Year Day

The origin of the Lunar New Year Festival can be traced back thousands of years, involving a series of colorful legends and traditions. One of the most famous legends is Nian, an extremely cruel and ferocious beast that the ancients believed would devour people on New Year's Eve. To keep Nian away, red-paper couplets are pasted on doors, torches are lit, and firecrackers are set off throughout the night, because Nian is said to fear the color red, the light of fire, and loud noises. Early the next morning, as feelings of triumph and renewal fill the air at successfully keeping Nian away for another year, the most popular greeting heard is "gong xi fa cai", or "congratulations."

To ensure good luck in the coming year, the Taiwanese always give every dish a special name. This dish is called the "Five Blessings for the New Year" and represents longevity, wealth, peace, wisdom, and righteousness. (Photo by Su-ching Chang) Even though Lunar New Year celebrations generally last for only several days, starting on New Year's Eve, the festival itself is actually about three weeks long. It begins on the twenty-fourth day of the twelfth lunar month, the day, it is believed, when various gods ascend to heaven to pay their respects and report on household affairs to the Jade Emperor, the supreme Taoist deity. According to tradition, households busily honor these gods by burning ritualistic paper money to provide for their traveling expenses. Another ritual is to smear malt sugar on the lips of the Kitchen God, one of the traveling deities, to ensure that he either submits a favorable report to the Jade Emperor or keeps silent.

The Chinese New Year starts with the New Moon on the first day of the new year and ends on the full moon 15 days later. The 15th day of the new year is called the Lantern Festival, which is celebrated at night with lantern displays and children carrying lanterns in a parade.

10 Days before the New Year Day - Sweeping of the Grounds

Preparations for the Chinese New Year in old China started well in advance of the New Year's Day. The 20th of the Twelfth Moon was set aside for the annual housecleaning, or the "sweeping of the grounds". Every corner of the house must be swept and cleaned in preparation for the new year. SpringCouplets, written in black ink on large vertical scrolls of red paper, were put on the walls or on the sides of the gate-ways. These couplets, short poems written in Classical Chinese, were expressions of good wishes for the family in the coming year. In addition, symbolic flowers and fruits were used to decorate the house, and colorful new year pictures (NIAN HUA) were placed on the walls (for more descriptions of the symbolism of the flowers and fruits.

New Year Paintings - During the Spring Festival (Chinese New Year), it is traditional to decorate the homes with new year paintings. The most popular paintings are Door Gods pasted on the front doors to keep ghosts and monsters away.

Spring Couplets - Spring couplets are traditionally written with black ink on red paper. They are hung in storefronts in the month before the New Year’s Day, and often stay up for two months. They express best wishes and fortune for the coming year. There is a great variety in the writing of these poetic couplets to fit the situation. A store would generally use couplets hat make references to their line of trade. Couplets that say "Happy New Year" and " Continuing Advancement in Education" are apprpriate for a school.

The New Year's Eve - Reunion Dinner

A reunion dinner is held on New Year's Eve where members of the family, near and far, get together for celebration. The New Year's Eve dinner is very large and traditionally includes chicken. Fish is included, but not eaten up completely (and the remaining stored overnight), as the Chinese phrase "nian nian you yu", or "every year there is fish/leftover", is a homophone for phrases which could mean "be blessed every year" or "have profit every year", since "yu" is also the pronunciation for "profit".

The New Year's Eve celebration was traditionally highlighted with a religious ceremony given in honor of Heaven and Earth, the gods of the household and the family ancestors.

First Day of the New Year

New Year's day is also celebrated within the family. Usually family members gather on the morning of New Year's Day. It is at this gathering that red packets are given to unmarried members of the family. The age of the recipient is not material to receiving the packets. Married couples usually give out two red packets on the first new year after being married. This is because the wife presents one and the husband presents one. In subsequent years they may give one as a couple.

Red packets traditionally consisted of amounts which were considered multiples. Amounts like $2 (two piece of $1), or $20 were acceptable. Similarly "multiples" such as $1.10 and $2.20 were also acceptable. However, this is not strictly adhered to. The gift was originally a token amount but these days it is not uncommon to receive large sums in affluent families. In some families this tradition has evolved into the practice to substituting money-like instruments (stocks, bonds, unit trust) in place of large sums of cash.

Red packets are also given to unmarried visitors but the sums are often smaller than the packets given to family members or close friends.

Second Day of the New Year

The second day of the new year is usually for visiting the family of the wife if a couple is married. A large feast is also typically held on the second day of the new year.

Seventh Day of the New Year

The seventh day traditionally is known as the common man's birthday, the day when everyone grows one year older. It is also the day when tossed fish salad, yusheng, is eaten. People get together to toss the colourful salad and make wishes for continued wealth and prosperity. This is only celebrated amongst the Chinese in Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia and Singapore.

15th Day of the New Year - Lantern Festival

The New Year celebrations ended on the 15th of the First Moon with the Lantern Festival. On the evening of that day, people carried lanterns into the streets to take part in a great parade. Young men would highlight the parade with a dragon dance. The dragon was made of bamboo, silk, and paper, and might stretch for more than hundred feet in length. The bobbing and weaving of the dragon was an impressive sight, and formed a fitting finish to the New Year festival.

There are many foods in Chinese culture associated with the Chinese New Year. Although preferences vary from region to region, some examples include the following:

Niangao (粘糕) The Chinese word 粘, meaning "sticky", is identical in sound to 年, meaning "year", and the word 糕, meaning "cake" is identical in sound to 高, meaning "high". As such, eating niangao has the symbolism of raising oneself higher in each coming year (年年高升 niánnián gāoshēng). Chinese families who practice Chinese traditional religion also offer niangao to the kitchen god, Zao Jun. It is believed that all the household gods go off to heaven to report on a family during the new year. Serving niangao to the kitchen god is believed to help him provide a sweet report on the family because he will be satisfied and not inclined to deliver criticism — or that his lips are so sticky from the cakes that he is unable to make too much of a report.

Fagao Literally translated as "Prosperity Cake", fagao is made with wheat flour, water, sugar and leavened with either yeast or baking powder. Fagao batter is steamed until it rises and splits open at the top. The sound "fa" means either "to raise/generate" or "be prosperous", hence its well intending secondary meaning.

Jiaozi Dumplings, are small or large mounds of dough that are usually dropped into a liquid mixture (such as soup or stew) and cooked until done, some are stuffed with meat and/or vegetables.

Yusheng, a salad of raw fish and shredded crunchy vegetables (such as carrots, jicama, pickled ginger and pomelo) in a plum sauce dressing. Although commonly served in China throughout the year, it was popularised as a Chinese New Year dish in Singapore and Malaysia, a practise which has since spread to other Chinese communities. Originally served only on the seventh day of the new year, it is now eaten on any day, sometimes as early as two weeks prior to the commencement of the new year.

Mandarin oranges (a symbol of wealth and good fortune). The Cantonese word for these oranges is a homonym for gold.


SQLite strftime() function

The SQLite strftime() function returns the date formatted according to the format string specified in argument first. The second parameter is used to mention the time string and followed by one or more modifiers can be used to get a different result.

If you want to extract the Year Month and Day for the current date, the following SQL can be used.

Here in the above example shows that the year, month and day part have been extracted from the current date in text format.

If you want to extract the Hour Minute Second and milliseconds from the current datetime, the following SQL can be used.

Here in the above example shows that the year, month and day part have been extracted from the current date in text format.

Compute the number of seconds since a particular moment in 2014.

Sample table: job_history

If we want to find out the year, month and day value of start_date from the table job_history, the following SQL can be used.

Sample table: job_history

If we want to find out the year, month and day value of start_date for those employees who joined in 1 quarter from the table job_history, the following SQL can be used.

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Links to Readings for the Sunday Eucharistic Lectionary of the Episcopal Church. Includes major Feasts and Holy Days. Dates for the various Sunday may be found in the tables below. Note that the dates in the links will be incorrect, except for the current year and previous two years.

Advent & Christmas: NRSV RSV
Epiphany: NRSV RSV
Lent: NRSV RSV
Holy Week: NRSV RSV
Easter Week: NRSV RSV
Easter Season: NRSV RSV
Pentecost: June & July: NRSV RSV
Pentecost: Aug. & Sept.: NRSV RSV
Pentecost: Oct. & Nov.: NRSV RSV


Influence of stress on health behaviors

The survey also explored the relationship between stress and such health behaviors as sleep, exercise and eating — behaviors that people said are important to them but that the survey showed are negatively affected by stress. Survey findings illustrated that when people are living with high stress, it appears that they are less likely to sleep well, exercise and eat healthy foods.

  • Stress and sleep: When adults do not get enough sleep, 21 percent reported feeling more stressed. On average, teens reported sleeping far less than the recommended amount — 7.4 hours on school nights and 8.1 hours on non-school nights, compared with the 8.5 to 9.25 hours recommended by the National Sleep Foundation. Nearly one in five teens (18 percent) said that when they do not get enough sleep, they are more stressed and 36 percent of teens reported feeling tired because of stress in the past month.
  • Stress and exercise: Though people said they experience positive benefits from exercise, such as a better mood and less stress, few said they make the time to exercise every day. The survey found that more than one-third of adults (37 percent) and one in five teens (20 percent) reported exercising less than once a week or not at all. Teens who reported high stress during the past school year also said they spend an average of 3.2 hours online a day, compared with two hours among those reporting low stress levels during the past school year.
  • Stress and eating: Twenty-seven percent of adults said they eat to manage stress and 34 percent of those who reported overeating or eating unhealthy foods because of stress said this behavior is a habit. Of the 23 percent of teens who reported skipping a meal in the prior month due to stress, nearly one in four (39 percent) said they do this weekly or more.

"Parents and other adults can play a critical role in helping teens get a handle on stress by modeling healthy stress management behaviors," says Anderson. "When spending time with teens, we can encourage them to exercise, eat well, get the sleep they need and seek support from health-care professionals like psychologists to help them develop healthier coping mechanisms for stress sooner rather than later."


References

(1) Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, et al. Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2020 (https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed February 2021).

(2) GBD results tool. Seattle (WA): Institute for Health Metrics, University of Washington 2020 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool, accessed February 2021).

(3) de Martel C, Georges D, Bray F, Ferlay J, Clifford GM. Global burden of cancer attributable to infections in 2018: a worldwide incidence analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 20208(2):e180-e190.

(4) Assessing national capacity for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases: report of the 2019 global survey. Geneva: World Health Organization 2020.

(5) Wild CP, Weiderpass E, Stewart BW, editors. World Cancer Report: Cancer Research for Cancer Prevention. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2020.


Watch the video: Crimea. The Way Home. Documentary by Andrey Kondrashev (December 2022).

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