Navejo 111 SP-298 - History

Navejo 111 SP-298 - History

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Navajo 111
A former name retained.

(SP-298: dp. 40; 1. 67'; b. 13'; dr. 3'; s. 14 k.; a. 2 1-pdrs.,
2 .30 eel. mg.)

Navajo 111, a motorboat built by Gas Engine dc Power Co., and Chas. L. Seabury, Morris Heights, N.Y., was acquired by the Navy from Arthur Clapp 25 June 1917 and commissioned the same day at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, Chief Boatswain's Mate Samuel J. Willis in command.

Operating in the 3d Naval District, New York during World War I, Navajo 111 steamed to Fort LaFayette 27 June and thence to New Haven to patrol the submarine net zone of Long Island Sound. Navajo was towed up Quinnipiae River by Abaloma (SP-208) 5 August, thereafter operating around Coinfield with SP 46, SP-12, and SP-100. After steaming to Smithtown Bay for target practice in November, she proceeded to Marme Basin, remaining there until April 1918.

In 1918, Navajo was attached to Squadron 6, headquartered at Bridgeport, Connecticut, and patrolled the entrance to Bridgeport harbor, shifting to patrol between Pinfield Reef and Stratford Shoal in June. Continuing patrol duty off Connecticut, throughout the war, Navajo decommissioned and was sold
1 November 1919.

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General characteristics

Folktales have been a part of the social and cultural life of American Indian and Eskimo peoples regardless of whether they were sedentary agriculturists or nomadic hunters. As they gathered around a fire at night, Native Americans could be transported to another world through the talent of a good storyteller. The effect was derived not only from the novelty of the tale itself but also from the imaginative skill of the narrator, who often added gestures and songs and occasionally adapted a particular tale to suit a certain culture.

One adaptation frequently used by the storyteller was the repetition of incidents. The description of an incident would be repeated a specific number of times. The number of repetitions usually corresponded to the number associated with the sacred by the culture whereas in Christian traditions, for instance, the sacred is most often counted in threes (for the Trinity), in Native American traditions the sacred is most often associated with groups of four (representing the cardinal directions and the deities associated with each) or seven (the cardinal directions and deities plus those of skyward, earthward, and centre). The hero would kill that number of monsters or that many brothers who had gone out on the same adventure. This type of repetition was very effective in oral communication, for it firmly inculcated the incident in the minds of the listeners—much in the same manner that repetition is used today in advertising. In addition, there was an aesthetic value to the rhythm gained from repetition and an even greater dramatic effect, for the listener knew that, when the right number of incidents had been told, some supernatural character would come to the aid of the hero, sometimes by singing to him. For this reason, oral literature is often difficult and boring to read. Oral literature also loses effect in transcription, because the reader, unlike the listener, is often unacquainted with the worldview, ethics, sociocultural setting, and personality traits of the people in whose culture the story was told and set.

Because the effect of the story depended so much on the narrator, there were many versions of every good tale. Each time a story was told, it varied only within the limits of the tradition established for that plot and according to the cultural background of the narrator and the listeners. While studies have been made of different versions of a tale occurring within a tribe, there is still much to be discovered, for instance, in the telling of the same tale by the same narrator under different circumstances. These gaps in the study of folktales indicate not a lack of interest but rather the difficulty in setting up suitable situations for recordings.

The terms myth and folktale in American Indian oral literature are used interchangeably, because in the Native American view the difference between the two is a matter of time rather than content. If the incidents related happened at a time when the world had not yet assumed its present form, the story may be regarded as a myth however, even if the same characters appear in the “modern” present, it is considered a folktale. Whereas European fairy tales traditionally begin with the vague allusion “once upon a time,” the American Indian myth often starts with “before the people came” or “when Coyote was a man.” To the Eskimo, it is insignificant whether an incident occurred yesterday or 50 years ago—it is past.

American Indian mythology can be divided into three major cultural regions: North American cultures (from the Eskimos to the Indians along the Mexican border), Central and South American urban cultures, and Caribbean and South American hunting-and-gathering and farming cultures. Though each region exhibits a wide range of development, there are recurrent themes among the cultures, and within each culture the importance of mythology itself varies. In North America, for example, each tale can usually stand alone, although many stories share a cast of characters in contrast, stories developed in the urban cultures of Central America and South America resemble the complicated mythologies of ancient Greece and are quite confusing with their many sexual liaisons, hybrid monsters, and giants. In North America many mythologies (such as “the Dreaming” of the Australian Aborigines) deal with a period in the distant past in which the world was different and people could not be distinguished from animals. These mythologies are related to the concept that all animals have souls or spirits that give them supernatural power. Because humans have subsequently been differentiated from the animals, the animals appear in visions, and in stories they help the hero out of trouble. When there are many tales involving a single character—such as Raven, Coyote, or Manabozho—the transcriptions are linked together today and called cycles (see e.g., Raven cycle). The body of American Indian folklore does not include riddles as found in African folklore, for example, nor does it include proverbs, though there are tales with morals attached.

The importance of mythology within a culture is reflected in the status of storytellers, the time assigned to this activity, and the relevance of mythology to ceremonialism. Mythology consists primarily of animal tales and stories of personal and social relationships the actors and characters involved in these stories are also an index to the beliefs and customs of the people. For example, the Navajo ceremonials, like the chants, are based entirely on the characters and incidents in the mythology. The dancers make masks under strict ceremonial control, and, when they wear them to represent the gods, they absorb spiritual strength. The Aztec ceremonials and sacrifices are believed to placate the gods who are the heroes of the mythology.

Legends of America

The Pueblo Indians, situated in the Southwestern United States, are one of the oldest cultures in the nation. Their name is Spanish for “stone masonry village dweller.” They are believed to be the descendants of three major cultures including the Mogollon, Hohokam, and Ancient Puebloans (Anasazi), with their history tracing back for some 7,000 years.

During their long history, the Ancient Puebloans evolved from a nomadic, hunter-gathering lifestyle to a sedentary culture, primarily making their homes in the Four Corners region of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Arizona. Though they didn’t give up hunting, they began to expand into an agricultural culture, growing maize, corn, squash, and beans raising turkeys and developing complex irrigation systems.

They also developed great skills in basket weaving and pottery making. It was during this time that they also began building villages, often on top of high mesas or in hollowed-out natural caves at the base of canyons. These multiple-room dwellings and apartment-like complexes, designed with stone or adobe masonry, were the forerunner of the later pueblos.

Despite their success, the Ancient Puebloans way of life declined in the 1300s, probably due to drought and intertribal warfare and they migrated south, primarily into New Mexico and Arizona, becoming what is today known as the Pueblo people.

For hundreds of years, these Pueblo descendants continued to live a similar lifestyle, continuing to survive by hunting and farming, and also building “new” apartment-like structures, sometimes several stories high. These structures were made cut sandstone faced with adobe — a combination of earth mixed with straw and water or the adobe was poured into forms or made into sun-dried bricks to build walls that are often several feet thick. The buildings had flat roofs, which served as working or resting places, as well as observation points to watch for approaching enemies and view ceremonial occasions. For better defense, the outer walls generally had no doors or windows, but instead, window openings in the roofs, with ladders leading into the interior.

Each family generally lived in a single room of the building unless they grew too large, at which time side-rooms were sometimes added. The houses of the pueblo were usually built around a central, open space or plaza in the middle of which was a “kiva,” a sunken chamber used for religious purposes.

Each pueblo was an independent and separate community, though many shared similarities in language and customs. Each pueblo had its own chief, and sometimes two chiefs, a summer and winter chief, who alternated. Most important affairs, such as war, hunting, religion, and agriculture however, were governed by priesthoods or secret societies.

The Pueblo people continued to utilize irrigation methods to grow corn, beans, pumpkins, cotton and tobacco. In the beginning, they hunted with spears, rather than bow and arrows, but were never known to fish. The only domestic animal was the dog, which was used as a beast of burden. They also continued to make elaborate baskets and pottery, as well as becoming expert woodcarvers and decorating ceremonial clothing with shells, turquoise, feathers, and furs.

The vast majority of Pueblo tribes lived in a clan system, with many of the tribes, including the Hopi, Zuni, Keres, and Jemez, descending matrilineally. Thus, the women owned the house and garden, providing them with more respect than in other northern tribes of the times.

Their traditional enemies before Europeans began to inhabit the area were the Navajo, Comanche, and Apache tribes.

The Zuni were the first to become known to the Europeans in 1539 when Fray Marcos of Niza, a Franciscan, journeyed northward from Mexico, in search of the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola. When guides were sent forward, they discovered the Zuni settlement of Hawikuh. and though they were killed by the Zuni, Fray Marcos continued on, long enough to plant a cross and declare his “find” part of New Spain. He then returned to Mexico with glowing reports.

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

Soon, a new expedition was organized under Francesco Vasquez de Coronado was sent into the region arriving in July 1540 and taking the Zuni community before expanding into other parts of what is now New Mexico and Arizona. The Spaniards first found the Indians friendly, but after wielding their authority and forcing their religion upon the Native Americans, they begin to resist resulting in the Tiguex War during the winter of 1540-41. After putting down the Indians, killing thousands of them, Coronado continued in his journey as far as Quivira in central Kansas.

The war with the Indians in New Mexico and the many diseases that the Spanish brought later resulted in the abandonment of many of the pueblos. Afterward, Europeans were no longer welcomed at the pueblos and were often attacked. This however, did not stop the Spanish missionaries and many new inhabitants who would come later.

By 1617, eleven Franciscan churches had been built and some 14,000 natives baptized and by 1637, 43 missions stood on or near the pueblos. However, in 1680, the Indians rose up again against the Spaniards in what is known as the Pueblo Revolt, which successfully expelled the Spanish for 12 years.

However, the Spanish re-conquered the pueblos in 1692 and aggressively began to civilize the Indians by again bringing in numerous priests and forcing Christianity upon them.

Though many of the Pueblo Indians were converted, their lifestyle changed little except for the addition of new animals and crops into their midst, including horses, cattle, sheep and goats as well as agricultural products such as peaches, wheat, grapes, and apples.

With the re-conquest, most of the tribes settled down, though there was only minor intermittent resistance until June 1696, when about half of the pueblos rose again, killing five missionaries and a number of other Spaniards. The natives were once again forced into submission by the Spanish.

By 1800 there were only about eleven missions still in use and by 1811, only five missionaries in the nineteen pueblos of New Mexico. In 1821, Mexico became independent from Spain and though mission support further declined, some Taos Indians once again attempted a revolution but were soon defeated. The final revolt occurred in January 1847 when Taos Indians once again revolted, this time against the newly established American government, killing Governor Charles Bent, and about twenty other Americans. In retaliation, their pueblo was stormed by U.S. Troops who killed some 150 Indians, destroyed the San Geronimo Mission, and afterward, executed 16 Indians for their part in the revolt.

Today, the inhabited pueblos are governed by their tribes and though the vast majority, with the exception of the Hopi of Arizona and about ½ of the Laguna members, remains Catholic, they also adhere to their ancient rites.

Numbering about 35,000 tribal members, today’s Pueblo Indians live primarily in New Mexico and Arizona along the Rio Grande and Colorado River. Most of the pueblos are open to the public and many of their ceremonies can be attended. Each pueblo has its own rules and etiquette for visitors, which should be reviewed before visiting.

Safety On Set: Helicopter Crashes Have Taken Most Lives On TV And Film Sets

With all its car crashes, explosions, and hair-raising stunts, the film and TV industry is a notoriously dangerous business. But your chances of getting killed while making a movie go up dramatically the minute you step foot inside a helicopter. Indeed, helicopter crashes have taken more lives on film sets than any other type of accident in modern times. Since 1980, 33 film and TV workers — nearly one a year — have been killed in helicopter accidents around the world, 14 in the U.S. and 15 more for American companies shooting abroad.

In the 1980s, two crashes alone — both being shot on the cheap in the Philippines by the same production company — claimed nine lives in the span of just two years. The 󈨔s were by far the deadliest decade for helicopter crashes on movie sets, accounting for all but five of the 31 helicopter-related film and TV production fatalities in the last 34 years. The list:

In 1980, cameraman Robert Van Der Kar was killed while filming an episode of Magnum P.I. when the low-flying helicopter he was riding in crashed into the Pacific Ocean off of Hawaii. The pilot, Robert Sanders, was injured and his license was suspended for 90 days by the National Transportation Safety Board. That same year, legendary Indian action star Jayan was killed on a movie set while attempting to transfer from a speeding motorcycle to the skids of a low-flying helicopter that crashed on top of him. He was 41.

In 1981, director Boris Sagal, father of actress Katey Sagal, was killed in Oregon during production of NBC&rsquos World War III miniseries when he accidentally walked into the spinning tail rotor of a helicopter. Katey Sagal had l ost her mother five years earlier to heart disease.

The most famous accident in Hollywood&rsquos history happened out at Indian Dunes, some 30 miles north of Los Angeles, in the early morning hours of July 23, 1982, when actor Vic Morrow and two children, Myca Dinh Le (age 6) and Renee Chen (age 7), were killed when a mis-timed special effects explosion brought a low-flying helicopter crashing down on top of them during filming of The Twilight Zone: The Movie. A sensational manslaughter trial resulted in the acquittals of director John Landis and the film&rsquos associate producer, unit production manager, special effects coordinator, and helicopter pilot. But during a preliminary hearing, Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Gord on Ringer scolded Hollywood for putting children&rsquos lives at risk just to make a movie. &ldquoThis isn&rsquot nickelodeon-time anymore,&rdquo he said from the bench. &ldquoI would have thought that after 75 years, somebody might have thought it inappropriate to put Lillian Gish on an ice flow and send her into the middle of Niagara Falls to make a movie.&rdquo Gish was seriously injured while filming that scene for the 1920 silent film Way Down East.

The deaths on the set of Twilight Zone, however, were only three of nine caused by helicopter crashes during the same calendar year. Pilots David Perrin and Nigel Thorton and mechanic Jaron Anderson were killed when their helicopter crashed en route to a location shoot in Yugoslavia for Warner Bros’ High Road To China, starring Tom Selleck as a 1920s-era barnstorming pilot. That same year, producer Alastair Simon, cinematographer Garry Hansen and cameraman John Jasiwkowicz were killed when their helicopter crashed while making a TV commercial in Australia.

The year 1985 was another bad one for helicopter crashes four more film workers were killed that year in three separate accidents. In January, 22-year-old stuntman Reid Rondell was burned to death, and his pilot was seriously injured, in a fiery helicopter crash in Valencia &ndash just a few miles from the tragic site of the Twilight Zone crash &ndash during production of CBS’ Airwolf. The Los Angeles County Coroner later determined Rondell had snorted cocaine shortly before the fatal crash. Two months later, pilot Rick Holley was killed in Alaska when his helicopter hit a power line and crashed en route to production of Cannon Film&rsquos Runaway Train.

Four months after that, Italian actor Claudio Cassinelli and pilot Dan Nasca were killed in a helicopter crash in Arizona during filming of the film Mani De Pietra (Hands Of Stone). The pilot was attempting to fly under the Navajo Bridge, but the chopper struck the bridge and fell 400 feet into the Colorado River.

In May 1987, just hours after a jury acquitted Landis and the others in the Twilight Zone case, a Philippine Air Force helicopter hired for the filming of Cannon Films&rsquo Braddock: Missing in Action III, starring Chuck Norris, crashed into Manila Bay, killing four Filipino soldiers and injuring five other people. In May 1989, five more people were killed in a helicopter crash on another Cannon Films pic, the low-budget Delta Force II,also starring Norris and also being shot in the Philippines. Pilot Don Marshall, stuntman Geoff Brewer, cameraman Gadi Danzig, key grip Mike Graham and pilot Jojo Imperiale were killed when their helicopter slammed into the side of a mountain.

Altogether, the 10 people killed in helicopter crashes on three different Cannon films over the course of four years accounted for nearly one-third of all helicopter-related movie deaths over the last 34 years — and nearly half the helicopter deaths on U.S. productions during that same stretch. Cannon went out of business in 1993.

The gruesome 󈨔s finished with one last helicopter-related fatality. It happened in 1989 during filming of a straight-to-video movie titled Hired To Kill when a helicopter crashed into a medieval fort on the island of Corfu, killing stuntman Clint Carpenter and injuring five others. &ldquoWe either have to stop using helicopters altogether or stunt pilots should refuse to fly these choppers,&rdquo said the film&rsquos distraught director, Nico Mastorakis, in the crash’s aftermath.

Since then, there have been four more filming-related fatal helicopter crashes:

In 2006, cameraman Roland Schlotzhauer was killed when the helicopter in which he was riding hit a power line and crashed in an Iowa cornfield during filming of a baseball movie called The Final Season.

In 2011, a helicopter shooting footage for digital television G4&rsquos Campus PDreality series crashed into student housing at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, killing cameraman Greg Jacobsen and injuring three others in the chopper.

On February 4, 2012, American cinematographer Mike deGruy and Australian TV writer-producer Andrew Wight were killed when their helicopter crashed and burned on takeoff in eastern Australia. Wright, James Cameron&rsquos documentary producing partner, had been piloting his R-44 helicopter so that deGruy could capture images from the air for the documentary film DeepSea Challenge 3-D. The film is a co-production of National Geographic and Cameron&rsquos Lightstorm Entertainment. A blurb about the film on National Geographic&rsquos website states: &ldquoThe epic adventure of James Cameron&rsquos dive to the bottom of the Mariana Trench is coming to a theater near you in 2014. What would you be willing to risk to follow your dream? James Cameron was willing to risk it all.&rdquo It wasn&rsquot a bad tagline until two men died following his dream. Last November, the deGruy&rsquos estate filed a wrongful death suit against three of Cameron&rsquos production companies: Lightstorm Entertainment, Earthship Productions, and the Cameron Pace Group.

On February 10, 2013, three more documentary filmmakers were killed in northern Los Angeles County when their helicopter crashed while filming a still untitled military-themed reality show for Discovery Channel. FAA records show that the pilot, 59-year-old David Gibbs, who was killed in the crash, had his pilot&rsquos privileges suspended twice &ndash for 30 days in 2003 for operating his helicopter in a &ldquocareless and reckless manner,&rdquo and for 45 days in 2007. Also killed in the crash were 46-year-old cameraman Darren Rydstrom and cast member Michael Donatelli, a 45-year-old father of five. His youngest child, Dominic, was 3 years old and after his father’s death packed a suitcase and told his mother that he wanted to go to California “with his Dad.” Donatelli’s family spoke to WPIX in his home state of Pennsylvania. He spent 23 years in the military and was a retired Green Beret/Ranger master sergeant and had served multiple combat tours in Iraq and Afghanistan. He was a decorated veteran of war. “My husband was the best thing God ever put on the Earth,” said his grieving wife Gigi. “We have five kids and he loved them all. He loved his country.”

The crash, the worst filming accident in California since the Twilight Zone disaster, happened just 25 miles from the similar rural location in Santa Clarita where Morrow and two children were killed.

Video Chat with Kachina House

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The Anasazi (“Ancient Ones”), thought to be ancestors of the modern Pueblo Indians, inhabited the Four Corners country of southern Utah, southwestern Colorado, northwestern New Mexico, and northern Arizona from about A.D. 200 to A.D. 1300, leaving a heavy accumulation of house remains and debris. Recent research has traced the Anasazi to the “archaic” peoples who practiced a wandering, hunting, and food-gathering life-style from about 6000 B.C. until some of them began to develop into the distinctive Anasazi culture in the last millennium B.C. During the last two centuries B.C., the people began to supplement their food gathering with maize horticulture. By A.D. 1200 horticulture had assumed a significant role in the economy.

Because their culture changed continually (and not always gradually), researchers have divided the occupation into periods, each with its characteristic complex of settlement and artifact styles. Since 1927 the most widely accepted nomenclature has been the “Pecos Classification,” which is generally applicable to the whole Anasazi Southwest. Although originally intended to represent a series of developmental stages, rather than periods, the Pecos Classification has come to be used as a period sequence:

Basketmaker I: pre-1000 B.C. (an obsolete synonym for Archaic)
Basketmaker II: c. 1000 B.C. to A.D. 450
Basketmaker III: c. A.D. 450 to 750

Pueblo I: c. A.D. 750 to 900
Pueblo II: c. A.D. 900 to 1150
Pueblo III: c. A.D. 1150 to 1300
Pueblo IV: c. A.D. 1300 to 1600
Pueblo V: c. A.D. 1600 to present (historic Pueblo)

Westwater ruin near Blanding

The last two periods are not important to this discussion, as the Pueblo peoples had left Utah by the end of the Pueblo III period.

As the Anasazi settled into their village/farming lifestyle, recognizable regional variants or subcultures emerged, which can be usefully combined into two larger groups. The eastern branches of the Anasazi culture include the Mesa Verde Anasazi of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado, and the Chaco Anasazi of northwestern New Mexico. The western Anasazi include the Kayenta Anasazi of northeastern Arizona and the Virgin Anasazi of southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona. To the north of the Anasazi peoples – north of the Colorado and Escalante rivers – Utah was the home of a heterogeneous group of small-village dwellers known collectively as the Fremont.

Although they continued to move around in pursuit of seasonally available foods, the earliest Anasazi concentrated increasing amounts of effort on the growing of crops and the storage of surpluses. They made exquisite baskets and sandals, for which reason they have come to be known as “Basketmakers.” They stored their goods (and often their dead) in deep pits and circular cists – small pits often lined with upright stone slabs and roofed over with a platform of poles, twigs, grass, slabs or rocks, and mud. Basketmaker II houses were somewhat more sturdy than those of their Archaic predecessors, being rather like a Paiute winter wickiup or a Navajo hogan. Very few have been excavated.

By A.D. 500 the early Anasazi peoples had settled into the well-developed farming village cultural stage that we know as Basketmaker III. Although they probably practiced some seasonal traveling and continued to make considerable use of wild resources, they primarily had become farmers living in small villages. Their houses were well-constructed pit structures, consisting of a hogan-like superstructure built over a knee-or waist-deep pit, often with a small second room or antechamber on the south or southeast side.

Settlements of this time period are scattered widely over the canyons and mesas of southern Utah they consist of small hamlets of one to three houses and occasionally villages of a dozen or more structures. By about A.D. 700 evidence of the development of politico-religious mechanisms of village organization and integration appears in the form of large, communal pit structures. One such structure, with a diameter of forty feet, has been excavated next to the old highway in Recapture Creek by archaeologists from Brigham Young University.

Three important changes took place before A.D. 750: the old atlatl (spear thrower) that had been used to propel darts (small spears) from time immemorial was replaced by the bow and arrow the bean was added to corn and squash to form a major supplement to the diet and the people began to make pottery. By A.D. 600 the Anasazi were producing quantities of two types of pottery – gray utility ware and black-on-white painted ware.

Prehistoric basket, found in an Anasazi Ruin., Westwater ruin 1977 by the Utah State Archeologist Team

By A.D. 750 these farming and pottery-making people in their stable villages were on the threshold of the lifestyle that we think of as being typically Puebloan, and from this time on we call them Pueblos.

Perhaps the most significant developments in Pueblo I times (A.D. 750 to 900) were 1) the replacement of pithouse habitations with large living rooms on the surface 2) the development of a sophisticated ventilator-deflector system for ventilating pitrooms 3) the growth of the San Juan redware pottery complex (red-on-orange, then black-on-orange, pottery manufactured in southeastern Utah) and 4) some major shifts in settlement distribution, with populations concentrating in certain areas while abandoning others.

The two-hundred-fifty-year period subsequent to A.D. 900 is known as Pueblo II. The tendency toward aggregation evidenced in Pueblo I sites reversed itself in this period, as the people dispersed themselves widely over the land in thousands of small stone houses. During Pueblo II, good stone masonry replaced the pole-and-adobe architecture of Pueblo I, the surface rooms became year-round habitations, and the pithouses (now completely subterranean) probably assumed the largely ceremonial role of the pueblo kiva. It was during this period that small cliff granaries became popular. The house style known as the unit pueblo, which had its beginning during the previous period, became the universal settlement form during this period. In the unit pueblo the main house is a block of rectangular living and storage rooms located on the surface immediately north or northwest of an underground kiva immediately southeast of this is a trash and ash dump or midden.

The redware pottery industry continued to flourish, as a fine, red-slipped ware with black designs was traded throughout much of the Colorado Plateau. During the middle-to-late Pueblo II period, however, the redware tradition ended in the country north of the San Juan River, although it blossomed in the area south of the river. Virtually all of the red or orange pottery found in San Juan County sites postdating A.D. 1000 was made south of the San Juan River around Navajo Mountain in the Kayenta Anasazi country. The reasons for this shift are unknown, and the problem is a fascinating one. Production and refinement of the black-on-white and the gray (now decorated by indented corrugation) wares continued uninterrupted in both areas, but the redware tradition migrated across what appears to have been an ethnic boundary.

The styles of stone artifacts also changed somewhat during Pueblo II. The beautiful barbed and tanged “Christmastree” style point that had been popular since late Basketmaker III times was replaced first by a corner-notched style with flaring stem and rounded base, then by a triangular style with side notches. Also, by the end of the period, the old trough-shaped metate that had been popular for half a millennium was replaced by a flat slab form with no raised sides. The change in grinding technology appears to have accompanied a change from a hard, shattering, flint type of corn to a soft, non-shattering flour corn. This permitted use of smaller metates, and thus also increased the efficient use of the floor space.

During the 1100s and 1200s the Anasazi population began once again to aggregate into large villages. This period is known as Pueblo III, and it lasted until the final abandonment of the Four Corners country by the Anasazi during the late 1200s. Numerous small unit pueblos continued to be occupied during this period, but there was a tendency for them to become more massive and to enclose the kivas within the room block. A number of very large villages developed. It was during this period that most of the cliff villages such as the famous examples at Mesa Verde National Park and Navajo National Monument were built.

During Pueblo III times the Mesa Verde Anasazi developed the thick-walled, highly polished, incredibly beautiful pottery known as Mesa Verde Black-on-White. They also continued to make corrugated gray pottery. Redwares, often with two- or three-color designs continued to be imported north of the river from the Kayenta country. Arrowheads continued in the triangular, side-notched form, but were often smaller than those of the previous period.

Starting sometime after A.D. 1250 the Anasazi moved out of San Juan County, often walking away from their settlements as though they intended to return in a few minutes – or so it looks. Why did they leave behind their beautiful cooking pots and baskets? Perhaps because they had no means to transport them. When forced to migrate a long distance, it was more efficient to leave the bulky items and replace them after they reached their destination.

We do know that they moved south. Classic late Mesa Verde-style settlements can still be recognized in New Mexico and Arizona, in high, defensible locations in areas where the local Anasazi sites look quite different. By A.D. 1400 almost all the Anasazi from throughout the Southwest had aggregated into large pueblos scattered through the drainages of the Little Colorado and Rio Grande rivers in Arizona and New Mexico. Their descendants are still there in the few surviving pueblos.

Why did they leave? It is impossible to find a single cause that can explain it, but there appear to be several that contributed. First, the climate during the Pueblo III period was somewhat unstable with erratic rainfall patterns and periods of drought. This weather problem climaxed with a thirty-year drought starting about 1270 that coincided with a cooling trend that significantly shortened the growing season. Perhaps the expanding population had pressed the limits of the land’s capacity to support the people so that they were unable to survive the climatic upheavals of the thirteenth century.

Could they have been driven out by nomadic tribes, such as Utes or Navajos? There is no direct evidence that either group, or any other like them, was in the area that early. There is mounting evidence, however, that the Numic-speaking peoples, of whom the Utes and Paiutes are part, had spread northwestward out of southwestern Nevada and were in contact with the Pueblo-like peoples of western Utah by A.D. 1200. It is certainly possible that they were in San Juan County shortly after that. Ute and Paiute sites are very difficult to distinguish from Anasazi campsites, and we may not be recognizing them. Navajos were in northwestern New Mexico by 1500, but we do not know where they were before that. Perhaps the answer to the Anasazis’ departure from Utah lies in a combination of the bad-climate and the arriving-nomads theories.

See: J. Richard Ambler and Marc Gaede, The Anasazi (1977) and Linda S. Cordell, Prehistory of the Southwest (1984).

Braves Throwback Thursday: Worst free-agent signings in Atlanta history

We gave you the good two weeks ago, now it’s time to deal with the bad.

The Atlanta Braves have been active in the free agent market over the years, but not always in a positive way. The Braves have signed some players to contracts that turned out to be absolute stinkers.

As noted before, we’ve tried to combine both subjective and objective analysis here. We can’t just list the free agents who accumulated the least amount of WAR with the Braves and rank them accordingly, because WAR is a counting stat and some contracts were longer than others.

And while we don’t want to make this all about money, how much the Braves spent on a given free agent relative to the average salary at the time certainly has to be a factor. In other words, some free agents were worse bargains than others.

Also, we must remember that teams engage in free agency in order to push themselves closer to winning championships. Thus, how much the Braves lost after signing a given free agent has to be considered in our rankings.

With all that said, below are what we’ve determined are the five worst free-agent in Atlanta Braves history, plus a few (dis)honorable mentions.

Photo by Focus on Sport/Getty Images

Dishonorable mention: Claudell Washington, OF (November 15, 1980)

The contract: 5 years, $3.5 million

The stats: 6 seasons, 651 games, .278 AVG, .339 OBP, .435 SLG, 67 HR, 279 RBI, 111 OPS+, 4.7 bWAR

What happened: Washington had been traded three times in four years when Braves owner Ted Turner signed him to what was then one of the richest contracts in baseball prior to the 1981 season. The deal — which was worth more than twice what Washington’s old team, the New York Mets, had offered him — was immediately panned throughout the game. One anonymous owner complained to the Atlanta Constitution that Turner must have drunkenly mistaken Washington for fellow free agent Dave Winfield, a perennial All-Star who would later sign a 10-year contract with the New York Yankees (the newspaper later issued a front-page apology). At any rate, Washington had an OK run in Atlanta, performing reasonably well as a hitter — he was an All-Star in 1984 — but with wretched outfield defense dragging down his overall value. He signed a one-year, $750,000 extension for 1986, but was traded that June to the New York Yankees in a deal that brought Ken Griffey Sr. to Atlanta.

Photo by Owen C. Shaw/Getty Images

Dishonorable mention: Steve Lyons, UT (January 8, 1992)

The contract: 1 year, $600,000

The stats: 1 season, 11 games, .071 AVG, .071 OBP, .214 SLG, 0 HR, 1 RBI, -0.2 bWAR

What happened: Lyons — nicknamed “Psycho” for his eccentric nature — was one of the more versatile players of his era, capable of playing all eight defensive positions at least passably well. He never could hit, however, posting a career OPS+ of 77. For some reason, a Braves team fresh off a World Series appearance signed him to a one-year contract that paid him more than established regulars David Justice, Steve Avery, Greg Olson and Mark Lemke, among others. With Justice shelved by a bad back, Lyons actually got regular playing time in spring training, but hit .105 with four errors. He followed that up by going 1-for-14 in 11 games to start the regular season. Justice was activated in late April, and the Braves designated Lyons for assignment. As an 8-year major-league veteran, he could and did refuse a demotion to Triple-A Richmond, and was released on April 30. Lyons soon after signed with Montreal, but his contract was sold to Boston after just 16 games with the Expos. He went 4-for-27 between the three teams, and was out of baseball a little more than a year later.

Photo by Scott Cunningham/Getty Images

Dishonorable mention: Derek Lowe, SP (January 13, 2009)

The contract: 4 years, $60 million

The stats: 3 seasons, 101 games (101 starts), 40-39, 4.57 ERA, 384 K, 575.1 IP, 87 ERA+, 1.8 WAR

What happened: Lowe had been an All-Star and World Series hero in Boston and had turned in an excellent 4.5-WAR 2008 season for the Los Angeles Dodgers when the Braves signed him prior to the 2009 season. As Atlanta’s first significant free agent addition in more than a decade, the 36-year-old Lowe was hailed as a potential savior for a Braves rotation that had been in sharp decline since the departures of Hall-of-Famers Greg Maddux, Tom Glavine and John Smoltz. However, Lowe proved to be little more than an innings-eater in Atlanta, posting one league-average season (2010) and two sub-standard ones (2009 and 2011). The only two categories in which he ever led the league with the Braves were hits allowed (232 in 2009) and losses (17 in 2011). With one year left on his contract, Atlanta traded him to Cleveland for minor-league reliever Chris Jones (who never reached the majors) prior to the 2012 season. The Indians released Lowe the following August after he posted a 5.52 ERA in 21 starts.

Photo by Ronald C. Modra/Getty Images

5. Kenshin Kawakami, SP (January 13, 2009)

The contract: 3 years, $23 million

The stats: 2 seasons, 50 games (41 starts), 8-22, 4.32 ERA, 164 K, 243.2 IP, 94 ERA+, 1.2 WAR

What happened: Kawakami — who signed with the Braves on the same day as Derek Lowe — was Atlanta’s first Japanese free-agent import. The 33-year-old had a been a Rookie of the Year, Most Valuable Player and Eiji Sawamura Award (the Japanese equivalent of the Cy Young Award) winner during an 11-year career with the Chunichi Dragons of Japan’s Central League. His first year in Atlanta wasn’t bad, with a 3.86 ERA and a 107 ERA+ despite a 7-12 record. His second season, however, was a disaster, with a 5.15 ERA and 32 walks in 87.1 innings pitched. He was relegated to the bullpen in June, but only got into one of the Braves’ next 40 games (allowing three runs in one inning in that outing). Kawakami was demoted to Triple-A Gwinnett in August, and returned to make two appearances for the big-league club in September. The Braves outrighted him to Double-A Mississippi after the season, and he played out the final year of his contract in the minors (posting an 8.86 ERA) before returning to Japan in 2012.

Photo by Andy Hayt/San Diego Padres/Getty Images

4. Bartolo Colon, SP (November 17, 2016)

The contract: 1 year, $12.5 million

The stats: 1 season, 13 games (13 starts), 2-8, 8.14 ERA, 42 K, 63 IP, 54 ERA+, -2.1 WAR

What happened: The 2017 Braves were not expected to contend (they ended up going 72-90) and signed Colon along with fellow 40-something R.A. Dickey to buy some time until the team’s young pitchers were ready. While Dickey was solid (102 ERA+, 2.3 WAR), the 44-year-old Colon was so bad he was released less than halfway through the season. He’d won 15 games with a 3.43 ERA with the New York Mets the previous season, but lost it nearly immediately with Atlanta. Colon allowed one run in two of his first three outings with the Braves, but then had starts where he surrendered 4, 6, 5, 8, 7, 9 and 6 runs before he was finally cut loose at the end of June. Colon later latched on with Minnesota and was better in a relative sense (5.15 ERA in 15 starts), which earned him a contract with the Texas Rangers in 2018. His career finally ended after he posted a 5.78 ERA for the Rangers at age 45.

Photo by Thomas S. England/The LIFE Images Collection via Getty Images/Getty Images

3. Nick Esasky, 1B (November 17, 1989)

The contract: 3 years, $5.7 million

The stats: 1 season, 9 games, .171 AVG, .256 OBP, .171 SLG, 0 HR, 0 RBI, 18 OPS+, -0.6 WAR

What happened: Esasky was 30 years old and coming off a 1989 season in which he’d batted .277/.355/.500 with 30 homers and 108 RBIs for the Boston Red Sox — good for a 133 OPS+ in that low-offense era — when the Braves signed him to anchor their lineup. But things immediately turned sour for Esasky, who picked the Braves in part because he made his offseason home in the Atlanta area. During spring training in 1990, he began being troubled by headaches and dizzy spells, at first believing he had a case of the flu. It never got better, and Esasky was benched after nine regular-season games in which he managed just six hits and struck out 14 times in 35 at-bats and made five errors in the field. Esasky tried everything he could to cure his vertigo, even getting glasses and having dental work done. He eventually traveled to the famed Mayo Clinic to seek answers, and the closest he ever came to a firm diagnosis was that the he had been the victim of a mysterious viral infection. The Braves — on their way to a last-place finish — later installed David Justice at first base, and the youngster won National League Rookie of the Year honors before moving to the outfield the following year. Esasky, however, never played again. Atlanta signed Sid Bream to play first base beginning in 1991, and Esasky was officially released in mid-1992.

Photo by Rick Yeatts/Getty Images

2. B.J. Upton, OF (November 29, 2012)

The contract: 5 years, $75.25 million

The stats: 2 seasons, 267 games, .198 AVG, .279 OBP, .314 SLG, 21 HR, 61 RBI, 66 OPS+, -2.1 WAR

What happened: Nearly seven years later, Upton’s contract remains the richest for a free agent in Braves history in terms of dollar value. He was 28 and coming off a 2012 season in which he’d hit 28 homers and stolen 31 bases with the Tampa Bay Rays, but also had posted a pedestrian .298 on-base percentage. Three weeks after signing B.J., the Braves traded for younger brother Justin, then an up-and-coming slugger with the Arizona Diamondbacks. Justin Upton had two fine years in Atlanta, but B.J. (who later asked to be called by his given name, Melvin) was one of the worst players in the National League — both offensively and defensively — during his time with the Braves. Even worse, the Braves were so intent on getting out from under the final three years of Upton’s contract that they traded All-Star closer Craig Kimbrel along with him to the San Diego Padres on the eve of the 2015 season. (The trade wasn’t a total loss, however. In addition to three players, the Braves acquired in the deal a competitive balance round draft pick, which they used to select Austin Riley.) Upton had a bit of a bounce back in a part-time role with the Padres that season (posting a 110 OPS+) but was out of baseball after another sub-standard season split between San Diego and Toronto in 2016.

Photo by Focus on Sport/Getty Images

1. Bruce Sutter, RP (December 7, 1984)

The contract: 6 years, $9.1 million plus an annuity that paid an additional $34 million over 30 years

The stats: 3 seasons, 112 games, 40 saves, 4.55 ERA, 108 K, 152.1 IP, 84 ERA+, -0.1 WAR

What happened: Sutter was among the most-celebrated and accomplished relief pitchers in baseball when he signed with the Braves prior to the 1985 season. He had ridden his split-fingered fastball to 260 saves, a 2.54 ERA, six All-Star appearances and a Cy Young Award (1979) in nine seasons with the Chicago Cubs and St. Louis Cardinals. Atlanta had slipped to 80-82 in 1984, and owner Ted Turner believed that Sutter was the missing piece to put the Braves back into National League West contention as they had been in 1982 and 1983. Needless to say, it didn’t happen. Sutter’s ERA ballooned to 4.48 in 1985, and his shoulder was already beginning to bother him by the end of the season. He was shut down at the end of May 1986, and missed the remainder of the season and all of 1987 after surgery to relieve a nerve impingement. Sutter returned to pitch in 38 games in 1988 — posting a 4.76 ERA and 14 saves, but that would be the end of the line for the future Hall-of-Famer. Diagnosed with a torn rotator cuff, Sutter tried the return the following spring before going on the disabled list again. Atlanta released him at the end of the 1989 season with a year left on his contract, but he’s still being paid by the Braves to this day. Thanks to a 30-year annuity fund that was negotiated and vested when Sutter signed his original contract and earns 12-13 percent interest annually, he has received $1.12 million every year since 1990. He has two years left on that annuity, and in 2022 will receive a lump sum of $9.1 million — the “principle” on the original contract. Sutter will be 69 years old when he’s finally off the Braves’ payroll.

So there are the worst free-agent contracts in Atlanta Braves history. Here’s hoping they don’t add to this list any time soon.

Treaty Articles from the 1868 Treaty

By signing the 1868 Treaty, the Navajo (Diné) Nation agreed to cease war against the United States, allow U.S. officials to live within their lands and oversee their obligations to the Navajo (Diné), and permit the construction of railroads through their lands. Yet the Navajo (Diné) people did not cede their inherent rights of sovereignty, and they successfully negotiated to return to their homelands in order to maintain their culture and language.

Article II: The Navajo (Diné) Reservation

Article VI: The Education of Navajo (Diné) Children

Article IX: What the Navajo (Diné) Gave Up

In consideration of the advantages and benefits conferred by this treaty, and the many pledges of friendship by the United States, the tribes who are parties to this agreement hereby stipulate that they will relinquish all right to occupy any territory outside their reservation… but retain the right to hunt on any unoccupied lands… the said Indians, further expressly agree: [points 2, 4, and 5 have been intentionally left out]:

1st. That they will make no opposition to the construction of railroads…

3rd. That they will not attack any persons at home or Travelling… or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules or cattle belonging to the people of the United States…

6th. They will not in future oppose the construction of railroads, wagon roads, mail stations, or other works of utility or necessity which may be ordered or permitted by the laws of the United States but should such roads or other works be constructed on the lands of their reservation, the Government will pay the tribe whatever amount of damage…

7th. They will make no opposition to the military posts or roads now established, or that may be established…

Considering all of the things the United States is providing in this treaty, the Navajo people must agree that they will not attempt to occupy lands outside the reservation, but shall keep the right to hunt on any traditional and unoccupied lands. The Navajo Nation agree to the following points [points 2, 4, and 5 have been intentionally left out]:

1st. They will allow the U.S. to construct railroads without opposition

3rd .That they will not attack anyone at home near the reservation or traveling west and they agree not to disturb any wagon trains, coaches, mules, or cattle belonging to the people of the United States

6th .They will allow without argument the construction of railroads, wagon roads, mail stations, or other utilities that the United States government might need to build and if the United States needs to construct buildings or roads on the Navajo reservation they will pay the tribe whatever the damage costs. In addition, the Navajo people must agree to follow all the laws of the United States.

7th. Finally, the Navajo people will allow the United States to build military posts and the roads to and from those posts.

Records of the U.S. Bureau of Mines

Established: In the Department of the Interior by the National Geologic Mapping Act of 1992 (106 Stat. 172), May 18, 1992.

Predecessor Agencies:

Fuels Division, Technologic Branch, Geological Survey, Department of the Interior (1907-10)

  • Bureau of Mines (BM), Department of the Interior (DOI, 1910-25)
  • BM, Department of Commerce (1925-34)
  • BM, DOI (1934-92)

Functions: Administered research programs to improve extraction, processing, distribution, and utilization of mineral resources. Collected, compiled, analyzed, and published statistical and economic information on all phases of nonfuel mineral resource development.

Abolished: By the Omnibus Consolidated Rescissions and Appropriations Act of 1996 (110 Stat. 1321), April 26, 1996, which appropriated $64 million to cover closure expenses.

Successor Agencies: (1) U.S. Geological Survey, DOI (minerals information and analysis functions, formerly performed at USBM headquarters by Divisions of Mineral Commodities, International Minerals, and Statistics and Information Services, and by Office of Special Projects, and in Denver, CO, by Minerals Availability Field Office and functions formerly performed by Division of Finance) (2) Bureau of Land Management, DOI (mineral assessments on public lands in Alaska helium operations) and (3) Department of Energy (mine and mineral industry health and safety research, formerly performed at Pittsburgh [PA] and Spokane [WA] Research Centers minerals extraction, processing, use, and disposal research and investigations, formerly performed at Pittsburgh [PA] and Albany [OR] Research Centers and mineral waste reclamation research and investigations, formerly performed at Pittsburgh Research Center). All organizational components of Spokane Research Center, and of Pittsburgh Research Center except energy technology units, transferred from Department of Energy to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), an agency of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Department of Health and Human Services, December 22, 1996.

Finding Aids: Preliminary inventory in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Bureau of Mines in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government. Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Interior, RG 48.
Records of the Mine Safety and Health Administration, RG 433.
General Records of the Department of Energy, RG 434.

1900-96 (bulk 1910-90)

History: Technologic Branch, with separate Fuels Division and Structural Materials Division, established in the Geological Survey, April 2, 1907, to handle mining-related assignments of the Survey.

Bureau of Mines (BM), established in the Department of the Interior (DOI), effective July 1, 1910, by an act of May 16, 1910 (36 Stat. 369), which authorized transfer of personnel and functions of Technologic Branch to BM. Functional review of activities performed by Technologic Branch determined that only Fuels Division should be transferred to BM, with Structural Materials Division to National Bureau of Standards, now National Institute of Standards and Technology (SEE RG 167).

BM transferred to the Department of Commerce effective July 1, 1925, by EO 4239, June 4, 1925. Returned to the DOI effective April 24, 1934, by Administrative Order 159, BM, March 10, 1934, implementing EO 6611, February 22, 1934. Redesignated U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1992. SEE 70.1.

Responsibility for developing and implementing programs to protect the health and safety of workers in mineral industries transferred to Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration by Secretary's Order 2953, May 7, 1973. Responsibility for mineral fuels research and development transferred to the Energy Research and Development Administration, established by an act of October 11, 1974 (88 Stat. 1234).

70.2.1 Correspondence

Textual Records: Central decimal correspondence, 1910-70 (4,808 ft.), with indexes, 1910-69 (1,057 ft.). Formerly security-classified decimal correspondence ("Confidential General Files"), 1936-70, with security-classified index, 1950-66. Selected correspondence ("Data Files'), 1943-70. General correspondence ("Office of the Director--Correspondence"), 1911-70.

70.2.2 Other general records

Textual Records: Draft histories of BM, 1910-60. Monthly record of events, 1911-32. "Special File," ca. 1908-ca. 1932 (81 ft.), including correspondence, reports, surveys, and completed questionnaires, created and accumulated by various BM divisions. Information circulars, 1925-90, and bulletins, 1910-93. Miners' circulars, 1911-58. Numbered reports on domestic minerals vital to the prosecution of World War II ("War Mineral Reports"), 1942-45. Reports of investigations, 1919-89. Technical papers, 1918-49. Minerals yearbooks, 1932-87. Annual reports, 1912-30. Two sets of regional profile books ("Blue Books," "Architectural, Historical and Technological Materials"), 1952-60 (bulk 1952-53), with the latter set containing additional photographs of the Electrometallurgical Experiment Station, Boulder City, NV, 1952-60. Reports on the synthetic liquid fuels potential of parts of the United States, 1951-52. Publications concerning BM research centers, 1936-88. Other publications, 1968-96. Indexed lists of publications and articles (1910-95), 1966-95. BM-published series of papers on specific mining products and processes ("Economic Papers"), 1928-40. Directives on changes to BM manual, 1955-71. Employee directories, 1929-72. Records relating to BM organization and functions, including organizational charts and BM-related chapters of DOI manual, 1915-88 (bulk 1935-88).

70.2.3 Records of the Assistant Director for Programs

Textual Records: Project files, 1953-56, including files on synthetic fuels, coal gasification, explosives technology, and secondary recovery of petroleum products. Records relating to health and safety, including microfilm copy of employment and accident schedules for coal mines, 1930-35 (89 rolls) for metal mines, 1915-35 (90 rolls) and for nonmetal quarries, 1915-35 (51 rolls.)

Related Records: Additional records relating to health and safety under 70.5.

70.2.4 Records of Special Assistant to the Director and Chief of
the War Minerals Supply Division, Harry S. Milliken

Textual Records: Records ("Alphabetical File," "Decimal File") relating to helium production for military use, 1921-23.

Subject Access Terms: Petrolia, TX.

70.2.5 Records of the Office of Public Information

Textual Records: Biographical files of BM officials, 1947-81.


History: Established in 1926 from the Division of Mineral Technology as a research unit. Initially composed of Explosives, Mechanical, Petroleum and Natural Gas, Metallurgical, Mining, Helium, Experimental Stations, and Nonmetals Divisions. Abolished by DOI Order 1704, June 15, 1942, and superseded by the Fuels and Explosives Service, which became the Fuels and Explosives Branch, 1945. Redesignated Fuels and Explosives Division, 1948, with subordinate units redesignated as divisions. Abolished, 1955, with branches realigned and elevated to division status as Divisions of Solid Fuels and Petroleum.

70.3.1 Records of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Division

Textual Records: Records relating to foreign and domestic oil and natural gas production and consumption, consisting of a decimal file, 1914-32, and a country file ("Foreign Data File"), 1917-23.

Maps: World, showing distribution of oil reserves and production and the Royal Dutch Shell combination, 1919 (2 items). United States, showing natural gas pipelines and plants, 1929 (1 item). SEE ALSO 70.14.

Photographic Prints (391 images): Varied subjects, including laboratory tests of oil shale extraction apparatus Pennsylvania oil wells BM exhibits oil drilling sites and equipment and views of the 1926 Bartlesville, TX, flood, 1921-29 (PD). SEE ALSO 70.20.

Related Records: SEE UNDER 70.10.2 for records of the San Francisco, CA, office of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Division.

70.3.2 Records of the Nonmetals Division (College Park, MD)

Textual Records: Correspondence, reports, studies, and other records relating to nonmetallic ores, explosives and metallurgical research, mineral analysis, and mining ("Records at College Park, Maryland"), 1937-42.

70.3.3 Records of the Mining Division

Textual Records: Records of BM mineral technologist Frederick W. Horton, 1933-36, consisting of reports and notes relating to California and Idaho mines, including maps, drawings, photographs, and published monographs and a general file on mica production.

Photographs (255 images): Mines, mineral deposits, and mining equipment in California, taken by Frederick W. Horton, 1933 (FH). SEE ALSO 70.20.


History: Established in 1926, as a research unit. Initially composed of Coal, Mines and Metals, Mineral Resources and Statistics, and Petroleum Economics Divisions. Became the Economics and Statistics Branch, July 1, 1935. Abolished by DOI Order 1704, June 15, 1942, and superseded by the Economics and Statistics Service, which became the Economics and Statistics Branch, 1945. Redesignated Economics and Statistics Division, 1948, with subordinate units redesignated as branches. Abolished, 1950, with branches apportioned among Fuels and Explosives Division, Health and Safety Division, and newly established Minerals Division.

70.4.1 Records of the Coal Division

Textual Records: Correspondence, reports, and other records pertaining to coal production, transport, marketing, and labor relations, including blueprints, drawings, and tracings ("Coal Economics Division Data File"), 1900-40. Records of mining engineer Dever C. Ashmead concerning the Pennsylvania anthracite industry, 1923-26. Records of Federal Fuel Administrator Francis R. Wadleigh, 1920-25, relating principally to the 1922 coal strike.

Maps (3 items): United States, showing bituminous coal production by state, interstate movement of coal, and the distribution of Pocahontas-Tug River coal, 1929. SEE ALSO 70.14.

70.4.2 Records of the Mineral Resources and Statistics Division

History: Established as Division of Mineral Resources and Statistics in 1925 from the Coal and Coke Statistics Section (Geological Survey) and Coal and Minerals Division (Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce).

Textual Records: Records of Frederick G. Tryon, Chief of the Coal and Coke Statistics Section, 1900-36, principally relating to the coal strike of 1922. Coal mine production tables ("Fielding Data"), 1925-35. Employment and accident tables for metal mines, coal mines, coke ovens, quarries, and metallurgical plants, 1910-40 (129 volumes). Microfilm copy of accident reports, 1930-35 (230 rolls). Reports on coal mine fatalities, 1933-42.

Related Records: Records of the United States Coal Commission, RG 68.

70.4.3 Records of the Foreign Minerals Division

History: Established as the Foreign Minerals Service Division, July 1, 1935. Redesignated Foreign Minerals Division, 1936.

Textual Records: Records relating to international aid and assessment of foreign mineral resources and technology, 1941, 1946-52. Records relating to the Point Four Program, 1950-52.

70.4.4 Records of the Common Metals Division

History: Established, with the Rare Metals and Nonmetals Division, from the Minerals and Metals Division, 1927. Consolidated in Economics Branch reorganization, 1935, with the rare metals functions of the Rare Metals and Nonmetals Division to form Metals Economic Division.

Maps (1 item): United States, showing the value of production of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and iron ore by state and district yielding over $100,000, 1928. SEE ALSO 70.14.


Related Records: Additional records relating to health and safety under 70.2.3.

70.5.1 General records

Textual Records: Records of the Office of the Chief Surgeon, 1916-33. World War II histories of the Health and Safety Branch, 1944-46. Mine safety decimal files, 1910-11, including records of the BM's experimental mine at Bruceton, PA. Correspondence of the Office of the Deputy Director--Health and Safety, 1972.

70.5.2 Records of the Health Division

Textual Records: Records relating to diseases and health concerns, 1922-33. Records of a free clinic operated jointly with the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and the Tri-State Zinc and Lead Ore Producers' Association at Pitcher, OK, 1927-32 (in Fort Worth).

70.5.3 Records of the Safety Division

Textual Records: Reports on dust explosions, mine fires, and health and safety inspections, 1945-47. Records concerning firefighting projects in federally owned mines or mines included in federal programs, with interfiled maps and drawings, 1949-65.

70.5.4 Records of the Mineral Production Security Division

History: Established 1942.

Textual Records: Records relating to the prevention of sabotage and other interruption of production in the mining industry during World War II, 1941- 45.


History: Office of Synthetic Liquid Fuels established in Fuels and Explosives Service by Administrative Order 409, September 4, 1944. Redesignated Synthetic Liquid Fuels Division under Fuels and Explosives Branch, 1945. Designated a branch under the Fuels and Explosives Division, 1950. Abolished with Fuels and Explosives Division, 1955.

Textual Records: Correspondence, memorandums, reports, and studies concerning a program to develop synthetic liquid fuels for military purposes, 1945-50. Records of synthetic liquid fuels experiment station projects at Bruceton, PA, Morgantown, WV, and Laramie, WY, accumulated by chemical engineer Ezekial L. Clark, including records relating to coal gasification, other types of coal conversion, and shale oil, 1953-56. Records of the synthetic liquid fuel demonstration plant, Louisiana, MO, 1945- 53 (bulk 1947-53) in Kansas City.


History: Established July 27, 1949.

Textual Records: Reports of the Base Metals Branch on various commodities, resulting from a survey conducted by the branch in collaboration with other agencies ("Materials Surveys"), 1951-56.


History: Fuels and Explosives Division abolished, with component branches realigned and elevated to division status as Divisions of Solid Fuels and Petroleum, 1955. Division of Solid Fuels divided into Divisions of Anthracite and Bituminous Coal, 1956. Division of Environmental Activities formed from Division of Anthracite, 1968.

Textual Records: Records, including interfiled maps and blueprints, relating to projects, conducted in cooperation with the Geological Survey and the State of Pennsylvania, to drain, fill, and seal abandoned anthracite mines, 1956-65.


Machine-Readable Records (1 data set): Minerals Availability System, 1975-84, with supporting documentation.


Textual Records: Reports, correspondence, and other records concerning calcium carbide and helium (argon) for lighter-than- air craft, 1917-19. Reports and other records pertaining to chemical and gas warfare research, 1917-19. Office and field records of the Navy Alaskan Coal Investigation Expedition, 1908-19, including interfiled maps. Correspondence and reports concerning potash exploration in New Mexico and Texas, 1927-31. Studies and reports for the WPA's National Research Project on Reemployment Opportunities and Changes in Industrial Techniques, 1937-40. Reports, maps, other records pertaining to bauxite, alumina, and other ores in the Hawaiian Islands, 1941-62, including a report of the Geological Survey. BM final report on the effects, on seven potash mines of the Salida Basin near Carlsbad, NM, of a nuclear underground firing to test peaceful uses of atomic energy (Project Gnome of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Operation Plowshare), 1962.

Photographic Negatives (6 images): Expedition party and canyon landscapes taken by the Navy's Alaskan Coal Investigation Expedition, 1911 (CE). SEE ALSO 70.20.

Related Records: Records of the Chemical Warfare Service, RG 175.

Subject Access Terms: American University, Washington, DC Medical Advisory Board mustard gas Pershing, Gen. John J. phosgene.


History: Prior to establishment of numbered regions in 1949, BM operated through field offices reporting directly to central office branches.

70.11.1 Records of the Knoxville, TN, Office

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Index of Technical Records Branch mineral reports ("Minerals Reports Register"), 1943. Drill hole logs on Eufaula, AL, bauxite, 1943-44.

70.11.2 Records of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Division, San
Francisco, CA, Office

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Oil and natural gas extraction research project files, 1915-31 and 1963-67, including maps and photographs. Administrative records, 1916-48, including those relating to health and safety and the development of Elk Hills Naval Reserve. Oil research and development records, 1916- 23, including those relating to royalties on Indian lands and shale oil reserves.

Related Records: SEE UNDER 70.3.1 for records of the main office of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Division.

Subject Access Terms: California State Bureau of Mining Teapot Dome Affair.

1860-1991 (bulk 1940-65)

History: BM established a wartime regional office system in 1942, consisting of Eastern Regional Office (College Park, MD), Central Regional Office (Rolla, MO), and Western Regional Office (Salt Lake City, UT), with subordinate district offices. Abolished 1945. New regional system implemented in reorganization of July 27, 1949, which created nine numbered regions: I (Juneau, AK), II (Albany, OR), III (San Francisco, CA), IV (Denver, CO), V (Minneapolis, MN), VI (Amarillo, TX), VII (Norris, TN), VIII (Pittsburgh, PA), and IX (Washington, DC). In a reorganization of 1954, implemented January 1955, the number of regions was reduced to five. Old Region I was abolished and old Regions II-IV were redesignated as new Regions I-III. Old Region V was abolished and its functions dispersed. Old Region VI was redesignated as new Region IV (Bartlesville, OK). Old Regions VII and VIII were consolidated with certain jurisdictions formerly under old Region V, to form new Region V (Pittsburgh, PA). Old Region IX, responsible for foreign operations, was abolished. Regional system abolished, 1963. Superseded by Eastern and Western Administrative Offices (Pittsburgh, PA, and Denver CO), providing personnel, payroll, and logistical support to independent metallurgy, coal, petroleum, and mining research centers, and to system of eight Mineral Resource Office Areas.

70.12.1 Records of the Eastern Regional Office (College Park, MD)

Textual Records: Central decimal files, 1940-56 (bulk 1940-44, 1950-51), including records relating to activities of field offices in the eastern United States.

70.12.2 Records of Region IV (AZ, CO, NM, UT, WY)

Textual Records (in Denver): Records of the Intermountain Field Operations Center, Denver, consisting of records relating to the extension of the Leadville, CO, drainage tunnel, 1942-61 project files on mining research in western Colorado and eastern Utah, 1942-53 closed project case files, 1940-61 and a microfilm copy of mine maps, access road maps, and engineering reports for western states and foreign nations, 1896-1980 (157 rolls). Records of the Denver Mining Research Center, including mine inspection reports, with related records, 1954-56 and research and development program files, 1950-69. Statements of ore shipments, 1860-1928, acquired by the Office of Mineral Resources as part of its Mineral Industries Statistical Work Project.

70.12.3 Records of Region VII (AL, GA, FL, MS, TN, NC, SC)

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of the Mining Division (Tuscaloosa, AL), consisting of correspondence, 1949-50 and cooperative agreements for mining projects with private firms, 1952-56. Records of the Mineral Technology Division (Tuscaloosa, AL), consisting of general correspondence and reports, 1950-54 and reports and other records documenting research in minerals and mining technology, 1943-68. Records of the Fuels Technology Division (Tuscaloosa, AL), including monthly reports, 1954-59 quarterly reports on coal carbonization, 1951-60, and coal preparation, 1953-70 quarterly reports of experiment stations, 1950-60 and program records on development of the Tuscaloosa Slot Oven and the Tuscaloosa Sole Oven, 1948-60. Production reports from private firms, 1955-67 coal production records of the Office of Mineral Industries (Knoxville, TN), including coal tabulation sheets, 1955-59 production reports from firms mining asbestos, bauxite, copper, feldspar, garnet, iron, limestone, mica, phosphate, sandstone, and tungsten, 1952-66 monthly surveys containing production figures of basic steel producers, 1962-63 mine and quarry reports by firms, 1957-66 and noncoal mineral production tabulation sheets for AL, FL, GA, KY, NC, SC, and TN, 1902-59. Records of the Office of Mineral Resources (Knoxville, TN), consisting of records relating to zinc exploration in Virginia, 1956-59 program records for Alabama red iron, 1950-52 resource reports for New England mica, 1958-63 and records of a program to determine uranium potential in Chattanooga shale, 1952-62 records concerning Tennessee zinc, 1954-58 records relating to a nationwide study of strip and surface mining, implementing section 205(c) of the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965 (79 Stat. 14), March 9, 1965 ("Appalachia Study"), 1965-66 and southern brown iron ore project files, 1959-63. Reports on offshore and coastal area drilling, quarrying, and mining in AL, FL, GA, NC, and SC ("Estuarine Study Reports"), accumulated by the Knoxville, TN, field office, 1950-67.

Subject Access Terms: Foote Mineral Ford Motors Mycalex Princess Coal Sales Republic Steel Sloss-Sheffield Standard Oil Development steel price crisis (1962) Tennessee Coal and Iron U.S. Pipe and Foundry Woodward Iron.

70.12.4 Records of the Western Field Operations Center, Spokane, WA

Textual Records (in Denver): Case files on mineral properties in CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, and WA ("Mineral Property Files"), 1920-91 (192 ft.).

Maps (2,120 items, in Denver): Mineral deposits at sites in CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, and WA ("Mineral Property File Maps"), 1941-53. SEE ALSO 70.15.


70.13.1 Records of the Southern Experiment Station (Tuscaloosa,

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Station superintendent's correspondence, 1943-55. Project files, with maps, of the Mining Division, 1941-47. Engineers' field notes and maps, 1945- 47. Records of Ellis Herzog, a technician with Metallurgical Branch office at Tuscaloosa, 1932-51. Coke production surveys, 1932-55. Mine and quarry reports, 1957-66. Records of the Army Quarry Project, 1948-49.

70.13.2 Records of the Intermountain Experiment Station (Salt
Lake City, UT Boulder, CO)

Textual Records (in Denver): Decimal files, including those pertaining to shale oil, of the Salt Lake City, UT, station, 1918-21, and of its successor at Boulder, CO, 1920-32.

Photographic Prints (550 images): Excell Helium Plant Navajo Helium Plant, NM and federal helium plants at Amarillo, Petrolia, and Ft. Worth, TX, 1919-53 (H). SEE ALSO 70.17.

70.13.3 Records of the North Central Experiment Station
(Minneapolis, MN)

Textual Records (in Kansas City): Decimal file, 1927-50, relating mainly to ore reduction research, and particularly to the development of a manganese pilot plant near Chamberlain, SD (1941-47) and a magnesium pilot plant in Dearborn, MI (1942-44). Project files of the Chamberlain, SD, manganese plant, 1941-50. Monthly narrative reports from both headquarters and regional offices, 1917-61.

Aerial Photographs (1,319 items, in Kansas City): Manganese deposits near Chamberlin, SD, 1946. SEE ALSO 70.16.

70.13.4 Records of Pittsburgh Experiment Station (Pittsburgh, PA)

Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Unpublished research papers on various aspects of mining, mine safety, mineral fuels, and related subjects, 1917-49. Technical data files relating to operations of the conventional blast furnace, 1941-57.

70.13.5 Records of the Bartlesville Petroleum Research Center and
its predecessor, the Petroleum Research Center (Bartlesville, OK)

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Records, including correspondence, reports, and technical studies, relating to research on petroleum production, thermodynamics, motor fuels, pollution, and lunar mineral resources, 1918-65.

70.13.6 Other records

Textual Records: DOI collection of reports on various oil shale experiments conducted at experiment stations in Rifle, CO, and Laramie, WY ("Intra-Bureau Reports Relating to Oil Shale Demonstrations"), with interfiled graphs, maps, and photographs, 1945-57.


History: Established by the Federal Coal Mine Safety Act (66 Stat. 692), July 16, 1952, as a quasi-judicial body to decide coal operators' appeals of actions of federal mine inspectors or of the Director of the Bureau of Mines pursuant to the act. Deactivated March 30, 1970, pursuant to the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 803), December 30, 1969.


History: Established under DOI auspices by section 205(c) of the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965 (79 Stat. 14), March 9, 1965, instructing Secretary of the Interior to study strip and surface mining operations, and to submit policy recommendations for the reclamation and rehabilitation of areas affected by such activities. BM assigned to conduct study, with interagency Policy Committee advising. Working Committee of Policy Committee set up field appraisal teams that gathered information nationwide through questionnaires and on-site examinations. Policy Committee terminated upon submission of final report, published as Surface Mining and Our Environment: A Special Report to the Nation (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967).

Textual Records: Records pertaining to individual states ("State Surface Mining Study Files"), including completed questionnaires, correspondence, field reports, and interfiled photographs, 1963-67. Background material ("General Surface Mining Study Files"), 1963-67, probably maintained by Joseph A. Corgan, Division of Anthracite chief, who served as Working Committee chairman.

Textual Records: Correspondence, minutes, board orders, and case files, 1952-70.


Maps: United States, showing location of safety and experiment stations, ca. 1918, tonnage of metals produced by district, ca. 1922, mineral production by state, 1923-32, and origin and distribution of bituminous coal and lignite, 1944 (4 items). Western states, annotated to show coal areas, ca. 1916 (24 items). States of IL, IN, KY, and WV, showing amounts of coal mined and numbers of men employed in the coal industry, ca. 1916 (4 items). Township plats, maps, and compilation lists relating to oil shale reserves and oil shale classified lands in western states, 1918-21 (176 items). Salt Creek and Teapot area, WY, 1922-25 (6 items). Mining regions, mine sites, and other bureau activities in various states, ca. 1916-29 (520 items). Specific mines located east of the Mississippi River owned by private firms, with related geologic features, prepared by the Eastern Field Operation Center (Pittsburgh, PA) for inclusion in reports, ca. 1942-70 (1000 items).

Engineering Plans (2,500 items): Drawings, blueprints, and tracings of experimental mines, mine sites, chemical laboratories in DC and MD, helium purification plants in NJ, PA, TX, and VA, and mining equipment used in South Africa, ca. 1900-34.

Subject Access Terms: Helium production Teapot Dome Affair.

SEE Maps UNDER 70.3.1, 70.4.1, 70.4.4 and 70.11.4. SEE Aerial Photographs UNDER 70.12.3.


General subjects, 1913-ca. 1979 (282 reels), including mining and processing of coal, asbestos, and other materials, 1919-38 and ca. 1943 U.S. and Mexican petroleum industry, 1923-36 automobiles and automobile engines, 1926-36 industrial products, including explosives, steel, and safety glass, 1922-28 steam, water, and electric power, 1922-28 and ca. 1943 the oxyacetylene torch, 1922 and 1938 bureau safety and health education programs, 1913-37 and natural resources and scenery of Arizona and Texas, and national parks, including Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Rocky Mountain, and Shenandoah, 1925-55. Miscellaneous subjects, 1914-79 (55 reels), including the Royalton, IL, mine disaster (Oct. 27, 1914) railway guns at Fort Story, VA (1929) the development of the automobile (a film produced in cooperation with the Studebaker Corporation) footage of press conferences and inspection tours The Story of the Bureau of Mines television interviews of BM officials and "Safety Tips for Miners," a series of television spots. Related scripts, production files, and film catalogs, 1930-86.

ca. 1970-1986

"Take Pride in America," narrated by Louis Gossett, Jr., 1986 (1 item). "Out of the Rock," 1991 (1 item). "Safer Coal Mining Equipment," ca. 1970-ca. 1979 (1 item). "Improved Visibility Aids on Large Haulage Vehicles," ca. 1970-ca.1979 (1 item). "Fire Protection Systems for Underground Metal and Non-Metal Mines," ca. 1970-ca. 1979 (1 item). "Improved Arc Stability in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking," ca. 1970-ca. 1979 (1 item). "Ground Control Technology," ca. 1970-ca. 1979 (1 item). "Electromagnetic Fire Warning Alarm for Underground Mines," ca. 1970-ca. 1979 (1 item).

ca. 1952-ca. 1987

Testimony of United Mine Workers of America (UMW) President John L. Lewis at a hearing of the Special Subcommittee on Mine Safety of the Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, January 30, 1952 (4 items). BM Director Walter R. Hibbard, Jr., speaking informally at the Denver Federal Center, January 20, 1966 (1 item) and being interviewed by Freeman Bishop, December 27, 1966 (1 item). Radio spot announcements on safety tips for miners, n.d. (1 item) mine inspector recruitment, n.d. (1 item) haulage safety campaign, featuring BM Director Elburt F. Osborn, n.d. (1 item) and the Monangah Mine explosion, n.d. (1 item). Unsynchronized sound recorded on location, n.d.-ca. 1987 (14 items).



Photographs (95,000 images): General photographic files, illustrating mines, mining activities, equipment, personnel, facilities, housing, types of minerals, experiments, and safety techniques, ca. 1910-78 (G).

Photographic Prints (2,454 images): General photographic files, as described above, ca. 1910-78 (GP, 1,800 images). Chemical Warfare Service activities at its American University Experiment Station, Washington, DC, in albums, 1917-18 (CW, 103 images). Excell (TX) Helium Plant Navajo Helium Plant, Shiprock, NM and federal helium plants at Amarillo, Petrolia, and Ft. Worth, TX, 1919-53 (H, 550 images). Panoramic view of a copper mine, showing the stripped levels, hand-tinted in blue and orange, n.d. (MOD, 1 image).

Posters (43 images): Collected by BM National Fuel Efficiency Program unit, stressing fuel conservation, 1944-45 (FCP).

SEE Photographs UNDER 70.3.3.
SEE Photographic Prints UNDER 70.12.2.
SEE Photographic Negatives UNDER 70.9.

Finding Aids: Shelflist (GS) and index (GX) to photographic series G and GP. Publicity file (FE) to poster series (FCP).

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.

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