History of Prairie I - History

History of Prairie I - History

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(Aux. cruiser: dp. 6,620; 1. 404'9"; b. 48'3"; dr. 20'9"; s. 15 k.)

Prairie, formerly Morgan Liner S.S. El Sol, was built in 1890 by William Cramp and Sons, Philadelphia, Pa. She was purchased by the Navy 6 April 1898 from the Southern Pacific Co., and commissioned 8 April 1898 at New York, Comdr. C. J. Train in command.

Prairie was converted into an auxiliary cruiser and assigned at first to the Northern Patrol Squadron and later to the North Atlantic Fleet. During the SpanishAmerican War, she served in Cuban waters July and August 1898, and returned to Fore R*er, Mass., 28 August. She decommissioned 15 March 1899 at Philadelphia.

Prairie was placed in reserve commission 23 March 1899

and cruised with the Naval Militia off the Atlantic enast until she decommissioned at New York 18 February 1901. She earried government exhibits to France at the turn of the century for the Paris Exposition. She recommissioned at Boston 9 November 1901 as a training ship, and remained with this mission until she decommissioned at Boston 14 June 1905.

She recommissioned 26 September 1906 at Boston as a transport and was attached to the Atlantic Fleet. She proteeted American interests in Cuba, March to April 1907. Later she resumed her training duties with the Naval Militia from May to September 1907, July to August 1908 and July to August 1909.

Converted to a destroyer tender in late 1917, Prairie served as one during World War I.

Prairie decommissioned 22 November 1922 at San Diego, Calif., and was struck from the Navy List. She was sold 22 June 1923 to Louis Rothenberg, Oakland, Calif.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.2 square miles (18.7 km 2 ), all of it land. The city is bisected by US 290 and is neighbored by Hempstead, Texas to the west, Waller, Texas to the east, and Pine Island, Texas to the south.

Historical population
Census Pop.
19703,796 63.2%
19803,993 5.2%
19904,004 0.3%
20004,410 10.1%
20105,576 26.4%
2019 (est.)6,953 [3] 24.7%
U.S. Decennial Census [7]

As of the census [4] of 2000, there were 4,410 people, 694 households, and 360 families residing in the city. The population density was 611.0 people per square mile (235.8/km 2 ). There were 834 housing units at an average density of 115.6 per square mile (44.6/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 3.47% White, 93.51% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 1.36% from other races, and 1.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.65% of the population.

There were 694 households, out of which 21.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.1% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.0% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.21.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 9.1% under the age of 18, 68.2% from 18 to 24, 10.3% from 25 to 44, 6.5% from 45 to 64, and 5.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,805, and the median income for a family was $36,071. Males had a median income of $25,882 versus $21,161 for females. The per capita income for the city was $8,219. About 13.2% of families and 24.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over.

The City of Prairie View was established in 1969 with the motto: "Productive, United, Indomitable." The city is operated by a mayor-council government of the strong-mayor format. The format functions with the Mayor serving as both Chair of the City Council and Chief Executive of the city's administration.

At present the city's mayor is David Allen. [1] The city practices zoning to control land use and improve quality of life. The city has hired Butler Planning Services (BPS) to develop a Geographic Information System (GIS) which will aid the city staff in mapping the community. The city is also considering a partnership with BPS and another planning firm, IPS Group, to develop a new Comprehensive Plan.

County, state, and federal representation Edit

The United States Postal Service Prairie View Post Office is located at 21212 Farm to Market Road 1098 Loop. [8]


We are one of the largest attractions in the region and one of the most visited outdoor museums in the country. We have a long history of innovation that spans the fields of science, history, art, and nature. On our grounds, every guest has the opportunity to pursue fun and knowledge in a way that is tailored to them.

In a time where meals are rushed and everyone is in a hurry to get to soccer practice or ballet class, we provide families with multi-generational opportunities to come together, interact and learn in new and unique ways in the heart of Indiana. Each and every day, we inspire curiosity and foster meaningful interaction with unique, engaging experiences that don’t exist anywhere else.

Conner Prairie is Indiana's first Smithsonian affiliate. Visitors to Smithsonian affiliates throughout the country may view major works of art, historic objects of flight, wonders of nature, icons of American history and other artifacts, artworks and scientific specimens from the Smithsonian’s national collections throughout the year.


Tragedy, Terror and a Lingering haunting from the Hartford Circus Fire of 1944!

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History and Hauntings of the Our Lady of Angels Fire

Prairie Schooner

The prairie schooner is often confused with the Conestoga wagon, but they are actually two very different types of wagons. Both were horse-drawn, of course, but the Conestoga wagon was much heavier and was first used by farmers in Pennsylvania to haul crops to market.

The Conestoga wagon was often pulled by teams of up to six horses. Such wagons required reasonably good roads, such as the National Road, and were simply not practical for moving westward across the plains.

The prairie schooner was a lighter wagon designed to travel great distances on rough prairie trails. And the prairie schooner could usually be pulled by a single team of horses, or sometimes even one horse. As finding food and water for animals could present a serious problem while traveling, there was an advantage to using light wagons that required fewer horses. Depending on the circumstances, prairie schooners would also be pulled by oxen or mules.

How the Prairie Island Indian Community Came to Be

Prairie Island Indian Community Members are descendents of the Mdewakanton Band of Eastern Dakota , also known as the Mississippi or Minnesota Sioux, who were parties to treaties with the United States from 1805 to 1863.

In the treaty of Oct. 15, 1851, the Tribe ceded much of their Minnesota lands to the U.S. government, keeping for themselves a 10-mile-wide strip of land on either side of the Minnesota River from Little Rock to Yellow Medicine River. However, the Treaty of June 19, 1858, allotted this land in 80-acre plots to each family head. The surplus land was sold for 10 cents an acre. Reduced to starvation, the Dakota were forced to fight for their survival.

In August 1862, fighting erupted between the Dakota and white settlers because the Dakota were not receiving annuity payments for selling their lands and were struggling to survive. This was known as the Dakota Conflict, resulting in the deaths of many Dakota and whites. Thirty-eight Dakota were hanged in Mankato in December 1862 upon the order of President Abraham Lincoln.

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About The Illinois State Water Survey

The Illinois State Water Survey has been a leader in the study of water resources, weather, and climate for 125 years.

1895: The Illinois State Water Survey traces its start back to 1895 when the Illinois legislature appropriated $5,000 to the University of Illinois, earmarking $4,000 to study the state's water supply. In 1897, An Act to Establish a Chemical Survey of the Waters of the State of Illinois appropriated an additional $3,000 and directed &ldquochemical and biological survey of the waters of the State.&rdquo

1910: The Water Survey&rsquos original mission was to trace the spread of waterborne disease, particularly typhoid fever. Typhoid was a particular problem in rural southern Illinois, but Chicago also had a high rate of the disease. By 1910, Water Survey staff had tested more than 21,000 water samples from 971 towns in all of the state&rsquos 102 counties. Many wells were condemned due to combinations of high levels of bacteria and minerals.

1917: The Water Survey (along with the Natural History Survey and Geological Survey) was transferred to the Illinois Department of Registration and Education.

1930s: The Dust Bowl Decade resulted in a shortage of both surface and groundwater supplies in many parts of the state. The Water Survey was instrumental in advising local municipalities and water resource professionals on management strategies, publishing the state&rsquos first inventory of municipal groundwater supplies. ISWS staff also conducted a sediment survey of Lake Decatur (the first such survey ever made by a state agency).

1949: A water treatment advisory service for state institutions began, saving the state thousands of dollars annually by recommending treatments for water heating and cooling systems.

1953: On April 9, 1953, ISWS radar operators were testing radar equipment to measure rainfall rates. As they focused on a large thunderstorm passing north of Champaign, the radar showed a large hook-shaped echo emerging from the thunderstorm. A hook echo is a classic sign of tornado development, and in this case turned out to be the funnel of a large, developing tornado that moved 54 miles to the east. This was the first time in the U.S. that a tornado had been detected and photographed by radar.

1954: The U.S. Weather Bureau established a "state climatologist" in each state to help state agencies and university scientists with climate data and information. Today the office of the Illinois State Climatologist provides weather and climate data, maps, and information for Illinois farmers, government agencies and policymakers, and all citizens and acts as the state&rsquos authoritative spokesperson on climate science. The first Illinois State Climatologist was Paul Sutton. Stanley Changnon served as state climatologist from 1972 to 1980, following by Wayne Wendland from 1981-996. Jim Angel was the longest-serving state climatologist, filling the role from 1996 to 2018. Current Illinois State Climatologist Trent Ford took on the position in 2019.

1956: Civil engineer William C. Ackermann was appointed to lead the Water Survey in 1956.

1963: William Walton and Thomas Prickett constructed electric analog groundwater models. In these models, the flow of electricity through an intricate network of wires, resistors, and capacitors represents the flow of water through porous geological formations with varying hydraulic properties. In the early 80s, their 1963 publication on this work in the Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers was selected as a benchmark contribution to classic literature in the field of hydrogeology.

1963-1965: In 1963, ISWS director Ackermann went on leave from the survey in order to serve as a water resources adviser to the Office of the President, working with federal agencies to create the federal government&rsquos first coordinated water research plan. In 1965, Illinois Gov. Otto Kerner made Ackermann the leader of a task force to develop a comprehensive state plan for water resources. The plan was released in 1965, but because of budget constraints was not implemented.

1968: The Illinois State Water Survey designed and developed the nation&rsquos first Doppler weather radar in 1968. It detected the motion of drops and particles inside a storm so that the formation of tornado funnels aloft could be spotted. The U.S. now has a network of Doppler radars used for detecting and tracking tornadoes.

1970: Scientists devised and tested a unique approach to measuring crop hail losses from aircraft. Findings showed that infrared sensing allows quantification of hail damage. Subsequently, the insurance industry adopted this technique for national use.

1971: Tom Prickett and C.G. Lonnquist developed the Prickett-Lonnquist Aquifer Simulation Model (PLASM), the first digital groundwater flow model. Prickett&rsquos work in finite difference groundwater models set the stage for the development of the now-standards USGS MODFLOW model in the 1980s.

1980s-1990s: Water Survey atmospheric scientists conducted pioneering studies of historic hail data and launched several field projects in Illinois to measure hail and its impacts on crops and property. During this era, the Water Survey also launched the nation&rsquos first program to define the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of weather and climate conditions, information valuable for estimating the impacts of possible future climate changes.

1995: Following a major heat wave in Illinois with record-high numbers of deaths in the Chicago area, scientists conducted atmospheric studies to interpret the event&rsquos climatic severity. The results guided revisions to Chicago&rsquos policies for handling heat waves.

2007: Water Survey scientists Stanley Changnon and Kenneth Kunkel shared in the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with other contributors through their work with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The scientists served as authors, reviewers, or contributors to a series of reports assessing the state of science and impacts of global climate change.

2008: University of Illinois Scientific Surveys Act transferred the Illinois State Water Survey from the Illinois Department of Natural Resources to the University&rsquos Prairie Research Institute at the University of Illinois, bringing the Water Survey back to its original home.

2013 : The State Hydrologist position was created by an amendment to the State Surveys Act and ISWS director Misganaw Demissie was the first to fill the role, serving until his retirement in 2016. Current State Hydrologist Laura Keefer was appointed in 2018. The Illinois State Hydrologist provides science-based information on watersheds, rivers, groundwater, and other state water resources and leverages the expertise of PRI staff on statewide water issues, such as flooding and contamination.

2017: Kevin C OBrien was appointed to lead the Water Survey. OBrien is also director of the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center.

Learn more about the history of the Illinois State Water Survey on our blog

Illinois State Water Survey

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Champaign, IL 61820-7463
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