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Tyre Timeline

Tyre Timeline


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  • c. 2750 BCE

    The city of Tyre is founded.

  • c. 1200 BCE - c. 800 BCE

    First wave of Phoenician colonization where largely trading-posts are founded throughout the Mediterranean.

  • 1100 BCE - 725 BCE

    Decline of Byblos as the sister city of Tyre rises in prominence.

  • c. 1000 BCE

    Height of Tyre's power.

  • 969 BCE - 936 BCE

    Hiram I reigns as king of Tyre.

  • 935 BCE - 919 BCE

    Baal-eser I reigns as king of Tyre.

  • 918 BCE - 910 BCE

    Abdastrato reigns as king of Tyre.

  • 909 BCE - 898 BCE

    Methustratos reigns as king of Tyre.

  • 897 BCE - 889 BCE

    Astharymos reigns as king of Tyre.

  • 888 BCE

    Phelles reigns as king of Tyre.

  • 887 BCE - 856 BCE

    Ithobaal I reigns as king of Tyre.

  • 855 BCE - 830 BCE

    Baal-asor II reigns as king of Tyre.

  • 829 BCE - 821 BCE

    Mattan II rules as king of Tyre.

  • 820 BCE - 774 BCE

    Pygmalion rules as king of Tyre.

  • c. 814 BCE

    Traditional founding date for the Phoenician colony of Carthage by Tyre.

  • c. 800 BCE - 600 BCE

    Second stage of Phoenician colonization where trading-posts become full colonies throughout the Mediterranean.

  • 750 BCE - 740 BCE

    Ithobaal II reigns as king of Tyre.

  • 739 BCE - 730 BCE

    Hiram II reigns as king of Tyre.

  • 730 BCE - 729 BCE

    Mattan II rules as king of Tyre.

  • 729 BCE - 694 BCE

    Elulaios rules as king of Tyre.

  • 680 BCE - 640 BCE

    Baal I reigns as king of Tyre.

  • 585 BCE - 572 BCE

    Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon besieges Tyre, unsuccessfully.

  • 585 BCE

    Nebuchadnezzar's armies destroy the Phoenician settlement at Tel Kabri.

  • 332 BCE

    Conquest of the Levant by Alexander the Great who destroys Tyre.

  • Jan 332 BCE - Jul 332 BCE

    Alexander the Great besieges and conquers Tyre.

  • c. 301 BCE - c. 195 BCE

    Tyre, as all other Phoenician cities, belongs to the Ptolemies, rulers of hellenistic Egypt.

  • c. 195 BCE

    After the battle at Panion, the Seleucids finally take the rule of Phoenicia from the Ptolemies. Tyre and the other Phoenician cities will remain in the Seleucid power until the Roman conquest of Syria.

  • 195 BCE

    Facing the threat of being handed to the Romans after the Second Punic War, Hannibal flees to the Seleucid court of Antiochus III and becomes his advisor.

  • 64 BCE

    Tyre becomes a Roman colony.


Consumers purchased 88 million cars in 2019.   And though sales dipped to 73 million in 2020 due to the coronavirus pandemic, sales should rebound to pre-pandemic levels, according to the International Energy Agency, a Paris-based intergovernmental organization established in 1974 to "co-ordinate a collective response to major disruptions in the supply of oil."   An estimated 1.32 billion cars, trucks, and buses were on the roads worldwide in 2016, a figure expected to more than double to 2.8 billion vehicles by 2036, according to Andrew Chesterton, writing on the website Carsguide.   None of these vehicles would be operational if it hadn't been for Charles Goodyear. You can have an engine, you can have a chassis, you can have a drive train and wheels. But without tires, you're stuck.

In 1844, more than 50 years before the first rubber tires would appear on cars, Goodyear patented a process known as vulcanization. This process involved heating and removing the sulfur from rubber, a substance that had been discovered in the Amazon rainforest of Peru by French scientist Charles de la Condamine in 1735 (although, local Mesoamerican tribes had been working with the substance for centuries).

Vulcanization made rubber waterproof and winter-proof, while at the same time preserving its elasticity. While Goodyear's claim to have invented vulcanization was challenged, ​he prevailed in court and is today remembered as the sole inventor of vulcanized rubber. And that became hugely important once people realized it would be perfect for making tires.


In the Beginning: The Birth of the Modern Tire

Word nerd alert! Historians at the online etymology dictionary write that the in the 1300s , “the notion is of the tire as the dressing of the wheel.” Therefore, “tire” or, if you’re British, “tyre” is simply a shortening of “attire.”

Let’s fast forward some 500 years to 1845. Within weeks of one another, British inventor Thomas Hancock, and American inventor and entrepreneur, Charles Goodyear, were awarded patents for the vulcanization of rubber. Named after the Roman god of fire, vulcanization “is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by the addition of sulfur…Vulcanized materials are less sticky and have superior mechanical properties” ( Wikipedia ).

Soon after Goodyear’s and Hancock’s patents, in 1847 , Scottish inventor Robert William Thompson patented a solid pneumatic tire, which uses rubber and enclosed air to reduce vibration. Proving to be too costly, his design never saw production.

Necessity proved to be the mother of invention in 1888 , though, when another Scot, John Boyd Dunlop , developed a tire that would make his child’s tricycle easier to ride over rough Belfast streets. After watching his son suffer from a nasty head cold, he decided to make his child’s doctor-prescribed trike rides more comfortable by attiring his tricycle with tires made of canvas bonded with rubber. As you may have guessed by his surname, Dunlop’s tires were a good deal successful than Thompson’s. Although his subsequent patent was invalidated in 1892 (Thompson had, after all, beat him to the patent office) his invention and his tires quickly caught on, thanks in large part to cyclist Willie Hume’s racing success.

Here’s another name you may recognize: André Michelin. In 1895 , he and his brother, Edouard, were first to use pneumatic tires on a horseless carriage. Known to most as the automobile.

Although Goodyear died bankrupt, a company bearing his name, Goodyear Tire and Rubber, was formed in Akron, OH in 1898 . The company remains headquartered in Akron to this day.

According to ThoughtCo ., “In 1903 , P.W. Litchfield of the Goodyear Tire Company patented the first tubeless tire, however, it was never commercially exploited until the 1954 Packard. In 1904 , mountable rims were introduced that allowed drivers to fix their own flats. In 1908 , Frank Seiberling invented grooved tires with improved road traction. In 1910 , B.F. Goodrich Company invented longer life tires by adding carbon to the rubber.” And, in 1937 , Goodrich developed the first synthetic rubber tire out of a patented substance called “Chemigum.”

At the start of the Baby Boom, in 1946 , Michelin developed the radial tire, which far outperformed the bias-ply tire constructed that preceded it. Although the use of radial tire technology spread quickly throughout Europe and Asia (it boasted superior handling and fuel economy numbers), it took a while to catch on in the US. It wasn’t until 1968 , when the consumer advocacy publication, Consumer Reports , awarded its two top spots to radial tires. The magazine cited longer life, increased safety, handling, and noted that the in the long run, the costs of running on radials was far less bias-ply tires, which needed to be replaced frequently ( Harvard Business School ). After a slow start, the radial tire currently enjoys a market share of 100%.

Run-flat tires are developed in the 1980s to help the driver maintain a constant driving speed and avoid accidents caused by dramatic loss of air pressure.

As of 2007 , all vehicles must be equipped with Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems. After the massive Firestone recall in the 1990s, the US Congress mandated the use TPMS on passenger vehicles to help warn drivers of underinflated tires.

If the designers at Hankook are to be believed, the future is an airless tire.


What Happened To Tyre?

In the south of Lebanon there is evidence of an ancient battle so fierce that it permanently altered the Mediterranean coastline. A peninsula juts out from the mainland in the place where a proud island city once refused an invader, providing silent testimony as to the fate of all those who defied Alexander the Great. The city is called Tyre and it is located approximately 20 kilometres north (12 miles) of the Israeli border and about 80 kilometres (50 miles) south of the Lebanese capital Beirut. Tyre is well-known to Bible students particularly (although not exclusively) from the prophecy of Ezekiel who was inspired to foresee details of Tyre’s downfall that would have seemed wildly improbable to his contemporaries yet in the course of time proved accurate to the smallest detail.

Ancient Tyre consisted of two parts. The first part of the city was on the mainland and the second part was on an island just under a kilometre from the shoreline. The island city of Tyre was blessed with not one but two separate harbours which faced opposite sides of the island. The north harbour (also called the “Sidonian Harbour”) which is still in operation today was one of the best natural harbours on the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. Having two excellent sheltered harbours gave the city great advantages and enabled Tyre to become a major destination for merchant ships hoping to trade and practice commerce with the people of the eastern Mediterranean. Tyre became very wealthy and the island portion of the city over time became heavily fortified. The city on the mainland was the secondary part of the city and principally served to supply the island with water and supplies. One might think of the mainland portion of the city as being the “suburbs” while the island was the home of the wealthy and those of noble birth. The island also served as the city’s religious centre and the principal location for trade and commerce.

The Wealth Of Tyre

At first, the city/state of Tyre enjoyed good relations with Israel and Judah although the relationship was commercial and not based on any religious or cultural sympathy. When King Solomon built the first temple in Jerusalem, King Hiram of Tyre famously supplied cedar from the forests of Lebanon as well as other materials and even skilled workmen. For this, Hiram was well paid. (1 Kings 5)

One export that contributed to the great wealth of Tyre was purple clothing dye, which came to be known as Tyrian purple. This was the most precious dye of its time, in large part because of the great amount of labour required to produce even small amounts. First, Murex shellfish from the Mediterranean Sea were captured in traps in large numbers. It took an incredible amount of these shellfish to produce a single gram of dye. For example, as many as 12,000 shellfish were used to produce the dye for a single garment. For this reason, owning garments dyed purple was prohibitively expensive for most people. In time. purple came to be a colour associated with royalty.

The people of Tyre along with the people of its neighbouring city of Sidon are generally called, “Phoenician”. The principal cities of the Phoenicians were originally Byblos, Sidon and Tyre but they established colonies all along the north-African coast and as far west as Portugal and Spain. The cities of Byblos, Sidon and Tyre are located within the territory of modern Syria and Lebanon. A Phoenician colony in North Africa called Carthage later became a major city and a fierce competitor with the republic of Rome. The Phoenician cities were organised as city-states and there does not seem to have been a centralised Phoenician government. The Phoenicians were a seafaring people and their merchants-ships ventured all over the Mediterranean Sea making their cities very wealthy.

The seafaring Phoenicians originally built cities along the eastern Mediterranean coast. They later established colonies in North Africa and as far west as Spain.

The Religion Of Tyre

Culturally, the Phoenicians were Canaanites and spoke a variation of the Canaanite language and worshipped variations of the same gods as the Canaanite people in Israel. The fertility god commonly referred to as “Baal” in the Bible was commonly worshipped in Phoenicia along with its attendant practices of ritualized prostitution, sex worship and infant sacrifice. The particular Baal deity worshipped in Tyre was named Melkart (or Melqart). The Greeks saw Melkart as a variation of their own demigod Heracles (or Hercules to the Romans). This connection to the Greek divine hero of myth would play a role in the city’s downfall.

The Tyrian Baal worship of Melkart seems to have been introduced into the 10 tribe kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab. Ahab unwisely made a marriage alliance for the daughter of the Phoenician king of Sidon named in the Bible, “Ethbaal” (meaning “With Baal”). Ethbaal’s daughter of course, was the infamous Jezebel, an aggressive promoter of the worship of Melkart and a vicious opponent to the worship of the God of Israel.

After this point in history the once good relations enjoyed by Tyre and the people of Judah and Israel soured. The prophet Joel accused the people of Tyre and Sidon of selling the people of Judah into slavery to the Greeks:

“And the people of Judah and Jerusalem you have sold to the Greeks, In order to remove them far from their territory” (Joel 3:6)

Ezekiel Prophecies Against Tyre

The people of Tyre became overly confident in their natural island defenses and overly proud of the wealth and beauty of their city. They developed a feeling of jealousy and rivalry toward Jerusalem and exulted over the misfortunes she faced and hoped to exploit them for commercial opportunity. For these reasons the prophet Ezekiel was inspired to prophecy against her:

“Son of man, because Tyre has said against Jerusalem, ‘Aha! The gateway of the peoples has been broken! Everything will come my way, and I will become rich now that she is devastated’ therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord Jehovah says: ‘Here I am against you, O Tyre, and I will bring up many nations against you, just as the sea brings up its waves. They will destroy the walls of Tyre and tear down her towers, and I will scrape away soil and make her a shining, bare rock. She will become a drying yard for dragnets in the midst of the sea.’ (Ezekiel 26: 2-5)

Notice this prophecy makes certain predictions:

  • There would be “many nations” against Tyre (Ezekiel 26: 3)
  • Her walls and towers would be torn down (Ezekiel 26: 4)
  • Her soil would be scraped away and she would become a shining bare rock (Ezekiel 26: 4)
  • Fishermen would use the area for drying nets (Ezekiel 26: 5)

A closer examination of the rest of Ezekiel chapter 26 reveals more details:

  • Settlements in the countryside would be slaughtered (Ezekiel 26: 6)
  • King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon would come against Tyre (Ezekiel 26: 7)
  • He would lay siege and tear down Tyre’s walls and houses (Ezekiel 26: 12)
  • Tyre’s stones, woodwork and soil would be thrown in the water (Ezekiel 26: 12)

Nebuchadnezzar’s Siege of Tyre

Nebuchadnezzar’s siege of Tyre began not long after Ezekiel’s words against the city. According to the first century Jewish historian Josephus, Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Tyre for an incredible 13 years:

“I will now add the records of the Phoenicians for it will not be superfluous to give the reader demonstrations more than enough on this occasion. In them we have this enumeration of the times of their several kings: “Nabuchodonosor besieged Tyre for thirteen years in the days of Ithobal, their king after him reigned Baal, ten years” (AgainstApion, 1.21)

Josephus also quotes an account that has not survived til our day by a historian named Philostratus (who lived circa 170 to 250 B.C) who in his accounts said of Nebuchadnezzar: “this King besieged Tyre thirteen years: while at the same time Ethbaal reigned at Tyre.” Unfortunately, this is as much as the ancient records have to say regarding Nebuchadnezzar’s siege. Still between Ezekiel, Josephus and certain archaeological records, some conclusions may be drawn. That the siege would be long, Ezekiel adds:

“Son of man, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon made his army labor greatly against Tyre. Every head became bald, and every shoulder was rubbed bare. But he and his army received no wages for the labor he expended on Tyre. Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord Jehovah says, ‘Here I am giving the land of Egypt to King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, and he will carry off its wealth and take much spoil and plunder from it and it will become wages for his army. As compensation for his labor against her, I will give him the land of Egypt because they acted for me,’ declares the Sovereign Lord Jehovah.” (Ezekiel 29: 18-20)

During the protracted, multi-year siege, Babylonian soldiers heads became bare from the chafing of their helmets, their shoulders rubbed raw from wearing armour and labouring long in the siege. Evidently, the mainland portion of the city fell to the Babylonians along with associated settlements in the surrounding area. The walls and towers of the mainland city were levelled along with the homes within. The neighbouring settlements were razed to the ground and their inhabitants cruelly slaughtered. Yet lacking a significant navy, Babylon was incapable of taking the fortified island city. So Nebuchadnezzar choose to lay siege to the island, cutting it off from provisions from the mainland and to the extent they could, cutting it off from resupply by sea. In this way they hoped to starve the city into submission. A lengthy siege of this type would have cost the Babylonians dearly, which is also implied by Ezekiel who said that the army would receive “no wages for the labor he expended on Tyre.” (Ezekiel 29:18) As compensation, Nebuchadnezzar is promised the wealth of the land of Egypt.

Although the historical record of both the Babylonian siege of Tyre and the subsequent invasion of Egypt is limited, archeological evidence does support the Bible record. A broken cuneiform tablet first published in 1926 by German archeologist Eckhard Unger refers to provisions of food for “the king and his soldiers for their march against Tyre“. Other cuneiform tablets show that at some point Tyre was in the hands of the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar. Finally, a cuneiform tablet at the British Museum shows that Nebuchadnezzar did indeed successfully engage the Egyptian forces.

Nebuchadnezzar did not take the island city by force. It seems likely that the city negotiated a surrender after 13 years of siege. Either King Ithobal of Tyre died during the siege or he was surrendered to the Babylonians to be replaced by his son Baal who would become a Babylonian puppet-ruler. The later theory is supported by an ancient list of foreign kings residing in Babylon who like Judean King Jehoiachin were prisoners dependent on the Babylonian monarch for their lives. At the top of this list is an unnamed king of Tyre.

Yet the prophecy concerning Tyre at this point could only be said to be partly fulfilled. Nebuchadnezzar had taken the mainland city, but the island city had not been destroyed let alone “thrown in the water”. The fulfilment of this part of the prophecy would wait over 250 years for the ascent of Alexander the Great. Remember, Ezekiel had said that Tyre would be plundered by “many nations”. (Ezekiel 26: 3)

After the fall of Babylon, the Achaemenid dynasty, ruled over what the Bible calls the empire of “the Medes and the Persians” (Daniel 5:28). This Persian empire ruled for two centuries over the former holdings of Babylonia including Tyre until they were taken away by a fierce young king from Macedonia. By the time of his death shortly before reaching the age of 33, Alexander the Great controlled an empire that stretched from Greece, down south to Egypt and as far east as India. He was never defeated in battle and may have continued his conquests had he not suddenly died in Babylon under circumstances that are controversial still. Many ancient historians thought he had been poisoned although many (but not all) modern historians believe he died of natural causes such as malaria or typhoid fever.

Shortly after succeeding his father, Alexander turned his eyes eastward toward the ancient rivals of Greece and determined to conquer Persia. First his army marched south, towards Egypt. Alexander had already bested two massive Persian armies before coming to Phoenicia. The king of the Persians, Darius III had eluded capture and fled to the eastern part of his empire, free to fight another day. Alexander’s army continued south where the Phoenician cities of Byblos and Sidon capitulated without a fight. Now only Tyre, the grandest and richest city of the Phoenicians remained outside Alexander’s control.

Tyre Denies Alexander’s Request

Hoping to avoid bloodshed, the king of Tyre sent envoys bearing gifts to meet with Alexander. They greeted Alexander most courteously and while not formally submitting to him, requested a formal alliance. Alexander countered with a request of his own that made the Tyrians immediately suspicious. Inside the heavily fortified island city there was an old and famous temple to the chief god of Tyre, Melkart (or Melqart). The Greeks identified this god with their famous mythic hero Hercacles (Hercules). Like many ancient kings, Alexander claimed descent from the gods. Specifically, Alexander claimed descent from Heracles. On statues and images created of Alexander he is depicted wearing or carrying items associated with Heracles. On his coins he is depicted as a youthful and powerful Heracles. In modern terms you could say that Heracles was Alexander’s “brand”.

The Tyrians politely declined Alexander’s request to offer sacrifice in their city. The request came during their major annual religious festival to Melkart and they may have felt that to allow Alexander to sacrifice there and at that time would have meant that they acknowledged his sovereignty over the city. Perhaps they suspected (correctly) that having invited Alexander and his forces in the front door the Greeks might never leave. Or they may have wanted not to pick a side between the Greeks and the Persians before the war was decided. In any case, they proposed that rather than making his sacrifice in the temple of the island city of Tyre, Alexander make his sacrifices in a temple in “Old Tyre”, the city on the mainland that Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed. Alexander was furious and immediately threatened to lay siege saying, “You indeed, relying on your situation, because you live on an island, despise this army of foot-soldiers, but I will soon show you that you are on the mainland. Therefore I want you to know that I will either enter your city or besiege it.

The Tyrians continued to refuse Alexander. Further envoys from Alexander were murdered. He was right in his assessment of them, the Tyrians were over-confident in their natural island defences and in their own military forces. They may have also thought that if Alexander could be forced into undertaking a difficult and protracted siege, that Darius III of Persia would have time to prepare and come to their rescue. Another theory is that the people of Tyre may have hoped for help from their greatest colony, Carthage.

Unlike Nebuchadnezzar two centuries earlier, Alexander was not content to simply wait and starve the Tyrians into submission. Nebuchadnezzar did not have the imagination to do what Alexander would do next. Alexander had empires to conquer and the island of Tyre was in his way. Delay was intolerable! Further, if he let Tyre alone, the Persians could safely harbor their fleet there and Alexander would continue to have an enemy at his back as he ventured east. Though the sea barred his path Alexander was able to see past this obstacle. True to his word, he would turn the island of Tyre into mainland.

Alexander Builds A Causeway

Demolishing the ruins of mainland Tyre (“Old Tyre”), Alexander had the stones thrown into the sea at the point where the distance between the mainland and the island of Tyre was the shortest. His forces began to build a massive causeway (also called a “mole”) to the island. Alexander’s soldiers became engineers and construction workers. Their material was timber from the famous cedar forests of Lebanon and the abundant stone and even soil from the old city of Tyre that had lain in ruins since its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar over two centuries before.

As the water deepened, the progress of the causeway began to slow. At this point, the efforts of Alexander’s men invited only mockery from the Tyrians. The men of Tyre would approach the workers in boats so that they would be close enough to be heard but far enough away to avoid danger. They would shout scorn and reproach at Alexander’s men. “Was this work for proud soldiers? Did you imagine when you enlisted that you would be carrying baskets of rock and dirt on your backs? Do you imagine that Alexander is greater than the god of the sea?”

Labor on the causeway continued and before long included tens of thousands of men drafted into service from neighbouring cities and towns. Only now did the men of Tyre begin to awake to the danger.

As the causeway progressed, it came within range of the archers on the walls of Tyre. Although ancient accounts of their height may exaggerated, there is no doubt that the walls of the island fortress were unusually high and formidable. Arrows and other projectiles hurled down on the Alexander’s workers killing and wounding and making further progress all but impossible. Alexander countered by building two of the tallest siege towers in ancient history and then had them moved to the end of causeway. These wooden towers were covered in rawhide to protect the frame from burning arrows. These towers sheltered Alexander’s workers from enemy fire and allowed them to continue working. Further, the towers also served as artillery platforms. Catapults and archers at the top of the siege towers were able to return fire at the soldiers on the walls of Tyre.

This prompted the Tyrians to devise a very clever counter-attack. Taking an old transport ship, they filled it to the gunwales with highly combustible materials. They hung cauldrons of oil from the masts and then two galley ships towed the fireship to the end of the causeway and ran her aground. Tyrian soldiers quickly set the vessel aflame and the inferno spread to Alexander’s siege towers and other siege equipment. Tyrian soldiers in boats landed on the causeway to kill or drive back those of Alexander’s soldiers and workers that would try to douse the flames. The gambit was a complete success. The towers were destroyed and work on the causeway came to a halt.

The setback was short-lived. Alexander would not let the same strategy work twice. He realised he would need a navy. Fortunately the other cities of Phoenicia which had surrendered to him largely without a fight possessed fighting ships. Further, the king of Cyprus wished to be allied to Alexander and sent 120 of his fighting ships. Another 23 fighting ships came from the Greek city-state of Ionia. In total, Alexander now had a navy of 223 ships which was more than Tyre possessed and more than enough to blockade the island city. Finding themselves outnumbered, Tyrian ships could be contained in Tyre’s two harbours where the best they could now do was guard against entrance into the city. The blockade was complete, the Tyrians were now cooped up inside their city, unable to harass Alexander’s men or resupply the city from the sea.

Work resumed on the causeway. Alexander ordered that it be widened further and the siege towers rebuilt. As the causeway was being completed, his new navy tested the city’s defences at various points and attacked the entrances to the harbours. May ships were sunk at the mouths of the harbour but the defenders were able to keep Alexander’s ships at bay. Some of Alexander’s ships were mounted with battering rams and they tested the city walls in a number of locations. Other ships were strapped together so they could support a siege tower tall enough to reach the top of the city walls. Finally, one of the battering ram equipped ships succeeded in punching a small breach through the walls.

The Fall Of Tyre

To split the Tyrian’s attention, the Greek forces launched a number of diversionary attacks on various points of the islands walls and the navy bombarded the city from all sides with projectiles. With Tyre’s forces fighting on all sides, two ships approached the breached wall. From a tall siege tower, Alexander personally led some of his elite soldiers onto the walls of Tyre and they forced their way into the city. The thoroughly demoralised defenders of Tyre were now in a panic and Alexanders forces were now able to punch through other areas of the city including through its harbours. The fighting inside the city was fierce but relatively short-lived.

Some citizens of Tyre sought shelter in the Temple of Melkart (Melqart), where Alexander had wanted to sacrifice to Heracles (Hercules). The city became a slaughterhouse. 6,000 of the Tyrian defenders died in battle while reportedly, only 400 of Alexander’s men died in the final fight for Tyre. Even if those numbers are exaggerated the disparity was surely great. 30,000 of the citizens of Tyre were subsequently sold into slavery while 2,000 soldiers who had survived the downfall were forced onto the beaches of Tyre and hung or nailed by the hands onto trees, posts and rudimentary frames until they were dead. The Roman empire would later famously employ this form of slow public execution called in Latin, “crucifixion“.

Ancient historians relate that 15,000 Tyrians were secretly saved from the victor’s cruelty. Since Alexander had pressed into service the soldiers and sailors of subjugated Phoenicians cities, many of his forces were related to the people of Tyre by blood and culture. Some of these troops quietly provided their kinsmen protection and secreted them onto their ships where they were smuggled away from danger.

In the end, Alexander did make sacrifices to Hercules at the Temple of Melkart. Interestingly, in spite of the great slaughter that he ordered, those who had sought shelter in the temple were spared. Here to, he probably sought to show his reverence for a temple that he associated with the worship of Heracles.

Tyre In Later Centuries

Tyre was razed to the ground. It was standard practise for a victorious army to reduce the walls of a conquered city to rubble, lest the city be refortified and again used against them. This was the case with Tyre. Stripped of its impressive defences and denuded of its citizens, proud Tyre, no longer even an island was for a time, only fit for fishermen to dry their nets on the bare rock.

The city would eventually be rebuilt, although never again would it enjoy its former political importance. However, under the Romans the city would become an important commercial centre. The worship of Melkart did not disappear quickly. His image , continued to be presented on Tyrian coinage. It is a strange fact that during the lifetime of Jesus, the Tyrian Shekel (also called a Tetradrachma), was the only acceptable coin that could be used to pay the temple tax in Jerusalem. The money changers that Jesus drove out of the temple were changing Roman currency into Tyrian shekels. The 30 pieces of silver that the arch-traitor Judas was bought with (Matthew 26: 14,15) were almost certainly Tyrian shekels and bore the face of the Baal of Tyre.

Many of the Phoenician’s who escaped the fall of Tyre eventually made their way to Carthage in North Africa. With Tyre destroyed, Carthage became the most important Phoenician city and would for a time under her famous general Hannibal, even rival Rome for dominance of the Mediterranean.

During the ministry of Jesus, crowds of people from Tyre and Sidon would travel to hear Jesus speak. On one occasion, Jesus personally visited the region around Tyre, on which occasion he cured the demon-possessed child of a Phoenician woman who was suffering greatly. Jesus visit to the region evidently bore fruit, because just over 20 years later toward the conclusion of the Apostle Paul’s third missionary trip, he sought out and stayed with the Christian community in Tyre for seven days.

In the 7th century AD, Tyre and what is now Lebanon and Syria fell to Muslim Arab invaders. In 1124, European Crusaders won Tyre for Christendom in the First Crusade. In 1291, Muslim forces drove out the Crusaders and for the next many centuries, what remained of Tyre lay in ruins, inhabited by almost no one. In 1697, an English academic and clergyman named Henry Maundrell passed through Tyre on his way to Jerusalem. He reported in Tyre only “a few poor wretches, harboring themselves in vaults and subsisting chiefly on fishing.” This immediately brings to mind Ezekiel’s statement that Tyre, “…will become a drying yard for dragnets in the midst of the sea.” (Ezekiel 26:5)

By the end of the 19th century, a population was again beginning to form in what had once been Tyre. These were no longer Phoenician people, whose culture, religion and language has been lost to history. Rather the new city is peopled by descendants of the Arabs who first settled in the land after the death of Muhammad. Sadly, war continues to visit the region. Notably, the Lebanese Civil War which raged from the mid-1970’s until 1990 brought much suffering to the region. During the third phase of the war the city was heavily shelled by Israeli artillery in 1982. Most recently, armed forces in the city belonging to the Shia Muslim “Hezbollah” militia were bombed by Israel during the 2006 Lebanon War.

Aerial photo of Tyre circa 1934. Centuries of sedimentation has turned Alexander’s causeway into a peninsula 500 meters wide.

Today, visitors who look for ruins from Phoenician Tyre will be disappointed for nothing at all remains from that time period. Everything from that era was removed and thrown into the sea to build Alexander’s causeway, leaving only “shining, bare rock” (Ezekiel 26:4). Impressive ruins from Roman period do exist and UNESCO has declared the area a World Heritage Site. Alexander’s causeway permanently altered the sea currents and many long centuries of sedimentation has turned the causeway into a sandy peninsula approximately 500 meters wide. In recent decades the area has been heavily built over. The area of the causeway now contains hundreds of apartment blocks and Lebanese Tyre has a population roughly estimated in 1993 to be 117,000 (although the real number is probably much higher). Tyre’s southern harbour gradually filled with silt and has long since disappeared but the northern, “Sidonian” harbour is still used and is filled with fishing boats and pleasure craft. Recent years have seen a marked increase in tourism and it is hoped that the newborn city’s white sandy beaches and rich historical heritage will make modern Tyre a tourist hotspot.

Photo Credits:

Aerial photo of Tyre, circa 1934. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Phoenicia map by author. Created on StepMap.

Siege of Tyre. Created by Frank Martini of the Department of History, United States Military Academy. Source: Wikimedia Commons


Round and Rubber, But Always Evolving

Back in the 19th century, before carriages left their horses behind, wheels served mainly to reduce the effort required to drag a payload across often unpaved expanses. Only the horses, mules or oxen that pulled the carts actually needed any real traction, so the wooden wheels of the day were typically wrapped in a strip of iron to provide durability over whatever terrain might be encountered. Once livestock were superseded by on-board propulsion systems, the workload on the wheels changed dramatically. Driver demands for tractive effort, steering inputs and braking forces switched from reigns and whips to pedals, levers, tillers and eventually steering wheels that sent forces directly the wheels on the ground.

Just as gills and fins eventually gave way to lungs and feet on the sea creatures that crawled out onto the beach, iron rims were replaced by rubber. With a mere 2/3 horsepower coming from its single-cylinder engine, the 1886 Benz Motorwagen was able to get by with solid rubber tires. While this approach worked for the early motorcars, as engines got more powerful, tires with more compliance became necessary to handle the loads.

The tire is the first element of the vehicle suspension system that has to absorb road irregularities, and solid tires simply could not be made with enough compliance and wear resistance to be suitable for mass consumption. Before long, John Dunlop created the first practical pneumatic tire with a hollow rubber tube filled with air. And just like that, a new evolutionary sequence was underway. Pneumatic tires provided the flexibility needed to absorb impacts of both early roads and those we travel upon in the present day.

The first pneumatic tires were tall and skinny, similar to many bicycle tires still in use today. As vehicles got bigger, heavier and more powerful, tires continued to evolve, with the reinforcing plies being re-oriented from bias angles to the radials that we all drive on now. In the 1970s, Pirelli ushered in another major transition with the introduction of the P7, the first high-performance, low-profile radial. It was initially developed for the Lancia Stratos and was quickly adopted by Porsche for the original 911 Turbo. Today, even mainstream sedans like the Honda Accord and Ford Fusion regularly feature low-profile descendants of the P7 as standard or optional equipment.

Just as it sometimes seems impossible to eradicate simple organisms like bacteria and viruses, if the DNA survives, it can come back in a new tougher, drug-resistant form. The same holds true for the humble solid rubber tire. In recent years, Michelin has actively worked to revive the non-pneumatic tire in the form of the "tweel." Unlike the solid rubber tires of the 19th century, the tweel combines a thin but tough solid rubber perimeter supported by flexible polyurethane spokes and a solid central mounting hub. No car manufacturer has pursued this particular branch of the tire family tree yet, but Michelin is promoting the tweel for off-road applications like skid-steer loaders that may be more susceptible to punctures.

Will something like the tweel be the rolling stock of the future or another evolutionary dead end? Only time will tell, but history suggests that an innovative leap forward is hardly without precedent.


Tyre Principal Seaport of Phoenicia

The people of Sidon were one of the many different Semitic cultures that inhabited the land of Canaan. Sidon was established on the coast of modern-day Damascus near the Mesopotamian Sea. In time, these people became known as the Phoenicians, and they developed a unique seafaring culture that specialized in the trade of goods and merchandise. Around 1200 B.C., a group of Phoenician colonists left Sidon and headed north to create a new settlement. This newly founded area was called Tyre, and it eventually became the most powerful city of trade and commerce within the Phoenicians. It is placed on the Biblical Timeline Chart around between 1000 BC and 1100 BC as it reaches the height of its power.

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The city of Tyre had a vast seaport. This seaport is what allowed the city to have a monopoly on the coastal trade routes that existed in the Mesopotamian region. Tyre’s routes began in the east near modern day Lebanon and extended all the way to the west near modern day Spain. Many famous ancient cultures such as Egyptians, Romans and Greeks conducted business with the Phoenicians. Tyre also had sent colonists to the tip of North Africa in the west and established a powerful city-state known as Carthage. In the ancient world, many great cities were located next to Mesopotamian sea, and this is why the Phoenicians were able to use their seaports to effectively engage in commerce.

The Phoenicians developed an economy that was founded on the exchange of goods. They bartered just about anything they got their hands on. They traded wood, precious stones, weapons, cloth and slaves. The most important commodity that they exchanged was the purple dye. This particular substance was a powder used to provide color garments worn by the rich people of ancient times. The Phoenicians had managed to monopolize the trade of this purple dye and their name as a people became associated with the color. Phoinois is an ancient Greek word for purple and the word Phoenician had been ascribed to the people who manufactured this royal hue. The Phoenicians established manufacturing centers for the development of purple dye. They also had different manufacturing centers for wood and other goods such as glass and pottery.

Tyre was the center of activity for Phoenician trade and power. This city-state was ruled by kings, and it had a powerful navy that was considered the best in the ancient world. They also had land forces, but they relied heavily on their marine like warriors to carry out assaults against enemies that decided to attack their city or disrupt their trade lines.

Many Phoenicians had to learn how to become skilled craftsmen to earn a living and to produce many of the goods that they sold in their markets. The citizens of Tyre also worked in the manufacturing industries, or they were hired sailors who helped to man vessels along the trade routes. Tyre was famous for having so many merchants and businessmen since finance, and business-related occupations dominated the country.

The inhabitants of Tyre also traded with land lock countries such as Israel. When King Solomon was building a temple for God he received many of his supplies from the King Hiram of Tyre (see 2 Samuel 5:11 and 1 Kings 5:1). King Hiram of Tyre was an ally to King David before he had died. This relationship carried over to Solomon after his death.


Wars of Alexander the Great: Siege of Tyre

The Siege of Tyre took place from January to July 332 BC during the Wars of Alexander the Great (335-323 BC).

Macedonians

Siege of Tyre - Background:

Having defeated the Persians at Granicus (334 BC) and Issus (333 BC), Alexander the Great swept south along the Mediterranean coast with the ultimate goal of moving against Egypt. Pressing on, his intermediate goal was to take the key port of Tyre. A Phoenician city, Tyre was situated on an island approximately half a mile from the mainland and was heavily fortified. Approaching Tyre, Alexander attempted to gain access by requesting permission to make a sacrifice at the city's Temple of Melkart (Hercules). This was refused and the Tyrians declared themselves neutral in Alexander's conflict with the Persians.

The Siege Begins:

Following this refusal, Alexander dispatched heralds to the city ordering it to surrender or be conquered. In response to this ultimatum, the Tyrians killed Alexander's heralds and threw them from the city walls. Angered and eager to reduce Tyre, Alexander was faced with the challenge of attacking an island city. In this, he was further hampered by the fact that he possessed a small navy. As this precluded a naval assault, Alexander consulted his engineers for other options. It was quickly found that the water between the mainland and the city was relatively shallow until shortly before the city walls.

A Road Across the Water:

Using this information, Alexander ordered the construction of a mole (causeway) that would stretch across the water to Tyre. Tearing down the remains of the old mainland city of Tyre, Alexander's men began building a mole that was approximately 200 ft. wide. The early phases of construction went smoothly as the city's defenders were unable to strike at the Macedonians. As it began to extend farther into the water, the builders came under frequent attack from Tyrian ships and the city's defenders who fired from atop its walls.

To defend against these assaults, Alexander constructed two 150 ft.-tall towers topped with catapults and mounting ballistas to drive off enemy ships. These were positioned at the end of the mole with a large screen stretched between them to protect the workers. Though the towers provided the needed defenses for construction to continue, the Tyrians quickly devised a plan to topple them. Constructing a special fire ship, which was weighted down aft to raise the bow, the Tyrians attacked the end of the mole. Igniting the fire ship, it rode up onto the mole settling the towers ablaze.

The Siege Ends:

Despite this setback, Alexander endeavored to complete the mole though he became increasingly convinced that he would need a formidable navy to capture the city. In this, he benefited from the arrival of 120 ships from Cyprus as well as another 80 or so that defected from the Persians. As his naval strength swelled, Alexander was able to blockade Tyre's two harbors. Refitting several ships with catapults and battering rams, he ordered them anchored near the city. To counter this, Tyrian divers sortied out and cut the anchor cables. Adjusting, Alexander ordered the cables replaced with chains (Map).

With the mole nearly reaching the Tyre, Alexander ordered catapults forward which began bombarding the city walls. Finally breaching the wall in the southern part of the city, Alexander prepared a massive assault. While his navy attacked all around Tyre, siege towers were floated against the walls while troops attacked through the breach. Despite fierce resistance from the Tyrians, Alexander's men were able to overwhelm defenders and swarmed through the city. Under orders to slay the inhabitants, only those who took refuge in the city's shrines and temples were spared.

Aftermath of the Siege of Tyre:

As with most battles from this period, casualties are not known with any certainty. It is estimated that Alexander lost around 400 men during the siege while 6,000-8,000 Tyrians were killed and another 30,000 sold into enslavement. As a symbol of his victory, Alexander ordered the mole to be completed and had one of his largest catapults placed in front of the Temple of Hercules. With the city taken, Alexander moved south and was forced to lay siege to Gaza. Again winning a victory, he marched in Egypt where he was welcomed and proclaimed pharaoh.


“Tyre was rebuilt”

The city of Tyre, though it was largely destroyed, recovered and was rebuilt after its structures had been razed.

This page analyzes one evidence:

This suggests the prophecy was not fulfilled, because verses 13-14 and verses 19-21 had said that that Tyre will be ‘built no more’, which seems to directly contradict the existence of a settlement there today. 1

  1. Ezekiel 26:13 -- “I will silence the sound of your songs, and the sound of your harps will be heard no more.” 26:19-21 -- “When I make you a desolate city, like the cities which are not inhabited, when I bring up the deep over you and the great waters cover you, then I will bring you down with those who go down to the pit, …but I will set glory in the land of the living. “I will bring terrors on you and you will be no more though you will be sought, you will never be found again,

Tyre Timeline - History

Caanan was a descendant of Ham and his descendants are Caananites.
Abram was a descendant of Shem and jouneyed to Caanan, his descents went Egypt and exodet from there to Canan, where they were known as Yisralites
Japhet was brother to Ham and Shem , all are sons of Noa that came through the Flood.

There is a problem with all of the articles relating the recent dna analysis of Lebanese and its relevance to the story of the conflict between the ancient Israelitses and Canaanites in the Bible. Ancient Canaan encompassed the whole of the Levant between Asia Minor and Egypt and all the inhabitants called themselves Canaanite (kn’ni). But the Bible story relates only the southern half of Canaan, called “Palestine” by the Greeks but not the natives, where Israel and Judah were located. It has nothing to say about the northern half, called “Phoenicia” by the Greeks but not the natives, which is roughly modern Lebanon. To the extent that it the Bible has anything to say or indicates much knowledge of northern Canaan, its inhabitants are not seen as enemies to be exterminated. On the contrary, the Canaanite ruler of Tyre, Hiram, is an ally of Soloman who helped in the building of the Temple. So the fact that they were not exterminated by the Israelites tells us nothing. More to the point is the genetic evidence that present-day Jews, like present-day Palestinians, are descended from the previous inhabitants of “Palestine” – that is, Canaanites. The “Children of Israel” were in fact Canaanites who for some reason wished to radically differentiate themselves from their own ancestors and did so by calling themselves Hebrews who originated elsewhere and claiming to have been brought out of Egypt by their god, IHWH, and conquered the land he promised them. The Hebrews were most likely themselves Canaanites, but nomadic pastoralists rather than settled farmers or townspeople who regarded them rather as nomadic Gypsies and Travellers are now regarded. It seems likely that this was their way of establishing themselves as a nation, separate from (and superior to) all others, bolstered by their adoption of a new religion profoundly different from that of their Canaanite ancestors.

Why is my Sept. 3 comment still “awaiting moderation” on Sept. 5?

There are actually people in 2018 who think human races are descended from the sons of Noah?? Come on, this “Arthur” must be an atheist who wrote this post to make religious people look like idiots!

To make it explicit, those we call Phoenician are identical to those we call Canaanites, we have no real idea what they called themselves.

Cannanites were not semitic people as your article says. Remember Canaan is the son of Ham, not Shem. Semitic people emanate from the lineage of Shem and not Ham. Canaanites are what we refer to as Hamites. Ham had 4 sons Mizraim (Egyptians), Phut (Lybians), Cush (Ethiopia) and Canaan (Original inhabitants of the land of Israel). The Zondervan Bible Dictionary tells us that Ham was the progenitor of Black people but not the Negros. Therefore all Ham’s lineage is traced through his 4 sons who are all Black people.

The reason why the Bible Dictionary differentiates between the Hamites and the Negroes is because they are Shemites from the line of Shem. Yes both groups are Black people but with a different progenitor.

The reason why you find a mixed race of people in Egypt and in all other countries of the sons of Ham today is because one of the policies of Alexandra the Greek after he conquers a country, he would flood that country with his own people, the Romans in order to enforce racial intermingling. I am sure in his mind, he was eradicating the original Black inhabitants of such countries. So that when you look at it independently, you begin to think about this as genocide.

The Shemites/Hebrews/Israelites eventually took over the land of Canaan. The land of the son of Ham called Canaan. In this case it was one race of black people taking the land of another race of black people. And eventually a race of white people Eastern European Khazars, took over the land of the Shemites and under false pretenses called themselves Shematic/Jewish/Israeli. The reason why they do not call themselves Israelites is because they are not the descendants of Abraham. They just stole that identity from the real Shemites.

I’m confused. If they came from Ham, how could they be other then black? Is it being said that the Bible is wrong?

I have also read that the Canaanites were black. DNA results would certainly have indicated that.

Someone above asked, “How are Canaanites connected to Africans?”

Probably many way if there is a shared heritage between residents of Sidon (and Tyre) and the overseas colonies these cities established and the people of
Canaan.

Carthage, for example, was a Phoenician colony. Hiram of Tyre was a contemporary of Solomon, but the Carthage located in present day Tunisia probably was founded after the 10th century BC. Moreover, it’s not the only Phoenician colony that was established in the western Mediterranean. A number of them, such as Cartagena in Spain were founded by Phoenicians or else became colonies of Carthage. Marseille,( I just thought I’d check first) as it turns out was founded by Greeks in the 7th century BC.

Analogous to England and its New World colonies, Carthage expanded on the
north coast of Africa into a number of coastal settlements, plus southern Spain.
We know little ( or else little survives) about the Carthaginians save through the eyes of Roman historians such as Livy an Polybius who chronicled the Punic Wars and their roots. But the bottom line from the wikipedia was this:

“The Carthaginians were Phoenician settlers originating in the Mediterranean coast of the Near East. They spoke Canaanite, a Semitic language, and followed a local variety of the ancient Canaanite religion.”

Having recently read an account of the Battle of Cannae, Carthaginian names
drives the point home: Hannibal, Hamilcar, Hasdrubal, Hanno… Contemplating the issue of links even closer to the Bible, such as Hebrew, I was inclined to ask myself: Just what does that prefix “Ha” denote?

Evidently it is not a definite article. Hannibal roughly means “the grace of Baal”.
But the Barca family ( Note: Barcelona – possibly named by Hamilcar, but Romans claim differently) can be connected with other East Mediterranean root languages, for example, as follows:

“Barca (, QRB) was the surname of his aristocratic family, meaning “shining” or “lightning”, thus equivalent to the Arabic name Barq or the Hebrew name Barak.

Hamilcar, Hannibal’s father: his name is a reference to someone else too, “brother of Melqart”.

Paradoxically, we have an one side an argument for the stability for gene pools in the Mediterranean East based on population studies in Lebanon. But on the other hand, we have linguistic evidence for dispersion based on establishment of colonies in west on the coasts of Africa and Europe.

Unfortunately the media’s reaction to this genetic study has been to give the misleading impression that when the Israelites “invaded” Canaan, the Canaanites escaped Israelite “genocide” , and fled to Lebanon, and that the modern Lebanese are the descendants of those Canaanite refugees.
Nothing could be further from the truth, and it’s a pity the results of this important study have been twisted by the media.

First, the Canaanite samples were taken from ancient graves in Sidon, which makes them PHOENICIAN, i.e. the northern Canaanites who were native to Phoenicia, in present-day Lebanon.
Second, as the authors note in the study, they used Lebanese CHRISTIAN DNA samples to represent modern Lebanese population, since they had found this group to be more genetically isolated than other Lebanese groups.
Third, and in perhaps most critically to the field of Biblical archeology, the authors made the following observation:

” PCA shows that Sidon_BA clusters with three individuals from Early Bronze Age Jordan (Jordan_BA) found in a cave above the Neolithic site of ‘Ain Ghazal and probably associated with an Early Bronze Age village close to the site. This suggests that people from the highly differentiated urban culture on the Levant coast and inland people with different modes of subsistence were nevertheless genetically similar, supporting previous reports that the different cultural groups who inhabited the Levant during the Bronze Age, such as the Ammonites, Moabites, Israelites, and Phoenicians, each achieved their own cultural identities but all shared a common genetic and ethnic root with the Canaanites.”

The traditional history regarding the origins of the Phoenicians as recorded by Herodotus and by Arab historians is that they were descended from people who migrated from the eastern part of the Arabian peninsula. The modern Arab population of the Levant also originates from the Arabian peninsula. So yes they do indeed derive from a “Canaanite-related population” this is the known history. To conclude they this means that they are direct descendants of the Canaanites is disingenuous.

Genetics shows that the closest group to Middle Eastern Jews are Palestinians…..

They’re all descendants from the Canaanites.

Blood Brothers: Palestinians and Jews Share Genetic Roots
Jews break down into three genetic groups, all of which have Middle Eastern origins – which are shared with the Palestinians and Druze.
read more: http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/science/1.681385

To S: Israel is the only democratic country that one can walk to from Africa. There is a current constant flow of Africans escaping to Israel today. Also, African connections include the 400 years in Egypt ( North Africa), where they went to escape drought in Canaan, and were eventually enslaved. Another connection to Africa is the story that Moses first went south and his first wife was African. Thirdly there is the Soloman and Queen of Sheba connection, she returned to Ethiopia with Solomon’s child in her belly, and that child was the first king of Ethiopia.

The few Canaanites who survived Joshua assimilated into Israelite society. Today’s Palestinians are descendants of the Ottomans who were Turkish and controlled the area from 1299 to 1923 when British rule took over. this is well documented history.

How are Canaanites connected to Africans?

Since Sidon is in Lebanon, one would have to wonder what the DNA is compared to Phoenicians, also a Semitic people. We know that the Jews had friendly relations with Phoenicia and that biblical borders certainly didn’t extend into what is now Lebanon. I believe the authors may have brought the Bible into this report just to get publicity.

We need to think logically. This study shows a connection between some ancient Canaanites and some modern Lebanese. Does such a connection prove that a neighboring people, the Palestinians, have no familial relationship with the Canaanites? Of course not. We have to be careful not to let our preconceived opinions interfere with our understanding of science.

It would be very interesting to know whether the DNA of the Arabs of Gaza, Judea and Samaria have any relationship to the historic “natives” of those areas such as the Jews.

The DNA analysis suggests that it is the modern-day Lebanese population that can trace its origins back to the Canaanites. That said, the author’s theory would therefore negate the claims made by the so called political “Palestinians”. Perhaps science trumps false claims!


The History of Car Tyres

Your car tyres are one of the most important components of your vehicle, particularly from a safety perspective. In recent years, there have been numerous technological advancements to enhance the safety, durability and mileage of your car. But how has the tyre developed over history? And how did your car tyres get to where they are today? Courtesy of Lindley’s Autocentres, your number one tyre centre in Nottingham, here is a brief history of the car tyre and how some of the biggest names in car tyres, helped to make them what they are today.

1839: Charles Goodyear Invents Vulcanised Rubber

Goodyear is a big name in car tyres, one which dates back to its earliest inception. The invention of vulcanised rubber by Charles Goodyear had huge ramifications on the manufacture of goods. It was durable, moldable and it paved the way for the first rubber tyres.

1846: Robert Thompson Patents the Vulcanised Rubber Pneumatic Tyre

Although Charles Goodyear is credited with the invention of the material, it was Robert Thompson who first applied the material to the manufacture of pneumatic tyres. However, there is a reason you may not be as familiar with the name Thompson as with others on this list, largely because in 1846 the motor car had not yet been invented. Indeed it would be another 40 years before the manufacture of pneumatic tyres would begin in earnest.

1888: John Dunlop invents the Vulcanised Rubber Pneumatic Tyre

In an effort to improve the comfort of his son’s bicycle, John Dunlop invented the vulcanised rubber pneumatic tyre, without realising the same invention had been patented over forty years previously by Robert Thompson. After a legal battle with Thompson, Dunlop founded the Dunlop Rubber Company which he later sold for very little profit.

1891: The Michelin Brothers Invent Detachable Rubber Tyres for Bicycles

Another big name in Tyre Manufacture, Edouard and Andre Michelin, made use of a new patent by CK Welsh which allowed tyres to be bolted on to the wheel rim. In this year, Andre Michelin was also the first to attach rubber tyres to a motor car.

1903: Paul Weeks Litchfield Patents the Tubeless Tyre

1904: Mountable Introduced to Motor Cars

Combined with tubeless tyres, the introduction of the mountable rim to motor cars was the first time in history a motorist was able to change a tyre themselves.

1908: Frank Seiberling Invents Grooved Tyres

With motor cars becoming faster and more and more cars hitting the road, the focus shifted towards road safety. Grooved tyres provided greater traction on the road, improving driver safety.

1910: BF Goodrich adds Carbon to Tyre Rubber to Lengthen the Life of the Tyre

1911: Phillip Strauss Invents the First Successful Automobile Tyre

Although Rubber Tyres had been used on motor cars since 1895, it wasn’t until Phillip Strauss combined an inflatable inner tube with a galvanised rubber outer tyre that the car tyre first achieved commercial success.

1937: BF Goodrich Invents the First Synthetic Rubber Tyres

27 years after adding carbon to the rubber, BF Goodrich, using a patented substance called Chemigum was able to manufacture the first synthetic rubber car tyres.

1948: Michelin Patents the Radial Tyre

Michelin were the first to produce steel-belted radial tyres, providing greater durability and mileage for the motorist.

1974: Pirelli Produce the Wide Radial Tyre

Another big name in tyre manufacture, Pirelli, were the first to produce wide radial tyres. These provided greater durability and a more even tread wear.

Over the years that followed, tyres have undergone numerous changes in terms of the synthetic makeup of the rubber and the overall design of the tyre and continue to be developed by the big names who were pivotal in the shaping of the tyre throughout history.

Lindley’s Autocentres in Nottingham stock a wide range of tyres including those manufactured by the big names in tyre development, providing a combination of quality, durability and safety. If you’re looking for new tyres for your car, speak to Lindley’s today. Contact us here or pop into one of our Nottingham Autocentres to speak to us about our range of car tyres.


History of Tires

The wheel was invented around 3500 BC, becoming one of man’s greatest innovations. In its earliest form, the wheel was a curved piece of wood. Leather was eventually added to make the ride softer. Over time, the leather was replaced by rubber. The original rubber tire was solid rubber, without air, and was used by slow-speed vehicles.

Benz invented the first gasoline car in 1888, fitted with metal tires covered with air-filled rubber. This was the beginning of the pneumatic tire, which was first seen by the public in a Paris-Bordeaux-Paris automobile race. The tread tire was introduced in 1905. The tread was designed to protect the tire carcass from direct contact with the road. It also improved the tire friction coefficient.

The 1920s saw the development of tire materials. The DuPont Company industrialized synthetic rubber in 1931, allowing the increase in tire production, which used to be dependent on natural rubber. Synthetic rubber ushered in a turning point in tire production. The balloon tire, a low-pressure tire that had a greater contact area with the road surface, was introduced in 1923.

Tubeless tires were developed in 1947 in an attempt to relieve the high cost of oil prices. Tubeless tires contributed to the reduction of the vehicle’s weight, allowing for a significant savings in fuel costs.
The first winter tires or snow tires were introduced in Finland in 1934 when Nokian made tire trucks that were designed for handling stormy weather.

The radial tire was invented in the 1950s. It is a type of tire with the cords and carcass plies arranged vertically to the driving direction. The radial tires turned out to have better fuel economy compared to other tires. They provided uniform contact of the tread with the road surface. This offered good driving stability, even at high speeds.

The run-flat tire was developed in 1979. It allowed vehicles to continue driving up to 50 miles at 50 mph with a punctured tire. Several types of tires were designed later, including eco-friendly tires as well as the Ultra High Performance tire. UHP tires have diameters greater than 16 inches and allow for superior cornering, braking, and drivability. Currently, tire companies are working on a non-pneumatic tire created from a uni-material that can be reused or recycled.

If you’re in the market for new tires, check out a Utah tire store near you. Ask about the best type of tire for your vehicle, including tires for Utah winters. Your local dealer can point you to the latest in winter tires.

Want to know more about the tires your cars currently have? You can find it with this infographic. It discusses tires from the beginning of time, its transformation in the 19th century up to these days. The purpose is still the same but the changes show how people innovate it to ensure its maximum usage and performance.


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