All the winners and runners-up so far trough the years of the Europa League.
|2011-2012||Atlético Madrid||Athletic Bilbao|
The first Europa League tournament was played in the season 2009-2010. Before 2009 the tournament was called UEFA Cup, continue to UEFA Cup winners and runners-up.
The Europa League is a rather young competition and the legacy can't compete with other big European Cups. The most successful club so far are Sevilla and Atlético Madrid with remarkable results, both collecting three trophies.
As mentioned above, Sevilla has so far excelled themself in the competition. If all competitions, with both UEFA Cup and Europa League aggregated, Sevilla would have five titles, two more than any other time.
Table 2 is a comparison by clubs in UEFA Europa League with UEFA Cup editions excluded, between 2010 and 2019.
If UEFA Cup was included, Sevilla would still top the list with six titles. Benfica is so far the only team that have been the runners-up twice.
UEFA Europa League timeline
1971 UEFA Cup, the predecessor of UEFA Europe League, is established.
2009 The competition is established.
2012 Atlético Madrid become the first club to win the tournament twice (2010 and 2012).
2016 Sevilla become the first club to win the tournament trice and also by consecutive victories (2014, 2015 and 2016).
2020 Sevilla become the first club to win the tournament four times.
After Slovenia, Croatia is the second country from ex-Yugoslavia to join the EU. The European perspective remains open to the entire Western Balkans region.
Two more countries from eastern Europe, Bulgaria and Romania, join the EU, bringing the number of member states to 27 countries.
Ten new countries join the EU: Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. This was the largest single enlargement in terms of people, and number of countries.
Austria, Finland and Sweden join the EU. The 15 members now cover almost the whole of western Europe.
Spain and Portugal become members
Membership of the EU reaches double figures when Greece joins. It has been eligible to join since its military regime was overthrown and democracy restored in 1974.
Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom join the European Union, raising the number of member states to nine.
The organisation founded in 1957 which is now known as the European Union, originally had six members: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
The level of support for EU farmers from the overall EU budget reflects the many variables involved in ensuring continued access to high quality food, which includes functions such as income support to farmers, climate change action, and maintaining vibrant rural communities.
The CAP is financed through two funds as part of the EU budget:
- the European agricultural guarantee fund (EAGF) provides direct support and funds market measures
- the European agricultural fund for rural development (EAFRD) finances rural development.
Payments are managed at the national level by each European Union country. Information about the recipients of CAP payments is published by each country, in accordance with EU transparency rules.
In 1997, a Europa Orbiter mission was proposed by a team for NASA's Discovery program  but was not selected. NASA's JPL announced one month after the selection of Discovery proposals that a NASA Europa orbiter mission would be conducted. JPL then invited the Discovery proposal team to be the Mission Review Committee (MRC). [ citation needed ]
At the same time as the proposal of the Discovery-class Europa Orbiter the robotic Galileo spacecraft was already orbiting Jupiter. From 8 December 1995 to 7 December 1997 Galileo conducted the primary mission after entering the orbit of Jupiter. On that final date the Galileo orbiter commenced an extended mission known as the Galileo Europa Mission (GEM), which ran until 31 December 1999. This was a low-cost mission, with a budget of only US$30 million. The smaller team of about 40-50 people (one-fifth the size of the primary mission's 200-person team from 1995-1997) did not have the resources to deal with problems, but when they arose it was able to temporarily recall former team members (called "tiger teams") for intensive efforts to solve them. The spacecraft made several flybys of Europa (8), Callisto (4) and Io (2). On each flyby of the three moons, it encountered the spacecraft collected only two days' worth of data instead of the seven it had collected during the primary mission. This Galileo Europa Mission was similar to a small-scale version of what the Europa Clipper is planning to accomplish. GEM included eight flybys of Europa, ranging from 196 km (122 mi) to 3,582 km (2,226 mi), in two years. 
Europa has been identified as one of the locations in the Solar System that could possibly harbor microbial extraterrestrial life.    Immediately following the Galileo spacecraft's discoveries and the independent Discovery program proposal for a Europa orbiter, JPL conducted preliminary mission studies that envisioned a capable spacecraft such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (a US$16 billion mission concept),  the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (a US$4.3 billion concept), an orbiter (US$2 billion concept), and a multi-flyby spacecraft: Europa Clipper. 
Europa Clipper is still in its planning phase and early development, but the approximate cost estimate rose from US$2 billion in 2013,   to US$4.25 billion in 2020.   The mission is a joint project between the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).   The mission's name is a reference to the lightweight clipper ships of the 19th century that routinely plied trade routes around the world.  The moniker was chosen because the spacecraft will "sail" past Europa, as frequently as every two weeks. 
In March 2013, US$75 million were authorized to expand on the formulation of mission activities, mature the proposed science goals, and fund preliminary instrument development,  as suggested in 2011 by the Planetary Science Decadal Survey.   In May 2014, a House bill substantially increased the Europa Clipper (referred to as Europa Multiple Flyby Mission) funding budget for the 2014 fiscal year from US$15 million   to US$100 million to be applied to pre-formulation work.  
Following the 2014 election cycle, bipartisan support was pledged to continue funding for the Europa Multiple Flyby Mission project.   The executive branch has also granted US$30 million for preliminary studies.  
In April 2015, NASA offered to the European Space Agency to submit concepts for an additional probe to fly together with the Europa Clipper spacecraft, with a mass limit of 250 kg maximum.  It could be a simple probe, an impactor,  or a lander.  An internal assessment at European Space Agency (ESA) is underway to see if there is interest and funds available,     opening a collaboration scheme similar to the very successful Cassini-Huygens approach. 
In May 2015, NASA chose nine instruments that would fly on board the orbiter. They will cost about US$110 million over the next three years.  In June 2015, NASA announced its approval of the mission concept, allowing the orbiter to move to its formulation stage,  and in January 2016 it approved a lander as well.   In May 2016, the Ocean Worlds Exploration Program was approved,  of which the Europa mission is part.  In February 2017, the mission moved from Phase A to Phase B (the preliminary design phase). 
On 18 July 2017, the House Space Subcommittee held hearings on the Europa Clipper as a scheduled Large Strategic Science Missions class, and to discuss a possible follow up mission simply known as the Europa Lander. 
Phase B continued into 2019.  In addition, subsystem vendors were selected, as well as prototype hardware elements for the science instruments. Spacecraft sub-assemblies will be built and tested as well.  On 19 August 2019, the Europa Clipper was confirmed to move on to Phase C: final design and fabrication. 
EU bans Belarusian air carriers from its airspace and airports
The Council decided on 4 June to strengthen the existing restrictive measures in view of the situation in Belarus by introducing a ban on the overflight of EU airspace and on access to EU airports by Belarusian carriers of all kinds.
EU member states will therefore be required to deny permission to land in, take off from or overfly their territories to any aircraft operated by Belarusian air carriers, including as a marketing carrier.
EU leaders condemn forced landing in Minsk and call for new sanctions
The European Council strongly condemns the forced landing of a Ryanair flight in Minsk, Belarus, on 23 May 2021 endangering aviation safety, and the detention by Belarusian authorities of journalist Raman Pratasevich and Sofia Sapega.
EU leaders invited the Council to adopt relevant sanctions concerning persons and entities as soon as possible
EU imposes third round of sanctions over ongoing repression
In response to the brutality of the Belarusian authorities and in support of the democratic rights of the Belarusian people, the Council decided to adopt 36 additional designations. These sanctions target high-level officials responsible for the ongoing violent repression and intimidation of peaceful demonstrators, opposition members and journalists, among others. They also target economic actors, prominent businessmen and companies benefiting from and/or supporting the regime of Aleksandr Lukashenko.
Alexandr Lukashenko and 14 other officials sanctioned over ongoing repression
The Council added 15 members of the Belarusian authorities, including Alexandr Lukashenko as well as his son and National Security Adviser Viktor Lukashenko, to the list of individuals sanctioned in relation to the violent repression and intimidation of peaceful demonstrators, opposition members and journalists after the 2020 presidential election in Belarus.
EU imposes sanctions for repression and election falsification
The Council imposed restrictive measures against 40 individuals identified as responsible for repression and intimidation against peaceful demonstrators, opposition members and journalists in the wake of the 2020 presidential election in Belarus, as well as for misconduct of the electoral process.
Restrictive measures include a travel ban and an asset freeze. The travel ban impedes the listed people from entering or transiting through EU territories, while the asset freeze is used against the funds or economic resources of the listed persons. In addition, EU citizens and companies are forbidden from making funds available to those listed.
EU leaders agree that restrictive measures should be imposed
EU leaders called on the Belarusian authorities to end violence and repression, release all detainees and political prisoners, respect media freedom and civil society, and start an inclusive national dialogue. They agreed that restrictive measures should be imposed and called on the Council to adopt the decision without delay. The European Council also encouraged the European Commission to prepare a plan of economic support for democratic Belarus.
EU leaders discuss Belarus elections
As the elections in Belarus were neither free nor fair, and did not meet international standards, the EU does not recognise the results presented by the Belarus authorities. Leaders condemned the violence against peaceful protesters. They affirmed the EU expects a complete and transparent investigation into all alleged abuses, and that civil society and opposition actors must be protected from arbitrary arrests and violence.
The EU foreign ministers address 2020 Belarusian presidential elections
Popular Age-of-the-Sage pagesabout European history
2 The French Revolution of 1848 A particular focus on France - as an Austrian foreign minister said "When France sneezes Europe catches a cold".
3 The Revolution of 1848 in the German Lands and central Europe "Germany" had a movement for a single parliament in 1848 and many central European would-be "nations" attempted to assert a distinct existence separate from the dynastic sovereignties they had been living under.
4 The "Italian" Revolution of 1848 A "liberal" Papacy after 1846 helps allow the embers of an "Italian" national aspiration to rekindle across the Italian Peninsula.
Europa Timeline - History
Jan 21 John D. Rockefeller pledges $1,000,000 as relief for Europe's destitute.
Feb12 Lenin has given his consent to move against rule in Georgia by his old opponents within the socialist movement, the Social Democrats (Mensheviks). The Republic of Georgia is invaded by the Red Army.
Feb 20 Backed by the British, who are afraid of Bolshevik expansion, a soldier in Iran, Riza Khan Pahlevi, marches into Tehran with 2,500 soldiers and takes control of the government. Iran's corrupt and ineffectual Qajar dynasty is abolished. In 1926, Riza Khan Pahlevi is to be coronated King of Kings (Shahenshah).
Feb 21 Benito Mussolini joins his Fascist militia to Italy's regular army.
Feb 25 The Red Army enters the Georgian capital Tbilisi and installs a Moscow-directed government.
Mar 4 Warren G. Harding is inaugurated as the 29th President of the United States. Liberty and civilization were threatened he says, but "we find them both now secure." He looks forward to America's new era of Republican domination of the presidency and congress: "The forward course of the business cycle is unmistakable. . I know that Congress and the Administration will favor every wise Government policy to aid the resumption and encourage continued progress."
Mar 7 Hardship and Bolshevik authoritarianism is accompanied by rebellion among the sailors at Russia's Kronstadt naval base. The sailors call for "real Soviet power." After several days of fighting the Red Army will crush the rebellion and chase surviving rebels across the border into Finland.
Mar 13 A counter-revolutionary Russian army captures Mongolia from China. Its leader, Baron Roman Nikolai Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg, age 35, declares himself Mongolia's ruler.
Mar 16 The Soviets have decided to pursue trade opportunities with the Western powers. A trade agreement is concluded with Britain.
Mar 18 The Bolsheviks want an end to the Polish-Soviet War. They sign the Treaty of Riga, a settlement favorable to the Poles that puts many Ukrainians and Byelorussians inside Poland. The treaty is to be undone following the Hitler-Stalin Pact.
Mar 18 The Mongolian military leader Damdiny Sükhbaatar, fighting on behalf of Mongolia's People's Part and heavily outnumbered, defeats a Chinese force inside Mongolia. Into the 21st century this day is to be a holiday in Mongolia..
Mar 21 For Lenin the Kronstadt rebellion is a sign of the need to ease up wartime government authoritarianism. He begins what is called the New Economic Policy. Lenin allows some free Markets to reappear and small-scale capitalist industries to function. The Soviet government stops forced confiscations of grain and allows peasants to sell their surplus grain on the opened market.
Mar 23 A plebiscite in Silesia votes for re-annexation to Germany.
Mar 31 Abkhazia (in the Caucasus region) becomes an autonomous republic within the Soviet Union.
Apr 1 Abdullah, a member of the Hashimite family, brother of Faisal, becomes Emir of Transjordan.
Apr 11 Iowa becomes the first state to impose a cigarette tax.
Apr 14 In Britain, labour unions for mining, railway and transportation workers call for a strike the government threatens to call in the army.
May 1 In Palestine, fighting breaks out between rival Jewish socialist groups commemorating May Day (one of them belonging to a communist party). Arabs hear of the fighting and assume Arabs are being attacked. Within a week, in what will be known as the Jaffa Riots, 47 Jews and 48 Arabs will be killed. In the wake of the Jaffa Riot, Tel Aviv will become a separate city, the first all Jewish municipality.
May 2 Poles in Silesia (an industrial area surrounded by Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia) rise again against German rule. They want to be a part of the new Polish republic. Uncertainty has reigns among the Allies, France siding with the Poles and Britain and Italy siding with the German claim that they could not pay war reparations if they were to lose their Silesian industries. The crisis will last to July. Silesia will be divided between Germany and Poland. German-Polish hostility increases.
May 23 War crimes trials commissioned by the Allies of World War I against Germans begins In Leipzig. Nine German veterans are tried. Outside Germany the trials will be viewed as a travesty. In 1922 the trials will be quietly abandoned.
May 31 Tulsa has white migrants from the South. A prosperous black community exists in the Greenwood district in Tulsa. An incident escalates into an assault by whites into the Greenwood area. Businesses will be set afire. There will be 39 official deaths and more than 800 wounded.
Jun 30 The death penalty for all crimes in peacetime is abolished in Sweden.
Jul 1 The Communist Party of China is officially founded in Shanghai by a young librarian, Mao Zedung.
Jul 1 The Rif War (1920-26) is underway. In north-eastern Morocco, Abd el-Krim's fighters present the Spanish with what will be known as the disaster of Annua. Of some 20,000 Spanish troops an estimated 8,000 are killed or disappear.
July 11 The Irish War of Independence (since January 1919) comes to an end when a truce is signed between the British Government and Irish forces.
Jul 11 Mongolian nationalists have asked for Red Army support against anti-Communist (White) Russian troops. A combined Red Army Mongolian force has defeated Baron Ungern von Sternberg's forces. The Mongolian People's Party acquires political power. The country's Buddhist spiritual leader and monarch, Bogd Kahn, remains as a figurehead.
Faisal I, King of Iraq, formerly King of Syria, for three months in 1920. (Played by Alec Guiness in Lawrence of Arabia.) He had wanted unity between Sunnit and Shiite in an Arab state that would include Syria, Iraq and the rest of the Fertile Crescent. But France and Britain were had more control in what had been part of the Ottoman Empire.
Jul 13 Famine in raging in Russia's Volga-Urals region. Russia population this year will fall 3.8 percent. There will be reports of cannibalism. The writer Maxim Gorky publishes an appeal "to all honorable people" in the world for food and medicine.
Jul 28 Adolf Hitler becomes chairman of the National Socialist German Workers' Party.
Aug 9 Albanian forces occupy Yugoslav territory, starting a war to last into November.
Aug 21 After three weeks of difficult negotiations, the Soviet Union agrees to allow the American Relief Administration to function with some independence. Participants will include Herbert Hoover's American Relief Administration, the American Friends Service Committee and the International Save the Children Union. The first feeding center will open in October.
Aug 23 Faisal, a brother of Abdullah I of TransJordan and an ally with Britain against the Turks during World War I, is installed by the British as King of Iraq. He is crowned in Baghdad.
Aug 26 Matthias Erzberger, an influential centrist Catholic politician, who signed the armistice with the Allies, is hated by German rightists. He is shot while on vacation. His assassins return to Munich and are given false passports by the Bavarian Police.
Sep 2 At the Battle of Blair Mountain in West Virginia an army of 10 to 15 thousand miners and their families face a private army of some 2,000 men and 2,100 state and federal troops. The fledgling US Air Force drops a few bombs as a demonstration meant to overawe the labor organizers. The death toll from the battle will be estimated as fewer than 20 and more than 50.
Sep 3 In Horton Bay, Michigan, Ernest Hemingway (age 22) marries Hadley Richardson, a wealthy debutante 8 years his senior.
Sep 16 The Greek army, favored by Turkey's World War I enemies have been advancing, spreading their forces thin and extending their supply lines. Kemal Ataturk checks the Greek advance at the 23-day Battle of Sakarya, which began on August 24. The morale of the Turkish nation soars at Kemal's victory, adding to Kemal's strength.
Oct 1 An agreement concluded between the Soviet and the Norwegian governments that regulates their relations, signed on September 2, goes into effect. The Communist Party no longer faces an acute military threat to its existence. The civil war in effect is over. Russia is exhausted and its Great Famine continues, to last into the spring of 1922.
Nov 9 In Italy, a paramilitary group declares itself a political party: the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascist). The party's leader (El Duce) is Benito Mussolini.
Nov 18 The war between Albania and Yugoslvia that began on August 9 is resolved by a League of Nations conference that has defined the border between these two powers.
Dec 6 British and Irish representatives sign a treaty in London formally ending the Irish War of Independence. The treaty provides for the creation of the Irish Free State. According to the treaty, Ireland is to be a self-governing dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations (a new term to replace the British Empire). Six counties in north-east Ireland will have the option of withdrawing from the Irish Free State within one month of the Treaty coming into effect one year hence.
Dec 21 The US Supreme Court rules labor injunctions and picketing unconstitutional.
Dec 23 President Harding commutes the ten-year prison sentence of the socialist and former presidential candidate Eugene Debs, who has been in prison for the last four years for an anti-war speech he had made in 1918. Harding disturbs some anti-Communists by inviting Debs to the White House, where he shakes Debs' hand and says that he had always wanted to meet him.
History of Europe
The classical history of Europe dates from the Greek civilization around 800 BC, followed by the Roman Empire which reached its greatest extent around 150 BC. The first millennium AD was characterized with the spread of Christianity, decline of the Roman Empire, the rise of the Church and its control of political authority. The second millennia saw holy wars, attacks from Mongols, great famines and plagues, great progress in arts and sciences, Renaissance, discovery of New World, French Revolution, colonization of the Americas, Industrial Revolution, rise of nation states and disastrous World Wars in the 20th century.
The following parts of European History have their own separate video listing pages:
|Ancient Greece||French Revolution||World War II|
|Ancient Rome||World War I||Cold War|
1938: The Rising Tide
- British Ambassador to Germany proposes an offer to give Germany Most of Africa, in exchange for an agreement that Germany would never resort to war to solver her border conflicts, Hitler agrees.(But plans to invade Poland and The Soviet Union.)
- Austrians vote to join Germany, the German Reich annexes them the next week.
- France declares that it will protect Czechoslovakia, from German aggression
- Germany Demands Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia
- France Warns Germany that if they attack Czechoslovakia they will Mobilize, Germany not wanting war so soon they decide to back off
- The May Crisis cool's down.
- Japan having enough of American sanction's attack Pearl Harbor killing over 2,000 people.
- America Declares war on Japan
- The Japanese-American War begins
- The 1938 World Cup takes place
- The Nazis decide to use the Afrika Plan, instead of killing of the Jews, Slavs, gays, etc. They deport them to Africa, Hitler agrees.
- Neville Chamberlain returns to Britain from Germany in a peace talk a "Peace for our time"
- The next day Germany invades Czechoslovakia, Germany, annexes the Sudetenland.
- France, outrages demands a German withdrawal from the Sudetenland
- France puts heavy sanctions and an embargo on Germany.
- Britain and Germany sign the Munich Agreement.
- France outraged over British cowardice, distances themselves from Britain.
- American Troops take Tulagi
-The Vienna Award splits Czechoslovakia, Czechia goes to Germany, Southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ruthenia goes to Hungary, Poland gets Zaolzie, and Slovakia is made a puppet state of Germany.
- The Afrika Plan goes into effect.
- Nuclear Fission of Uranium discovered.