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Day 259 October 4, 2011 - History

Day 259 October 4, 2011 - History


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9:15AM THE PRESIDENT departs the South Lawn en route Joint Base Andrews South Lawn

9:30AM THE PRESIDENT departs Joint Base Andrews en route Dallas, TX

11:20AM THE PRESIDENT arrives Dallas, TX Dallas Love Field

12:35PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks at a campaign event Sheraton Hotel, Dallas, TX

1:00PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks at a campaign event Sheraton Hotel

2:35PM THE PRESIDENT tours Children’s Laboratory School at Eastfield College

2:55PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks urging Congress to pass the American Jobs Act now Eastfield College

3:55PM THE PRESIDENT departs Dallas, Texas en route St. Louis, MO Dallas Love Field

5:25PM THE PRESIDENT arrives St. Louis, MO St. Louis Lambert Field

6:45PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks at a campaign event Renaissance Hotel, St. Louis, MO

7:35PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks at a campaign event Private Residence

9:00PM THE PRESIDENT departs St. Louis, MO en route Joint Base Andrews St. Louis Lambert Field

EDT  11:55PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Joint Base Andrews Out-of-Town Travel Pool Coverage  12:10AM THE PRESIDENT arrives the White House South Lawn


Container ship scores ‘off the charts,’ ‘fantasy’ charter rate: $135,000/day

S Santiago (right) wins record charter (Photo: Flickr/Kees Torn)

In a sign of just how frenzied the container market has become, a freight forwarder is reportedly paying $135,000 per day for a short-term charter of the S Santiago, a 15-year-old container ship with a capacity of 5,060 twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs).

“Charter rates for short employment … have gone out of control,” said Alphaliner in its new weekly report.

“Depending on the sources, the ship would have obtained anything between $100,000 and $145,000 per day, an absolute historic high. The name of the charterer has not been fully confirmed, although it is believed to be a forwarder.”

An industry source speaking to American Shipper on condition of anonymity said the rate was $135,000 per day, the duration was 45-90 days (one round voyage with an option for a second) and the charterer was Chinese freight forwarder 3 Seas.

The source said that there is “more and more enquiry every day” with “people panicking now” amid “unprecedented times.”

Alphaliner said that “this colossal rate is substantially higher than the already whopping $70,000-$90,000 per day — depending on the final duration — agreed recently by Hapag-Lloyd for a two- to three-month employment of the 4,308-TEU CMA CGM Opal.”

The industry source told American Shipper that the S Santiago deal was concluded last week and that he wouldn’t be surprised if a new record were reached this week.

According to U.K.-based valuation and data provider VesselsValue, the 2006-built S Santiago is owned by Cyprus Sea Lines and is currently valued at $38.48 million.

To put the enormity of the charter deal in perspective, the shipowner will earn back one-sixth of the ship’s value in a single voyage — and one-third of the vessel’s value if the charterer takes the option for the second voyage.

What this means for cargo shippers

The historic S Santiago transaction is yet another big red flag for cargo shippers. Charter rates like this only make sense if freight rates are high enough for the charterer to turn a profit.

It also underscores just how tight vessel supply is.

Alphaliner reported that only 2.7% of the global container fleet was inactive as of May 24, totaling 660,662 TEUs. Of that, 70% (461,779 TEUs) was inactive due to ships being in the yards for repairs or maintenance.

And cargo shippers will not be getting any relief in the near or medium term from newbuild deliveries.

There has been a surge of orders recently, but those are for 2023-2024 deliveries. Clarksons Research Services estimates that fleet growth in 2022 will fall to 2.5% from 4.6% this year.

What this means for ship lessors

The S Santiago rate was so high because ship lessors, otherwise known as non-operating owners (NOOs), much prefer to put their tonnage on multiyear charters and lock in long-term profits.

“Those electing to accept short-term charters are likely doing so to capture fantasy rates near term,” said Fearnley Securities, referring to the “off the charts” S Santiago transaction.

According to Alphaliner, “The market has become one of long-term charters, with 43 of the 51 fixtures reported in the past two weeks concluded for durations of 24 months or over.” Of that total, three charters were for five years’ duration, nine were for four years, 10 for three years and the remainder for two years.

Listed NOOs include Costamare (NYSE: CMRE), Danaos Corp. (NYSE: DAC), Seaspan owner Atlas Corp. (NYSE: ATCO), Global Ship Lease (NYSE: GSL), Navios Partners (NYSE: NMM), Euroseas (NASDAQ: ESEA), Capital Product Partners (NASDAQ: CPLP) and MPC Containers (Oslo: MPCC).

What this means for liners

The record-setting charter market implies medium-term downside risk for liner companies.

Today’s unprecedented freight income more than offsets stratospheric charter costs, but NOOs are forcing liner operators to accept longer durations to get the ships. If freight rates were to fall significantly by 2023-24, charter rates negotiated in 2021 will be much more painful to liners’ bottom lines.

As of Sept. 30, 2020, 71% of its capacity was chartered for a year or less. The company touted the advantage in its IPO prospectus, stating, “Short-term charter arrangements allow us to adjust our capacity quickly in anticipation of, or in response to, changing market conditions.”

But as ZIM has rapidly increased its fleet size to capture freight-rate upside, charter durations have ballooned. Its fleet size nearly doubled from 59 vessels in mid-May 2020 to 110 as of mid-May 2021.

According to Alphaliner, charters by ZIM over the past month include the 6,648-TEU Kobe for 44-48 months at $45,000 per day an extension of its charter of the 9,784-TEU Santa Linea for 40 months at $42,500 per day starting in Q1 2022 and an extension of its charter of the 3,534-TEU Bach for 36-38 months at $31,250 per day.

During the latest quarterly conference call, ZIM CFO Xavier Destriau conceded a shift to longer durations out of necessity.

“We will continue to bring in vessels in order to capture [revenue] from new lines we are opening and to renew existing charters,” said Destriau. “We are not changing our strategy, which is to continue to rely on the charter market. What is changing is the allocation of short-term charters versus long-term charters due to the current market conditions, obviously.”


Liberty Matters: A Forum for the Discussion of Ideas About Liberty Liberty and Virtue: Frank Meyer's Fusionism (June 2021)

Welcome to our June 2021 edition of Liberty Matters. This month Stephanie Slade, managing editor at Reason magazine, has written our lead essay on Frank Meyer. Liberty Fund publishes Meyer’s most widely cited book In Defense of Freedom and related essays which also includes a number of Meyer’s more well known essays. Meyer was one of the founders, along with William F. Buckley, of National Re.


Grover, Thomas

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Jenson, Andrew. Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia: A Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 4 vols. Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson History Co., 1901�.

U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

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“Grover, Thomas,” Farmington City Cemetery, Farmington, Davis Co., UT, Utah Cemetery and Burial Database, http://cemeteries.utah.gov/burials/execute/viewburial?id=4341&cemeteryid=DV0700 (accessed 20 Apr. 2012) “Grover, Thomas,” in Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:142 “Gone to Rest,” Deseret News, 𠀣 Mar. 1886, 1.  

Utah Cemetery and Burial Database. Compiled by Utah State History, Utah Department of Community and Culture. http://heritage.utah.gov/history/cemeteries.

Jenson, Andrew. Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia: A Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 4 vols. Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson History Co., 1901�.

Deseret News. Salt Lake City. 1850–.

Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 72, 75.  

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

“Grover, Thomas,” in Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:137 Temple Records Index Bureau, Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register, 12.  

Jenson, Andrew. Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia: A Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 4 vols. Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson History Co., 1901�.

Temple Records Index Bureau of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register, 10 December 1845 to 8 February 1846. Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1974.

“Grover, Thomas,” in Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:137 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Farmington Ward, Farmington, Davis Co., UT, Record of Members, 1849�, vol. B, p. 33, microfilm 25,942, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 72 Temple Records Index Bureau, Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register, 12.  

Jenson, Andrew. Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia: A Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 4 vols. Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson History Co., 1901�.

U.S. and Canada Record Collection. FHL.

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

Temple Records Index Bureau of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Nauvoo Temple Endowment Register, 10 December 1845 to 8 February 1846. Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1974.

Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 72.  

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

Black, Who’s Who in the Doctrine and Covenants, 111.  

Black, Susan Easton. Who’s Who in the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1997.

Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 72 Cook, Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 259.  

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

Cook, Lyndon W. The Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith: A Historical and Biographical Commentary of the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1985.

Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 72� Black, Who’s Who in the Doctrine and Covenants, 111.  

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

Black, Susan Easton. Who’s Who in the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1997.

Cook, Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 259.  

Cook, Lyndon W. The Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith: A Historical and Biographical Commentary of the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1985.

Minute Book 1 / 𠇌onference A,” 1832�. CHL. Also available at josephsmithpapers.org.

Minute Book 1 / 𠇌onference A,” 1832�. CHL. Also available at josephsmithpapers.org.

Cook, Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 259 Minute Book 2, 1 Aug. 1837.  

Cook, Lyndon W. The Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith: A Historical and Biographical Commentary of the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1985.

Minute Book 2 / “The Conference Minutes and Record Book of Christ’s Church of Latter Day Saints,” 1838, 1842, 1844. CHL. Also available at josephsmithpapers.org.

Far West Committee, Minutes, 26 Jan. 1839.  

Far West Committee. Minutes, Jan.𠄺pr. 1839. CHL. MS 2564.

Thomas Grover, Affidavit, Adams Co., IL, 7 May 1839, in Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions, 221�.  

Johnson, Clark V., ed. Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833� Missouri Conflict. Religious Studies Center Monograph Series 16. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1992.

Cook, Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 259.  

Cook, Lyndon W. The Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith: A Historical and Biographical Commentary of the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1985.

Cook, Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 259.  

Cook, Lyndon W. The Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith: A Historical and Biographical Commentary of the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1985.

Cook, Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 259 Hess, My Farmington, 63 “Grover, Thomas,” in Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:138.  

Cook, Lyndon W. The Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith: A Historical and Biographical Commentary of the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1985.

Hess, Margaret Steed. My Farmington: A History of Farmington, Utah, 1847�. Farmington, UT: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1976.

Jenson, Andrew. Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia: A Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 4 vols. Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson History Co., 1901�.

Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 77.  

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

Cook, Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 259 Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 73 “Grover, Thomas,” in Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:141.  

Cook, Lyndon W. The Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith: A Historical and Biographical Commentary of the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1985.

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

Jenson, Andrew. Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia: A Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 4 vols. Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson History Co., 1901�.

Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 73� Hess, My Farmington, 61.  

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

Hess, Margaret Steed. My Farmington: A History of Farmington, Utah, 1847�. Farmington, UT: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1976.

Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 75.  

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, �.  

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 75.  

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

“Grover, Thomas,” in Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:138 Cook, Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 259.  

Jenson, Andrew. Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia: A Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 4 vols. Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson History Co., 1901�.

Cook, Lyndon W. The Revelations of the Prophet Joseph Smith: A Historical and Biographical Commentary of the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1985.

Esshom, Pioneers and Prominent Men of Utah, 902.  

Esshom, Frank. Pioneers and Prominent Men of Utah: Comprising Photographs, Genealogies, Biographies. Salt Lake City: Utah Pioneers Book, 1913.

Black, Who’s Who in the Doctrine and Covenants, 112 Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 77.  

Black, Susan Easton. Who’s Who in the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1997.

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

Black, Who’s Who in the Doctrine and Covenants, 112 Grover, Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover, 77.  

Black, Susan Easton. Who’s Who in the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1997.

Grover, Joel P. The Ancestry and Genealogy of Thomas Grover: Born July 1807, Whitehall, N.Y., Died Feb. 1886, Farmington, Utah Utah Pioneer, 1847. Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1960.

“Grover, Thomas,” in Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:141.  

Jenson, Andrew. Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia: A Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 4 vols. Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson History Co., 1901�.

“Grover, Thomas,” Farmington City Cemetery, Farmington, Davis Co., UT, Utah Cemetery and Burial Database, http://cemeteries.utah.gov/burials/execute/viewburial?id=4341&cemeteryid=DV0700 (accessed 20 Apr. 2012) “Grover, Thomas,” in Jenson, LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, 4:142 “Gone to Rest,” Deseret News, 𠀣 Mar. 1886, 1.  

Utah Cemetery and Burial Database. Compiled by Utah State History, Utah Department of Community and Culture. http://heritage.utah.gov/history/cemeteries.

Jenson, Andrew. Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia: A Compilation of Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and Women in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 4 vols. Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson History Co., 1901�.


FreightWaves Classics: Exploring the history of BNSF

A passing flash identifies BNSF locomotive No. 7360 pulling an intermodal stack car with BNSF domestic containers across the Southwest desert. (Photo: Jim Allen/FreightWaves)

Like many of the FreightWaves staff and our readers, I like trucks… and ships, airplanes and trains. I also like to learn the history of different aspects of transportation and logistics and the companies that have helped build that history.

This is the first installment of a multi-part article on the history of BNSF Railway, one of the seven Class I railroads remaining in North America. Much of the information contained in this and later articles comes from the BNSF website and specifically the BNSF Historical Overview.

Today, BNSF serves the western two-thirds of the United States, parts of Canada and important Mexican gateways. The railroad’s routes cover approximately 32,500 miles.

BNSF is the only Class I railroad that is not publicly traded. On February 12, 2010, Burlington Northern Santa Fe, LLC (formerly known as Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corporation) and BNSF Railway Company became subsidiaries of Berkshire Hathaway Inc.

Now part of the Berkshire Hathaway family of companies for nearly 11 years, the BNSF Railway that Berkshire Hathaway acquired in 2010 was itself the product of the September 22, 1995, merger of Burlington Northern Inc. and Santa Fe Pacific Corp. When those two great railroad companies merged, they included the lineage of nearly 400 different railroads that either merged or were acquired over more than 170 years. Iterations of the BNSF logo and its key historical railroads are seen below.

The earliest predecessors

The oldest of the BNSF predecessors were both founded in 1849.

The Aurora Branch Line eventually became the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (railroad reporting mark CB&Q) and the Pacific Railroad of Missouri (some of which became the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway, known as the “Frisco”).

Today’s article will cover highlights in the history of the Burlington Lines – the “B” in BNSF.

The Aurora Branch

Today, Aurora, Illinois, is an outer suburb of Chicago and the second most populous city in the state. In the late 1840s, however, the two cities were separated by 50 miles of rutted dirt roads with no rail service. Aurora business leaders decided to build a branch railway line between the two cities. This led to the organization of the Aurora Branch on February 12, 1849. The new railroad borrowed equipment from existing railroads and built its track operating on rail laid with second-hand scrap iron spiked to wooden rails. The scrap iron was purchased from the Buffalo & Niagara Falls Railroad following a ban on its use by the New York legislature.

The first Aurora Branch train traveled six miles, from Batavia to Turner Junction (now named West Chicago) on September 2, 1850. It used a locomotive and railcars borrowed from the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad. In Turner Junction the train then switched to the tracks of the Galena line, which had been completed to Chicago in 1849. With this rather humble beginning, the Aurora Branch became the second railroad to serve Chicago.

The Aurora Branch’s local ownership only lasted a couple of years a group of Boston investors bought the line in 1852. Under the new ownership/leadership, the railroad’s growth was impressive.

An early Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad engine and wood car. (Photo: BNSF)

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. (the Burlington)

By 1864, the railroad had built 400 miles of track within Illinois. The railroad’s name was changed to the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. (CB&Q), reflecting its route, which led to the Mississippi River towns of Burlington, Iowa, and Quincy, Illinois. The railroad’s official name remained the same for the next 106 years, changing only when the Burlington Northern merger took place in 1970. However, during those 100+ years, the railroad was known by most simply as “the Burlington.”

The railroad completed its original line from Aurora to Chicago in 1864. When Chicago’s Union Stockyards opened in 1865, the CB&Q operated the first train into the stockyards. For decades afterward the Chicago Stockyards were the destination for millions of cattle.

Burlington’s rapid expansion after the Civil War was based on sound fiscal management, led by John M. Forbes of Boston, who was assisted by Charles E. Perkins. Perkins served as the railroad’s president for 20 years (1881-1901) and nearly tripled the railroad’s size by creating a railway system from a number of loose affiliates.

What began as a small rail line to move goods from Aurora to Chicago in 1849 evolved to become Burlington Lines – the largest of Burlington Northern’s predecessor railroads. At its peak, the Burlington Lines owned nearly 10,000 miles of track – extending from the Great Lakes to the Rocky Mountains and from Montana to the Gulf of Mexico.

Good logos should be easily identified and understood, and should mean something specific to their viewers. The oldest logo in the BNSF family of railroads is the rectangular CB&Q trademark. The block logo with the words “Burlington Route,” is familiar to railroad enthusiasts. It was first used in railroad’s 1880 advertising in 1884 the company’s board of directors mandated its style and wording. “Burlington Route” is in distinctive white lettering on a black block, surrounded by a narrow white line, with a black line outside the white. The distinctive thick red border was added to the logo later.

The Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Co.

Eventually, the Burlington Lines acquired or merged over 200 railroads. Of these, two were of particular importance – the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Co. (H&St. J) and the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Co. (B&MR).

Construction on the Hannibal and St. Joseph’s Railroad began in 1852 and was finished in 1859. The two cities are on the eastern and western edges of the northern part of Missouri. The railroad was championed by key people at each end of the line’s route – including Hannibal’s John M. Clemens (the father of Samuel Clemens, who is better known by his pen name – Mark Twain).

The Pony Express and U.S. mail

The Hannibal and St. Joseph’s Railroad brought mail westward across Missouri to connect with the Pony Express, which began at St. Joseph’s and ran approximately 1,900 miles to Sacramento, California. Famous in U.S. history, the Pony Express only operated for about 18 months (April 3, 1860-October 26, 1861). The Pony Express shortened the time for messages to travel between its two eastern and western terminals to about 10 days. It became the West’s most direct means of east-west communication and was vital for tying the State of California with the rest of the United States.

An illustrated map of the route of the Pony Express in 1860 by William Henry Jackson
(Image: Library of Congress)

Interestingly, the owners of the Pony Express never won an official contract with the U.S. Postal Service, and so the service was a private one. When it began, the Pony Express charged $5.00 for the delivery of a one-ounce letter/package (the equivalent of about $140 today). Although the Pony Express never turned a profit, it did not fail for financial reasons. Instead, it was supplanted by improved technology. The transcontinental telegraph was established on October 24, 1861 the Pony Express went out of business just two days later (October 26).

In addition to its Pony Express connection, the Hannibal and St. Joseph’s also sped the delivery of U.S. mail. In 1862 the railroad introduced the first railcar in which employees could sort U.S. mail while the train was en route. At that time, money (not money orders or checks) was often sent by mail. Of course, the trains also carried money and gold for payrolls and other functions. During the Civil War, Kansas and Missouri were on the edge of the “official” fighting, but Confederate raiders often attacked the railroad trains. After the war, the railroad’s trains were a periodic target of the James Gang and other train robbers.

The Hannibal & St. Joseph’s Railroad first used specifically designed mail cars in 1862. (Photo: BNSF)

Bridging the Missouri and opening the Southwest

Another distinction of the Hannibal & St. Joseph’s Railroad – it was responsible for Kansas City becoming a rail hub. Directed by engineer Octave Chanute, the company completed the first bridge over the Missouri River in 1869. This bridge helped establish Kansas City as the gateway to the American Southwest and to its growth over the decades to come.

Rail service in Iowa

Sitting here in 2021, when reading about Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, etc. that these states were once “the frontier.” From Western movies, we think of the frontier primarily as the U.S. Desert Southwest. But each of our states at one time had “frontier territory.”

Railroads helped attract settlers to the land being offered in the territories and states. (Image: BNSF)

With that, in 1852 the B&MR was incorporated to build a railroad across Iowa. On New Year’s Day 1856 work began on the first several miles of the railroad’s track, moving westward from Burlington. By 1857, construction had progressed roughly 80 miles and reached the town of Ottumwa. It took 12 more years to build the railroad westward to the Missouri River, the border between Iowa and Nebraska. The B&MR received financial assistance from John Forbes of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. and its Boston and New York investors. Why? Because construction of the B&MR helped the westward extension of the CB&Q (which was a feeder railroad for another railroad that Forbes controlled, the Michigan Central).

In 1868, the CB&Q completed railroad bridges crossing over the Mississippi River at Burlington and Quincy. These bridges gave the CB&Q through connections with the B&MR and H&St. J.

The ties between the CB&Q and the H&St. J were cut in 1871 when financier Jay Gould gained control of the H&St. J. It took 12 years, but the Burlington system reacquired the H&St.J.

Into Nebraska

Although the B&MR was still laying track in Iowa, plans for an extension into Nebraska were put into place. In 1869, the Burlington & Missouri River Rail Road in Nebraska was founded. By mid-1870 construction on the railroad had reached Lincoln, the state capital, which had been founded in 1867. In 1872, the railroad established a junction with the Union Pacific Railroad at Kearney, Nebraska.

A railroad bridge over the Missouri River was finished and opened in 1880 at Plattsmouth and the B&MR in Nebraska had extended its rail line into western Nebraska. That same year the CB&Q bought the Nebraska railroad.

Members of a train crew stands next to a locomotive on a turntable. Turntables enabled railroads to turn locomotives and railcars up to 180 degrees. (Photo: BNSF)

Continued expansion

The first direct rail route between Chicago and Denver was completed in 1882 when the railroad pushed into Colorado. At the same time the CB&Q were being laid ever-westward, other segments were built in the Midwest to complete links and build out the system. Links to connect with St. Louis and Rock Island, Illinois (both key ports on the Mississippi River) were built, and plans to build a rail line north to Minneapolis-St. Paul were also made. Extending the railroad northwestward would give Burlington opportunities to haul grain and lumber south, and haul coal and manufactured products northward.

Therefore, in 1885, the company’s rail lines were extended from Oregon, Illinois (the Chicago & Iowa Railroad) and north from Fulton, Illinois, (on the route from St. Louis) to Savanna, Illinois, then north following the Mississippi River. The rail line was built to St. Paul in 1886.

The Burlington continued building rail lines. A main line led from St. Louis and Kansas City through St. Joseph, Missouri, and from Lincoln to Billings, Montana. During the same time period, the BM&Q either built or acquired numerous branch lines across the agricultural regions of northern Illinois, southern Iowa, northern Missouri and southeastern Nebraska. These rail lines connected the key population centers and the smaller towns of the Midwest.

A BNSF train heads to its next destination. (Photo: Flickr/Patrick Dirden)


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Drugs can be good and they can be bad. Many people abuse them and ruin their lives with them. Many prescription drugs are helpful by aiding in the healing process of sickness and in pain management. Illegal drugs cause most drug related problems in society. Drug abuse has many ill effects on society and teenagers, often resulting in violent crime and behavior.


Illegal drugs effect everyone. They may cause family problems, health problems, and effect job performance. The use of drugs that have to be injected into the body with a needle can increase chances of obtaining the HIV virus. Drugs that are smoked, for example marijuana, can cause lung cancer. Drugs effect the brain also, by causing brain cells to die and in cases resulting in permanent brain damage. The abuse of drugs also effects the economy. People, who use drugs on an everyday basis, have trouble doing their jobs. People, who are caught using drugs on the job, are an accident waiting to happen and should be fired (Croft, 15).


Many teenagers use illegal drugs. Drugs are very appealing to teenagers for many reasons. Many teenagers become involved in drugs to make money to support their own drug habits (Croft, 17). The use of drugs causes teenagers to lose interest in school, family, and many other important things in their lives. Many teenagers find it easier to use drugs than to work hard and make their lives worth while. The lack of positive morals and influence, make it easier for teenager to be sucked into the world of illegal drugs. Teenagers are the future and that is why many efforts need to be made to fight drug use.


Drugs cause many behavioral changes as well as violence. Drug use causes people to have mood swings that they usually would not have. They make people act violently towards close friends and family. Drugs cause violence in many other ways also. They cause people to act unruly and aggravated when trying to obtain money to buy them. While under the influence of drugs, many people do not realize the wrong they are doing. They have trouble determining between what is really happening and what is not (Miller, ).


Some groups believe that illegal drugs are helpful and should be legalized. They believe that people should be able to put what ever they want in their bodies (Libertarian Party, 1). They argue that many illegal drugs, such as marijuana, help ease pain. They also argue that drugs help them to escape from reality, thus, helping them to get through the day. These opinions are clearly the opinions of people who have no self-respect. Drugs should definitely not be legalized. This would make them too readily accessible to both teens and adults. The arguments against drugs heavily outweigh the arguments for them.


Drug use is a problem that has existed for many years. Whether it is a legal or illegal drug, everyone is effected at some time or another. The positive effects of the use of legal or prescription drugs, is necessary for healing and pain management. The negative effects of illegal drugs effect teens and their future. The crime rate as well as violent behavior could be reduced if the use of illegal drugs could be stopped.

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Midwin Charles, CNN Legal Contributor, Dies After Getting mRNA Vaccine

Midwin Charles, a prominent defense attorney and legal analyst for CNN and MSNBC, died suddenly at age 47.

Charles' family announced her untimely death in a post on her Instagram page. She passed away on Tuesday.

"It is with a profoundly heavy heart and the deepest sadness that we announce the untimely passing of our beloved Midwin Charles. She was known to many as a legal commentator on television, but to us she was a devoted daughter, sister, aunt, niece and cousin."

Now Charles' Instagram followers wonder if her death is linked to the experimental mRNA vaccine she received on March 1.

In a tweet on March 1, Charles complained about the high cost of her Epi-pen which is not covered by insurance.

Charles said she had a severe peanut allergy and she brought along an Epi-pen in case she suffered an anaphylactic shock to the mRNA injection.

Charles would have received her second dose around three or 4 weeks after her first shot -- or right before she died.

In a post dated March 15, Charles shared an image of her elderly mother getting the mRNA injection.

She captioned the image: "Mom got the vaccine while praying to the Lord! I'm sooooo happy! This took weeks of convincing by the way. It's gon be a hot elderly girl summer!"

Charles' followers reacted angrily after her sudden death.

One follower wrote: "I pray to God it doesn't kill her mom like it did her."

Another IG user wrote: "Now she knows why momma was afraid."

And a third user wrote: "You should have never convinced your mom to take this experimental drug smh!"


Wendy Williams Announces Split from Boyfriend Mike Esterman

Wendy Williams is single again, after a short-lived romance with contractor Mike Esterman.

The talk show host started dating Esterman after meeting him through her show's "Date Wendy" segment in February and March. And while Wendy met Mike's folks in Maryland, Esterman told the New York Post's Page Six on Monday that they have now gone their separate ways.

Esterman said his busy schedule left little room for a torrid romance with the daytime talk show Diva.

"She deserves to be with someone who may have more time," he said. "I had placed all work-related tasks aside to get to know her on a personal level, no angles or hidden agendas.

"I can only wish her the best as we both continue the search at our own paces and remain friends in the process. I have enjoyed our times together and felt great to be able to make her laugh."

Sources say Wendy still hasn't gotten over her ex, Kevin Hunter, who cheated on her throughout her marriage and fathered a baby out of wedlock.


The complete history of Apple&aposs iPod

To celebrate the iPod&aposs 10th birthday, we embark on a tour of the iconic MP3 player from its very first model, right up to the present day.

Apple&aposs iPod celebrates its 10th birthday this month. Rather than splash out on jelly and ice cream and party hats, we take a look through its past from its humble beginnings in 2001, through to the sharp new iPod touches of 2011.

Our iPod adventure begins in October 2001, when Apple launched its first portable music player.

The first incarnation of the device that was to revolutionise the music industry had a mechanical scroll wheel and launched with 5GB and 10GB capacities, starting at a shade under 򣌀.

The name &aposiPod&apos was coined for use with the Apple music player by copywriter Vinnie Chieco. He was called in by Apple to help market the new product. Curiously, Apple had already registered the trademark &aposiPod&apos, but had originally intended it to be used as the name for its Internet kiosks, though these never saw the light of day.

The second-generation iPod waved sayonara to the clunky mechanical scroll wheel and introduced the touch-sensitive version still in use today, albeit in a different form.

Released in July 2002, the new model built on the success of the first incarnation, and came in capacities up to 20GB for 򣎙, with the 5GB model at 򣉙 and 10GB for 򣌩.

With the third-generation iPod, Apple did away with the buttons that surrounded the touch-sensitive wheel, instead setting backlit controls horizontally under the LCD screen.

This edition launched in April 2003 and was the first model to use Apple&aposs 30-pin dock connector. 10GB, 15GB and 30GB models were available, costing 򣉉, 򣊙 and 򣎙 respectively.

The next child in Apple&aposs musical creche wasn&apost a new version of the existing iPod, but an entirely new model: the iPod mini. The mini launched in January 2004, with 4GB of memory for 򣆙.

The iPod mini came in five snazzy colours and brought with it the first use of the Click Wheel. This iconic and ground-breaking navigation system became ubiquitous within the iPod line until the iPhone was released in 2007, which uses purely gesture-based touch-sensitive control methods.

Mere months later, in July 2004, Apple launched the fourth-generation iPod. Like the mini, the new iPod boasted the Click Wheel -- one of Apple&aposs best interface innovations to date.

The fourth-generation model came in 20GB and 40GB capacities, costing 򣈙 and 򣊙 respectively. This model was seen as something of a blow to the iPod mini, as its price -- just ꌠ more than its younger brother -- represented much better value for money in terms of storage. Its significantly larger size attracted a different crowd, however, and so both models existed harmoniously.

Later that year, the iPod photo was launched. The date was September 2004 and this was the first model to feature a full-colour screen. As the name suggested, the iPod photo was geared up to store and display your photo albums.

This added extra came at one hell of a price (well, two prices): 򣍙 for the 40GB model 򣐩 for the 60GB. The iPod had pushed into the same price range as small second-hand cars. But hey, you could look at photos of those cars while you sat on the bus.

The 20GB U2-branded red and black iPod was also unveiled that month, costing 򣉉. It was a monochrome-screen fourth-gen iPod, re-skinned in tribute to rock&aposs most middle of the road Pope-botherers.

January 2004 had been the birth of the iPod mini. January 2005, just one year later, gave birth to a healthy new offspring: the first iPod shuffle.

The shuffle was something of a curiosity: it had no screen, no Click Wheel and no dock connector. At just ꍩ for 512MB, however, the shuffle instantly stole the hearts of joggers and young teens everywhere.

A 1GB model was also launched at a price of ꎙ. Some naysayers emitted loud nays at the shuffle&aposs launch, but over six years later, the shuffle, albeit in a totally new design, still reigns as king of the miniature MP3 players.

Just one month after the shuffle&aposs launch, Apple unveiled the second-generation iPod mini in February 2005.

The new minis had something of a makeover -- the colours on offer were much brighter, and the coloured lettering on the Click Wheel now matched that of the iPod&aposs body.

Battery life was also significantly improved (the original mini&aposs battery life was often criticised). A 6GB model was offered for 򣅩, while the original 4GB capacity sold for 򣄹 -- a far more reasonable price than the previous version.

When September 2005 arrived, the iPod mini drew the noose around its neck, took one final bow to its patrons and stepped to its death. It was, of course, the iPod nano that cut down the limp body, and it was vastly superior to its predecessor.

The iPod nano launched in black and white, and 2GB and 4GB capacities, costing 򣄹 and 򣅹 respectively. Gone were the mini&aposs micro-drives replacing them were the holier-than-thou flash memory. Although the nano was generally well received, its easily scratched screen not only caused a consumer outcry, but also sparked a class-action lawsuit against Apple. Apple subsequently shipped protective cases with future models.

In October 2005, Apple unveiled its next full-sized iPod -- a model whose form factor has not changed in two full years.

The fifth-generation iPod was the first model to play video and was very well received. It had a larger, sharper colour screen, slimmer form factor and better battery life.

A 30GB video iPod would set you back 򣈙, while a 60GB version would cost you 򣊙. An 80GB version was later released and included, among other things, a library-search feature, and was accompanied by fifth-generation iPod price cuts across the board.

It was over a year before Apple took the mask off its next iPod. In September 2006, the second-generation nano was launched.

The new nano had a trendy anodised aluminium casing and came in five colours. Two-gig, 4GB and 8GB models were available at ꎙ, 򣄩 and 򣅩 respectively.

The hysteric jubilation for the new iPod nano notwithstanding, Apple undid its trenchcoat again in September 2006 and flashed the world with another titchy member: the second-generation iPod shuffle.

Shuffle 2.0 came in the form of a clip. Some argue the new model had a clip others claim it was a clip. The other 99.98 per cent of civilisation simply sat back and got on with things.

The new shuffle came only in a 1GB version for a touch over ꍐ. Also present was the nano-esque anodised aluminium casing and the choice of several colours.

Then, in September 2007, we had a plethora of new iPods to choose from. The iPod touch became the &apostrue&apos video iPod the world had been sweatily dreaming about. It brought the best mobile browsing experience to palms everywhere, offering the iPhone-like iPod experience many people had been holding out for, and eventually got 32GB of memory.

Its partner in crime, the iPod classic, was also introduced in September. It was essentially a revamped, tripped-out fifth-generation iPod with more go-faster stripes than we care to count, and up to 160GB of storage.

A third-generation iPod nano with "a little video for everyone" was also introduced, complete with a fat form factor to make the chunkiest of us feel slightly better about ourselves.

Spy-shot photographs of this nano leaked before the official announcement was made, leading the blogosphere to worry in advance that the nano was to become all dumpy. No one seemed that bothered once it was released though. A pink 8GB model was released in the following January.

Finally, a new shuffle came out. well, it had new colours. (And a small &aposs&apos to match its lower-case siblings, spelling fans.)

The September 2008 line-up vanquished Dumpy McFatnano to the rotting cesspits of silicon hell, introducing a fourth-generation nano with the original tall form factor of earlier models.

It retained video playback and the same screen as the chubby version, but now offered an internal accelerometer, 16GB of memory and the new Genius playlist functionality. It was also the first model to introduce spoken menus for vision-impaired users.

We were disappointed to see the 160GB iPod classic was wiped from existence this year, along with the 80GB model. Instead, Apple brought out a single second-generation classic with 120GB of hard disk space, but in the first-generation classic&aposs thinner form factor. It also included the new Genius feature.

But stealing the show was the new iPod touch, which launched with a new curvy design to match the new iPhone 3G, built-in speakers, a physical volume control (this was a hotly demanded feature), 3D gaming and various other features previously offered as software upgrades, such as Microsoft Exchange email support.

Once again there were new iPod shuffles, but they were just paint jobs -- the players themselves didn&apost change.

September 2009 brought the arrival of the third-generation iPod shuffle.

It was smaller than ever, but still sporting one massive clip to attach to your polo-shirt sleeve so that everyone knows just how sporty you are.

The lack of a screen still made it difficult to operate but for only ꍠ for a 4GB model, it was understandably a good seller.

The fifth-generation iPod nano was released in 2009 and packed a larger screen and a video camera.

There wasn&apost a whole lot of point in the video camera, but it was a fun addition nonetheless, although it oddly didn&apost take still images as well.

It was available in a rainbow of colours and up to 32GB in size, although the top model would cost a not insignificant 򣄹.

The iPod touch third-generation retained the same look and feel of the previous iteration but boasted improved internal hardware making it much more zippy to use.

Fans of 3D gaming apps were very pleased at the power boost it had received, and the ease of use quickly helped push the touch into the hearts of music-lovers everywhere.

It was available in a 64GB model which was plenty of room for a vast music collection, but you&aposd have to shell out 򣌀.

The stretched design of the third-generation had been given an unceremonious boot, to be replaced with the new square version, which naturally still houses a massive clip on the back.

The VoiceOver feature made navigating around your music fairly simple, as did the easy to press buttons on the its colourful face.

If you&aposre feeling particularly geek-chic, you can pop it on a wrist-strap and set it to display up to 16 different clock faces. Lovely.

The 16GB model will set you back 򣄩 and is available in more colours than we knew existed.

This new model packed the gloriously sharp retina display found on the iPhone 4 and also packed a front-facing camera for FaceTime.

It has the same simple operation of previous models and of course full access to the Apple App store. The 64GB model demanded 329 of your hard-earned pounds.

The fifth-generation iPod touch was shown off in October 2011.

It&aposs not a massive upgrade from the previous model, but it&aposs running Apple&aposs iOS 5, which offers various handy extras such as iMessage and a notification centre for message and alerts.

It&aposs also offered in a white variety for those that can&apost stand dull colours on their gadgets.

It&aposs still as expensive as ever though, coming in at a cool 򣌩.

And there you have it a full decade of iPod goodness. Do you have a favourite? Was there a model you simply couldn&apost stand? Let us know in the comments below or over on our official Facebook page.


Ecology

Ecology publishes articles that report on the basic elements of ecological research. Emphasis is placed on concise, clear articles documenting important ecological phenomena. The journal publishes a broad array of research that includes a rapidly expanding envelope of subject matter, techniques, approaches, and concepts: paleoecology through present-day phenomena evolutionary, population, physiological, community, and ecosystem ecology, as well as biogeochemistry inclusive of descriptive, comparative, experimental, mathematical, statistical, and interdisciplinary approaches.

The "moving wall" represents the time period between the last issue available in JSTOR and the most recently published issue of a journal. Moving walls are generally represented in years. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication.
Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted.
For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available.

Terms Related to the Moving Wall Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive. Absorbed: Journals that are combined with another title. Complete: Journals that are no longer published or that have been combined with another title.


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