Was John S. Mosby the model/motivation/template for John Carter?

Was John S. Mosby the model/motivation/template for John Carter?

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I've always suspected this but have never seen any concrete proof. Was the fictitious Edgar Rice Burroughs character John Carter based on the civil war hero/villain John S. Mosby?

Mosby was arguable the most famous enlisted man (became an officer during the war) of the United States Civil war. In the South his dashing exploits made him one of the great heroes of the "Lost Cause." In the North he was painted as the blackest of scoundrels, the boogie man, a fact explained by his amazing successes during the war. So great became the fame of Mosby's partisan exploits that soldiers of fortune came from Europe to share his adventures. Among his daring exploits:

  • Mosby was the chief scout for JEB Stuart when Stuart rode a circle around the attacking Union Army commanded by Gen. George B. McClellan outside of Richmond.
  • Operated behind Union Lines, captured the Payroll of the Army of the Potomac several times. In Virginia there is still talk of finding some of Mosby's hidden gold.
  • Captured the Union General in charge of the occupation of N. Virginia from his bed at his head quarters in Fairfax City, including his staff.
  • Required the Union to commit as many as 10,000 calvary to pursue and protect against his raids, Mosby himself never commanded more than 200 men throughout the war, sometimes as few as a handful.
  • It is said the planks of Chain Bridge connecting Northern Virginia and Washington DC were pulled up every night to protect the Union's capital from John Mosby's Partisan rangers.
  • After President Lincoln was shot, the Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton issued orders to arrest Mosby. So great was his fame, Stanton just knew he was behind the assassination. Mosby was found innocent as he was having dinner that evening with the Union General occupying Virginia.
  • Honored by General Robert E. Lee, Mosby was chosen to command his personal escort detail which accompanied Lee to Appomattox Court House April 9, 1865 where Lee surrendered to General Grant.
  • Mosby's manual on cavalry tactics would be used for decades at West Point after the war.
  • Mosby's autobiography would become a best seller in the post civil war United States in the early 20th century.
  • In his autobiography, Mosby counts some of his former Union captives, as among his best friends.

Back to my Question. Edgar Rice Burroughs, the future author of Tarzan, would begin writing about the fictitious John Carter in 1912( A Princess of Mars). The fictitious John Carter being a famous Virginian Cavalryman who lost faith, left the south and went prospecting in the west after the civil war. Burroughs' John Carter was a discredited man who ultimately overcame himself to again display decisive thinking and a flare for military action and bravery, this time in the martian civil war also about slavery. This also paralleled Col. Mosby who also left the South in disgrace just ahead of death threats and attempts on his life, after becoming a Republican and endorsing General Grant for the Presidency.

Anyway, any hard evidence that Boroughs based John Carter on Mosby or is it all in my head?

I do not find any direct author quotes concerning the John Carter character creation, which would fully answer the question, but there is an interesting connection between Edgar Rice Burroughs(ERB) and Mosby.

An entry on the civil war discussion forum CivilWarTalk talks of an encounter that George T Burroughs, father of ERB, had during the civil war. This encounter was recorded by Mary Burroughs in MEMOIRS OF A WAR BRIDE and details George Burroughs 'night ride' with a disguised Mosby who was apparently scouting for a raid. The volume wasn't widely published, but just held mainly within the family. It does, however, give a direct family connection between ERB and Mosby.

The character of John Carter shows other aspects, however, which can also be attributed to Burroughs himself. He was himself a cavalryman:

became an enlisted soldier with the 7th U.S. Cavalry in Fort Grant, Arizona Territory. After being diagnosed with a heart problem and thus ineligible to serve, he was discharged in 1897

and a gold miner:

… where he took on managing their ill-fated Snake River gold dredge, a classic bucket-line dredge.

(Both above quotes from the ERB wiki article)

So the Arizona gold mining aspect of the Carter character come from Burroughs himself. Like any good author, he drew on what he knew, his experiences, and family history, to create his character.

One last note, an article I found of interest concerning Mosby, and his attitude towards slavery. From a letter Mosby wrote a letter to Samuel "Sam" Chapman In June 1907:

Mosby explained his reasons as to why he fought for the Confederacy, despite personally disapproving of slavery. While he admitted that the Confederate states had seceded to protect and defend their institution of slavery, he had felt it was his patriotic duty as a Virginian to fight on behalf of the Confederacy, stating that "I am not ashamed of having fought on the side of slavery-a soldier fights for his country-right or wrong-he is not responsible for the political merits of the course he fights in" and that "The South was my country."

(emphasis mine) So I guess if a northerner were to include aspects of a Confederate soldier in his character creation, one that fought out of loyalty, despite his personal beliefs, might be more conceivable.

Kotter's 8-Step Change Model

What was true more than 2,000 years ago is just as true today. We live in a world where "business as usual" is change. New initiatives, project-based working, technology improvements, staying ahead of the competition &ndash these things come together to drive ongoing changes to the way we work.

Whether you're considering a small change to one or two processes, or a system wide change to an organization, it's common to feel uneasy and intimidated by the scale of the challenge.

You know that the change needs to happen, but you don't really know how to go about delivering it. Where do you start? Whom do you involve? How do you see it through to the end?

There are many theories about how to "do" change. Many originate with leadership and change management guru, John Kotter. A professor at Harvard Business School and world-renowned change expert, Kotter introduced his eight-step change process in his 1995 book, "Leading Change."

In this article, video and infographic, we look at his eight steps for leading change, below.

Click here to view a transcript of this video.

Step 1: Create Urgency

For change to happen, it helps if the whole company really wants it. Develop a sense of urgency around the need for change. This may help you spark the initial motivation to get things moving.

This isn't simply a matter of showing people poor sales statistics or talking about increased competition. Open an honest and convincing dialogue about what's happening in the marketplace and with your competition. If many people start talking about the change you propose, the urgency can build and feed on itself.

  • Identify potential threats , and develop scenarios showing what could happen in the future.
  • Examine opportunities that should be, or could be, exploited.
  • Start honest discussions, and give dynamic and convincing reasons to get people talking and thinking.
  • Request support from customers, outside stakeholders and industry people to strengthen your argument.

Kotter suggests that for change to be successful, 75 percent of a company's management needs to "buy into" the change. In other words, you have to work really hard on Step 1, and spend significant time and energy building urgency, before moving onto the next steps. Don't panic and jump in too fast because you don't want to risk further short-term losses &ndash if you act without proper preparation, you could be in for a very bumpy ride.

Step 2: Form a Powerful Coalition

Convince people that change is necessary. This often takes strong leadership and visible support from key people within your organization. Managing change isn't enough &ndash you have to lead it.

You can find effective change leaders throughout your organization &ndash they don't necessarily follow the traditional company hierarchy. To lead change, you need to bring together a coalition, or team, of influential people whose power comes from a variety of sources, including job title, status, expertise, and political importance.

Once formed, your "change coalition" needs to work as a team, continuing to build urgency and momentum around the need for change.

  • Identify the true leaders in your organization, as well as your key stakeholders .
  • Ask for an emotional commitment from these key people.
  • Work on team building within your change coalition.
  • Check your team for weak areas, and ensure that you have a good mix of people from different departments and different levels within your company.

Step 3: Create a Vision for Change

When you first start thinking about change, there will probably be many great ideas and solutions floating around. Link these concepts to an overall vision that people can grasp easily and remember.

A clear vision can help everyone understand why you're asking them to do something. When people see for themselves what you're trying to achieve, then the directives they're given tend to make more sense.

  • Determine the values that are central to the change.
  • Develop a short summary (one or two sentences) that captures what you "see" as the future of your organization. to execute that vision.
  • Ensure that your change coalition can describe the vision in five minutes or less.
  • Practice your "vision speech" often.

For more on creating visions, see our article on Mission Statements and Vision Statements .

Step 4: Communicate the Vision

What you do with your vision after you create it will determine your success. Your message will probably have strong competition from other day-to-day communications within the company, so you need to communicate it frequently and powerfully, and embed it within everything that you do.

Don't just call special meetings to communicate your vision. Instead, talk about it every chance you get. Use the vision daily to make decisions and solve problems. When you keep it fresh on everyone's minds, they'll remember it and respond to it.

It's also important to "walk the talk." What you do is far more important &ndash and believable &ndash than what you say. Demonstrate the kind of behavior that you want from others.

  • Talk often about your change vision.
  • Address peoples' concerns and anxieties, openly and honestly.
  • Apply your vision to all aspects of operations &ndash from training to performance reviews. Tie everything back to the vision. .

Step 5: Remove Obstacles

If you follow these steps and reach this point in the change process, you've been talking about your vision and building buy-in from all levels of the organization. Hopefully, your staff wants to get busy and achieve the benefits that you've been promoting.

But is anyone resisting the change? And are there processes or structures that are getting in its way?

Put in place the structure for change, and continually check for barriers to it. Removing obstacles can empower the people you need to execute your vision, and it can help the change move forward.


1800s Edit

In 1802, while serving as President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson wrote to artist Charles Willson Peale that his concept of the new university would be "on the most extensive and liberal scale that our circumstances would call for and our faculties meet," and it might even attract talented students from "other states to come, and drink of the cup of knowledge". [17] Virginia was already home to the College of William and Mary, but Jefferson lost all confidence in his alma mater, partly because of its religious nature – it required all its students to recite a catechism – and its stifling of the sciences. [18] [19] Jefferson had flourished under College of William and Mary professors William Small and George Wythe decades earlier, but the college was in a period of great decline and his concern became so dire by 1800 that he expressed to British chemist Joseph Priestley, "we have in that State, a college just well enough endowed to draw out the miserable existence to which a miserable constitution has doomed it." [18] [20] [21] These words would ring true some seventy years later when College of William and Mary fell bankrupt after the Civil War and the Williamsburg college was shuttered completely in 1881, later being revived as primarily a small college for teachers until it regained University status later in the twentieth century. [22]

In 1817, three Presidents (Jefferson, James Monroe, and James Madison) and Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court John Marshall joined 24 other dignitaries at a meeting held in the Mountain Top Tavern at Rockfish Gap. After some deliberation, they selected nearby Charlottesville as the site of the new University of Virginia. [23] Farmland just outside Charlottesville was purchased from James Monroe by the Board of Visitors for construction of a newly chartered regional school to be known as Central College, which itself was an institutional successor to Albemarle Academy though neither school would ever open for instruction. The school laid its first building's cornerstone late in that same year, and the ongoing building of the Academical Village proved influential as the Commonwealth of Virginia chartered a new flagship university to be based on the site in Charlottesville on January 25, 1819. John Hartwell Cocke collaborated with James Madison, Monroe, and Joseph Carrington Cabell to fulfill Jefferson's dream to establish the university. Cocke and Jefferson were appointed to the building committee to supervise the construction. [24] Like many of its peers, [25] the university owned slaves who helped build the campus. [26] They also served students and professors. [26] The university's first classes met on March 7, 1825. [27]

In contrast to other universities of the day, at which one could study in either medicine, law, or divinity, the first students at the University of Virginia could study in one or several of eight independent schools – medicine, law, mathematics, chemistry, ancient languages, modern languages, natural philosophy, and moral philosophy. [28] Another innovation of the new university was that higher education would be separated from religious doctrine. UVA had no divinity school, was established independently of any religious sect, and the Grounds were planned and centered upon a library, the Rotunda, rather than a church, distinguishing it from peer universities still primarily functioning as seminaries for one particular strain of Protestantism or another. [29] Jefferson opined to philosopher Thomas Cooper that "a professorship of theology should have no place in our institution", and never has there been one. There were initially two degrees awarded by the university: Graduate, to a student who had completed the courses of one school and Doctor to a graduate in more than one school who had shown research prowess. [30]

Jefferson was intimately involved in the university to the end, hosting Sunday dinners at his Monticello home for faculty and students until his death. Jefferson viewed the university's foundation as having such great importance and potential that he counted it among his greatest accomplishments and insisted his grave mention only his status as author of the Declaration of Independence and Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and father of the University of Virginia. Thus, he eschewed mention of his national accomplishments, such as the Louisiana Purchase and any other aspects of his presidency, in favor of his role with the young university.

Initially, some of the students arriving at the University matched the then-common picture of college students: wealthy, spoiled aristocrats with a sense of privilege which often led to brawling, or worse. This was a source of frustration for Jefferson, who assembled the students during the school's first year, on October 3, 1825, to criticize such behavior but was too overcome to speak. He later spoke of this moment as "the most painful event" of his life. [31]

Although the frequency of such irresponsible behavior dropped after Jefferson's expression of concern, it did not die away completely. Like many universities and colleges, it experienced periodic student riots, culminating in the shooting death of Professor John A. G. Davis, Chairman of the Faculty, in 1840. This event, in conjunction with the growing popularity of temperance and a rise in religious affiliation in society in general, seems to have resulted in a permanent change in student attitudes, and the behavior among students that had so greatly bothered Jefferson finally vanished. [31]

In the year of Jefferson's death, poet Edgar Allan Poe enrolled at the university, where he excelled in Latin. [32] The Raven Society, an organization named after Poe's most famous poem, continues to maintain 13 West Range, the room Poe inhabited during the single semester he attended the university. [33] He left because of financial difficulties. The School of Engineering and Applied Science opened in 1836, making UVA the first comprehensive university to open an engineering school.

Unlike the vast majority of peer colleges in the South, the university was kept open throughout the Civil War, an especially remarkable feat with its state seeing more bloodshed than any other and the near 100% conscription of the entire American South. [34] After Jubal Early's total loss at the Battle of Waynesboro, Charlottesville was willingly surrendered to Union forces to avoid mass bloodshed, and UVA faculty convinced George Armstrong Custer to preserve Jefferson's university. [35] Although Union troops camped on the Lawn and damaged many of the Pavilions, Custer's men left four days later without bloodshed and the university was able to return to its educational mission. However, an extremely high number of officers of both Confederacy and Union were alumni. [36] UVA produced 1,481 officers in the Confederate Army alone, including four major-generals, twenty-one brigadier-generals, and sixty-seven colonels from ten different states. [36] John S. Mosby, the infamous "Gray Ghost" and commander of the lightning-fast 43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry ranger unit, had also been a UVA student.

Wikisource has the text of an 1879 American Cyclopædia article about UVA's 16 schools in operation as of 1879.

Thanks to a grant from the Commonwealth of Virginia, tuition became free for all Virginians in 1875. [37] During this period the University of Virginia remained unique in that it had no president and mandated no core curriculum from its students, who often studied in and took degrees from more than one school. [37] However, the university was also experiencing growing pains. As the original Rotunda caught fire and was gutted in 1895, there would soon be sweeping changes, much greater than merely reconstructing the Rotunda in 1899.

1900s Edit

Jefferson had originally decided the University of Virginia would have no president. Rather, this power was to be shared by a rector and a Board of Visitors. But as the 19th century waned, it became obvious this cumbersome arrangement was incapable of adequately handling the many administrative and fundraising tasks of the growing university. [38] Edwin Alderman, who had only recently moved from his post as president of UNC-Chapel Hill since 1896 to become president of Tulane University in 1900, accepted an offer as president of the University of Virginia in 1904. His appointment was not without controversy, and national media such as Popular Science lamented the end of one of the things that made UVA unique among universities. [39]

Alderman stayed 27 years, and became known as a prolific fund-raiser, a well-known orator, and a close adviser to U.S. president and UVA alumnus Woodrow Wilson. [38] He added significantly to the University Hospital to support new sickbeds and public health research, and helped create departments of geology and forestry, the Curry School of Education, the McIntire School of Commerce, and the summer school programs in which young Georgia O'Keeffe soon took part. [40] Perhaps his greatest ambition was the funding and construction of a library on a scale of millions of books, much larger than the Rotunda could bear. Delayed by the Great Depression, Alderman Library was named in his honor in 1938. Alderman, who seven years earlier had died in office en route to giving a public speech at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, is still the longest-tenured president of the university.

In 1904, UVA became the first university in the American South to be elected to the Association of American Universities. After a gift by Andrew Carnegie in 1909 the University of Virginia was organized into twenty-six departments across six schools including the Andrew Carnegie School of Engineering, the James Madison School of Law, the James Monroe School of International Law, the James Wilson School of Political Economy, the Edgar Allan Poe School of English and the Walter Reed School of Pathology. [30] The honorific historical names for these schools – several of which have remained as modern schools of the university – are no longer used.

In December 1953, the University of Virginia joined the Atlantic Coast Conference for athletics. At the time, UVA had a football program that had just broken through to be nationally ranked in 1950, 1951, and 1952, and consistently beat its rivals North Carolina and Virginia Tech by such scores as 34–7 and 44–0. Other sports were very competitive as well. However, the administration of Colgate Darden de-emphasized athletics, defunding the department and declining to join the ACC before being overruled by the Board of Visitors on that decision. It would take until the 1980s for the bulk of athletics programs to fully recover, but approaching the year 2000 UVA was again one of the most successful all-around sports programs with NCAA national titles achieved in an array of different sports by 2020, it had twice won the Capital One Cup for overall athletics excellence in men's sports.

UVA established a junior college in 1954, then called Clinch Valley College. Today it is a four-year public liberal arts college called the University of Virginia's College at Wise and currently enrolls 2,000 students. George Mason University and the aforementioned Mary Washington University used to exist as similar satellite campuses, but those are now wholly self-administered.

The Academical Village and nearby Monticello became a joint World Heritage Site in 1987. Simultaneously with Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park and Chaco Culture National Historical Park, they were the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth U.S. sites designated as culturally significant to the collective interests of global humanity, coming after the Statue of Liberty and Yosemite National Park three years earlier. As such, UVA possesses the only U.S. collegiate grounds to be internationally protected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Integration, coeducation, and student dissent Edit

The university first admitted a few selected women to graduate studies in the late 1890s and to certain programs such as nursing and education in the 1920s and 1930s. [41] In 1944, Mary Washington College in Fredericksburg, Virginia, became the Women's Undergraduate Arts and Sciences Division of the University of Virginia. With this branch campus in Fredericksburg exclusively for women, UVA maintained its main campus in Charlottesville as near-exclusively for men, until a civil rights lawsuit of the 1960s forced it to commingle the sexes. [42] In 1970, the Charlottesville campus became fully co-educational, and in 1972 Mary Washington became an independent state university. [43] When the first female class arrived, 450 undergraduate women entered UVA, comprising 39 percent of undergraduates, while the number of men admitted remained constant. By 1999, women made up a 52 percent majority of the total student body. [41] [44]

The University of Virginia admitted its first black student when Gregory Swanson sued to gain entrance into the university's law school in 1950. [45] Following his successful lawsuit, a handful of black graduate and professional students were admitted during the 1950s, though no black undergraduates were admitted until 1955, and UVA did not fully integrate until the 1960s. [45] When Walter Ridley graduated with a doctorate in Education, he was the first black person to graduate from UVA. [45] UVA's Ridley Scholarship Fund is named in his honor. [45]

The fight for integration and coeducation came to the foreground particularly in the late 1960s, leading up to the May Strike of 1970, in which students protested for higher black enrollment, equal access to UVA admission by undergraduate women, unionization of employees, and against the presence of armed university police and recruiters of government agencies such as the CIA and FBI on Grounds. [46]

2000s Edit

Due to a continual decline in state funding for the university, today only 6 percent of its budget comes from the Commonwealth of Virginia. [47] A Charter initiative was signed into law by then-Governor Mark Warner in 2005, negotiated with the university to have greater autonomy over its own affairs in exchange for accepting this decline in financial support. [48] [49]

The university welcomed Teresa A. Sullivan as its first female president in 2010. [50] Just two years later its first woman rector, Helen Dragas, engineered a forced-resignation to remove President Sullivan from office. [51] [52] The attempted ouster elicited a faculty Senate vote of no confidence in Rector Dragas, and demands from student government for an explanation. [53] [54] In the face of mounting pressure including alumni threats to cease contributions, and a mandate from then-Governor Robert McDonnell to resolve the issue or face removal of the entire Board of Visitors, the Board unanimously reinstated President Sullivan. [55] [56] [57] In 2013 and 2014, the Board passed new bylaws that made it harder to remove a president and possible to remove a rector. [58]

In November 2014, the university suspended fraternity and sorority functions pending investigation of an article by Rolling Stone concerning an alleged rape story, later determined to be a "hoax" after the story was confirmed to be false through investigation by The Washington Post. [59] [60] [61] The university nonetheless instituted new rules banning "pre-mixed drinks, punches or any other common source of alcohol" such as beer kegs and requiring "sober and lucid" fraternity members to monitor parties. [62] In April 2015, Rolling Stone fully retracted the article after the Columbia School of Journalism released a report of what went wrong with the article in a scathing and discrediting report. [63] [64] Even before release of the Columbia University report, the Rolling Stone story was named "Error of the Year" by the Poynter Institute. [65] The UVA chapter of Phi Kappa Psi settled a defamation suit against Rolling Stone for $1.65 million. [66]

In August 2017, the night before the infamous Unite the Right rally, a group of non-student and mostly non-Virginian white nationalists marched on the university's Lawn bearing torches and chanting Antisemitic and Nazi slogans after the city of Charlottesville decided to remove all remaining Confederate statues from the city. [67] [68] They were met by student counter-protesters near the statue of Thomas Jefferson in front of the Rotunda, where a fight broke out.

James E. Ryan, a graduate of the University of Virginia School of Law, became the university's ninth president in August 2018. [69] His first act upon his inauguration was to announce that in-state undergraduates from families making less than $80,000 per year would receive full scholarships covering tuition, and those from families making under $30,000 would also receive free room and board. [70] Ryan was previously dean of the Harvard School of Education.

The UVA campus is commonly known as the Grounds. [71] It is known for its Jeffersonian architecture and place in U.S. history as a model for college and university campuses throughout the country. The campus straddles the border between the city of Charlottesville and Albemarle County. [72]

Academical Village Edit

Throughout its history, the University of Virginia has won praise for its unique Jeffersonian architecture. In January 1895, less than a year before the Great Rotunda Fire, The New York Times said the design of the University of Virginia "was incomparably the most ambitious and monumental architectural project that had or has yet been conceived in this century." [73] In the United States Bicentennial issue of their AIA Journal, the American Institute of Architects called it "the proudest achievement of American architecture in the past 200 years." [74] The Academical Village, together with Jefferson's home at Monticello, which he also designed, is a World Heritage Site. The first collegiate architecture and culture World Heritage Site in the world, it was listed by UNESCO in 1987. [9] [75]

Jefferson's original architectural design revolves around the Academical Village, and that name remains in use today to describe both the specific area of the Lawn, a grand, terraced green space surrounded by residential and academic buildings, the gardens, the Range, and the larger university surrounding it. The principal building of the design, the Rotunda, stands at the north end of the Lawn, and is the most recognizable symbol of the university. It is half the height and width of the Pantheon in Rome, which was the primary inspiration for the building. The Lawn and the Rotunda were the models for many similar designs of "centralized green areas" at universities across the country. The space was designed for students and professors to live in the same area. The Rotunda, which symbolized knowledge, showed hierarchy. The south end of the lawn was left open to symbolize the view of cultivated fields to the south, as reflective of Jefferson's ideal for an agrarian-focused nation.

Most notably designed by inspiration of the Rotunda and Lawn are the expansive green spaces headed by similar buildings built at: Duke University in 1892 Columbia University in 1895 Johns Hopkins University in 1902 Rice University in 1910 Peabody College of Vanderbilt University in 1915 Killian Court at MIT in 1916 the Grand Auditorium of Tsinghua University built in 1917 in Beijing, China the Sterling Quad of Yale Divinity School in 1932 and the university's own Darden School in 1996.

Flanking both sides of the Rotunda and extending down the length of the Lawn are ten Pavilions interspersed with student rooms. Each has its own classical architectural style, as well as its own walled garden separated by Jeffersonian Serpentine walls. These walls are called "serpentine" because they run a sinusoidal course, one that lends strength to the wall and allows for the wall to be only one brick thick, one of many innovations by which Jefferson attempted to combine aesthetics with utility. [76]

On October 27, 1895, the Rotunda burned to a shell because of an electrical fire that started in the Rotunda Annex, a long multi-story structure built in 1853 to house additional classrooms. The electrical fire was no doubt assisted by the help of overzealous faculty member William "Reddy" Echols, who attempted to save it by throwing roughly 100 pounds (45 kg) of dynamite into the main fire in the hopes the blast would separate the burning Annex from Jefferson's own Rotunda. His last-ditch effort ultimately failed. Perhaps ironically, one of the university's main honors student programs is named for him. University officials swiftly approached celebrity architect Stanford White to rebuild the Rotunda. White took the charge further, disregarding Jefferson's design and redesigning the Rotunda interior—making it two floors instead of three, adding three buildings to the foot of the Lawn, and designing a president's house. He did omit rebuilding the Rotunda Annex, the remnants of which were used as fill and to create part of the modern-day Rotunda's northern-facing plaza. The classes formerly occupying the Annex were moved to the South Lawn in White's new buildings. [ citation needed ]

The White buildings have the effect of closing off the sweeping perspective, as originally conceived by Jefferson, down the Lawn across open countryside toward the distant mountains. The White buildings at the foot of the Lawn effectively create a huge "quadrangle", albeit one far grander than any traditional college quadrangle at the University of Cambridge or University of Oxford.

In concert with the United States Bicentennial in 1976, Stanford White's changes to the Rotunda were removed and the building was returned to Jefferson's original design. Renovated according to original sketches and historical photographs, a three-story Rotunda opened on Jefferson's birthday, April 13, 1976. Queen Elizabeth II came to visit the Rotunda in that same year for the Bicentennial, and had a well-publicized stroll of The Lawn. The university was listed by Travel + Leisure in September 2011 as one of the most beautiful campuses in the United States and by MSN as one of the most beautiful college campuses in the world. [77] [78]

Libraries Edit

The first library at University of Virginia was the Rotunda. Rather than a chapel or other religious structure, the university was built around its library. Thomas Jefferson was deeply engaged in selecting the materials that made up that library's original collection, and in developing the system by which it would be organized. The Rotunda served as the University Library for over a century, until Alderman Library was opened in 1937. [79]

Today the University of Virginia Library System consists of a dozen libraries and holds over 5 million volumes. Its Electronic Text Center, established in 1992, has put 70,000 books online as well as 350,000 images that go with them. These e-texts are open to anyone and, as of 2002 [update] , were receiving 37,000 daily visits (compared to 6,000 daily visitors to the physical libraries). [80] Alderman Library holds the most extensive Tibetan collection in the world, and holds ten floors of book "stacks" of varying ages and historical value. The Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library features a collection of American literature as well as two copies of the original printing of the Declaration of Independence. It was in this library in 2006 that Robert Stilling, an English graduate student, discovered an unpublished Robert Frost poem from 1918. [81] Clark Hall is the library for SEAS (the engineering school), and one of its notable features is the Mural Room, decorated by two three-panel murals by Allyn Cox, depicting the Moral Law and the Civil Law. The murals were finished and set in place in 1934. [82] As of 2006 [update] , the university and Google were working on the digitization of selected collections from the library system. [83]

Since 1992, the University of Virginia also hosts the Rare Book School, a non-profit organization in the study of historical books and the history of printing that began at Columbia University in 1983.

Other areas Edit

Away from the historic area, UVA's architecture and its allegiance to the Jeffersonian design are controversial. The 1990s saw the construction of two deeply contrasting visions: the Williams Tsien post-modernist Hereford College in 1992 and the unapologetically Jeffersonian Darden School of Business in 1996. Commentary on both was broad and partisan, as the University of Virginia School of Architecture and The New York Times lauded Hereford for its bold new lines, while some independent press and wealthy donors praised the traditional design of Darden. [84] [85] The latter group appeared to have the upper hand when the South Lawn Project was designed in the early 2000s. [85] [86]

Billionaire John Kluge donated 7,379 acres (29.86 km 2 ) of additional lands to the university in 2001. Kluge desired the core of the land, the 2,913-acre Morven, to be developed by the university and the surrounding land to be sold to fund an endowment supporting the core. Five farms totaling 1,261 acres (510 ha) of the gift were soon sold to musician Dave Matthews, of the Dave Matthews Band, to be utilized in an organic farming project to complement his nearby Blenheim Vineyards. [87] Morven has since hosted the Morven Summer Institute, a rigorous immersion program of study in civil society, sustainability, and creativity. [88] As of 2014 [update] , the university is developing further plans for Morven and has hired an architecture firm for the nearly three thousand acre property. [88]

Student housing Edit

The primary housing areas for first-year students are McCormick Road Dormitories, often called "Old Dorms", and Alderman Road Dormitories, often called "New Dorms". The 1970s-era Alderman Road Dorms are being fully replaced with brand new dormitory buildings in the same area. The replacements feature hall-style living arrangements with common areas and many modern amenities. Instead of being torn down and replaced like the original New Dorms, the Old Dorms will see a $105 million renovation project between 2017 and 2022. [89] They were constructed in 1950, and are also hall-style constructions but with fewer amenities. The Old Dorms are closer to the students' classes.

In the 1980s, in response to a housing shortage, the Stadium Road Residential Area was built to the south of the Alderman Road Dormitories. [90] The largest of the houses in this area are the Gooch Dillard Residence Halls which house 610 students.

There are three residential colleges at the university: Brown College, Hereford College, and the International Residential College. These involve an application process to live there, and are filled with both upperclass and first-year students. The application process can be extremely competitive, especially for Brown because of its location in central Grounds.

It is considered a great honor to be invited to live on The Lawn, and 54 fourth-year undergraduates do so each year, joining ten members of the faculty who permanently live and teach in the Pavilions there. [91] Similarly, graduate students may live on The Range. Edgar Allan Poe formerly lived in 13 West Range, and since 1904 the Raven Society has retrofitted and preserved his room much as it may have existed in the 1820s.

The university has several affiliated centers including the Rare Book School, headquarters of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, University of Virginia Center for Politics, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service, Sorensen Institute for Political Leadership, and Miller Center of Public Affairs. The Fralin Museum of Art is dedicated to creating an environment where both the university community and the general public can study and learn from directly experiencing works of art. The university has its own internal recruiting firm, the Executive Search Group and Strategic Resourcing. Since 2013, this department has been housed under the Office of the President.

UVA colleges & schools
College/school Year founded
School of Architecture 1954
College of Arts & Sciences 1824
Darden School of Business 1954
McIntire School of Commerce 1921
School of Continuing and Professional Studies 1915
School of Data Science 2019
Curry School of Education 1905
School of Engineering and Applied Science 1836
School of Law 1819
Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy 2007
School of Medicine 1819
School of Nursing 1901

In 2006, President Casteen announced an ambitious $3 billion capital campaign to be completed by December 2011. [92] During the Great Recession, President Sullivan missed the 2011 deadline, and extended it indefinitely. [93] The $3 billion goal would be met a year and a half later, which President Sullivan announced at graduation ceremonies in May 2013. [94]

As of 2013 [update] , UVA's $1.4 billion academic budget is paid for primarily by tuition and fees (32%), research grants (23%), endowment and gifts (19%), and sales and services (12%). [95] The university receives 10% of its academic funds through state appropriation from the Commonwealth of Virginia. [95] For the overall (including non-academic) university budget of $2.6 billion, 45% comes from medical patient revenue. [95] The Commonwealth contributes less than 6%. [95]

Although UVA is the flagship university of Virginia, state funding has decreased for several consecutive decades. [47] Financial support from the state dropped by half from 12 percent of total revenue in 2001–02 to six percent in 2013–14. [47] The portion of academic revenue coming from the state fell by even more in the same period, from 22 percent to just nine percent. [47] This nominal support from the state, contributing just $154 million of UVA's $2.6 billion budget in 2012–13, has led President Sullivan and others to contemplate the partial privatization of the University of Virginia. [96] UVA's Darden School and Law School are already self-sufficient.

Hunter R. Rawlings III, President of the prominent Association of American Universities research group of universities to which UVA is an elected member, came to Charlottesville to make a speech to university faculty which included a statement about the proposal: "there's no possibility, as far as I can see, that any state will ever relinquish its ownership and governance of its public universities, much less of its flagship research university". [96] He encouraged university leaders to stop talking about privatization and instead push their state lawmakers to increase funding for higher education and research as a public good. [96]

As of 2013, the University of Virginia was one of only two public universities in the United States that had a Triple-A credit rating from all three major credit rating agencies. [97]

The University of Virginia offers 48 bachelor's degrees, 94 master's degrees, 55 doctoral degrees, 6 educational specialist degrees, and 2 first-professional degrees (Medicine and Law) to its students. All degrees are earned and UVA has never bestowed an honorary degree to any person. [98] [99] [100]

Scholarships Edit

The Jefferson Scholars Foundation offers four-year full-tuition scholarships based on regional, international, and at-large competitions. Students are nominated by their high schools, interviewed, then invited to weekend-long series of tests of character, aptitude, and general suitability. Approximately 3% of those nominated successfully earn the scholarship. Echols Scholars (College of Arts and Sciences) and Rodman Scholars (School of Engineering and Applied Science), which include 6–7% of undergraduate students, receive no financial benefits, but are entitled to special advisors, priority course registration, residence in designated dorms and fewer curricular constraints than other students. [103]

Full tuition scholarships are given to each in-state student from families earning under $80,000 per year. [70] Each in-state student from families earning under $30,000 per year also receives free room and board. [70] These scholarships are an initiative of President Ryan, who announced them upon his inauguration in 2018. [70]

Rhodes Scholarships are international postgraduate awards given to students to study at the University of Oxford. Since the scholarship program began in 1904, UVA has had fifty-five Rhodes Scholars. [104] This is the most of any university in the American South, eighth-most overall, and third-most outside the Ivy League (behind Stanford University and the United States Military Academy). [105]

Research Edit

The University of Virginia is the first and longest serving member of the Association of American Universities in the American South, attaining membership in 1904. [106] It is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity". [107]

According to the National Science Foundation, UVa spent $614 million on research and development in 2019, ranking it 44th in the nation and 1st in Virginia. [108] Built in 1996, North Fork (formerly the UVA Research Park [109] ) is an extensive 3.7-million square foot, 562 acre research park nine miles north of UVA's North Grounds. [110] [111] It houses the UVA Applied Research Institute as well as many private R&D efforts by such firms as Battelle, The MITRE Corporation, Signature Science, and CACI. [111] [112]

UVA is also home to globally recognized research on hypersonic flight for NASA and others. [113] The United States Air Force, National Science Foundation, and National Center for Hypersonic Combined Cycle Propulsion have each also granted UVA researchers millions in funding for the university's ongoing broad and deep research into ultra-high velocity flight. [113] Starting in 2015, a UVA team led by mechanical engineering professor Eric Loth began Department of Energy-funded research into an original design of offshore wind turbines that would potentially dwarf the size and scope of any being produced or researched anywhere else. [114] The innovative design inspired by palm trees led to Loth being named to a Popular Science list of “The Brilliant Minds Behind The New Energy Revolution”. [114] [115] [116]

UVA was recognized by Science as leading two of the top 10 scientific discoveries in the world in 2015. [10] The first breakthrough was when UVA School of Medicine researchers Jonathan Kipnis and Antoine Louveau discovered previously unknown vessels connecting the human brain directly to the lymphatic system. [10] The discovery "redrew the map" of the lymphatic system, rewrote medical textbooks, and struck down long-held beliefs about how the immune system functions in the brain. [10] The discovery may help greatly in combating neurological diseases from multiple sclerosis to Alzheimer's disease. [10] The second globally recognized breakthrough of 2015 was when UVA psychology professor Brian Nosek examined the reproducibility of 100 psychology studies and found fewer than half could be reproduced. [10] The discovery may have profound impacts on how psychological studies are performed and documented. [10] More than 270 researchers on five continents were involved, and twenty-two students and faculty from UVA were listed as co-authors on the scientific paper. [10]

In the field of astrophysics, the university is a member of a consortium engaged in the construction and operation of the Large Binocular Telescope in the Mount Graham International Observatory of the Pinaleno Mountains of southeastern Arizona. It is also a member of both the Astrophysical Research Consortium, which operates telescopes at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy which operates the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the Gemini Observatory and the Space Telescope Science Institute. The University of Virginia hosts the headquarters of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which operates the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and the Very Large Array radio telescope made famous in the Carl Sagan television documentary Cosmos and film Contact. The North American Atacama Large Millimeter Array Science Center is also at the Charlottesville NRAO site. In 2019, researchers at NRAO co-authored a study documenting the discovery of a pair of giant hourglass shaped balloons emanating radio waves from the center of our Milky Way galaxy. [117]

Innovation Edit

The Charlottesville area has been named the No. 1 fastest growing metropolitan area for venture capital in the United States, with $27.7 million in annual funding as of 2015 [update] . [118] A majority of the successful startups in the Charlottesville region have been started by or funded by UVA students and graduates. [118] One example of a startup launched by university students is Reddit, one of the top 5 most viewed websites in the U.S. (placing between Amazon and Wikipedia as of January 2018 [update] [119] ) with nearly 100 billion annual pageviews, founded by UVA dormitory roommates Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian in 2005. They were students at the School of Engineering and Applied Science and the McIntire School of Commerce, respectively. Having grown so large, Reddit is now headquartered in San Francisco. Another example is CNET, which has become the highest-read technology news source on the Web, with over 200 million readers per month, being among the 200 most visited websites globally, as of 2015. [120] [121] [122]

In addition to McIntire and SEAS, the Darden School has spawned highly innovative graduates and entrepreneurs. For example, a wearable glove that helps to rehabilitate stroke patients was brought to market by a Darden graduate in South Korea during 2015. [123] According to a study by researchers at the Darden School and Stanford University, UVA alumni overall have founded over 65,000 companies which have employed 2.3 million people worldwide with annual global revenues of $1.6 trillion. [12]

Rankings Edit

Academic rankings
ARWU [124] 57–65
Forbes [125] 33
THE/WSJ [126] 51
U.S. News & World Report [127] 26
Washington Monthly [128] 28
ARWU [129] 151–200
QS [130] 217
THE [131] 117
U.S. News & World Report [132] 109

U.S. News & World Report ranks UVA tied for 26th among national universities overall, 4th among public universities and tied for 109th among global universities in its 2021 report, [133] 7th best business program [134] and 3rd best business management program. [135] Among the professional schools of UVA, U.S. News & World Report's 2021 rankings place its law school 8th overall and 1st among public universities, its graduate Darden School of Business 11th overall and 2nd among public universities, the medical school 6th overall in the "Primary Care" category and tied for 29th overall in the "Research" category, and the engineering school tied for 41st overall. [136] In its 2015 rankings, The Economist lists Darden 2nd overall globally and 1st among public institutions. [137] In its 2016 listing, Bloomberg BusinessWeek ranks the McIntire School of Commerce, UVA's undergraduate business program, 5th overall and 2nd among public universities. [138]

Washington Monthly ranked UVA 28th in its 2020 ranking of national universities based on its contribution to the public good, as measured by social mobility, research, and promoting public service. [139] In its 2016 report, Business Insider, which strives to measure preparation for the professional workforce, ranks UVA 9th overall and 1st among public universities. [140]

Other recognition Edit

The University of Virginia has also been recognized for consistently having the highest African American graduation rate among national public universities. [141] [142] [143] [144] According to the Fall 2005 issue of Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, UVA "has the highest black student graduation rate of the Public Ivies" and "by far the most impressive is the University of Virginia with its high black student graduation rate and its small racial difference in graduation rates." [145]

Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about circa 1911 organization of the university.

Admissions and financial aid Edit

For the undergraduate Class of 2023, the University of Virginia received a record 40,815 applications, admitting 24 percent. [146] Approximately 40 percent of those admitted are non-white. [146] Matriculated students come from all 50 states and 147 foreign countries. [147] [148] UVA is required, by Virginia state law, to matriculate two-thirds of its undergraduate student body from its pool of in-state applicants. [146] As a result, its acceptance rate for in-state students (36 percent) is nearly twice the out-of-state rate (19 percent) as of 2019. [146] The university has seen steady increases to its applicant pool in recent decades, and the number of applications has more than doubled since the Class of 2008 received 15,094 applications. [149] As of 2014, 93 percent of admitted applicants ranked in the top 10 percent of their high school classes. [148] [150]

During the 2012–2013 school year, the difference between out-of-state and in-state tuition equaled $26,012 per year. [151]

President James Ryan announced at his inauguration in fall 2018 that in-state students from families earning less than $80,000 a year will receive full tuition scholarships. [70] Those from families earning less than $30,000 will also receive free room and board. [70] The university already met 100 percent of demonstrated need for all admitted undergraduate students, making it one of only two public universities in the U.S. to reach this level of financial aid for its students. [152] [153] U.S. News and World Report recognized the university's lower costs relative to competing private universities with a feature article about UVA's value. [154] For 2014, the university ranked 4th overall by the Princeton Review for "Great Financial Aid". [155] In 2008 the Center for College Affordability and Productivity named UVA the top value among all national public colleges and universities and in 2009, UVA was again named the "No. 1 Best Value" among public universities in the United States in a separate ranking by USA TODAY and the Princeton Review. [156] [157] [158] Kiplinger in 2014 ranked UVA 2nd out of the top 100 best-value public colleges and universities in the nation. [159]

Graduate and professional school admissions are also highly selective. As of 2019, the average LSAT score was 169 at the School of Law, while at the Darden School of Business the average GMAT score was 718. [160] [161]

Student life at the University of Virginia is marked by a number of unique traditions. The campus of the university is referred to as the "Grounds". Freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors are instead called first-, second-, third-, and fourth-years in order to reflect Jefferson's belief that learning is a lifelong process, rather than one to be completed within four years.

Student-faculty interaction and connections Edit

Professors are traditionally addressed as "Mr." or "Ms." at UVA instead of "Doctor" (although medical doctors are the exception) in deference to Jefferson's desire to have an equality of ideas, discriminated by merit and unburdened by title. UVA facilitates close interactions between students and professors in a number of ways.

First-year students in the College of Arts & Sciences have the opportunity to take two University Seminars, one per semester, which are later made available to other students as well. These small classes, numbering from 4 to 19 students each, provide opportunities to work closely with professors at the university from the outset of a student's academic career. The small groupings also help facilitate more frequent and intense discussions between students in this closer environment.

Select faculty live at Brown College at Monroe Hill, Hereford College, International Residential College, and in Pavilions on The Lawn. This gives more opportunities for professors to invite students to lunches and dinners, which regularly happens, and creates chances for impromptu meetings and interactions between faculty and students around Grounds.

Reflecting this close student-faculty interaction at UVA, it welcomed Nobel Laureate William Faulkner to a position as "Writer-in-Residence" in 1957. [162] He had no teaching responsibilities, and was paid merely to live among the students and write. He was badly injured in a horse riding accident in 1959, and did not return to the state before his death in 1962. [162] Faulkner then bequeathed the majority of his papers to Alderman Library, giving UVA the largest Faulkner archives in the world. [163]

Global citizenship initiatives Edit

The International Residential College is a residential college at UVA that attracts and celebrates students from across the globe who choose to attend the university. It is one of three major residential colleges at UVA. Students there come from 45 different countries, representing 40% of the student population but U.S. students are encouraged to live at IRC as well to learn about the countries from which their classmates have journeyed to attend UVA.

UVA was previously the academic sponsor for Semester at Sea. Throughout the history of the program since 1963, nearly 55,000 undergraduate students [164] from more than 1,500 colleges and universities have participated in Semester at Sea.

The University of Virginia received the 2015 Paul Simon Award for Comprehensive Internationalization, by the Association of International Educators. [165] This award confirms the university's success and commitment in educating its students on a global scale as well as nationally. [165]

Student leadership opportunities Edit

There are a number of UVA undergraduate leadership opportunities that are offered in addition to the standard student government or fraternity and sorority positions found at many universities. They include UVA's secret societies and debating societies, the student-run honor committees, and the chance to be recognized as a fourth-year student at the pinnacle of student leadership by being asked to live on The Lawn.

The Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy, established in 2007, expands on these unique student leadership opportunities to study Leadership itself as a cross-disciplinary subject of focus and is closely aligned with many of the university's schools, including the Architecture, Education, Engineering, Law, Medical, and Darden schools, as well as with programs in politics, economics, and applied ethics.

Secret societies Edit

Student societies have existed on Grounds since the early 19th Century. Secret societies have been a part of University of Virginia student life since the first class of students in 1825. While the number of societies peaked during the 75-year period between 1875 and 1950, there are still six societies active that are over 100 years old, and several newer societies.

Honor system Edit

The nation's first codified honor system was instituted by UVA law professor Henry St. George Tucker, Sr. in 1842, after a fellow professor was shot to death on The Lawn. There are three tenets to the system: students simply must not lie, cheat, or steal. It is a "single sanction system", meaning that committing any of these three offenses will result in expulsion from the university. If accused, students are tried before their peers – fellow students, never faculty, serve as counsel and jury.

The honor system is intended to be student-run and student-administered. [167] Although Honor Committee resources have been strained by mass cheating scandals such as a case in 2001 of 122 suspected cheaters over several years in a single large Physics survey course, and federal lawsuits have challenged the system, its verdicts are rarely overturned. [168] [169] [170] There is only one documented case of direct UVA administration interference in an honor system proceeding: the trial and subsequent retrial of Christopher Leggett. [171]

Student activities Edit

Many events take place at the University of Virginia, on the Lawn and across Grounds. One of the largest events at UVA is Springfest, hosted by the University Programs Council. It takes place every year in the spring, and features a large free concert, various inflatables and games. Another popular event is Foxfield, a steeplechase and social gathering that takes place nearby in Albemarle County in April, and which is annually attended by thousands of students from the University of Virginia and neighboring colleges. [172]

The student life building is called Newcomb Hall. It is home to the Student Activities Center (SAC) and the Media Activities Center (MAC), where student groups can get leadership consulting and use computing and copying resources, as well as several meeting rooms for student groups. Student Council, the student self-governing body, holds meetings Tuesdays at 6:30 p.m. in the Newcomb South Meeting Room. Student Council, or "StudCo", also holds office hours and regular committee meetings in the newly renovated Newcomb Programs and Council (PAC) Room. The PAC also houses the University Programs Council and Class Councils. Newcomb basement is home to both the office of the independent student newspaper The Declaration, The Cavalier Daily, and the Consortium of University Publications.

In 2005, the university was named "Hottest for Fitness" by Newsweek magazine, [173] due in part to 94% of its students using one of the four indoor athletics facilities. Particularly popular is the Aquatics and Fitness Center, across the street from the Alderman Dorms. The University of Virginia sent more workers to the Peace Corps in 2006 [174] and 2008 [175] than any other "medium-sized" university in the United States. Volunteerism at the university is centered around Madison House which offers numerous opportunities to serve others. Among the numerous programs offered are tutoring, housing improvement, an organization called Hoos Against Hunger, which gives leftover food from restaurants to the homeless of Charlottesville rather than allowing it to be discarded, among numerous other volunteer programs.

As at many universities, alcohol use is a part of the social life of many undergraduate students. Concerns particularly arose about a past trend of fourth-years consuming excessive alcohol during the day of the last home football game. [176] President Casteen announced a $2.5 million donation from Anheuser-Busch to fund a new UVA-based Social Norms Institute in September 2006. [177] A spokesman said: "the goal is to get students to emulate the positive behavior of the vast majority of students". On the other hand, the university was ranked first in Playboy ' s 2012 list of Top 10 Party Schools based on ratings of sex, sports, and nightlife. [178]

Student activism Edit

The University of Virginia has a long history of student activists who formed radical environmental, religious, and political groups to champion various social changes. [179] An especially intense period of student activism occurred in the 1970s during the May Days strikes against the Vietnam War. [180] More recently, the Curry School of Education and its Youth-Nex Center held a national conference in 2019 to promote student activism at UVA and beyond. [181]

Fraternities and sororities Edit

The University of Virginia has a number of fraternities and sororities on campus, encompassing the traditional social fraternities and sororities as well as coeducational professional, service, and honor fraternities. Social life at the university was originally dominated by debating societies. [182] The first fraternity chapter founded at UVA was Delta Kappa Epsilon in 1852, and it was quickly followed by many more the University of Virginia was the birthplace of two national fraternities, Kappa Sigma and Pi Kappa Alpha, which exist at the university to this day. [183] [184] [185]

Through the twentieth century, the roles of these organizations on campus expanded to encompass social sororities, professional fraternities and sororities, service fraternities, honor societies, black fraternities and sororities, and multicultural fraternities and sororities. Roughly 30% of the student body are members of social fraternities and sororities, while additional students are involved with service, professional, and honor fraternities. [186] "Rush and pledging" occur in the spring semester for most organizations. Kappa Sigma and the Trigon Engineering Society hold reserved rooms on the Lawn, while Pi Kappa Alpha holds the only undergraduate room on the Range. [187]

Transportation Edit

A set of bus lines operated by the university's University Transit Service connect different parts of the UVA Grounds with adjacent parking facilities. This is complemented by a set of bus lines operated by Charlottesville Area Transit that connect the University of Virginia with other parts of Charlottesville. The Virginia Department of Transportation maintains the roads through the university grounds as State Route 302. [188]

Charlottesville Union Station is just 0.6 miles (0.97 km) from UVA, and from there energy efficient Amtrak passenger trains serve Charlottesville on three routes: the Cardinal (Chicago to New York City), Crescent (New Orleans to New York City), and Northeast Regional (Virginia to Boston). The long-haul Cardinal operates three times a week, while the Crescent and Northeast Regional both run daily. Charlottesville–Albemarle Airport, 8 miles (13 km) away, has nonstop flights to Chicago, New York, Atlanta, Charlotte, and Philadelphia. The larger Richmond International Airport is 77 miles (124 km) to the southeast, and the still larger Dulles International Airport is 99 miles (159 km) to the northeast. They are accessible via Interstate 64 and U.S. 29, respectively, both of which are major highways and frequently trafficked.

Megabus began serving Charlottesville with inexpensive direct express routes to and from Washington, D.C. in 2018. [189] Megabus also runs up to four trips per day from Charlottesville to New York City with several stops between. [190] Like the trains, the Megabus stop is at the nearby Amtrak station. [190]

Virginia has ranked near the top of collegiate athletics programs in recent years. In 2015 and 2019, UVA won the nationwide Capital One Cup for overall men's sports excellence. [16] The teams and athletes representing Virginia in college athletics have been dubbed the Cavaliers since 1923, predating the NBA's Cleveland Cavaliers by nearly half a century.

In 2019, Virginia men's basketball won the NCAA Championship in "March Madness", the single-elimination national college basketball tournament considered by YouGov polled American viewers (as of the same year) to be the most exciting collegiate sporting event. [191] [192] In 2015, when Virginia first won its first Capital One Cup its teams won the 2014 College Cup, the 2015 College World Series, and the 2015 NCAA Tennis Championships. When it repeated the feat in 2019, the program won both March Madness and the 2019 Men's Lacrosse Championship.

Virginia's athletics director is Carla Williams, the first African American woman to hold the position at any power conference university. The previous athletics director was Craig Littlepage, the first African American to have that title in the ACC. He held the position for sixteen years and, under his leadership, UVA added many significant hires who have demonstrated success near the top of their respective sports, including recent NCAA Champions Tony Bennett, Lars Tiffany, Brian O'Connor, and Todd DeSorbo, as well as Bronco Mendenhall. Among coaches who have longer tenures, George Gelnovatch has won two NCAA men's soccer national titles since 2009. Steve Swanson has led women's soccer teams to six ACC titles and 24 consecutive winning seasons. Kevin Sauer has led UVA women's rowing to two NCAA titles since 2010.

Championships Edit

In the 21st century alone, UVA teams have won seventeen NCAA championships. The men's teams have won recent NCAA titles in basketball (2019) lacrosse (2003, 2006, 2011, 2019, and 2021) baseball (2015) soccer (2009 and 2014) and tennis (2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017). UVA women have won recent NCAA titles in rowing (2010 and 2012) and swimming & diving (2021). The Cavaliers rank first in the ACC (a power conference) with 20 men's NCAA Championships, and rank third in the conference with eight women's NCAA Championships.

Under Tony Bennett the Cavaliers have experienced a basketball renaissance, winning the 2019 NCAA Championship, winning the ACC Tournaments of 2014 (over Duke) and 2018 (over North Carolina), and winning regular-season championships in 2014, 2015, 2018, and 2019. UVA recently became the third program in ACC history to win 30 or more games in consecutive seasons and John Paul Jones Arena is considered one of the more intimidating trips for opposing teams to make. The women's basketball program fell just short of its own NCAA Championship in 1990, losing the Championship Game in overtime. The team is currently led by WNBA legend Tina Thompson.

The Virginia men's and women's lacrosse programs are two of the most dominant in the history of the sport, winning ten of UVA's twenty-nine NCAA Championships between them and two more (for a total of 11 recognized national championships) before NCAA oversight began. 2019 and 2021 NCAA champion men's head coach Lars Tiffany has brought UVA back to prominence after Dom Starsia retired as the all-time ACC leader in men's lacrosse wins. All three UVA head coaches in the position prior to Tiffany still rank (as of 2019) in the top 20 of career wins. Three-time NCAA champion head coach Julie Myers leads women's lacrosse and under her guidance, Virginia is the only program to qualify for 24 straight NCAA Tournament berths as of 2019. [193]

The Cavalier baseball team under Brian O'Connor has also experienced tremendous success. UVA finished as national Runners Up in the 2014 College World Series and came back to win the 2015 College World Series. Virginia has hosted five NCAA Super Regional tournament events at Davenport Field.

The UVA men's tennis program won "three-peat" NCAA Championships in 2015–2017 after winning the Cavaliers' first in 2013. The program has regularly featured notable international talent combined with outstanding locally grown high school tennis talent from in-state Virginia (often Northern Virginia). [194]

The University of Virginia women's cross country team won the 1981 and 1982 NCAA Women's Division I Cross Country Championship as well as the DI Indoor Championships. [195]

The women's swimming and diving team won its first NCAA Championship in 2021. [196]

Rivalries Edit

Official ACC designated rivalry games include the Virginia–Virginia Tech rivalry and the Virginia–Louisville series. These two rivalries are guaranteed an annual game in all sports, and a home-and-away series in men's and women's basketball. The Cavaliers competed against the Hokies in the Commonwealth Challenge and more recently competed in the Commonwealth Clash, under new rules, for many sports in which they compete head-to-head. The Cavaliers went 2–0 against the Hokies in the Challenge and 3–2 in the Clash (5–2 overall). Perhaps the two most significant rivalry games played between the Cavaliers and Hokies were both in men's basketball, on March 1, 2007, and January 15, 2019. In the former, the two teams met with identical 10–4 ACC records and the winner would clinch a share of the regular-season conference championship. UVA won the game 69–56 and took their fifth of ten ACC titles. In the latter, No. 4 UVA beat No. 9 Virginia Tech 81–59 in the only meeting between two AP Top 10 teams in the rivalry's history.

The ACC is often regarded as the best college basketball conference, [197] [198] [199] [200] [201] and UVA leads the series in its official ACC basketball rivalries: against Virginia Tech 96–56, and Louisville 15–4, as of 2019 [update] . A budding but lopsided series between Virginia's Tony Bennett and Louisville's Rick Pitino saw Bennett win 5 of 6 games before Pitino's Hall of Fame career ended in scandal at Louisville. Other notable basketball rivalries include those against North Carolina and Maryland. Notably the 1982 ACC Tournament championship game where Dean Smith had his team of future NBA stars (such as Michael Jordan and James Worthy) hold the ball for seven minutes, against a Virginia team featuring Ralph Sampson, led to the advent of the shot clock and the three-point line. The Maryland rivalry is now mostly dormant, but was reignited for the 2014 and 2018 editions of the ACC–Big Ten Challenge, with both Challenges won by the Cavaliers on the road in College Park.

Virginia men's lacrosse, as one of the all-time great NCAA programs, has a championship rivalry with fellow ACC program Syracuse (the Cavaliers and Orange holding 18 NCAA Championships between them) as well as rivalries against Big Ten programs Johns Hopkins and Maryland. The Syracuse and Johns Hopkins rivalries are played out at least once each season (Syracuse played twice in 2021 [202] ) with the teams often finding themselves facing off a second or third time in the ACC and NCAA Tournaments. Virginia women's lacrosse, also a multi-NCAA Championship program, maintains several of those same rivalries.

The Virginia football team competes against North Carolina in the South's Oldest Rivalry, a historic football rivalry game which a sitting President of the United States, Calvin Coolidge, made time to attend in Charlottesville in 1924. The 1960s and 1970s were particularly dark decades for the football program, which later experienced a resurgence in the 1980s and 1990s under George Welsh. Coach Welsh led the program to its first bowl bids starting with the 1984 Peach Bowl. Welsh, who even reached AP No. 1 rankings for Virginia in October 1990, is a member of the College Football Hall of Fame after compiling the second-most wins in ACC history after Bobby Bowden. [203] In a historic rivalry between two legendary coaches, Welsh finished two games up in the head-to-head series against Virginia Tech coach Frank Beamer, 8–6. He was also dominant against UNC in the South's Oldest Rivalry, finishing 13–5–1, including a perfect 10–0 record against North Carolina at Scott Stadium.

Sponsorship Edit

In 2015, The Cavaliers negotiated a 10-year sponsorship deal with Nike, from which the program receives $3.5 million per year. [204]

Faculty Edit

Faculty were originally housed in the Academical Village among the students, serving as both instructors and advisors, continuing on to include the McCormick Road Old Dorms, though this has been phased out in favor of undergraduate student resident advisors (RAs). Several of the faculty, however, continue the university tradition of living on Grounds, either on the Lawn in the various Pavilions, or as fellows at one of three residential colleges (Brown College at Monroe Hill, Hereford College, and the International Residential College).

The university's faculty includes a National Humanities Medal and National Medal of Arts winner and former United States Poet Laureate, an awardee of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, [205] 25 Guggenheim fellows, 26 Fulbright fellows, six National Endowment for the Humanities fellows, two Presidential Young Investigator Award winners, three Sloan award winners, three Packard Foundation Award winners, and a winner of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. [206] Physics professor James McCarthy was the lead academic liaison to the government in the establishment of SURANET, and the university has also participated in ARPANET, Abilene, Internet2, and Lambda Rail. On March 19, 1986, the university's domain name, VIRGINIA.EDU , became the first registration under the .EDU top-level domain originating from the Commonwealth of Virginia on what would become the World Wide Web. [207]

Larry Sabato has, according to The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post, become the most-cited professor in the country by national and regional news organizations, both on the Internet and in print. [208] Civil rights activist Julian Bond, a professor in the Corcoran Department of History from 1990 to 2012, was the Chairman of the NAACP from 1998 to 2009 and was chosen to host the Nobel Laureates conference in 1998.

Alumni Edit

As of December 2014 [update] , the University of Virginia has 221,000 living graduates. [12] According to a study by researchers at the Darden School and Stanford University, UVA alumni have founded over 65,000 companies which have employed 2.3 million people worldwide with annual global revenues of $1.6 trillion. [12] Extrapolated numbers show companies founded by UVA alumni have created 371,000 jobs in the state of Virginia alone. [12] The relatively small amount that the Commonwealth gives UVA for support was determined by the study to have a tremendous return on investment for the state. [12]

President of the United States Woodrow Wilson and fifty-three Rhodes Scholars attended UVA. [104] This is the most from any university in the American South, the most among all state-sponsored public universities, and the eighth-most overall. [105]

Thirty U.S. state or U.S. territorial Governors have graduated from UVA, including fifteen Governors of Virginia, [note 4] and fifteen Governors of other U.S. states and territories as well. [note 5]

UVA's alumni ranks also include others who have achieved widespread fame: computer science pioneer John Backus polar explorer Richard Byrd scientists Walter Reed, Stuart Schreiber, Daniel Barringer, Richard Lutz, and Francis Collins artists Edgar Allan Poe and Georgia O'Keeffe musicians Stephen Malkmus and Boyd Tinsley self-made billionaire Paul Tudor Jones national news anchors Katie Couric and Brit Hume actors Tina Fey and Ben McKenzie Team USA Olympic team captains John Harkes, Dawn Staley, and Claudio Reyna NBA All-Star MVP Ralph Sampson and the NBA's eighth ever 50–40–90 shooter Malcolm Brogdon and two-time FIFA Women's World Cup champions Becky Sauerbrunn, Emily Sonnett and Morgan Brian.

What are the Four Regions of the Johari Window Model?

  1. What is known by the person about him/herself and is also known by others - open area, open self, free area, free self, or 'the arena'
  2. What is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know - blind area, blind self, or 'blindspot'
  3. What the person knows about him/herself that others do not know - hidden area, hidden self, avoided area, avoided self or 'facade'
  4. What is unknown by the person about him/herself and is also unknown by others - unknown area or unknown self

Like some other behavioural models (eg, Tuckman, Hersey/Blanchard), the Johari Window is based on a four-square grid - it is like a window with four 'panes'. Here's how the Johari Window is normally shown, with its four regions:

This is the standard representation of the Johari Window model, showing each quadrant the same size.

The four 'panes' can be changed in size to reflect the relevant proportions of each type of 'knowledge' of/about a particular person in a given group or team situation.

  • In new groups or teams, the open free space for any team member is small (see below) because shared awareness is relatively small.
  • As the team member becomes better established and known, so the size of the team member's open free area quadrant increases (see below)

Explanation of the Johari Window Model

Refer to the free detailed Johari Window model diagram in the free resources section - print a copy and it will help you to understand what follows.

Johari Window Model Quadrant 1

'Open Self/Area' or 'Free Area' or 'Public Area', or 'Arena'

Region 1 is also known as the 'area of free activity'. This is the information about the person - behaviour, attitude, feelings, emotion, knowledge, experience, skills, views, etc. - known by the person ('the self') and known by the group ('others').

The aim in any group should always be to develop the 'open area' for every person because when we work in this area with others we are at our most effective and productive, and the group is at its most productive too. The open free area, or 'the arena', can be seen as the space where good communications and cooperation occur, free from distractions, mistrust, confusion, conflict and misunderstanding.

  • Established team members logically tend to have larger open areas than new team members. New team members start with relatively small open areas because relatively little knowledge about the new team member is shared. The size of the open area can be expanded horizontally into the blind space, by seeking and actively listening to feedback from other group members. This process is known as 'feedback solicitation'.
  • Other group members can help a team member expand their open area by offering feedback, sensitively of course. The size of the open area can also be expanded vertically downwards into the hidden or avoided space by the person's disclosure of information, feelings, etc. about him/herself to the group and group members.
  • Group members can help a person expand their open area into the hidden area by asking the person about him/herself. Managers and team leaders can play an important role in facilitating feedback and disclosure among group members and indirectly giving feedback to individuals about their own blind areas.
  • Leaders also have a big responsibility to promote a culture and expectation for open, honest, positive, helpful, constructive, sensitive communications, and the sharing of knowledge throughout their organization. Top-performing groups, departments, companies and organizations always tend to have a culture of open positive communication, so encouraging the positive development of the 'open area' or 'open self' for everyone is a simple yet fundamental aspect of effective leadership.

Johari Window Model Quadrant 2

'Blind Self' or 'Blind Area' or 'Blindspot'

Region 2 is what is known about a person by others in the group, but is unknown by the person him/herself.

  • By seeking or soliciting feedback from others, the aim should be to reduce this area and thereby to increase the open area i.e, to increase self-awareness.
  • This blind area is not an effective or productive space for individuals or groups. This blind area could also be referred to as ignorance about oneself, or issues in which one is deluded.
  • A blind area could also include issues that others are deliberately withholding from a person. This relates to the difficulty one experiences when being "kept in the dark".

Group members and managers can take some responsibility for helping an individual to reduce their blind area - in turn increasing the open area - by giving sensitive feedback and encouraging disclosure.

  • Managers should promote a climate of non-judgemental feedback, and group response to individual disclosure, which reduces fear and therefore encourages both processes to happen.
  • The extent to which an individual seeks feedback, and the issues on which feedback is sought, must always be at the individual's own discretion.
  • Some people are more resilient than others - care needs to be taken to avoid causing emotional upset. The process of soliciting serious and deep feedback relates to the process of 'self-actualization' described in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs development and motivation model.

Johari Window Model Quadrant 3

'Hidden Self' or 'Hidden Area' or 'Avoided Self' or 'Facade'

Region 3 is what is known to ourselves but kept hidden from, and therefore unknown, to others.

  • This hidden or avoided self represents information, feelings, etc., anything that a person knows about him/self, but which is not revealed or is kept hidden from others.
  • The hidden area could also include sensitivities, fears, hidden agendas, manipulative intentions, secrets - anything that a person knows but does not reveal, for whatever reason.
  • It is natural for very personal and private information and feelings to remain hidden, indeed, certain information, feelings and experiences have no bearing on work, and so can and should remain hidden. However, typically, a lot of hidden information is not very personal, it is work- or performance-related, and so is better positioned in the open area.

Relevant hidden information and feelings, etc, should be moved into the open area through the process of 'disclosure'.

  • The aim should be to disclose and expose relevant information and feelings - hence the Johari Window terminology 'self-disclosure' and 'exposure process', thereby increasing the open area.
  • By telling others how we feel and other information about ourselves we reduce the hidden area and increase the open area, which enables better understanding, cooperation, trust, team-working effectiveness and productivity.
  • Reducing hidden areas also reduces the potential for confusion, misunderstanding, poor communication, etc, which all distract from and undermine team effectiveness.

Organizational culture and working atmosphere have a major influence on group members' preparedness to disclose their hidden selves. Most people fear judgement or vulnerability and therefore hold back hidden information and feelings, etc., that if moved into the open area, i.e known by the group as well, would enhance mutual understanding, and thereby improve group awareness, enabling better individual performance and group effectiveness.

The extent to which an individual discloses personal feelings and information, and the issues which are disclosed, and to whom, must always be at the individual's own discretion. As with feedback, some people are more resilient than others - care needs to be taken to avoid causing emotional upset. Also as with soliciting feedback, the process of serious disclosure relates to the process of 'self-actualization' described in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs development and motivation model.

Johari Window Model Quadrant 4

'Unknown Self' or 'Area of Unknown Activity' or 'Unknown Area'

Region 4 contains information, feelings, latent abilities, aptitudes, experiences etc, that are unknown to the person him/herself and unknown to others in the group. These unknown issues take a variety of forms:

  • They can be feelings, behaviours, attitudes, capabilities, aptitudes, which can be quite close to the surface, and which can be positive and useful, or they can be deeper aspects of a person's personality, influencing his/her behaviour to various degrees. Large unknown areas would typically be expected in younger people, and people who lack experience or self-belief.

Examples of unknown factors are as follows, and the first example is particularly relevant and common, especially in typical organizations and teams:

  • An ability that is under-estimated or un-tried through lack of opportunity, encouragement, confidence or training
  • A natural ability or aptitude that a person does not realise they possess
  • A fear or aversion that a person does not know they have
  • An unknown illness
  • Repressed or subconscious feelings
  • Conditioned behaviour or attitudes from childhood

The processes by which this information and knowledge can be uncovered are various and can be prompted through self-discovery or observation by others, or in certain situations through collective or mutual discovery, of the sort of discovery, experienced on outward bound courses or other deep or intensive group work. Counselling can also uncover unknown issues, but this would then be known to the person and by one other, rather than by a group.

  • Whether unknown 'discovered' knowledge moves into the hidden, blind or open area depends on who discovers it and what they do with the knowledge, notably whether it is then given as feedback, or disclosed. As with the processes of soliciting feedback and disclosure, striving to discover information and feelings in the unknown is related to the process of 'self-actualization' described in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs development and motivation model.
  • Again as with disclosure and soliciting feedback, the process of self-discovery is a sensitive one. The extent and depth to which an individual is able to seek out discover their unknown feelings must always be at the individual's own discretion.
  • Uncovering 'hidden talents' - that is unknown aptitudes and skills, not to be confused with developing the Johari 'hidden area' - is another aspect of developing the unknown area, and is not so sensitive as unknown feelings. Providing people with the opportunity to try new things, with no great pressure to succeed, is often a useful way to discover unknown abilities, and thereby reduce the unknown area.

Managers and leaders can help by creating an environment that encourages self-discovery, and to promote the processes of self-discovery, constructive observation and feedback among team members. Creating a culture, climate and expectation for self-discovery helps people to fulfil more of their potential and thereby to achieve more, and to contribute more to organisational performance.

Note: The unknown area could also include repressed or subconscious feelings rooted in formative events and traumatic past experiences, which can stay unknown for a lifetime. In a work or organisational context the Johari Window should not be used to address issues of a clinical nature. Useful references are Arthur Janov's seminal book "The Primal Scream" (read about the book here) and Transactional Analysis.

Michael Jordan

The legendary basketball player who formerly played for the Chicago Bulls is a brand in and of himself. As a teenager, coaches rejected Jordan from teams for being too short, despite his persistent interest in the sport. He went on to play 15 seasons in the NBA.

Today, Nike&rsquos Air Jordan line, or Jordan brand, named after the star athlete, is a billion-dollar business known for its coveted sneakers. Jordan has also earned several brand partnership and endorsement deals throughout his career, serving as a spokesperson Coca-Cola, Chevrolet, Gatorade, McDonald&rsquos and more. Additionally, he&rsquos the majority owner of the Charlotte Hornets basketball team and a minority owner of the Miami Marlins baseball team.

In December 2017, the NBA Hall of Fame member became the world&rsquos highest-paid athlete to date by Forbes. As of Feb. 15, 2018, Forbes reports that Jordan has a net worth of $1.65 billion.


John Charles Frémont was born on January 21, 1813, the son of Charles Frémon, a French-Canadian immigrant school-teacher, [3] [4] [a] and Anne Beverley Whiting, the youngest daughter of socially prominent Virginia planter Col. Thomas Whiting. At age 17, Anne married Major John Pryor, a wealthy Richmond resident in his early 60s. In 1810, Pryor hired Frémon to tutor his young wife Anne. Pryor confronted Anne when he found out she was having an affair with Frémon. Anne and Frémon fled to Williamsburg on July 10, 1811, later settling in Norfolk, Virginia, taking with them household slaves Anne had inherited. [7] [5] The couple later settled in Savannah, Georgia, where she gave birth to their son Frémont out of wedlock. [3] Pryor published a divorce petition in the Virginia Patriot, and charged that his wife had "for some time past indulged in criminal intercourse". When the Virginia House of Delegates refused Anne's divorce petition, it was impossible for the couple to marry. In Savannah, Anne took in boarders while Frémon taught French and dancing. Their domestic slave, Black Hannah, helped raise young John. [5]

On December 8, 1818, Frémont's father Frémon died in Norfolk, Virginia, leaving Anne a widow to take care of John and several young children alone on a limited inherited income. [3] Anne and her family moved to Charleston, South Carolina. Frémont, knowing his origins and coming from relatively modest means, grew up a proud, reserved, restless loner who although self-disciplined, was ready to prove himself and unwilling to play by the rules. [8] The young Frémont was considered to be "precious, handsome, and daring," having the ability of obtaining protectors. [3] A lawyer, John W. Mitchell, provided for Frémont's early education whereupon Frémont in May 1829 entered Charleston College, teaching at intervals in the countryside, but was expelled for irregular attendance in 1831. Frémont, however, had been grounded in mathematics and natural sciences. [3]

Frémont attracted the attention of eminent South Carolina politician Joel R. Poinsett, an Andrew Jackson supporter, who secured Frémont an appointment as a teacher of mathematics aboard the sloop USS Natchez, sailing the South American seas in 1833. [9] Frémont resigned from the navy and was appointed second lieutenant in the United States Topographical Corps, surveying a route for the Charleston, Louisville, and Cincinnati railroad. [10] Working in the Carolina mountains, Frémont desired to become an explorer. [3] Between 1837 and 1838, Frémont's desire for exploration increased while in Georgia on reconnaissance to prepare for the removal of Cherokee Indians. [3] When Poinsett became Secretary of War, he arranged for Frémont to assist notable French explorer and scientist Joseph Nicollet in exploring the lands between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. [11] Frémont became a first rate topographer, trained in astronomy, and geology, describing fauna, flora, soil, and water resources. [12] Gaining valuable western frontier experience Frémont came in contact with notable men including Henry Sibley, Joseph Renville, J.B. Faribault, Étienne Provost, and the Sioux nation. [13]

Frémont's exploration work with Nicollet brought him in contact with Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri, powerful chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs. [9] Benton invited Frémont to his Washington home where he met Benton's 16-year-old daughter Jessie Benton. [9] A romance blossomed between the two however, Benton was initially against it because Frémont was not considered upper society. [9] In 1841, Frémont (age 28) and Jessie eloped and were married by a Catholic priest. [9] [14] Initially Benton was furious at their marriage, but in time, because he loved his daughter, he accepted their marriage and became Frémont's patron. [9] Benton, Democratic Party leader for more than 30 years in the Senate, championed the expansionist movement, a political cause that became known as Manifest Destiny. [9] The expansionists believed that the North American continent, from one end to the other, north and south, east and west, should belong to the citizens of the U.S. They believed it was the nation's destiny to control the continent. This movement became a crusade for politicians such as Benton and his new son-in-law. Benton pushed appropriations through Congress for national surveys of the Oregon Trail, the Oregon Country, the Great Basin, and Sierra Nevada Mountains to California. Through his power and influence, Senator Benton obtained for Frémont the leadership, funding, and patronage of three expeditions.

The opening of the American West began in 1804, when the Lewis and Clark Expedition (led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark) started exploration of the new Louisiana Purchase territory to find a northwest passage up the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. President Thomas Jefferson had envisioned a Western empire, and also sent the Pike Expedition under Zebulon Pike to explore the southwest. [15] American and European fur trappers, including Peter Skene Ogden and Jedediah Smith, explored much of the American West in the 1820s. [16] [17] [18] [b] Frémont, who would later be known as The Pathfinder, carried on this tradition of Western overland exploration, building on and adding to the work of earlier pathfinders to expand knowledge of the American West. [19] Frémont's talent lay in his scientific documentation, publications, and maps made based on his expeditions, making the American West accessible for many Americans. [19] Beginning in 1842, Frémont led five western expeditions, however, between the third and fourth expeditions, Frémont's career took a fateful turn because of the Mexican–American War. Frémont's initial explorations, his timely scientific reports, co-authored by his wife Jessie, and their romantic writing style, encouraged Americans to travel West. [20] A series of seven maps produced from his findings, published by the Senate in 1846, served as a guide for thousands of American emigrants, depicting the entire length of the Oregon Trail. [20]

First expedition (1842) Edit

When Nicollet was too ill to continue any further explorations, Frémont was chosen to be his successor. [13] His first important expedition was planned by Benton, Senator Lewis Linn, and other Westerners interested in acquiring the Oregon Territory. [13] The scientific expedition started in the summer of 1842 and was to explore the Wind River of the Rocky Mountains, examine the Oregon Trail through the South Pass, and report on the rivers and the fertility of the lands, find optimal sites for forts, and describe the mountains beyond in Wyoming. [13] By chance meeting, Frémont was able to gain the valuable assistance of mountain man and guide Kit Carson. [13] Frémont and his party of 25 men, including Carson, embarked from the Kansas River on June 15, 1842, following the Platte River to the South Pass, and starting from Green River he explored the Wind River Range. [13] Frémont climbed a 13,745-foot mountain, Frémont's Peak, planted an American flag, claiming the Rocky Mountains and the West for the United States. [13] On Frémont's return trip he and his party carelessly rafted the swollen Platte River losing much of his equipment. [13] His five-month exploration, however, was a success, returning to Washington in October. [13] Frémont and his wife Jessie wrote a Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains (1843), which was printed in newspapers across the country the public embraced his vision of the west not as a place of danger but wide open and inviting lands to be settled. [21] [13] [c]

Second expedition (1843–1844) Edit

Frémont's successful first expedition led quickly to a second it began in the summer of 1843. [13] The more ambitious goal this time was to map and describe the second half of the Oregon Trail, find an alternate route to the South Pass, and push westward toward the Pacific Ocean on the Columbia River in Oregon Country. [13] Frémont and his almost 40 well-equipped men, left the Missouri River in May after he controversially obtained a 12-pound howitzer cannon in St. Louis. [13] Frémont invited Carson on the second expedition, due to his proven skills, and he joined Frémont's party on the Arkansas River. [13] Unable to find a new route through Colorado to the South Pass, Frémont took to the regular Oregon Trail, passing the main body of the great immigration of 1843. [13] His party stopped to explore the northern part of the Great Salt Lake, then traveling by way Fort Hall and Fort Boise to Marcus Whitman's mission, along the Snake River to the Columbia River and in to Oregon. [13] Frémont's endurance, energy, and resourcefulness over the long journey was remarkable. [13] Traveling west along the Columbia, they came within sight of the Cascade Range peaks and mapped Mount St. Helens and Mount Hood. Reaching the Dalles on November 5, Frémont left his party and traveled to the British-held Fort Vancouver for supplies. [13]

Rather than turning around and heading back to St. Louis, Frémont resolved to explore the Great Basin between the Rockies and the Sierras and fulfill Benton's dream of acquiring the West for the United States. [22] Frémont and his party turned south along the eastern flank of the Cascades through the Oregon territory to Pyramid Lake, which he named. [22] Looping back to the east to stay on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, they turned south again as far as present-day Minden, Nevada, reaching the Carson River on January 18, 1844. [22] From an area near what later became Virginia City, Frémont turned west into the cold and snowy Sierra Nevada, becoming one of the first Americans to see Lake Tahoe. [22] Carson successfully led Frémont's party through a new pass over the high Sierras, which Frémont named Carson Pass in his honor. Frémont and his party then descended the American River valley to Sutter's Fort (Spanish: Nueva Helvetia) at present-day Sacramento, California, in early March. [22] Captain John Sutter, a German-Mexican (and later American by treaty) immigrant and founder of the fort, received Frémont gladly and refitted his expedition party. [22] While at Sutter's Fort, Frémont talked to American settlers, who were growing numerous, and found that Mexican authority over California was very weak. [22]

Leaving Sutter's Fort, Frémont and his men headed south following Smith's trail on the eastern edge of the San Joaquin Valley until he struck the "Spanish Trail" between Los Angeles and Santa Fe, and headed east through Tehachapi Pass and present-day Las Vegas before regaining Smith's trail north through Utah and back to South Pass. [22] Exploring the Great Basin, Frémont verified that all the land (centered on modern-day Nevada between Reno and Salt Lake City) was endorheic, without any outlet rivers flowing towards the sea. The finding contributed greatly to a better understanding of North American geography, and disproved a longstanding legend of a 'Buenaventura River' that flowed out the Great Basin across the Sierra Nevada. After exploring Utah Lake, Frémont traveled by way of the Pueblo until he reached Bent's Fort on the Arkansas River. [22] In August 1844, Frémont and his party finally arrived back in St. Louis, enthusiastically received by the people, ending the journey that lasted over one year. [22] His wife Jessie and Frémont returned to Washington, where the two wrote a second report, scientific in detail, showing the Oregon Trail was not difficult to travel and that the Northwest had fertile land. [22] Senator Buchanan ordered the printing of 10,000 copies to be used by settlers and fervor the popular movement of national expansion. [22] [d]

Third expedition (1845) Edit

With the backdrop of an impending war with Mexico, after James K. Polk had been elected president, Benton quickly organized a third expedition for Frémont. [22] The plan for Frémont under the War Department was to survey the central Rockies, the Great Salt Lake region, and part of the Sierra Nevada. [22] Back in St. Louis, Frémont organized an armed surveying expedition of 60 men, with Carson as a guide, and two distinguished scouts, Joseph Walker and Alexis Godey. [22] Working with Benton and Secretary of Navy George Bancroft, Frémont was secretly told that if war started with Mexico he was to turn his scientific expedition into a military force. [22] President Polk, who had met with Frémont at a cabinet meeting, was set on taking California. [26] Frémont desired to conquer California for its beauty and wealth, and would later explain his very controversial conduct there. [22]

On June 1, 1845, Frémont and his armed expedition party left St. Louis having the immediate goal to locate the source of the Arkansas River, on the east side of the Rocky Mountains. [27] [22] Frémont and his party struck west by way of Bent's Fort, The Great Salt Lake, and the "Hastings Cut-Off". [22] When Frémont reached the Ogden River, which he renamed the Humboldt, he divided his party in two to double his geographic information. [22] Upon reaching the Arkansas River, Frémont suddenly made a blazing trail through Nevada straight to California, having a rendezvous with his men from the split party at Walker Lake in west-central Nevada. [28] [e]

Taking 16 men, Frémont split his party again, arriving at Sutter's Fort in the Sacramento Valley on December 9. [28] Frémont promptly sought to stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there. He promised that if war with Mexico started, his military force would protect the settlers. [30] Frémont went to Monterey, California, to talk with the American consul, Thomas O. Larkin, and Mexican commandant Jose Castro, under the pretext of gaining fuller supplies. [22] In February 1846, Frémont reunited with 45 men of his expedition party near Mission San José, giving the United States a formidable military army in California. [31] Castro and Mexican officials were suspicious of Frémont and he was ordered to leave the country. [32] [22] Frémont and his men withdrew and camped near the summit of what is now named Fremont Peak. Headstrong and with much audacity, Frémont raised the United States Flag in defiance of Mexican authority. [22]

Playing for time, after a four-day standoff and Castro having a superior number of Mexican troops, Frémont and his men went north to Oregon, executing the Sacramento River massacre along the way. Estimates of the casualties vary. Expedition members Thomas E. Breckenridge and Thomas S. Martin claim the number of Native Americans killed as "120–150" [33] and "over 175" [34] respectively, but the eyewitness Tustin claimed that at least 600–700 Native Americans were killed on land, with another 200 or more dying in the water. [35] There are no records of any expedition members being killed or even wounded in the massacre. [36] Kit Carson, one of the mounted attackers, later stated, "It was a perfect butchery." [37]

Fremont and his men eventually made their way to camp at Klamath Lake, [38] [39] [22] killing Native Americans on sight as they went. [40] [41] On May 8, Frémont was overtaken by Lieutenant Archibald Gillespie from Washington, who gave him copies of dispatches he had previously given to Larkin. [22] Gillespie told Frémont secret instructions from Benton and Buchanan justifying aggressive action and that a declaration of war with Mexico was imminent. [22] On May 9, 1846, Native Americans attacked his expedition party in retaliation for numerous killings of Native Americans that Frémont's men had engaged in along the trail. Frémont retaliated by attacking a Klamath fishing village named Dokdokwas the following day in the Klamath Lake massacre, although the people living there might not have been involved in the first action. [42] The village was at the junction of the Williamson River and Klamath Lake. On May 12, 1846, the Frémont group completely destroyed it, killing at least fourteen people. [43] Frémont believed that the British were responsible for arming and encouraging the Native Americans to attack his party. [44] Afterward, Carson was nearly killed by a Klamath warrior. As Carson's gun misfired, the warrior drew to shoot a poison arrow however, Frémont, seeing that Carson was in danger, trampled the warrior with his horse. Carson felt that he owed Frémont his life. [42] A few weeks later, Frémont and his armed militia returned to California. [45]

Having reentered Mexican California headed south, Frémont and his army expedition stopped off at Peter Lassen's Ranch on May 24, 1846. [46] Frémont learned from Lassen that the USS Portsmouth, commanded by John B. Montgomery, was anchored at Sausalito. [46] Frémont sent Lt. Gillespie to Montgomery and requested supplies including 8000 percussion caps, 300 pounds of rifle lead, one keg of powder, and food provisions, intending to head back to St. Louis. [46] On May 31, Frémont made his camp on the Bear and Feather rivers 60 miles north of Sutter's Fort, where American Californians ready for revolt against Mexican authority joined his party. [47] From there he made another attack on local Native Americans in a rancheria (see Sutter Buttes massacre). [48] In early June, believing war with Mexico to be a virtual certainty, Frémont joined the Sacramento Valley insurgents in a "silent partnership", rather than head back to St. Louis, as originally planned. [49] [50] On June 10, ordered by Frémont, four men from Frémont's party and 10 rebel volunteers seized 170 horses intended for Castro's Army and returned them to Frémont's camp. [51] On June 14, having been advised and ordered by Frémont, 34 armed rebels independently captured Sonoma, the largest settlement in northern California, and forced the surrender of Colonel Mariano Vallejo, taking him and three others prisoners. [52] The following day, rebel Californians who called themselves Osos (Spanish for "bears"), amidst a brandy-filled party, hoisted a roughly sewn flag, and formed the Bear Flag Republic, electing William Ide as their leader. [53] The four prisoners were then taken to Frémont's American camp 80 miles away. [54] On June 15, the prisoners and escorts arrived at Frémont's new camp on the American River, but Frémont publicly denied responsibility for the raid. [55] The escorts then removed the prisoners south to Sutter's Fort and imprisoned by Sutter under Frémont's orders. [56] It was at this time Frémont began signing letters as "Military Commander of U.S. Forces in California". [55]

On June 24, Frémont and his men rode to Sonoma arriving on June 25, upon hearing that Californio (people of Spanish or Mexican descent) Juan N. Padilla had captured, tortured, killed, and mutilated the bodies of two Osos, and held prisoner another Osos. [57] On June 26, Frémont, his own men, Lieutenant Henry Ford and a detachment of Osos, totalling 125 men, rode south to San Rafael, searching for Captain Joaquin de la Torre and his Californios Lancers, rumored to have been ordered by Castro to attack Sonoma, but was unable to find them. [58] On June 28, Kit Carson and Frémont were near the shores of San Rafael, when three unarmed Californios embarked from a row boat, including Don José Berreyesa and the Haro twin brothers Ramon and Francisco, sons of Don Francisco de Haro. [59] When Carson asked Frémont what to do with the Californios, Frémont waved his hands and replied, "I have got no room for prisoners." [59] Carson, who was 50 yards away, took his rifle and shot, instantly killing Ramon. His brother Francisco fell on Ramon's body. [59] An order was shouted out, "Kill the other son of a bitch!" [59] A shot was fired instantly killing Francisco. [59] When Berreyesa asked why the boys had been shot, he was shot and instantly killed. [59] The bodies were stripped of their clothing and left on the beach. [59] Berreyesa's son Antonio found an American wearing his father's serape. [59] He asked Frémont for the serape to be returned but Frémont refused. [59] Antonio was forced to pay $25 for the garment. [59] [f]

Early on July 7, 1846, the frigate USS Savannah and the two sloops, USS Cyane and USS Levant of the United States Navy, captured Monterey, California, and raised the flag of the United States. [61] Commodore John D. Sloat, commanding the U.S. Navy's Pacific Squadron had his proclamation read in and posted in English and Spanish: ". henceforth California would be a portion of the United States." [62] On July 10, Frémont learned that the United States was at war with Mexico and he fully cooperated with Commodore Sloat and his senior officer Robert F. Stockton. Promoted to Commodore and replacing an ailing Sloat, Stockton was put in charge of land operations on July 23, 1846. Frémont was appointed major in command of the California Battalion, [63] [64] also called "U.S. Mounted Rifles", which he had helped form with his survey crew and volunteers from the Bear Flag Republic, now totaling 428 men. [65] [66] [g] Stockton incorporated the California Battalion into the U.S. military giving them soldiers pay. Frémont and about 160 of his troops went by ship to San Diego, and with Stockton's marines took Los Angeles on August 13. [22] Frémont afterwards went north to recruit more Californians into his battalion. [22] In late 1846, under orders from Stockton, Frémont led a military expedition of 300 men to capture Santa Barbara. In September, Mexican Californians unwilling to be ruled by the United States, under José María Flores, fought back and retook Los Angeles, driving out Americans.

In December 1846, U.S. Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny arrived in California having instructions to establish a military control. Kearny, who was undermanned, mistakenly believing war in California had ended, was attacked at the Battle of San Pasqual, but was reinforced when Stockton sent troops to drive off Pio Pico and the California Lancers. [22] It was at this time a dispute began between Stockton and Kearny who had control over the military, but the two managed to work together to stop the Los Angeles uprising. Frémont led his unit over the Santa Ynez Mountains at San Marcos Pass in a rainstorm on the night of December 24, 1846. Despite losing many of his horses, mules and cannons, which slid down the muddy slopes during the rainy night, his men regrouped in the foothills (behind what is today Rancho Del Ciervo) the next morning, and captured the Presidio of Santa Barbara and the town without bloodshed. A few days later, Frémont led his men southeast towards Los Angeles. Fremont accepted Andres Pico's surrender upon signing the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847, which terminated the war in upper California. [68] It was at this time Kearny ordered Frémont to join his military dragoons, but Frémont refused, believing he was under authority of Stockton.

Court martial and resignation Edit

On January 16, 1847, Commodore Stockton appointed Frémont military governor of California following the Treaty of Cahuenga, and then left Los Angeles. [69] Frémont functioned for a few weeks without controversy, but he had little money to administer his duties as governor. [69] Previously, unknown to Stockton and Frémont, the Navy Department had sent orders for Sloat and his successors to establish military rule over California. [69] [70] These orders, however, postdated Kearny's orders to establish military control over California. Kearny did not have the troop strength to enforce those orders, and was forced to rely on Stockton's Marines and Frémont's California Battalion until army reinforcements arrived. [69] On February 13, specific orders were sent from Washington through Commanding General Winfield Scott giving Kearny the authority to be military governor of California. [69] Kearny, however, did not directly inform Frémont of these orders from Scott. [69] Kearny ordered that Frémont's California Battalion be enlisted into the U.S. Army and Frémont bring his battalion archives to Kearny's headquarters in Monterey. [69]

Frémont delayed obeying these orders, hoping Washington would send instructions for Frémont to be military governor. [69] Also, the California Battalion refused to join the U.S. Army. [69] Frémont gave orders for the California Battalion not to surrender arms, rode to Monterey to talk to Kearny, and told Kearny he would obey orders. [71] Kearny sent Col. Richard B. Mason, who was to succeed Kearny as military governor of California, to Los Angeles, both to inspect troops and to give Frémont further orders. [71] Frémont and Mason, however, were at odds with each other and Frémont challenged Mason to a duel. [71] After an arrangement to postpone the duel, Kearny rode to Los Angeles and refused Frémont's request to join troops in Mexico. [71] Ordered to march with Kearny's army back east, Frémont was arrested on August 22, 1847, when they arrived at Fort Leavenworth. He was charged with mutiny, disobedience of orders, assumption of powers, and several other military offenses. Ordered by Kearny to report to the adjutant general in Washington to stand for court-martial, Frémont was found innocent of mutiny, but was convicted on January 31, 1848 of disobedience toward a superior officer and military misconduct. [72]

While approving the court's decision, President James K. Polk quickly commuted Frémont's sentence of dishonorable discharge and reinstated him into the Army, due to his war services. Polk felt that Frémont was guilty of disobeying orders and misconduct, but he did not believe Frémont was guilty of mutiny. [73] Additionally, Polk wished to placate Thomas Hart Benton, a powerful senator and Frémont's father-in-law, who felt that Frémont was innocent. Frémont, only gaining a partial pardon from Polk, resigned his commission in protest and settled in California. [74] Despite the court-martial, Frémont remained popular among the American public.

Historians are divided in their opinions on this period of Frémont's career. Mary Lee Spence and Donald Jackson, editors of a large collection of letters by Fremont and others dating from this period, concluded that ". in the California episode, Frémont was as often right as wrong. And even a cursory investigation of the court-martial record produces one undeniable conclusion: neither side in the controversy acquitted itself with distinction." [75] Allan Nevins states that Kearny:

was a stern-tempered soldier who made few friends and many enemies – who has been justly characterized by the most careful historian of the period, Justin H. Smith, as "grasping, jealous, domineering, and harsh." Possessing these traits, feeling his pride stung by his defeat at San Pasqual, and anxious to assert his authority, he was no sooner in Los Angeles than he quarreled bitterly with Stockton and Frémont was not only at once involved in this quarrel, but inherited the whole burden of it as soon as Stockton left the country. [76]

Theodore Grivas wrote that "It does not seem quite clear how Frémont, an army officer, could have imagined that a naval officer [Stockton] could have protected him from a charge of insubordination toward his superior officer [Kearny]". Grivas goes on to say, however, that "This conflict between Kearny, Stockton, and Frémont perhaps could have been averted had methods of communication been what they are today." [77]

Intent on restoring his honor and explorer reputation after his court martial, in 1848, Frémont and his father-in-law Sen. Benton developed a plan to advance their vision of Manifest Destiny. With a keen interest in the potential of railroads, Sen. Benton had sought support from the Senate for a railroad connecting St. Louis to San Francisco along the 38th parallel, the latitude which both cities approximately share. After Benton failed to secure federal funding, Frémont secured private funding. In October 1848 he embarked with 35 men up the Missouri, Kansas and Arkansas rivers to explore the terrain. The artists and brothers Edward Kern and Richard Kern, and their brother Benjamin Kern, were part of the expedition, but Frémont was unable to obtain the valued service of Kit Carson as guide as in his previous expeditions. [78]

On his party's reaching Bent's Fort, he was strongly advised by most of the trappers against continuing the journey. Already a foot of snow was on the ground at Bent's Fort, and the winter in the mountains promised to be especially snowy. Part of Frémont's purpose was to demonstrate that a 38th parallel railroad would be practical year-round. At Bent's Fort, he engaged "Uncle Dick" Wootton as guide, and at what is now Pueblo, Colorado, he hired the eccentric Old Bill Williams and moved on.

Had Frémont continued up the Arkansas, he might have succeeded. On November 25 at what is now Florence, Colorado, he turned sharply south. By the time his party crossed the Sangre de Cristo Range via Mosca Pass, they had already experienced days of bitter cold, blinding snow and difficult travel. Some of the party, including the guide Wootton, had already turned back, concluding that further travel would be impossible. Benjamin Kern and "Old Bill" Williams were killed while retracing the expedition trail to look for gear and survivors.

Although the passes through the Sangre de Cristo had proven too steep for a railroad, Frémont pressed on. From this point the party might still have succeeded had they gone up the Rio Grande to its source, or gone by a more northerly route, but the route they took brought them to the very top of Mesa Mountain. [79] By December 12, on Boot Mountain, it took ninety minutes to progress three hundred yards. Mules began dying and by December 20, only 59 animals remained alive.

It was not until December 22 that Frémont acknowledged that the party needed to regroup and be resupplied. They began to make their way to Taos in the New Mexico Territory. By the time the last surviving member of the expedition made it to Taos on February 12, 1849, 10 of the party had died. Except for the efforts of member Alexis Godey, [80] another 15 would have been lost. [81] After recuperating in Taos, Frémont and only a few of the men left for California via an established southern trade route.

Edward and Richard Kern joined J.H. Simpson's military reconnaissance expedition to the Navajos in 1849, and gave the American public some of its earliest authentic graphic images of the people and landscape of Arizona, New Mexico, and southern Colorado with views of Canyon de Chelly, Chaco Canyon, and El Morro (Inscription Rock). [82]

In 1850, Frémont was awarded the Patron's Medal by the Royal Geographical Society for his various exploratory efforts. [83]

On February 10, 1847, Frémont purchased seventy square miles of land in the Sierra foothills, called Las Mariposas, through land speculator Thomas Larkin, for $3,000. [84] Las Mariposas had previously been owned by Juan Bautista Alvarado, former California governor, and his wife Martina Caston de Alvarado. [84] Frémont had hoped Las Mariposas was near San Francisco or Monterey, but was disappointed when he found out it was farther inland by Yosemite, on the Miwok Indian's hunting and gathering grounds. [84] After his court martial in 1848, Frémont moved to Las Mariposas and became a rancher, borrowing money from his father-in-law Benton and Senator John Dix to construct a house, corral, and barn. [84] Frémont ordered a sawmill and had it shipped by the Aspinwall steamer Fredonia to Las Mariposas. [84] Frémont was informed by Sonora Mexicans that gold had been discovered on his property. [85] Frémont was instantly a wealthy man, a five-mile quartz vein produced hundreds of pounds of placer gold each month. [84] [h] In 1851 Hiland Hall, a former Governor of Vermont, was appointed chairman of the federal commission created to settle Mexican land titles in California [86] he traveled to San Francisco to begin his work, and his son-in-law Trenor W. Park traveled with him. [86] Frémont hired Park as a managing partner to oversee the day-to-day activities of the estate, [86] and Mexican laborers to wash out the gold on his property in exchange for a percentage of the profits. [85] Frémont acquired large landholdings in San Francisco, and while developing his Las Mariposas gold ranch, he lived a wealthy lifestyle in Monterey. [85]

Legal issues, however, soon mounted over property and mineral rights. [87] Disputes erupted as squatters moved on Frémont's Las Mariposas land mining for gold. [84] There was question whether the three mining districts on the land were public domain, while the Merced Mining Company was actively mining on Frémont's property. [84] Since Alvarado had purchased Las Mariposas on a "floating grant", the property borders were not precisely defined by the Mexican government. [84] Alvarado's ownership of the land was legally contested since Alvarado never actually settled on the property as required by Mexican law. [87] All of these matters lingered and were argued in court for many years until the Supreme Court finally ruled in Frémont's favor in 1856. [88] Although Frémont's legal victory allowed him to keep his wealth, it created lingering animosity among his neighbors. [88]

During the late 1850s, Frederick H. Billings, a partner in the Halleck, Peachy & Billings law firm that employed Park, partnered with Frémont in several successful business ventures. [89] Billings later embarked on several trips to Europe in an unsuccessful effort to sell Frémont's Mariposa mine shares. [89] At the start of the American Civil War, Billings acted as Frémont's agent when Frémont took the initiative to purchase arms in England for use by Union troops. [89]

On November 13, 1849 General Bennet C. Riley, without Washington approval, called for a state election to ratify the new California State constitution. [90] On December 20, the California legislature voted to seat two Senators to represent the state in the Senate. [91] The front-runner was Frémont, a Free Soil Democrat, known for being a western hero, and regarded by many as an innocent victim of an unjustified court-martial. [91] The other candidates were T. Butler King, a Whig, and William Gwin, a Democrat. [92] Frémont won the first Senate seat, easily having 29 out of 41 votes and Gwin, having Southern backing, was elected to the second Senate seat, having won 24 out of 41 votes. [91] By random draw of straws, Gwin won the longer Senate term while Frémont won the shorter Senate term. [91] In Washington, Frémont, whose California ranch had been purchased from a Mexican land grantee, supported an unsuccessful law that would have rubber-stamped Mexican land grants, and another law that prevented foreign workers from owning gold claims (Fremont's ranch was in gold country), derisively called "Frémont's Gold Bill". [93] Frémont voted against harsh penalties for those who assisted runaway slaves and he was in favor of abolishing the slave trade in the District of Columbia. [94]

Democratic pro-slavery opponents of Frémont, called the Chivs, strongly opposed Frémont's re-election, and endorsed Solomon Heydenfeldt. [94] Rushing back to California hoping to thwart the Chivs, Frémont started his own election newspaper, the San Jose Daily Argus, however, to no avail, he was unable to get enough votes for re-election to the Senate. [94] Neither Heydenfeldt, nor Frémont's other second-time competitor King, were able to obtain a majority of votes, allowing Gwin to be California's lone senator. [94] Frémont's term lasted 175 days from September 10, 1850, to March 3, 1851, and he only served 21 working days in Washington in the Senate. [94] Pro-slavery John B. Weller, supported by the Chivs, was elected one year later to the empty Senate seat previously held by Frémont. [95]

In the fall of 1853, Frémont embarked on another expedition to identify a viable route for a transcontinental railroad along the 38th parallel. The party journeyed between Missouri and San Francisco, California, over a combination of known trails and unexplored terrain. A primary objective was to pass through the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada Mountains during winter to document the amount of snow and the feasibility of winter rail passage along the route. His photographer (daguerreotypist) was Solomon Nunes Carvalho.

Frémont followed the Santa Fe Trail, passing Bent's Fort before heading west and entering the San Luis Valley of Colorado in December. The party then followed the North Branch of the Old Spanish Trail, crossing the Continental Divide at Cochetopa Pass and continuing west into central Utah. But following the trail was made difficult by snow cover. On occasion, they were able to detect evidence of Captain John Gunnison's expedition, which had followed the North Branch just months before.

Weeks of snow and bitter cold took its toll and slowed progress. Nonessential equipment was abandoned and one man died before the struggling party reached the Mormon settlement of Parowan in southwestern Utah on February 8, 1854. After spending two weeks in Parowan to regain strength, the party continued across the Great Basin and entered the Owens Valley near present-day Big Pine, California. Frémont then journeyed south and crossed the Sierra Nevada Mountains and entered the Kern River drainage, which was followed west to the San Joaquin Valley.

Frémont arrived in San Francisco on April 16, 1854. Having completed a winter passage across the mountainous west, Frémont was optimistic that a railroad along the 38th Parallel was viable and that winter travel along the line would be possible through the Rocky Mountains. [96]

An optimization model for multi-appointment scheduling in an outpatient cardiology setting

In this paper, we tackle the problem of outpatient scheduling in the cardiology department of a large medical center. The outpatients have to go through a number of diagnostic tests and treatments before they are able to complete the final interventional procedure or surgery. We develop an integer programming (IP) formulation to ensure that the outpatients will go through the necessary procedures on time, that they will have enough time to recover after each step, and that their availability will be taken into account. Our goal is to schedule appointments that are convenient for the outpatients, by minimizing the number of visits that the patients have to make to the hospital and the time they spend waiting in the hospital. We propose formulation improvements and introduce valid inequalities to the IP, which help the running times to decrease significantly. Furthermore, we investigate whether scheduling outpatients in groups can lead to better schedules for the patients. This would require coordination between the different members of the scheduling staff within the cardiology department. The results show improvements in the total objective value over a period of one month, ranging from 0.45% to 2.33% on average, depending on the scenario taken into account.


An examination of comorbidities (i.e., other co-occurring conditions) of speech and language disorders is complicated by the central role of language and communication in the development and behavior of children and adolescents. Speech and language disorders are a definitional component of certain conditions, most prominently autism spectrum disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Other neurodevelopmental disorders, including cognitive impairment, are universally associated with varying degrees of delays and deficits in language and communication skills (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In addition to their co-occurrence with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders, speech and language delays in toddlers and preschool-age children are associated with a significantly increased risk for long-term developmental challenges, such as language-based learning disorders (Beitchman et al., 1996a,b,c, 1999, 2001, 2014 Brownlie et al., 2004 Stoeckel et al., 2013 Voci et al., 2006 Young et al., 2002). While specific language impairments (i.e., those not associated with other diagnosable neurodevelopmental disorders) are relatively common, it is likely that substantially greater numbers of children and adolescents experience significant speech and/or language impairment associated with other diagnosable disorders. Finally, speech and language delays and deficits may lead to impairments in other aspects of a child's functional skills (e.g., social interaction, behavior, academic achievement) even when not associated with other diagnosable disorders (Beitchman et al., 1996c, 2001, 2014 Brownlie et al., 2004 Voci et al., 2006 Young et al., 2002). This section, therefore, examines the association of speech and language disorders from the following perspectives: (1) speech and language disorders that are comorbid with other diagnosable disorders, and (2) speech and language disorders in early childhood that confer a quantifiable risk for the later development of comorbid conditions. Together, these two perspectives create a comprehensive picture of the association of speech and language disorders with other neurodevelopmental disorders.

Autism spectrum disorder is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, affecting an estimated 1 in 68 8-year-old children in the United States (CDC, 2014). By definition, all children with autism spectrum disorder have deficits in communication, ranging from a complete absence of verbal and nonverbal communication skills, to atypical language (e.g., echolalia or “scripted” language), to more subtle deficits in pragmatic (i.e., social) communication (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The formal diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder require documentation of deficits in the social-communication domain (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In clinical practice, when children present with significant delays in the development of communication skills, autism spectrum disorder is one of the primary diagnostic considerations (Myers and Johnson, 2007).

All children and adolescents with intellectual disability have varying degrees of impairment in communication skills (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Among those with mild intellectual disability, deficits in communication may be relatively subtle, including inability to understand or employ highly abstract language or impairment in social communication. In contrast, children and adolescents with severe or profound levels of intellectual disability may be able only to communicate basic requests, understand concrete instructions, and communicate with simple phrases or single words others may be unable to employ or understand spoken language. A number of specific genetic disorders are directly associated with varying degrees of intellectual disability together with abnormalities of speech and language (see Box 2-3). Some of these genetic conditions often are also associated with specific profiles of speech and language impairment (Feldman and Messick, 2009). Examples include dysfluent speech in children with Down syndrome, echolalia in boys with fragile X syndrome, and fluent but superficial social language in children with Williams syndrome (Feldman and Messick, 2009).

Language-based learning disorders, including reading and written language disorders, are often associated with speech and language disorders. The association between language impairment and reading disorders has been demonstrated in studies examining the likelihood that family members of subjects with language impairment are at increased risk for reading disorder (Flax et al., 2003). Both epidemiologic and clinic-based studies have demonstrated that children with speech sound disorders and language disorders are at increased risk for reading disorder (Pennington and Bishop, 2009). Similarly, multiple studies have demonstrated a strong association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and speech and language disorders (Pennington and Bishop, 2009 Tomblin, 2014).

The comorbidity of speech and language disorders and other neurodevelopmental disorders may not be apparent in pre-school-age children, since these very young children may not yet manifest the developmental lags or symptoms required to make comorbid diagnoses of such conditions as learning disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In their prospective community-based study, for example, Beitchman and colleagues (1989) found significant differences in measures of “reading readiness” among 5-year-old children with poor language comprehension compared with children with either high overall speech and language ability or isolated articulation difficulties (Beitchman et al., 1989). Similarly, there was a tendency for 5-year-olds with a combination of low articulation and poor language comprehension to have higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention and lower maternal ratings of social competence (Beitchman et al., 1989). By age 12, the children who earlier had shown combined deficits in speech and language had significantly lower levels of reading achievement and higher rates of diagnosed psychiatric disorders (57.1 percent versus 23.7 percent for children with normal speech and language at age 5) (Beitchman et al., 1994). By age 19, children with documented language impairment at age 5 had significantly higher rates of reading disorder (36.8 percent versus 6.4 percent), math disorder (53.9 percent versus 12.2 percent), and psychiatric disorders (40 percent versus 21 percent) compared with their peers with normal language ability at age 5 (Young et al., 2002).

Was John S. Mosby the model/motivation/template for John Carter? - History

первый в мире пиратский ресурс, который открыл публичный и массовый доступ к десяткам миллионов научных статей

Если бы не было Sci-Hub – не смог бы вообще написать диссертацию. Направление – материаловедение. Исследования, связанные со структурообразованием в алюминиевых сплавах.

Мы ведем борьбу с информационным неравенством во всем мире. Научные знания должны стать доступны для всех людей независимо от их материального положения, социального статуса, страны проживания и других факторов.

Миссия проекта – устранение абсолютно всех барьеров, препятствующих максимально широкому распространению знаний в современном обществе!

Мы выступаем за немедленную отмену интеллектуальной собственности и копирайта для научно-образовательной информации.

Законы о копирайте делают юридически нелегальной работу электронных библиотек и закрывают доступ к знаниям большинству людей, в то же время позволяя отдельным индивидам извлекать из этой ситуации огромные прибыли, создавая и поддерживая не только информационное, но и экономическое неравенство.

Проект Sci-Hub поддерживает движение Открытого доступа в науке. Научные статьи должны публиковаться в открытом – то есть бесплатном для чтения – доступе.

Открытый доступ – новая и прогрессивная модель научной коммуникации, за которой будущее. Мы выступаем против заработка, полученного путем ограничения доступа к информации.

Conclusions on Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model

According to Kotter and Cohen, successful change leaders find a problem or a solution to a problem and then show people using engaging and compelling situations to change behaviour.

They recommend a people-driven approach that helps people to see the reason for change. They argue that people change when they are shown the truth because this influences their feelings.

That is, emotion is at the heart of change. We see, feel, change:

  • See – Compelling and eye-catching situations are created to help show people what the problems are and how to resolve them.
  • Feel – Visualising ideas evokes a powerful emotional response that motivates people into action.
  • Change – The new feelings change or reinforce behaviours that make people work harder to make a good vision reality. The change is more immediate but must be reinforced to keep up the momentum.

Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model for Successful Transformational Change Source: Kotter and Cohen, The Heart of Change, p. 7.

I trust you found this article on John Kotter’s 8-step change model beneficial.

Remember, it is about changing behaviour by making people feel differently about organisational change.

I wholeheartedly recommend this book to anyone leading change who wants to motivate people and overcome obstacles to achieve great results. Remember: we see, we feel, we change.


John Kotter is internationally known and widely regarded as the foremost expert on the topic of transformational leadership. His international bestseller Leading Change — which outlines an actionable 8-step change model for implementing successful transformations — has become the bible for leaders around the world who want to achieve great results.

Dan S. Cohen is a Principal with Deloitte Consulting LLP, where he focuses his consulting activities on large-scale organisational transformation. Cohen led the development of the firm’s Global Change Leadership Methodology, as well as Deloitte Consulting’s Human Capital Energy practice. He has provided consulting support across industries to Fortune 100 companies worldwide.

Watch the video: The Memoirs of Colonel John S. Mosby FULL Audiobook (November 2022).

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