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Archaeologists Discover 9,000-Year-Old Tool-Making Factory in London

Archaeologists Discover 9,000-Year-Old Tool-Making Factory in London


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A 9,000-year-old Mesolithic tool-making factory has been found in London during excavation work to create a new 13 mile high-speed railway line. It is believed that the site, located alongside the River Thames, was used to test, divide and prepare river cobbles to make flint tools, which would then have been taken to another site.

The team of archaeologists found 150 pieces of flint, including blades, dating back to the Mesolithic Age. "The concentration of flint pieces shows that this was an exceptionally important location for sourcing materials to make tools that were used by early Londoners who lived and hunted on Thames Estuary islands”, said Jay Carver, Crossrail lead archaeologist.

The discovery confirms that the area alongside the River Thames was inhabited as far back as 7,000 BC. "This is a unique and exciting find that reveals evidence of humans returning to England and in particular the Thames Valley after a long hiatus during the Ice Age. It is one of a handful of archaeology sites uncovered that confirms humans lived in the Thames Valley at this time”, said Carver.

In addition, to the Mesolithic tool-making facility, archaeologists have also found the Bedlam asylum’s ancient graveyard with as many as 20,000 skeletons, reindeer and mammoth bones dating back 68,000 years to a Mesolithic tool-making facility, numerous 2,000-year-old horseshoes, an entire stretch of Roman road, the remains of a Tudor manor house, medieval ice skates, an 800-year-old piece of a ship, and rare Roman coins.

The construction of Crossrail will eventually result in one of the most extensive archaeological programmes every undertaken in the UK and it is expected to reveal a wealth of information about London’s history currently hidden beneath its streets.


    London's Rich History Found Again Underground

    LONDON (AP) &mdash Jewelry, pieces of ships, medieval ice skates, centuries-old skulls &mdash some fascinating pieces of London's history aren't in museums, but underground.

    More often than not, they stay there, but work on a new railway line under the British capital is bringing centuries of that buried history to light.

    The 118-kilometer (73-mile) Crossrail line is Britain's biggest construction project and the largest archaeological dig in London for decades. In the city's busy business core, archaeologists have struck pay dirt, uncovering everything from a chunk of Roman road to dozens of 2,000-year-old horseshoes, some golden 16th-century bling &mdash and the bones of long-dead Londoners.

    One afternoon this week, archaeologists were unearthing newly discovered bones in a pit beside Liverpool Street rail and subway station, while living city-dwellers scuttled by, oblivious, a few feet away. The remains belong to a few of the 20,000 people interred in a burial ground established in the 16th century.

    "Everyone's been running around in Liverpool Street for years and not thinking that they've been walking around on bodies from one of the densest burial grounds in London," said Nick Elsden, a Museum of London archaeologist helping to oversee excavations that go along with the work on the Crossrail line.

    The 2,000-year history of London goes deep &mdash 5 to 6 meters (16 to 20 feet) deep, the distance between today's street level and sidewalks in Roman times. Crossrail is providing archaeologists with a chance to dig down through those centuries &mdash and even beyond, to prehistoric times.

    "This site is a rare, perhaps unprecedented opportunity," Elsden said as he watched museum staff gently brush dirt from newly found bones and a skull in a hole that will soon house a maintenance shaft. "This is a major roadway outside one of London's busiest railway stations. You don't get to dig that up normally."

    The 14.8 billion pound ($23 billion) railway, due to open in 2018, will run across London from west to east, with a central 21 kilometer (13 mile) section underground. That has meant tunneling beneath some of the city's oldest, most densely populated sections.

    Alongside tunneling work &mdash advancing by 100 meters (330 feet) a week and due to be finished next year &mdash more than 100 archaeologists have been involved in excavations at 40 sites over the past four years.

    They've found everything from reindeer, bison and mammoth bones dating back 68,000 years to the remains of a moated Tudor manor house, medieval ice skates, an 800-year old piece of a ship and the foundations of an 18th-century shipyard.

    Earlier this year, the dig unearthed skeletons belonging to victims of the Black Death, the plague that wiped out half of London's population in 1348.

    The latest discoveries include pieces of flint, some shaped into tiny blades, from a 9,000-year-old tool-making factory beside the Thames in what is now southeast London. It's evidence the area was being resettled after the last Ice Age by nomadic hunter-gatherers.

    At Liverpool Street, recent finds include a 16th-century Venetian gold coin with a small hole that suggests it was an early sequin, worn as decoration on the clothes of a wealthy person who probably lost it. It was found in a rubbish deposit.

    Elsden and his team are especially excited to have uncovered the remains of a Roman road, studded with 2,000-year-old horseshoes &mdash more precisely equine sandals, made of metal and fastened to the hooves with leather straps.

    So many have been found that researchers suspect this must then, as now, have been a busy transit area, with horses bringing produce from the countryside to residents of what was then known as Londinium.

    "Roman horseshoes, stuck in a rut of the Roman road &mdash you've got this unique little snapshot," Elsden said. "You can see a Roman pulling his cart across the bridge. That's a rare little glimpse into ordinary Roman life."

    Some of the archaeologists' most delicate work involves remains from the Bedlam burial ground, established in the 16th century underneath what is now Liverpool Street as the city's medieval church graveyards filled up.

    Thousands of Londoners were buried there over 150 years, from paupers to religious nonconformists to patients at the adjacent Bedlam Hospital, the world's first psychiatric asylum. Its name, a corruption of Bethlehem, became a synonym for chaos.

    Jay Carver, Crossrail's lead archaeologist, says the project will mean disinterring the remains of about 4,000 people.

    Workers will treat the remains with delicacy and respect, practices not always followed in the past.

    The recently discovered Roman road is made of rammed earth, clay, wood and &mdash surprisingly &mdash human bones, washed by a river from a nearby cemetery and incorporated into the building material.

    "We tend to think in the past they were superstitious about bodies, but no," Elsden said. "Bits of bodies are washing around out of cemeteries &mdash they're not that worried about it."

    Centuries later, gravestones from the Bedlam cemetery were used as foundations of later buildings, and the soil has yielded pieces of bone, antler, tortoiseshell and ivory &mdash leftovers from local craft workshops dumped over the cemetery wall in the 17th century.

    The newly excavated human remains will be studied for clues to diet and disease before being reinterred elsewhere.

    Most of them will, of necessity, be reburied anonymously. But Carver holds out hope that research may be able to identify some individuals. The Bedlam graveyard is known to contain the remains of several prominent people, including Robert Lockyer, a member of an egalitarian 17th-century political movement known as the Levelers.

    Lockyer was executed by firing squad at St. Paul's Cathedral after leading an army mutiny in 1649 before being buried at Bedlam.

    "If you find someone who's been executed with a musket, that's going to leave some kind of damage," Carver said. "It would be quite exciting if we could identify someone in that way."

    Jill Lawless can be reached at http://Twitter.com/JillLawless

    Copyright (2013) Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.


    London’s Big Dig unearths treasures

    LONDON (AP) — Jewelry, pieces of ships, medieval ice skates, centuries-old skulls — some fascinating pieces of London’s history aren’t in museums, but underground.

    More often than not, they stay there, but work on a new railway line under the British capital is bringing centuries of that buried history to light.

    The 118-kilometer (73-mile) Crossrail line is Britain’s biggest construction project and the largest archaeological dig in London for decades. In the city’s busy business core, archaeologists have struck pay dirt, uncovering everything from a chunk of Roman road to dozens of 2,000-year-old horseshoes, some golden 16th-century bling — and the bones of long-dead Londoners.

    One afternoon this week, archaeologists were unearthing newly discovered bones in a pit beside Liverpool Street rail and subway station, while living city-dwellers scuttled by, oblivious, a few feet away. The remains belong to a few of the 20,000 people interred in a burial ground established in the 16th century.

    “Everyone’s been running around in Liverpool Street for years and not thinking that they’ve been walking around on bodies from one of the densest burial grounds in London,” said Nick Elsden, a Museum of London archaeologist helping to oversee excavations that go along with the work on the Crossrail line.

    The 2,000-year history of London goes deep — 5 to 6 meters (16 to 20 feet) deep, the distance between today’s street level and sidewalks in Roman times. Crossrail is providing archaeologists with a chance to dig down through those centuries — and even beyond, to prehistoric times.

    “This site is a rare, perhaps unprecedented opportunity,” Elsden said as he watched museum staff gently brush dirt from newly found bones and a skull in a hole that will soon house a maintenance shaft. “This is a major roadway outside one of London’s busiest railway stations. You don’t get to dig that up normally.”

    The 14.8 billion pound ($23 billion) railway, due to open in 2018, will run across London from west to east, with a central 21 kilometer (13 mile) section underground. That has meant tunneling beneath some of the city’s oldest, most densely populated sections.

    Alongside tunneling work — advancing by 100 meters (330 feet) a week and due to be finished next year — more than 100 archaeologists have been involved in excavations at 40 sites over the past four years.

    They’ve found everything from reindeer, bison and mammoth bones dating back 68,000 years to the remains of a moated Tudor manor house, medieval ice skates, an 800-year old piece of a ship and the foundations of an 18th-century shipyard.

    Earlier this year, the dig unearthed skeletons belonging to victims of the Black Death, the plague that wiped out half of London’s population in 1348.

    The latest discoveries include pieces of flint, some shaped into tiny blades, from a 9,000-year-old tool-making factory beside the Thames in what is now southeast London. It’s evidence the area was being resettled after the last Ice Age by nomadic hunter-gatherers.

    At Liverpool Street, recent finds include a 16th-century Venetian gold coin with a small hole that suggests it was an early sequin, worn as decoration on the clothes of a wealthy person who probably lost it. It was found in a rubbish deposit.

    Elsden and his team are especially excited to have uncovered the remains of a Roman road, studded with 2,000-year-old horseshoes — more precisely equine sandals, made of metal and fastened to the hooves with leather straps.

    So many have been found that researchers suspect this must then, as now, have been a busy transit area, with horses bringing produce from the countryside to residents of what was then known as Londiniun.

    “Roman horseshoes, stuck in a rut of the Roman road — you’ve got this unique little snapshot,” Elsden said. “You can see a Roman pulling his cart across the bridge. That’s a rare little glimpse into ordinary Roman life.”

    Some of the archaeologists’ most delicate work involves remains from the Bedlam burial ground, established in the 16th century underneath what is now Liverpool Street as the city’s medieval church graveyards filled up.

    Thousands of Londoners were buried there over 150 years, from paupers to religious nonconformists to patients at the adjacent Bedlam Hospital, the world’s first psychiatric asylum. Its name, a corruption of Bethlehem, became a synonym for chaos.

    Jay Carver, Crossrail’s lead archaeologist, says the project will mean disinterring the remains of about 4,000 people.

    Workers will treat the remains with delicacy and respect, practices not always followed in the past.

    The recently discovered Roman road is made of rammed earth, clay, wood and — surprisingly — human bones, washed by a river from a nearby cemetery and incorporated into the building material.

    “We tend to think in the past they were superstitious about bodies, but no,” Elsden said. “Bits of bodies are washing around out of cemeteries — they’re not that worried about it.”

    Centuries later, gravestones from the Bedlam cemetery were used as foundations of later buildings, and the soil has yielded pieces of bone, antler, tortoiseshell and ivory — leftovers from local craft workshops dumped over the cemetery wall in the 17th century.

    The newly excavated human remains will be studied for clues to diet and disease before being reinterred elsewhere.

    Most of them will, of necessity, be reburied anonymously. But Carver holds out hope that research may be able to identify some individuals. The Bedlam graveyard is known to contain the remains of several prominent people, including Robert Lockyer, a member of an egalitarian 17th-century political movement known as the Levelers.

    Lockyer was executed by firing squad at St. Paul’s Cathedral after leading an army mutiny in 1649 before being buried at Bedlam.

    “If you find someone who’s been executed with a musket, that’s going to leave some kind of damage,” Carver said. “It would be quite exciting if we could identify someone in that way.”


    London railway tunneling yields archaeological trove of ancient artifacts and long-dead Londoners

    LONDON Jewelry, pieces of ships, medieval ice skates, centuries-old skulls — some fascinating pieces of London's history aren't in museums, but underground.

    More often than not, they stay there, but work on a new railway line under the British capital is bringing centuries of that buried history to light.

    The 118-kilometer 73-mile Crossrail line is Britain's biggest construction project and the largest archaeological dig in London for decades. In the city's busy business core, archaeologists have struck pay dirt, uncovering everything from a chunk of Roman road to dozens of 2,000-year-old horseshoes, some golden 16th-century bling — and the bones of long-dead Londoners.

    One afternoon this week, archaeologists were unearthing newly discovered bones in a pit beside Liverpool Street rail and subway station, while living city-dwellers scuttled by, oblivious, a few feet away. The remains belong to a few of the 20,000 people interred in a burial ground established in the 16th century.

    "Everyone's been running around in Liverpool Street for years and not thinking that they've been walking around on bodies from one of the densest burial grounds in London," said Nick Elsden, a Museum of London archaeologist helping to oversee excavations that go along with the work on the Crossrail line.

    Bones and artifacts are uncovered by archaeologists at a site near London's Liverpool Street railway and tube station during the building of the new hi-speed rail line, Aug. 7, 2013. AP

    The 2,000-year history of London goes deep — 16 to 20 feet deep, the distance between today's street level and sidewalks in Roman times. Crossrail is providing archaeologists with a chance to dig down through those centuries — and even beyond, to prehistoric times.

    Trending News

    "This site is a rare, perhaps unprecedented opportunity," Elsden said as he watched museum staff gently brush dirt from newly found bones and a skull in a hole that will soon house a maintenance shaft. "This is a major roadway outside one of London's busiest railway stations. You don't get to dig that up normally."

    The 14.8 billion pound ($23 billion) railway, due to open in 2018, will run across London from west to east, with a central 13 mile section underground. That has meant tunneling beneath some of the city's oldest, most densely populated sections.

    Alongside tunneling work — advancing by 330 feet a week and due to be finished next year — more than 100 archaeologists have been involved in excavations at 40 sites over the past four years.

    They've found everything from reindeer, bison and mammoth bones dating back 68,000 years to the remains of a moated Tudor manor house, medieval ice skates, an 800-year old piece of a ship and the foundations of an 18th-century shipyard.

    Earlier this year, the dig unearthed skeletons belonging to victims of the Black Death, the plague that wiped out half of London's population in 1348.

    The latest discoveries include pieces of flint, some shaped into tiny blades, from a 9,000-year-old tool-making factory beside the Thames in what is now southeast London. It's evidence the area was being resettled after the last Ice Age by nomadic hunter-gatherers.

    A gold mezzo-zecchino coin minted in Venice around 1501-1521, during the elected reign of Doge Leonardo Leordano, that was discovered during the building of the new hi-speed rail line, is shown to the media, Aug. 7, 2013. AP

    At Liverpool Street, recent finds include a 16th-century Venetian gold coin with a small hole that suggests it was an early sequin, worn as decoration on the clothes of a wealthy person who probably lost it. It was found in a rubbish deposit.

    Elsden and his team are especially excited to have uncovered the remains of a Roman road, studded with 2,000-year-old horseshoes — more precisely equine sandals, made of metal and fastened to the hooves with leather straps.

    So many have been found that researchers suspect this must then, as now, have been a busy transit area, with horses bringing produce from the countryside to residents of what was then known as Londinium.

    "Roman horseshoes, stuck in a rut of the Roman road — you've got this unique little snapshot," Elsden said. "You can see a Roman pulling his cart across the bridge. That's a rare little glimpse into ordinary Roman life."

    Some of the archaeologists' most delicate work involves remains from the Bedlam burial ground, established in the 16th century underneath what is now Liverpool Street as the city's medieval church graveyards filled up.

    A member of the the archaeological team from the Museum of London points to the present day position of London's Liverpool Street Station on a 16th century map of the city as a media visit is made to a dig on the construction site of a new rail line rail line in London, Aug. 7, 2013. AP

    Thousands of Londoners were buried there over 150 years, from paupers to religious nonconformists to patients at the adjacent Bedlam Hospital, the world's first psychiatric asylum. Its name, a corruption of Bethlehem, became a synonym for chaos.

    Jay Carver, Crossrail's lead archaeologist, says the project will mean disinterring the remains of about 4,000 people.

    Workers will treat the remains with delicacy and respect, practices not always followed in the past.

    The recently discovered Roman road is made of rammed earth, clay, wood and — surprisingly — human bones, washed by a river from a nearby cemetery and incorporated into the building material.

    "We tend to think in the past they were superstitious about bodies, but no," Elsden said. "Bits of bodies are washing around out of cemeteries — they're not that worried about it."

    Centuries later, gravestones from the Bedlam cemetery were used as foundations of later buildings, and the soil has yielded pieces of bone, antler, tortoiseshell and ivory — leftovers from local craft workshops dumped over the cemetery wall in the 17th century.

    The newly excavated human remains will be studied for clues to diet and disease before being reinterred elsewhere.

    Most of them will, of necessity, be reburied anonymously. But Carver holds out hope that research may be able to identify some individuals. The Bedlam graveyard is known to contain the remains of several prominent people, including Robert Lockyer, a member of an egalitarian 17th-century political movement known as the Levelers.

    Lockyer was executed by firing squad at St. Paul's Cathedral after leading an army mutiny in 1649 before being buried at Bedlam.

    "If you find someone who's been executed with a musket, that's going to leave some kind of damage," Carver said. "It would be quite exciting if we could identify someone in that way."

    First published on August 8, 2013 / 12:49 PM

    © 2013 The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.


    London’s railway project digs up centuries of history

    A 16th-century gold coin was one of the treasures found during the digging for London’s Crossrail project. Crossrail photo via EPA

    LONDON — Jewelry, pieces of ships, medieval ice skates, centuries-old skulls. Some fascinating pieces of London’s history are not in museums, but underground.

    More often than not, they stay there, but work on a new railway line under the British capital is bringing centuries of that buried history to light.

    The 73-mile Crossrail line is Britain’s biggest construction project and the largest archaeological dig in London for decades. In the city’s busy business core, archaeologists have struck paydirt, uncovering everything from a chunk of Roman road to dozens of 2,000-year-old horseshoes, some golden 16th-century jewelry — and the bones of long-dead Londoners.

    One afternoon this week archaeologists were unearthing newly discovered bones in a pit beside Liverpool Street rail and subway station, while living city-dwellers scuttled by, oblivious, a few feet away. The remains belong to a few of the 20,000 people interred in a burial ground established in the 16th century.

    ‘‘Everyone’s been running around in Liverpool Street for years and not thinking that they’ve been walking around on bodies from one of the densest burial grounds in London,’’ said Nick Elsden, a Museum of London archaeologist helping to oversee excavations that go along with the work on the Crossrail line.

    The 2,000-year history of London goes deep — 16 to 20 feet — the distance between today’s street level and sidewalks in Roman times. Crossrail is providing archaeologists with a chance to dig down through those centuries and beyond, to prehistoric times.

    ‘‘This site is a rare, perhaps unprecedented opportunity,’’ Elsden said as he watched museum staff members gently brush dirt from newly found bones and a skull in a hole that will soon house a maintenance shaft. ‘‘This is a major roadway outside one of London’s busiest railway stations. You don’t get to dig that up normally.’’

    The $23 billion railway, due to open in 2018, will run across London from west to east, with a central 13-mile section underground. That has meant tunneling beneath some of the city’s oldest, most densely populated sections.

    Alongside tunneling work — advancing by 330 feet a week and due to be finished next year — more than 100 archaeologists have been involved in excavations at 40 sites over the past four years.

    They have found reindeer, bison, and mammoth bones dating back 68,000 years the remains of a moated Tudor manor house medieval ice skates an 800-year-old piece of a ship and the foundations of an 18th-century shipyard.

    Earlier this year, the dig unearthed skeletons belonging to victims of the Black Death, the plague that wiped out half of London’s population in 1348.

    The latest discoveries include pieces of flint, some shaped into tiny blades, from a 9,000-year-old tool-making factory beside the Thames in what is now southeast London.

    It is evidence the area was being resettled after the last Ice Age by nomadic hunter-gatherers.

    At Liverpool Street, recent finds include a 16th-century Venetian gold coin with a small hole that suggests it was an early sequin, worn as decoration on the clothes of a wealthy person who probably lost it. It was found in a rubbish deposit.

    Elsden and his team are especially excited to have uncovered the remains of a Roman road, studded with 2,000-year-old horseshoes — more precisely equine sandals, made of metal and fastened to the hooves with leather straps.

    So many have been found that researchers suspect this must then have been a busy transit area, with horses bringing produce from the countryside to residents of what was then known as Londinium.


    Work on new railway line digs up London history

    Jewelry, pieces of ships, medieval ice skates, centuries-old skulls — some fascinating pieces of London’s history aren’t in museums, but underground.

    More often than not, they stay there, but work on a new railway line under the British capital is bringing centuries of that buried history to light.

    The 73-mile Crossrail line is Britain’s biggest construction project and the largest archaeological dig in London for decades. In the city’s busy business core, archaeologists have struck pay dirt, uncovering everything from a chunk of Roman road to dozens of 2,000-year-old horseshoes, some golden 16th-century bling — and the bones of long-dead Londoners.

    One afternoon this week, archaeologists were unearthing newly discovered bones in a pit beside Liverpool Street rail and subway station, while living city-dwellers scuttled by, oblivious, a few feet away. The remains belong to a few of the 20,000 people interred in a burial ground established in the 16th century.

    “Everyone’s been running around in Liverpool Street for years and not thinking that they’ve been walking around on bodies from one of the densest burial grounds in London,” said Nick Elsden, a Museum of London archaeologist helping to oversee excavations that go along with the work on the Crossrail line.

    The 2,000-year history of London goes deep — 16 to 20 feet deep, the distance between today’s street level and sidewalks in Roman times. Crossrail is providing archaeologists with a chance to dig down through those centuries — and even beyond, to prehistoric times.

    “This site is a rare, perhaps unprecedented opportunity,” Elsden said as he watched museum staff gently brush dirt from newly found bones in a hole that will soon house a maintenance shaft. “This is a major roadway outside one of London’s busiest railway stations. You don’t get to dig that up normally.”

    The $23 billion railway, due to open in 2018, will run across London from west to east, with a central 13 mile section underground. That has meant tunneling beneath some of the city’s oldest, most densely populated sections.

    Alongside tunneling work — advancing by 330 feet a week and due to be finished next year — more than 100 archaeologists have been involved in excavations at 40 sites over the past four years.

    They’ve found everything from reindeer, bison and mammoth bones dating back 68,000 years to the remains of a moated Tudor manor house, medieval ice skates, an 800-year-old piece of a ship and the foundations of an 18th-century shipyard.

    Earlier this year, the dig unearthed skeletons belonging to victims of the Black Death, the plague that wiped out half of London’s population in 1348.

    The latest discoveries include pieces of flint, some shaped into tiny blades, from a 9,000-year-old tool-making factory beside the Thames in what is now southeast London. It’s evidence the area was being resettled after the last Ice Age by nomadic hunter-gatherers.

    At Liverpool Street, recent finds include a 16th-century Venetian gold coin with a small hole that suggests it was an early sequin, worn as decoration on the clothes of a wealthy person who probably lost it. It was found in a rubbish deposit.

    Elsden and his team are especially excited to have uncovered the remains of a Roman road, studded with 2,000-year-old horseshoes — more precisely equine sandals, made of metal and fastened to the hooves with leather straps.

    So many have been found that researchers suspect this must then, as now, have been a busy transit area, with horses bringing produce from the countryside to residents of what was then known as Londinium.


    London Crossrail Dig Unearths Big Discoveries

    By JILL LAWLESS 08/08/13 09:24 AM ET EDT

    LONDON — Jewelry, pieces of ships, medieval ice skates, centuries-old skulls – some fascinating pieces of London's history aren't in museums, but underground.

    More often than not, they stay there, but work on a new railway line under the British capital is bringing centuries of that buried history to light.

    The 118-kilometer (73-mile) Crossrail line is Britain's biggest construction project and the largest archaeological dig in London for decades. In the city's busy business core, archaeologists have struck pay dirt, uncovering everything from a chunk of Roman road to dozens of 2,000-year-old horseshoes, some golden 16th-century bling – and the bones of long-dead Londoners.

    One afternoon this week, archaeologists were unearthing newly discovered bones in a pit beside Liverpool Street rail and subway station, while living city-dwellers scuttled by, oblivious, a few feet away. The remains belong to a few of the 20,000 people interred in a burial ground established in the 16th century.

    "Everyone's been running around in Liverpool Street for years and not thinking that they've been walking around on bodies from one of the densest burial grounds in London," said Nick Elsden, a Museum of London archaeologist helping to oversee excavations that go along with the work on the Crossrail line.

    The 2,000-year history of London goes deep – 5 to 6 meters (16 to 20 feet) deep, the distance between today's street level and sidewalks in Roman times. Crossrail is providing archaeologists with a chance to dig down through those centuries – and even beyond, to prehistoric times.

    "This site is a rare, perhaps unprecedented opportunity," Elsden said as he watched museum staff gently brush dirt from newly found bones and a skull in a hole that will soon house a maintenance shaft. "This is a major roadway outside one of London's busiest railway stations. You don't get to dig that up normally."

    The 14.8 billion pound ($23 billion) railway, due to open in 2018, will run across London from west to east, with a central 21 kilometer (13 mile) section underground. That has meant tunneling beneath some of the city's oldest, most densely populated sections.

    Alongside tunneling work – advancing by 100 meters (330 feet) a week and due to be finished next year – more than 100 archaeologists have been involved in excavations at 40 sites over the past four years.

    They've found everything from reindeer, bison and mammoth bones dating back 68,000 years to the remains of a moated Tudor manor house, medieval ice skates, an 800-year old piece of a ship and the foundations of an 18th-century shipyard.

    Earlier this year, the dig unearthed skeletons belonging to victims of the Black Death, the plague that wiped out half of London's population in 1348.

    The latest discoveries include pieces of flint, some shaped into tiny blades, from a 9,000-year-old tool-making factory beside the Thames in what is now southeast London. It's evidence the area was being resettled after the last Ice Age by nomadic hunter-gatherers.

    At Liverpool Street, recent finds include a 16th-century Venetian gold coin with a small hole that suggests it was an early sequin, worn as decoration on the clothes of a wealthy person who probably lost it. It was found in a rubbish deposit.

    Elsden and his team are especially excited to have uncovered the remains of a Roman road, studded with 2,000-year-old horseshoes – more precisely equine sandals, made of metal and fastened to the hooves with leather straps.

    So many have been found that researchers suspect this must then, as now, have been a busy transit area, with horses bringing produce from the countryside to residents of what was then known as Londinium.

    "Roman horseshoes, stuck in a rut of the Roman road – you've got this unique little snapshot," Elsden said. "You can see a Roman pulling his cart across the bridge. That's a rare little glimpse into ordinary Roman life."

    Some of the archaeologists' most delicate work involves remains from the Bedlam burial ground, established in the 16th century underneath what is now Liverpool Street as the city's medieval church graveyards filled up.

    Thousands of Londoners were buried there over 150 years, from paupers to religious nonconformists to patients at the adjacent Bedlam Hospital, the world's first psychiatric asylum. Its name, a corruption of Bethlehem, became a synonym for chaos.

    Jay Carver, Crossrail's lead archaeologist, says the project will mean disinterring the remains of about 4,000 people.

    Workers will treat the remains with delicacy and respect, practices not always followed in the past.

    The recently discovered Roman road is made of rammed earth, clay, wood and – surprisingly – human bones, washed by a river from a nearby cemetery and incorporated into the building material.

    "We tend to think in the past they were superstitious about bodies, but no," Elsden said. "Bits of bodies are washing around out of cemeteries – they're not that worried about it."

    Centuries later, gravestones from the Bedlam cemetery were used as foundations of later buildings, and the soil has yielded pieces of bone, antler, tortoiseshell and ivory – leftovers from local craft workshops dumped over the cemetery wall in the 17th century.

    The newly excavated human remains will be studied for clues to diet and disease before being reinterred elsewhere.

    Most of them will, of necessity, be reburied anonymously. But Carver holds out hope that research may be able to identify some individuals. The Bedlam graveyard is known to contain the remains of several prominent people, including Robert Lockyer, a member of an egalitarian 17th-century political movement known as the Levelers.

    Lockyer was executed by firing squad at St. Paul's Cathedral after leading an army mutiny in 1649 before being buried at Bedlam.

    "If you find someone who's been executed with a musket, that's going to leave some kind of damage," Carver said. "It would be quite exciting if we could identify someone in that way."


    Work on new railway line digs up London history

    Jewelry, pieces of ships, medieval ice skates, centuries-old skulls - some fascinating pieces of London’s history aren’t in museums, but underground.

    More often than not, they stay there, but work on a new railway line under the British capital is bringing centuries of that buried history to light.

    The 118-kilometer (73-mile) Crossrail line is Britain’s biggest construction project and the largest archaeological dig in London for decades. In the city’s busy business core, archaeologists have struck pay dirt, uncovering everything from a chunk of Roman road to dozens of 2,000-year-old horseshoes, some golden 16th-century bling - and the bones of long-dead Londoners.

    One afternoon this week, archaeologists were unearthing newly discovered bones in a pit beside Liverpool Street rail and subway station, while living city-dwellers scuttled by, oblivious, a few feet away. The remains belong to a few of the 20,000 people interred in a burial ground established in the 16th century.

    “Everyone’s been running around in Liverpool Street for years and not thinking that they’ve been walking around on bodies from one of the densest burial grounds in London,” said Nick Elsden, a Museum of London archaeologist helping to oversee excavations that go along with the work on the Crossrail line.

    The 2,000-year history of London goes deep - 5 to 6 meters (16 to 20 feet) deep, the distance between today’s street level and sidewalks in Roman times. Crossrail is providing archaeologists with a chance to dig down through those centuries - and even beyond, to prehistoric times.

    “This site is a rare, perhaps unprecedented opportunity,” Elsden said as he watched museum staff gently brush dirt from newly found bones and a skull in a hole that will soon house a maintenance shaft. “This is a major roadway outside one of London’s busiest railway stations. You don’t get to dig that up normally.”

    The 14.8 billion pound ($23 billion) railway, due to open in 2018, will run across London from west to east, with a central 21 kilometer (13 mile) section underground. That has meant tunneling beneath some of the city’s oldest, most densely populated sections.

    Alongside tunneling work - advancing by 100 meters (330 feet) a week and due to be finished next year - more than 100 archaeologists have been involved in excavations at 40 sites over the past four years.

    They’ve found everything from reindeer, bison and mammoth bones dating back 68,000 years to the remains of a moated Tudor manor house, medieval ice skates, an 800-year old piece of a ship and the foundations of an 18th-century shipyard.

    Earlier this year, the dig unearthed skeletons belonging to victims of the Black Death, the plague that wiped out half of London’s population in 1348.

    The latest discoveries include pieces of flint, some shaped into tiny blades, from a 9,000-year-old tool-making factory beside the Thames in what is now southeast London. It’s evidence the area was being resettled after the last Ice Age by nomadic hunter-gatherers.

    At Liverpool Street, recent finds include a 16th-century Venetian gold coin with a small hole that suggests it was an early sequin, worn as decoration on the clothes of a wealthy person who probably lost it. It was found in a rubbish deposit.

    Elsden and his team are especially excited to have uncovered the remains of a Roman road, studded with 2,000-year-old horseshoes - more precisely equine sandals, made of metal and fastened to the hooves with leather straps.

    So many have been found that researchers suspect this must then, as now, have been a busy transit area, with horses bringing produce from the countryside to residents of what was then known as Londinium.

    “Roman horseshoes, stuck in a rut of the Roman road - you’ve got this unique little snapshot,” Elsden said. “You can see a Roman pulling his cart across the bridge. That’s a rare little glimpse into ordinary Roman life.”

    Some of the archaeologists’ most delicate work involves remains from the Bedlam burial ground, established in the 16th century underneath what is now Liverpool Street as the city’s medieval church graveyards filled up.

    Thousands of Londoners were buried there over 150 years, from paupers to religious nonconformists to patients at the adjacent Bedlam Hospital, the world’s first psychiatric asylum. Its name, a corruption of Bethlehem, became a synonym for chaos.

    Jay Carver, Crossrail’s lead archaeologist, says the project will mean disinterring the remains of about 4,000 people.

    Workers will treat the remains with delicacy and respect, practices not always followed in the past.

    The recently discovered Roman road is made of rammed earth, clay, wood and - surprisingly - human bones, washed by a river from a nearby cemetery and incorporated into the building material.

    “We tend to think in the past they were superstitious about bodies, but no,” Elsden said. “Bits of bodies are washing around out of cemeteries - they’re not that worried about it.”

    Centuries later, gravestones from the Bedlam cemetery were used as foundations of later buildings, and the soil has yielded pieces of bone, antler, tortoiseshell and ivory - leftovers from local craft workshops dumped over the cemetery wall in the 17th century.

    The newly excavated human remains will be studied for clues to diet and disease before being reinterred elsewhere.

    Most of them will, of necessity, be reburied anonymously. But Carver holds out hope that research may be able to identify some individuals. The Bedlam graveyard is known to contain the remains of several prominent people, including Robert Lockyer, a member of an egalitarian 17th-century political movement known as the Levelers.

    Lockyer was executed by firing squad at St. Paul’s Cathedral after leading an army mutiny in 1649 before being buried at Bedlam.

    “If you find someone who’s been executed with a musket, that’s going to leave some kind of damage,” Carver said. “It would be quite exciting if we could identify someone in that way.”


    Archaeological Finds In Great Britain

    The United Kingdom takes a significant effort to preserve its historical sites for the benefit of coming generations. As a result, today local and foreign visitors can study and understand the past of the country with the least effort. Historically, Great Britain has played a primary role in global history and so have the British archaeologists. Therefore, archaeological finds in the UK help students reading local and world history

    Footprints

    British archaeologists found 50 human footprints in 2014. They said that the footprints found in Norfolk were the oldest found to date in the Western world. According to historians, these footprints may be of human beings who lived here 950,000 years before. They further suggest that these may be footprints of those first migrants to Northern Europe. Among the footprints are those of children, women and men who travelled over the mud surface of the Thames estuary. The region also shows footprints of prehistoric animals such as elephants and hyenas. The Natural History Museum now preserves some of these footprints.

    Land’s End ‘archaeobunnies’

    Archaeologists unearthed a range of ancient tools from a site at Land’s End. They proved that these tools were over 8,000 years old. The site is over 150 acres in extent, and it took the archaeologists about two years to carry out extensive excavation in the area to unearth invaluable historical items from the site. There were cemeteries, mounds, and forts that are said to have belonged to the New Stone Age, Bronze Age, and the Iron Age respectively.

    Capital and ghost ship

    The burial grounds for the rulers of the Anglo Saxon era found in 1939 were at Sutton Hoo. The remains of the Anglo Saxon king Raedwald who passed away in 624 AD was on this site. It is believed that there is a massive oak ship filled with precious items belonging to the king as well in the site. About five miles from Sutton Hoo, archaeologists have unearthed a royal palace too that belongs to Anglo Saxon era.

    No Man’s Land

    In March 2013, thirteen skeletons were found in Charterhouse Square in Farringdon. Archaeologists unearthed them from a project site but later, they suggested that the location may be the No Man’s Land or City Plague Pit about which history had given sufficient details. The site has remains of people that lived in 1348 who perished because of the bubonic plague. The sites is also believed to have the remains of 50,000 people. Among the other ancient items found with the excavation of this Crossrail site were a golden coin belonging to the 16th century, a 9000-year-old tool factory, and a road belonging to the Roman period.

    The remains of King Richard III

    The remains of King Richard III, who died in the battle of Bosworth Field on August 22, 1495, were found by archaeologists in 2012. They found the remains when they excavated a car park in Leicester. The cause of death of the King revealed was due to a severe injury to the skull. The facial resemblance of the King was created in 2013, for preservation.

    A town in the Iron Age

    In 2015, a team of archaeologists led by Archaeologist Andy Mayes unearthed an ancient town they said belonged to the Iron Age (about 3,000 years back). This historical site discovered was in Sherford, Plymouth. Found in the location were Pottery, bones, and houses which belonged to the Iron Age, including items to suggest that foreign trading had flourished during the time.


    London’s railway project unearths Roman roads, ancient artifacts and other archaeological gems

    LONDON — Jewelry, pieces of ships, medieval ice skates, centuries-old skulls — some fascinating pieces of London’s history aren’t in museums, but underground.

    More often than not, they stay there, but work on a new railway line under the British capital is bringing centuries of that buried history to light.

    The 118-kilometer Crossrail line is Britain’s biggest construction project and the largest archaeological dig in London for decades. In the city’s busy business core, archaeologists have struck pay dirt, uncovering everything from a chunk of Roman road to dozens of 2,000-year-old horseshoes, some golden 16th-century bling — and the bones of long-dead Londoners.

    One afternoon this week, archaeologists were unearthing newly discovered bones in a pit beside Liverpool Street rail and subway station, while living city-dwellers scuttled by, oblivious, a few feet away. The remains belong to a few of the 20,000 people interred in a burial ground established in the 16th century.

    𠇎veryone’s been running around in Liverpool Street for years and not thinking that they’ve been walking around on bodies from one of the densest burial grounds in London,” said Nick Elsden, a Museum of London archaeologist helping to oversee excavations that go along with the work on the Crossrail line.

    The 2,000-year history of London goes deep — 5 to 6 metres deep, the distance between today’s street level and sidewalks in Roman times. Crossrail is providing archaeologists with a chance to dig down through those centuries — and even beyond, to prehistoric times.

    “This site is a rare, perhaps unprecedented opportunity,” Elsden said as he watched museum staff gently brush dirt from newly found bones and a skull in a hole that will soon house a maintenance shaft. “This is a major roadway outside one of London’s busiest railway stations. You don’t get to dig that up normally.”

    The $23 billion railway, due to open in 2018, will run across London from west to east, with a central 21 kilometre section underground. That has meant tunneling beneath some of the city’s oldest, most densely populated sections.

    Alongside tunneling work — advancing by 100 metres a week and due to be finished next year — more than 100 archaeologists have been involved in excavations at 40 sites over the past four years.

    They’ve found everything from reindeer, bison and mammoth bones dating back 68,000 years to the remains of a moated Tudor manor house, medieval ice skates, an 800-year old piece of a ship and the foundations of an 18th-century shipyard.

    Earlier this year, the dig unearthed skeletons belonging to victims of the Black Death, the plague that wiped out half of London’s population in 1348.

    The latest discoveries include pieces of flint, some shaped into tiny blades, from a 9,000-year-old tool-making factory beside the Thames in what is now southeast London. It’s evidence the area was being resettled after the last Ice Age by nomadic hunter-gatherers.

    At Liverpool Street, recent finds include a 16th-century Venetian gold coin with a small hole that suggests it was an early sequin, worn as decoration on the clothes of a wealthy person who probably lost it. It was found in a rubbish deposit.

    Elsden and his team are especially excited to have uncovered the remains of a Roman road, studded with 2,000-year-old horseshoes — more precisely equine sandals, made of metal and fastened to the hooves with leather straps.

    So many have been found that researchers suspect this must then, as now, have been a busy transit area, with horses bringing produce from the countryside to residents of what was then known as Londinium.

    “Roman horseshoes, stuck in a rut of the Roman road — you’ve got this unique little snapshot,” Elsden said. “You can see a Roman pulling his cart across the bridge. That’s a rare little glimpse into ordinary Roman life.”

    Some of the archaeologists’ most delicate work involves remains from the Bedlam burial ground, established in the 16th century underneath what is now Liverpool Street as the city’s medieval church graveyards filled up.

    Loading.

    Thousands of Londoners were buried there over 150 years, from paupers to religious nonconformists to patients at the adjacent Bedlam Hospital, the world’s first psychiatric asylum. Its name, a corruption of Bethlehem, became a synonym for chaos.

    Jay Carver, Crossrail’s lead archaeologist, says the project will mean disinterring the remains of about 4,000 people.

    Workers will treat the remains with delicacy and respect, practices not always followed in the past.

    The recently discovered Roman road is made of rammed earth, clay, wood and — surprisingly — human bones, washed by a river from a nearby cemetery and incorporated into the building material.

    “We tend to think in the past they were superstitious about bodies, but no,” Elsden said. 𠇋its of bodies are washing around out of cemeteries — they’re not that worried about it.”

    Centuries later, gravestones from the Bedlam cemetery were used as foundations of later buildings, and the soil has yielded pieces of bone, antler, tortoiseshell and ivory — leftovers from local craft workshops dumped over the cemetery wall in the 17th century.

    The newly excavated human remains will be studied for clues to diet and disease before being reinterred elsewhere.

    Most of them will, of necessity, be reburied anonymously. But Carver holds out hope that research may be able to identify some individuals. The Bedlam graveyard is known to contain the remains of several prominent people, including Robert Lockyer, a member of an egalitarian 17th-century political movement known as the Levelers.

    Lockyer was executed by firing squad at St. Paul’s Cathedral after leading an army mutiny in 1649 before being buried at Bedlam.

    “If you find someone who’s been executed with a musket, that’s going to leave some kind of damage,” Carver said. “It would be quite exciting if we could identify someone in that way.”


    Watch the video: Έτσι εξηγούνται όλα! Να γιατί ξαφνικά μας μιλάνε για την τρίτη δόση! (January 2023).

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