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1960s to Present - History

1960s to Present - History


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By the mid 60's, a major change had taken place in Indian affairs. The attempts at terminating Indian treaties had ended. As part of the Great Society's war on poverty, up to three billion dollars were spent on reservation poverty. In addition, from the mid 60's through the 90's, a series of Supreme Court decisions affirmed Indian rights to major parcels of land, thus forcing the state and federal governments to richly compensate various tribes. In addition, a ruling that exempted tribes from federal and state laws allowed substantial economic developments by a number of the tribes.

A Brief History of Marriage: 1960s-Present

Marriage has a long history, originating before written records, possibly during the Stone Age. However, as cultural norms shift, so too has the definition and nature of marriage. It wasn’t until the fall of the Romans that the Catholic Church elevated marriage to a holy sacrament. Unlike these early forms of marriage, couples now marry based on love. However, the last 50 years has seen the institution decline, with divorce rates up. This makes marriage counselling more important than ever. Here’s how marriage has evolved over the last century.


Ivan Allen, Jr. Stadium (Atlanta-Fulton County): Mayor Allen’s Impact on Atlanta

Growing up thirty minutes outside of Atlanta has its perks. For me, the best thing about it was going to Braves games. By the age of 10, I considered myself a dedicated Atlanta Braves fan. I’d stay up late fantasizing about inviting Braves players to my birthday party or playing for the team in the big leagues. The main reason I live in Atlanta today is because those games made me fall in love with the city. Atlanta has so much life and energy so I’ve always been intrigued by its history. While Turner Field became the permanent home of the Braves following the 1996 Olympics, I never got the chance to witness a game in the Braves’ former ballpark, Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium. Yet, the remnants of the coliseum still stand tall and firm, casting a long shadow over the infamous Turner Field ‘blue lot’ reserved for commuting fans. My passion for the Braves and curiosity of Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium inspired me to identify the party responsible for bringing my favorite team to the city that search led me to a familiar name, Ivan Allen, Jr. An individual whose impact on Atlanta stands tall and firm much like the memorial wall wrapping around the blue lot today.


African History from the 1960s to the Present #1

Morocco, July 1999. King Hassan dies and is succeeded soon afterward by his son Mohammed VI, continuing one of the oldest monarchies in the world.

Countries

Africa News

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The Development of Performance Art

By 1970, Performance Art was a global term, and its definition a bit more specific. "Performance Art" meant that it was live, and it was art, not theater. Performance Art also meant that it was art that could not be bought, sold or traded as a commodity. Actually, the latter sentence is of major importance. Performance artists saw (and see) the movement as a means of taking their art directly to a public forum, thus completely eliminating the need for galleries, agents, brokers, tax accountants and any other aspect of capitalism. It's a sort of social commentary on the purity of art, you see.

In addition to visual artists, poets, musicians, and filmmakers, Performance Art in the 1970s now encompassed dance (song and dance, yes, but don't forget it's not "theater"). Sometimes all of the above will be included in a performance "piece" (you just never know). Since Performance Art is live, no two performances are ever exactly the same.

The 1970s also saw the heyday of "Body Art" (an offshoot of Performance Art), which began in the 1960s. In Body Art, the artist's own flesh (or the flesh of others) is the canvas. Body Art can range from covering volunteers with blue paint and then having them writhe on a canvas, to self-mutilation in front of an audience. (Body Art is often disturbing, as you may well imagine.)

Additionally, the 1970s saw the rise of the autobiography being incorporated into a performance piece. This kind of story-telling is much more entertaining to most people than, say, seeing someone shot with a gun. (This actually happened, in a Body Art piece, in Venice, California, in 1971.) The autobiographical pieces are also a great platform for presenting one's views on social causes or issues.

Since the beginning of the 1980s, Performance Art has increasingly incorporated technological media into pieces - mainly because we have acquired exponential amounts of new technology. Recently, in fact, an 80's pop musician made the news for Performance Art pieces which use a Microsoft® PowerPoint presentation as the crux of the performance. Where Performance Art goes from here is only a matter of combining technology and imagination. In other words, there are no foreseeable boundaries for Performance Art.


Local History: 1960 - Present

This collection includes records on specific topics pertaining to Middleborough (ex: bylaws census records building projects statistics). This is a Library Staff accessible collection, only. Please ask at the Reference Desk or Main Desk for whatever you would like to examine. The complete list of contents in each folder follows.

  1. Right to Farm Bylaw copies
  2. Agricultural Retreat Lot Bylaw
  3. Zoning Bylaws (multiple copies)
  4. General Bylaws
  5. Zoning Bylaw Amendments
  6. Planning Board Rules (1982) and General Use District Study
  7. Cost of Community Services brochure
  8. Latitude and Longitude and Elevation of town center
  9. Topographical Atlas (see 40a,b,c,d for Middleboro)
  10. Town Meeting Primer/Finance Committee Goals
  11. Pratt Farm information
  12. Archaeology Museum information
  13. Middleboro Historical Museum
  14. Montgomery Home
  15. Lakeville Hospital (contact person)
  16. Water Quality information
  17. Century Fund
  18. Proposed new police station information sheet
  19. Middleboro FM Channel application
  20. Nichols School Improvement Plan
  21. Articles/Information on industrial growth in the 1990's
  22. Official Town Records locations
  23. Indictment of Glenn Marshall (Dept. of Justice documents)
  24. Old maps of Middleboro
  25. In the rear of Drawer 1 are multiple copies of:
    • Areawide Traffic Plan for Middleboro, 1972
    • SRPDD Fact Book 1993
    • Town Open Space Plans 1974 & 1987
    • Town Master Plans 1969
    • Downtown Streetscape Master Plan 1998
    • Town Open Space Plan 2008
  1. School District Report Card 2003 (4 copies)
  2. G&E Annual Reports/Forecasts
  3. Middleboro ADA compliance 1992
  4. Oliver Mill Park Plan 2000
  5. Maxim Trucks booklet by Sass, Maxim photo
  6. Nemasket River Shoreline Survey 2003
  7. Environmental Site Assessment Washburn Mills(also 36a, 36b)
  8. Middleboro Veterans Council projects and articles
  9. Middleboro Housing Authority plan 200-2004
  10. COA Painting exhibit 1998
  11. Washburn Papers background
  12. National Register Nominations only
  13. National Register How-to-File
  14. National Register Drafts for Center, 3 copies
  15. National Register Draft for South Middleboro
  16. Ages of various towns in Massachusetts
  17. Deborah Sampson material (mimeo copies)
  18. In the rear of Drawer 2 are:
    • Town G&E Board Meeting Minutes going back to 1995
    • Town Selectmens' Meeting Minutes 2001-2002

Drawer Three

  1. The Middleboro "ALS Cluster" files from the 1980's. This material is divided into folders labeled as follows:
    • List of the persons involved
    • Maps
    • Correspondence
    • Articles
    • Grant information
    • Environmental history
    • Progress reports
  2. Middleboro Street Renumbering lists
  3. Rear Section: Initial Site assessment & Environmental Impacts for the Oak Point Project Phase One

Genealogy Room File (Second Floor)

  1. Local monographs from 1970's and 1980's
  2. 1980 Census Data
  3. 1990 Census Data
  4. Zoning Bylaws from 1961-70, 1971, 1978, 1982
  5. Commuter Rail returns to Middleboro (1997 articles)
  6. Old Commemorative and Events Booklets
  7. History of the First Church items
  8. History of the Town Hall
  9. 300th Town Anniversary Booklets
  10. Hometown magazine (published 1987-1988)
  11. North Middleboro Mothers Club (Report from 1941)
  12. Jerusha B. Deane - Poems (1893)
  13. Middleboro in the WPA Historic Buildings Catalog, 1940
  14. Odd Fellows Fraternal Organization, 1915, special newspaper supplement
  15. Red Men Fraternal Organization, history
  16. Charlotte Mitchell, Wampanoag (article reprint)
  17. Middleboro minstrel shows (program booklets)
  18. Paun genealogy (includes photo)
  19. Photo booklet dated 1895
  20. Peirce Academy item
  21. Item found in Sproat Tavern (1759 sermon)
  22. Philandrian Society meeting in Middleboro, 1802
  23. Mr. & Mrs. Tom Thumb clippings
  1. "Fortnightly Echoes" - Middleboro School booklet, 1923
  2. "By the Clear Nemasket River" sheet music, 1922, 3 copies
  3. A list of selected Middleboro references in the early Boston Globe
  4. History of the Cemetery at the Green pamphlet (multiple copies)
  5. Street, Business and Resident Directory for downtown Middleboro only based on early 1900's information
  6. Middleboro telephone directory 1946
  7. Alden Shoe Company information
  8. Danson's Grindstone
  9. Wayne Caron information

The 'List of Middleborough Historical Resources' section of the Digital Library provides a list of printed items about people, organizations and events that played a part in the Town's past. The list has been recently updated, and includes many new items such as articles about a local millstone referred to as Danson's Grindstone, Vietnam era hero Wayne Caron, and the Cemetery At the Green. The collection referenced in the list also now includes the complete run of a student magazine, "The Sachem" from Middleboro High School in the 1920's - 1930's. All of these items are available for use in the Library building only. Please check the updated list for items that just might pique your interest!

Update: New "Old Middleborough" material!

We have added numerous printed items about people, organizations and events that played a part in our town's past. For instance, there are articles about a local millstone called Danson's Grindstone, about Vietnam era hero Wayne Caron, about the history of the Cemetery At the Green, and we now have the complete run of a student magazine, "The Sachem" from Middleboro High School in the 1920's - 1930's. All of these items are available for use in the Library building only. Please check the updated list for items that just might pique your interest!


An Illustrated History Of Automotive Aerodynamics: Part 3 (1960 – Present)

Mercedes Bionic (2005) Cd: 0.19

For most of the fifties, sixties and into the early seventies, automotive aerodynamicists were mostly non-existent, or hiding in their dust-collecting wind tunnels. The original promise and enthusiasm of aerodynamics was discarded as just another style fad, and gave way to less functional styling gimmicks tacked unto ever larger and squarer bricks. But the energy crisis of 1974 suddenly put the lost science in the spotlight again. And although a trough of historically low oil prices temporarily put them on the back burner, as boxy SUVs crashed through the air, it appears safe to say that the slippery science has finally found its permanent place in the forefront of automotive design.

1958 Lincoln Premier image source: Plan59 Cd: never tested

During the fifties and sixties, with the exception of Citroen, Saab and a few other minor adherents, aerodynamics was largely left in the wake of increasingly ornate and boxy cars. The buying public was perceived or conditioned to need change, and the rounded pontoon gave way to ever-more dramatic and flamboyant but aerodynamically blunt designs.

Even in Europe, the influence from America as well as the pursuit of design for its own end also largely pushed aerodynamics into the periphery. Although the 1959 Mercedes W111 had a Cd of 0.40, Daimler-Benz never fully stopped using aerodynamics, and utilized it to fine tune certain aspects, such as ventilation and even in keeping its rear taillight lenses clean from road splash. And they certainly didn’t make any spurious claims about the fins adding stability at high speed.

Unless I’ve overlooked something, there’s just no evidence of passenger cars manufacturers placing any significant priority on aerodynamics during the early sixties, except those already committed to it, like Citroen and Panhard, with their new 24 of 1964 (above). But by then, Panhard was essentially controlled by Citroen.

Aerodynamic progress was mostly relegated to the racing world. The value of reducing forward aerodynamic drag on race cars was understood from the earliest days. But what was not at all so well understood was the role of vertical aerodynamic forces, the tendency of most streamlined shapes to start acting like a wing, and want to take flight with increasing speed. This not only makes high-speed racers unstable, but also contributes to reduced cornering ability.

In 1957, British researcher G.E. Lind-Walker published the results of studies that opened the door to understanding the importance of generating downforce, particularly in racing cars. His work began a revolution in racing car design as down force played such a critical role in improving acceleration, cornering and braking, the three essential components of racing.

By the early sixties, front air dams and rear spoilers were appearing on racing cars, and no one exploited the possibilities more than Jim Hall with his highly successful Chaparral racers. The 2B above shows the first fully functional use of front and rear spoilers and fender vents, all specifically to generate down force. They made the Chaparral essentially unbeatable in 1964 and 1965.

Two years later, Hall introduced the startling Chaparral 2E, which was the paradigm-shaping race car in terms of aerodynamics. In the the 2B, the aero aids were tacked on to a relatively typical sports racer of the time the 2E was organically designed to maximize down force, including the adjustable rear wing. The 2E profoundly influenced the whole racing world, including NASCAR.

The Plymouth Superbird (and Charger Daytona) shows the extreme lengths taken by Chrysler to incorporate these on a production car for their aerodynamic benefits, although the actual racers did better when they had a much larger lip spoiler added like this one.

We’re not going to pursue the evolution of racing aerodynamics further in this limited survey, but it has become utterly paramount to the design and function of modern racing cars. But the Chaparrals’ influence would also quickly spill over into passenger cars. GM hired an aerodynamicist back in 1953 to assist with wind tunnel tests on its turbine concept cars, although he was grossly underutilized for years.

But GM’s technical assistance to the Chaparral team was a well-known fact. How much of that was aerodynamics is not clear, but the first mass production car to sport a chin spoiler like the 2B above was the 1966 Corvair. It was added in the second year of the Corvair’s 1965 re-style to reduce drag and to improve down force and cross-wind stability, particularly important in the relatively less-stable rear-engined Corvair.

In Europe, Porsche also put its racing experience to good use, and its 1972 911 Carrera RS sported a full complement of spoilers to dramatically increase high speed stability and handling. And needless to say, Porsche wasn’t the only one.

Spoilers became another huge fad, as manufacturers,

and the aftermarket quickly seized on them for their ability to convey speed and performance, no matter what the vehicle it was mounted on.

1938 Kamm-back BMW prototype Cd: 0.25

Perhaps we did an injustice to the groundbreaking work of the German aerodynamicists Baron Reinhard von Koenig-Fachsenfeld and Wunibald Kamm by not including it in Part 2 of this series. But since their work mostly came to fruition in the sixties and later, let’s acknowledge their highly significant contribution here. They proved that a long tapered tail, once considered a key component of any aerodynamic body, was not actually necessary for a low-drag body, especially if it wasn’t a truly long and gently tapered shape. They demonstrated that an abruptly ending squared-off tail was almost as beneficial, as the air flow tended to act as if the tail was actually still there.

Their 1938 BMW prototype (above) proved their experiments convincingly, with a stellar Cd of 0.25 as well as facilitating practical advantages such as a roomy passenger cabin.

Probably because of stylistic reasons, the Kamm-back was not adopted to any significant extent in its most pure form, except in racing cars, such as this 1961 Ferrari 250 GT SWB “Breadvan”.

The “K” word entered the popular American lexicon when it was adopted for mainstream American cars such as the Vega Kammback wagon (above) and the AMC Spirit Kammback hatch. Given that the front of these cars showed no effort at reducing their drag, they exploited the name more than its potential benefit.

Although the 1955 Citroen DS was highly aerodynamic for its time, its influence was undeniably but rather limited, especially stylistically. It was so unique and uncompromising, that it didn’t lend itself well to “imitation”. But in 1967, Pininfarina showed the BMC 1800 Berlina Aerodinamica, designed by Leonardo Fioravanti. It was based on the ungainly BMC ADO17 “Landcrab“, whose body emphasized practical qualities over aerodynamics. Fioravanti was a student of Kamm’s design principles, and became the first to really put it to proper use in a practical passenger car. The influence of his Berlina Aerodynamica is vast both in other cars that soon picked up its lines and design language, as well as still today. This car rightly is the mother of almost all modern automotive aerodynamic design.

Citroen GS 1970 Cd: 0.31 (is that verified?)

In Europe, Citroen was the most diligent keeper of the aero flame for production cars. The compact GS arrived in 1970, with many of the design elements that now look so familiar now, thanks to cars such as the Prius. A sloping front end, fastback rear window, and an abbreviated Kamm-tail. It sported the lowest Cd in the world at the time, for a production car. Its debt to the Berlina Aerodynamica is substantial.

As is its bigger sibling. Curiously, despite its name being the nomenclature for Coefficient of drag (Cx), the large Citroen Cx arrived in 1974 with a Cd of 0.36. That’s counter-intuitive, because longer bodies tend to intrinsically have a lower relative drag. Still, it was a commendable number for a car that had a difficult birth, but went on to lead a long life. It certainly played an important role in acculturating the European public to highly aerodynamic design.

A truly pioneering car was the rotary engine-powered NSU Ro 80 from 1967. Its Cd of 0.355 set a low-air mark for sedans that would stand for some years. Other than its rotary engine, the NSU was a highly influential car, defining the modern idiom almost perfectly.

After NSU was bought by VW, Audi took up the work that had begun with the Ro 80. This resulted in an aerodynamic breakthrough and one of the most (if not the most) influential designs of the modern era, the Audi 100/5000 of 1982. With flush mounted windows and a modified wedge shape that paid tribute to the NSU, the Audi became the first mass-production sedan to achieve a Cd of .30. More than any other car, it launched the “aero era”, when manufacturers suddenly found themselves in a race for ever-lower numbers, or at least with cars that created that impression.

1977 Chevrolet Caprice Estimated Cd: 0.55 ? (Seems a bit high)

Backing up just a few years, in the USA, the energy crisis of 1974 suddenly thrust aerodynamics back into the mainstream, if not in the foreground. The long-neglected aerodynamicists were now finally embraced and integrated into the design process. GM’s downsized sedans of 1977 were the first to benefit from their knowledge, although it’s quite obvious that these cars like the Caprice below were relatively slow learners of the art. Although well behind Europe’s state of the art, even fine detailing for aerodynamic efficiency made an effective difference.

Ghia Ford Probe I 1979 Cd: 0.22

While GM was dipping their toes, Ford suddenly plunged wholly into the aerodynamic ether. Determined to jettison their boxy image after their near-death experience in 1979, Ford’s new management made a bold commitment to a complete embrace, and was determined to be the leader in the field. A series of ever-more aerodynamic Probe Concepts started with the Probe I,

and ended with the Probe V of 1985, which held the world record Cd of 0.137 for some years.

The 1983 Thunderbird was the first volley, but the really bold gamble was the 1986 Taurus (above), and its Sable sibling. The Taurus and Sable were among the first US cars to use composite headlights, allowing for a smoother front end. And they came to define the American aero or jelly-bean era.

The Sable was slightly more aerodynamically optimized, and beat the Audi with a .29 Cd. The race was on, and within a few years, GM would also be fielding dramatically more aerodynamic cars.

Mercedes had been utilizing aerodynamics to fine tune their cars for decades but the W126 began a more aggressive push to stay on the leading edge. The highly influential W124 (above) achieved a Cd of .28 in its most slippery variant. From this point forward, there were continual improvements from the major global manufacturers, although total aero drag often rose because cars were generally getting wider and taller too.

Needless to say, the SUV phase set aerodynamic influence in that segment back to the horse and buggy era. The ultimate wind-offender was the Hummer H2, which not only sported a .57 Cd, but its total aero drag of 26.5 sq. ft. is the highest on record for any modern vehicle listed. Wikipedia has nice charts of both Cd and total drag here.

To give GM credit, the 1989 Opel Calibra coupe set a new record for its class, with a superb Cd of 0.26. Fine detailing, now including the vehicle under-belly, paid off without having to resort to extreme or stylistically unpalatable measures. It led the way into the mainstreaming of super-low Cd vehicles.

Incidentally, that 0.26 is less than the 0.28 attributed to the Chevy Volt. It should be noted that different labs achieve different results, so none of these numbers should be taken as an absolute.

GM’s experience with the Calibra and long hours in the wind tunnel paid off dramatically with the EV1. Electric vehicles’ limited energy storage density necessitates optimized aerodynamics if the vehicle is to run at highway speeds. Thanks to its phenomenal Cd of 0.195, the EV1 had a semi-respectable range of 60-100 miles, despite its old-tech lead acid batteries.

The Cd 0.25 barrier for mass production cars was broken by the 1999 gen 1 Honda Insight, a serious accomplishment considering what a short car it is. Given that the Coefficient of Drag (Cd) is relative, its generally easier to attain a high number in a larger vehicle without having to resort to more drastic measures. The Insight shows plenty of those, including its rear wheel spats.

A more practical solution that also achieved a .25 Cd (in the specially optimized 3L version)was the advanced Audi A2 from 2001 (above). A lightweight four seater with aluminum construction, the TDI three-cylinder diesel powered A2 was the first four/five door car sold in Europe to be rated at less than 3 liters per 100 kilometers (78.4 US mpg). Surprisingly fun to drive too, it was not a sales success, likely due to its rather odd styling. It may well have suffered from Airflow syndrome, being just a tad too far ahead of mainstream styling acceptance. Note how similar its highly effective Kamm-influenced shape is to the 1938 Kamm prototype we looked at a bit earlier.

With a Cd of .25, the 2010 Toyota Prius has made highly aerodynamic cars an every-day reality, and on a very mass scale.

The current record holder for mass-production cars is the Mercedes E 220 CDI Blue Efficiency Coupe, with a Cd of 0.24. Undoubtedly, that will be broken before long. The Prius and Mercedes represents the current state-of-the-art for a production sedan without any compromises or additional tweaks. Undoubtedly, we’ve arrived in the full flowering of the aerodynamic age, even without the teardrop pointed tails and dorsal fins. That the aerodynamic frontier will continue to be cleft with ever less resistant vehicles is now an absolute given. We’re well beyond the point of no return, although the same sentiments were also widely held in the late thirties.

While continued refinement of the traditional automotive package will undoubtedly yield further reductions in the aerodynamic coefficient, to make a more dramatic jump requires extreme measures, like the still-born Aptera. Its Cd of .15 is stellar, but substantial compromises are involved. It’s highly unlikely that this represents the shape of mass-production cars in the foreseeable future.

More likely, the Mercedes Bionic of 2005 shows the way forward. With a Cd of 0.19, it offers a more practical package than the uncompromising Aptera. But then the Aptera’s frontal area is also significantly lower, and its total aerodynamic drag is undoubtedly not easily beat.

Even if energy prices hold steady or moderate, it seems safe to say that the aero-era has returned, and is here to stay. Government mandates, environmental and social pressures assure that optimizing fuel consumption, or maximizing EV range, will be priorities in every category of vehicle. And aerodynamics plays one of the most crucial elements in facilitating that.

Postscript: This Three Part Survey in no way pretends to be comprehensive. My apologies if your favorite aero-hero has been left out. But if there’s been a serious omission, I’d love to hear about it, as this is a work in progress.

49 Comments

Ford’s aero efforts in the 80’s and 90’s were interesting.

When the aero T-bird arrivied it’s Mercury cousin received a header panel was about 2″ longer at the top to give it a traditional “upright” grille to go with it’s “formal” roof line.

The Tempaz twins arrived with the same nose profile but again the Merc got the “formal” roof line.

The first gen Taurbles reversed their positions with the Merc getting a more aero roof and other aero tweaks. Mercury getting the better aerodynamics was short lived however.

When the aero Panthers arrived Ford was once again getting a much more aero nose (though they received the quick nose job eliminating the Taurus style bottom breather reportedly due to customers crying “where’s my chrome grille”) and roof while the Merc got a upright grille and backlight. That aero nose and roof meant the Ford was rated for 1MPG more on the hwy, and my experience with my 92 Crown Vic and 93 Grand Marquis proved it out despite the CV having the HPP 3.23 gears and the GM being saddled with 3.08’s. For 98 they CV got the GM’s body shell and a more vertical grille.

This series is bliss for eighties children like me. I’d like to ad to this extensive writeup that the W124 Mercedes also has underside treatment to aid aerodynamics. The Benz was introduced some three years before the Opel Calibra was. (give or take)

BTW The Audi A2 did not sell well due to it’s huge pricetag. It was all aluminum I think and that cost a lot to produce. People did not want to drive a small car for the price of a basic Benz or Bimmer. Sound familiar does it not, a certain US major manufacterers’ electrical vehicle comes to mind. The people that did buy one still drive them today, there are two that I see regularly around town and they have been around since I was a teen. Still look new too.

I read that the AMC Pacer had a cd near .32. That was in 1975.

I had a 󈨏 Olds Starfire. I think they had that too, or maybe a .36…

Ahhh…that delicious Panhard 24! Too bad it was basically a lawn tractor wrapped in that beautiful body!…The Mercedes? I love it for the obvious reason, but don’t have the resources to ever own one – but I’d sure like to…The Vega Kammback – I seriously considered buying one in metallic brown when I mulled over re-enlisting in the air force in spring, 1973. Fortunately a leave back home persuaded me to go to college instead!

I still think the Audi 5000 is one of the most beautiful cars ever built – it’s the flush, very expensive side glass. The thick black wrap-around rub strip, not so much anymore.

Now, I’d practically kill for a Chevelle version of that Pontiac!

The Ford twins – nah…I favored the 1992 update, but would never buy one – I was firmly in Chrysler’s camp at the time. Still mad at GM, too…

I wonder what the drag co-efficient would be for dad’s 1966 Impala sports sedan with all windows rolled down and the vents cranked out all the way…freshly waxed, too? Hmmm…add to that our 1990 Acclaim…

I drove a 󈨅 Impala, virtually identical to a 󈨆, and like the Corvair mentioned above it had a tendency to get very scary light in the front at high speed.

I’ve heard that the early Corvette Sting Rays suffered from aerodynamic lift at high speeds too.

The early Stingrays (1963-1967) did suffer from front end “lift”, but GM did extensively wind tunnel test during development of this series, and these were the first Corvettes tested in a wind tunnel during the design process. GM spent a lot of money for this wind tunnel testing, and did improve the drag coefficient of this car greatly, but the front end lift remained a problem through the 63-67 series. This “lift” was prevelant at illegal speeds, and perhaps was considered negligible in normal driving. That said, the 1963 Sting Rays had the lowest drag coefficient of any Corvette up to that date, but still was .53, according to designer Larry Shinoda. Wind tunnel technology was reportedly not as much of an exact science at GM in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s, but the front end lift problem was fixed in the next series (1968 – 1982)..

I had a 75 Celica GT. The chin spoiler was a bit too small and the steering got very light at 80 mph or so. Hmm, the 84 Ranger that replaced it actually was fairly well behaved at the same speed. I used a flush canopy/cap, and that probably helped the brick a bit.

I was surprised that the Citroen CX’s cd was so high. It certainly look very aerodynamic! A lot more so than the Prius, which turned out to have much lower cd. Even the much more blunt and stubby GS has lower cd.

The spoiler on the moskvitch is most interesting. Are you sure it’s a spoiler and not a setup for martial art practitioners to break boards?

The link to the chart was interesting. A 92 Crown Victoria has the same Cd as a new Fusion. Maybe this is why my 93 Crown Vic missed qualification for Cash for Clunkers by one measley mpg.

I would also never have guessed that a Ford Aerostar was vastly more aerodynamic than a first generation Dodge Viper.

I am curious – does a vehicle’s Cd come into the EPA calculation for fuel mileage? I would imagine that it does, somehow, but I do not know. I recall reading that Ford dove into aerodynamics in a big way after realizing that the aero car can be vastly larger and more powerful and still get the same fuel efficiency. Basically, you could style your way to more size and power for free. Of course, by now I would imagine that all of the low hanging fruit has been plucked.

Why not have the same aerodynamics and make the cars a little narrower?

I remember some nascar driver in the seventies suddenly winning race after race after being in the mid-pack most of the season. They tried tech inspection after tech inspection and couldn’t figure out how he was doing it until someone was standing in front of it pondering and suddenly realized that the car was significantly narrower than it had any right to be! The car’s owner/team had cut a foot out of the width of the car and then seamlessly welded it back together with nary a ripple or mismatch! That’s when they started using templates to ensure the cars were (wiggles paired fingers on both hands) “stock” as if I could actually buy one of them at the dealer the next day.

Take six inches out of the middle of my Hyundai Accent, or a foot out of that Ford Crown Vic posted today. We won’t miss it and we’ll use a lot less gas.

By the way, I saw a classmate in high school using a Superbird to haul boards. They figured the wing and the roof were strong enough to stand the weight. That was so long ago they weren’t collectible yet.

The Tango electric sports car is only 39″ wide. Don’t laugh, 0–60 mph in 4 sec, ¼ mile in 12 seconds @ over 120 mph, top speed 150 mph. 150 mile range with Lithiums. Excellent handling, since the batteries are mounted under the floor.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commuter_Cars_Tango
(No jokes about a Tango Uniform model please.)

The one-liter / 100km VW is narrow too. If tandem seating is good enough for fighter planes, why not narrow sports cars?

Everyone talks about Cd, that is the hard thing to achieve all things being equal, but it’s Cd times frontal area that counts.

jpc: Undoubtedly, a vehicle’s total aero drag has to be part of the equation, as well as rolling drag, and any other (is there?). I’ve never read a really good description of just how the EPA test is done maybe I’ll have to research that and write it up.

Please do. I’ve always (vaguely) wondered how they account for aerodynamic performance in EPA testing.

The W124’s cd being lower than the Taurus/Sable twins was a surprise to me. I figured that the jellybean Ford products would have had a much lower cd than the blocky-looking midsize Benz sedan.

As frenzic noted a few comments up, the W124 had extensive under-body optimization most cars don’t. That cost extra, but can make a significant difference. Also, the shape, by just looking at it from the side, can be deceiving. One should also look at from above the W124’s body had significantly more taper to it. And Mercedes had very big head start over Ford.

My father’s Subaru XT Turbo had an amazingly low cd of .29. I thought the styling was appropriate for the 80s.


Interim government

2003 June - President Kabila names a transitional government to lead until elections in two years time. Leaders of main former rebel groups are sworn in as vice-presidents in July.

2006 February - New constitution comes into force new national flag is adopted.

2006 March - Warlord Thomas Lubanga becomes first war crimes suspect to face charges at the International Criminal Court in The Hague. He is accused of forcing children into active combat.

2006 May - Thousands are displaced in the north-east as the army and UN peacekeepers step up their drive to disarm irregular forces ahead of the elections.


28. Somalia (1960-present)

Pre-Crisis Phase (July 1, 1960-October 14, 1969): Somalia formally achieved its independence from United Nations (UN) trusteeship under Italian administration on July 1, 1960. Adan Abdullah Osman Daar, president of the Legislative Assembly, was elected provisional president. President Adan Abdullah appointed Abdi Rashid Ali Shirmarke as prime minister on July 12, 1960. The Egyptian government agreed to provide military assistance to the Somali government on December 15, 1960. A new constitution was approved in a referendum held on June 20, 1961. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in northern Somalia in December 1961. The government of the Soviet Union provided military assistance to the Somali government (weapons, training, and 300 military advisors) beginning in 1962. Legislative elections were held on March 30, 1964, and the Somali Youth League (SYL) won 69 out of 123 seats in the National Assembly. The Socialist National Congress (SNC) won 22 seats in the National Assembly. Abdi Rashid Ali Shirmarke was elected president by the National Assembly in June 1967. Legislative elections were held on March 24, 1969, and the SYL won 73 out of 124 seats in the National Assembly. The SNC won 11 seats in the National Assembly. More than 25 individuals were killed in election-related violence. Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal formed a government as prime minister on May 22, 1969.

Crisis Phase (October 15, 1969-February 7, 1979): President Shirmarke was assassinated by a government policeman in the town of Las Anod in northern Somalia on October 15, 1969. Prime Minister Maxamed Xaaji Ibrahim Cigaal was deposed in a military coup led by General Mohammed Siad Barre on October 21, 1969. The governments of Egypt and Italy provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on October 25, 1969. The governments of Britain and East Germany provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Somali government. The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) headed by General Barre took control of the government on November 3, 1969. General Barre abolished political parties and suspended the constitution. The governments of the Soviet Union and Cuba provided military assistance (1,500 Soviet military advisors and 50 Cuban military advisors) to the Somali government. General Barre suppressed a rebellion on April 21, 1970. The SRC nationalized the country’s banks and oil companies on May 7, 1970. The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Somali government on June 1, 1970. Vice-President Muhammad Ainanshe Guleid unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow General Barre on May 5, 1971. The SRC was dissolved, and the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP) headed by General Barre took control of the government on July 1, 1976. Soviet military advisors were withdrawn from the country in November 1977. The governments of Egypt, Italy, and Saudi Arabia provided military assistance to the Somali government beginning in 1978. The Somali government suppressed a military rebellion led by Colonel Abdulaahi Yusuf on April 9, 1978, resulting in the deaths of 20 government soldiers. The Chinese government agreed to provide economic assistance to the government on April 18, 1978. On October 26, 1978, seventeen military personnel were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion. Some 200 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (February 8, 1979-March 3, 1992): Colonel Ahmed Abdullah Yusuf formed the Somali Salvation Front (SSF) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in February 1979. The Libyan government provided military assistance (weapons) to the SSF. A new constitution was approved in a referendum held on August 25, 1979. Legislative elections were held on December 30, 1979, and the SRSP won 171 out of 171 seats in the People’s Assembly. General Barre was elected president by the People’s Assembly on January 26, 1980. Government troops clashed with SSF rebels on February 8, 1980, resulting in the deaths of 52 government soldiers. Government troops clashed with SSF rebels on July 2-3, 1980, resulting in the deaths of 72 government soldiers. President Barre declared a state-of-emergency on October 21, 1980, and a 17-member Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) took control of the government on October 23, 1980. The U.S. and Chinese governments provided military assistance to the Somali government beginning in 1981. The SSF joined the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Somalia (DFLS) and Somali Workers’ Party (SWP) to form the Democratic Front for the Salvation of Somalia (DFSS) on October 5, 1981. The Libyan government provided military assistance to the DFSS. President Barre lifted the state-of-emergency on March 1, 1982. DFSS rebels, supported by Ethiopian government troops, attacked government troops in Balumbale on June 30, 1982. The U.S. government provided emergency military assistance to the government. DFSS rebels killed 20 government soldiers in Garaya Cawl, Toghdeer province in February 1983. Somalia National Movement (SNM) rebels launched a military offensive against the government on November 13, 1984. Legislative elections were held on December 31, 1984, and the SRSP won 171 out of 171 seats in the People’s Assembly. The Libyan government suspended military assistance to the DFSS in April 1985. Hassan Haji Ali Mireh was appointed as head of the DFSS in March 1986. President Barre was re-elected without opposition on December 23, 1986. Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Mogadishu on July 14-16, 1989, resulting in the deaths of some 400 individuals. Several Somali politicians signed the Mogadishu Manifesto No.1 in May 1990, which called for the resignation of President Barre. Some 60 individuals were killed during a demonstration against the government on July 6, 1990. Italy ended military assistance and withdrew its 56 military advisors on July 11, 1990. President Barre dismissed Prime Minister Mohamed Ali Samatar, and appointed Mohamed Hawadie Madar as prime minister on September 3, 1990. United Somali Congress (USC) rebels attacked Mogadishu in December 1990 and January 1991, resulting in the death of some 5,000 individuals. The USC rejected an Italian-proposed peace plan on January 9, 1991. Prime Minister Mohammed Hawadie Madar resigned on January 20, 1991. President Barre fled the country on January 26, 1991, and USC rebels took control of Mogadishu on January 27, 1991. Ali Mahdi Mohammed of the USC formed a government as provisional president on January 29, 1991. General Mohamed Farah Aideed was elected as chairman of the USC on July 5, 1991. Supporters of President Ali Mahdi and General Aideed clashed in Mogadishu on September 5-7, 1991, resulting in the deaths of some 300 individuals. Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to civilians beginning in 1991. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) established a mission to provide humanitarian and repatriation assistance to Somalis beginning in 1992. The UN Security Council imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against Somali rival groups on January 23, 1992. Representatives of the UN, League of Arab States (LAS), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and Organization of African Unity (OAU) began a joint mediation effort on February 13, 1992. General Aideed was dismissed as chairman of the USC in February 1992, and General Aideed established the Somali National Alliance (SNA). The UN/LAS/OIC/OAU coalition mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement by Somali factions on March 3, 1992. Some 250,000 individuals died and some 2.8 million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (March 4, 1992-August 25, 1995): On April 24, 1992, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM I) to monitor the ceasefire and protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance. At its maximum strength, UNOSOM I consisted of 54 military observers and 893 peacekeeping troops from 16 countries commanded by Brig. General Imtiaz Shaheen of Pakistan. The UN secretary-general appointed Mohamed Sahnoun of Algeria as UN special representative to Somalia on April 28, 1992. The UN Security Council increased the number of peacekeeping troops in Somalia to 3,500 on August 28, 1992. Ismat Kittani of Iraq was appointed as special envoy of the UN secretary-general to Somalia on November 3, 1992. Some 150,000 individuals died of starvation between March and November 1992. On December 3, 1992, the UN Security Council authorized the establishment of the US-led Unified Task Force in Somalia (UNITAF) to protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance in Somalia (Operation Restore Hope). UNITAF, which consisted of 37,000 troops from 27 countries, was deployed on December 9, 1992. UN Special Envoy Lansana Kouyate of Guinea facilitated a conference on national reconciliation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from March 12-27, 1993. The Somali factions agreed to establish a Transitional National Council (TNC) to govern the country for a two-year period. UNOSOM I was disbanded on March 25, 1993. Six UNOSOM I military personnel were killed during the mission. On March 26, 1993, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II) to monitor the ceasefire agreement, assist with the disarmament of the factions, provide security for airports and ports required for the delivery of humanitarian assistance, and protect UN, ICRC, and other NGO personnel. UNOSOM II consisted of 28,000 peacekeeping troops and civilian police personnel from 33 countries commanded by Lt. General Cevik Bir of Turkey (April 1993 to January 1994) and Lt.-General Aboo Samah Bin Aboo Bakar of Malaysia (January 1994 to March 1995). UNITAF was disbanded on May 4, 1993. Fifty-two UNITAF personnel were killed during the mission, including 43 U.S. military personnel. Twenty-five UNOSOM-II peacekeeping troops were killed during an attack by General Aideed’s militia in Mogadishu on June 5, 1993. On June 17, 1993, the UN requested General Aideed to surrender to UN troops for an investigation of his role in the killing of the UN peacekeeping troops. Eighteen US soldiers were killed during a military operation against General Aideed’s forces in Mogadishu on October 3, 1993. On November 16, 1993, the UN Security Council established a commission of inquiry (Ghana, Finland, Zambia) headed by Matthew Ngulube of Zambia to investigate the killing of UN peacekeeping troops in Mogadishu. The U.S. government withdrew its troops from Somalia on March 31, 1994. UNOSOM II was disbanded on March 2, 1995. Some 154 UNOSOM II personnel, including 149 military personnel and three international civilian staff members, were killed during the mission. Secretary-General Kofi Annan established the United Nations Political Office in Somalia (UNPOS) on April 15, 1995. UNPOS consisted of ten international staff personnel. General Aideed proclaimed himself president on June 15, 1995. Some 200,000 individuals died and some 750,000 individuals were displaced between March 1992 and August 1995.

Conflict Phase (August 26, 1995-December 23, 1997): Some 22 individuals were killed in clashes between rival militias in Mogadishu on August 26-29, 1995. General Aideed’s troops captured Baidoa on September 17, 1995. The Libyan government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Aideed on November 6, 1995. General Aideed died of wounds on August 1, 1996, and Hussein Mohamed Farah Aideed was elected provisional president by the USC-SNA faction on August 4, 1996. Some 25 individuals were killed in clashes near Mogadishu on August 24-25, 1996. President Daniel Moi of Kenya mediated negotiations among the factions in Nairobi on October 8-15, 1996, resulting in the signing of a ceasefire agreement on October 15, 1996. Thirteen individuals were killed in Mogadishu on October 29, 1996. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) facilitated negotiations between several Somali factions in Sodere, Ethiopia beginning in November 1996. On January 3, 1997, the factions agreed to establish the 41-member National Salvation Council (NSC) and the 11-member National Executive Committee (NEC). David Stephen of Britain was appointed as head of UNPOS on January 10, 1997. The Egyptian government and the League of Arab States (LAS) facilitated negotiations between Somali factions in Cairo beginning on November 12, 1997. Somali factions signed an agreement in Cairo on December 23, 1997, which provided for the cessation of military hostilities and the establishment of an interim government in Somalia. Some 100,000 individuals died and some 1.5 million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 24, 1997-December 18, 2000): The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) assisted with the repatriation of 51,500 Somalis from Ethiopia and Kenya in 1998, but some 140,000 Somali refugees remained in Kenya in December 1998. Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence in Kismayo between March 30 and May 8, 1998. Some 22 individuals were killed in political violence in Mogadishu on March 14, 1999. The League of Arab States (LAS) offered to facilitate a resumption of negotiations between Somali factions on June 22, 1999. One MSF personnel was killed near Jilib in August 1999. Some 13 individuals were killed in political violence in Kismayo on September 20-21, 1999. One CARE personnel was killed on January 2, 2000. The ICRC mission for Somalia consisted of 11 international personnel and 27 local personnel in January 2000. Eleven individuals were killed near Mogadishu on January 11-12, 2000. Some 13 individuals were killed in political violence in southern Somalia on February 4-5, 2000. Some 20 individuals were killed in political violence in the Hiran region on March 20-21, 2000. The government of Djibouti facilitated negotiations between Somali factions in the city of Djibouti beginning on May 2, 2000. Some 30 individuals were killed in political violence near the town on Qoryooley on June 22-24, 2000. Eleven individuals were killed in political violence in central Somalia on August 11, 2000. Abdiqassim Salad Hassan was elected president by the transitional parliament with 61 percent of the vote in the third round held on August 26, 2000. Abdiqassim Salad Hassan was inaugurated as president on August 27, 2000. The Egyptian government expressed support for the government of President Abdiqassim Salad Hassan on August 28, 2000, and the Sudanese government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on August 28, 2000. Some 25 individuals were killed in political violence in the Shabelle region on September 4, 2000. President Hassan and Hussein Aideed signed a Libyan-facilitated reconciliation pact in Libya on September 22, 2000. President Hassan appointed Ali Khalif Gallayr, a member of the Darod clan, as prime minister on October 8, 2000. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence between December 1997 and December 2000.

Conflict Phase (December 19, 2000-October 27, 2002): Government troops commanded by General Mohamed Nur Galal and members of the militia faction led by Musi Sudi Yalahow clashed in the town of Balad on December 19, 2000. Rival factions clashed in Mogadishu on May 11-12, 2001, resulting in the deaths of 40 individuals. The Ethiopian government began mediation efforts between the rival factions on June 19, 2001. Government troops and militia factions clashed in Mogadishu on July 12-16, 2001, resulting in the deaths of 72 individuals. The government of Prime Minister Ali Khalif Galayr collapsed as a result of a vote of no-confidence on October 28, 2001, and Osman Jama Ali served as Acting Prime Minister from October 28 to November 12, 2001. Hassan Abshir Farar formed a government as prime minister on November 12, 2001. The Kenyan government facilitated the signing of a peace agreement between representatives of the Transitional National Government (TNG) and opposition factions in Nakuru, Kenya on December 25, 2001. Some 20 individuals were killed in political violence in Mogadishu on December 27-29, 2001. Government police and militia troops clashed in Mogadishu on December 28, 2001, resulting in the deaths of six government policemen and three civilians. Some 50 individuals were killed in political violence in the Mudug region on January 25-26, 2002. Government troops clashed with members of the militia faction led by Musi Sudi Yalahow in Mogadishu on May 28, 2002, resulting in the deaths of some 60 individuals. Rival factions of the Rahanweyn Resistance Army (RRA) clashed in Baidoa on July 1-10, 2002, resulting in the deaths of some 40 individuals. Some 30 individuals were killed in political violence in Medina district in Mogadishu on July 23-24, 2002. Rival factions resumed military hostilities in Baidoa on July 27, 2002. Several hundred individuals were killed during clashes between rival factions in Baidoa in July and August 2002. Some 15 individuals were killed in political violence in the districts of Karaan and Yaqshiid on September 3-4, 2002. Representatives of the TNG and 22 Somali factions held Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)-mediated negotiations in Eldorat, Kenya on October 15, 2002, and the parties signed the Declaration of Cessation of Hostilities on October 27, 2002. Some 9,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (October 28, 2002-December 19, 2006): Amara Essy, interim chairman of the Commission of the African Union (AU), appointed Muhammad Ali Foum of Tanzania as special envoy for Somalia on November 21, 2002. Representatives of the TNG and five Mogadishu-based factions signed a ceasefire agreement on December 3, 2002. EU foreign ministers imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the rival factions beginning on December 10, 2002. Muhammad Abdi Yusuf was appointed as prime minister on December 8, 2003. Abdullah Yusuf Ahmed was elected president and head of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) by an electoral college on October 10, 2004, and he was inaugurated as president on October 14, 2004. Some 100 individuals were killed in violence in the Galgudud and Mudug regions in December 2004. Ali Mohammed Ghedi was approved as prime minister on November 3, 2004. The government of Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi was dismissed by the parliament on December 11, 2004, but he was re-appointed as prime minister by the parliament on December 23, 2004. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Francois Lonseny Fall of Guinea as UN Special Representative for Somalia beginning on May 3, 2005. Members of the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (ARPCT) and the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) clashed in Mogadishu beginning on February 18, 2006. ICU forces gained control of Mogadishu on June 5, 2006. Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and ICU representatives participated in League of Arab States (LAS) and Sudan-mediated negotiations in Khartoum, Sudan on June 22, 2006. On June 22, 2006, the representatives of the ICU and TFG agreed to recognize each other, to continue negotiations, and to cease military hostilities. On June 26, 2006, the leaders of the ICU announced the creation of the 90-member Supreme Court of the Islamic Courts (SCIC) headed by Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweis. Some 10,000 Ethiopian troops intervened in support of the Somali government beginning on July 20, 2006. The LAS and the Sudanese government mediated negotiations between representatives of the TFG and ICU in Khartoum on September 1-4, 2006. President Yusuf survived an assassination attempt on September 18, 2006, resulting in the deaths of eleven individuals.

Conflict Phase (December 20, 2006-October 26, 2008): Islamic Courts Union (ICU) militants attacked Baidoa, the location of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), beginning on December 20, 2006. The League of Arab States (LAS) appealed for a cessation of military hostilities on December 23, 2006. Somali government troops and Ethiopian troops captured Beledweyne on December 25, 2006. Somali government troops and Ethiopian troops captured Mogadishu on December 28, 2006. Some 1,000 Islamic militants, 500 Ethiopian soldiers, and 200 Somali government soldiers were killed in 2006. Nine individuals were killed in clashes between rival clans in the town of Biyo-Adde on January 13, 2007. On January 13, 2007, the Somali parliament, meeting in the town of Baidoa, voted to impose martial law throughout the country for three months. The African Union (AU) Peace and Security Council established the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) on January 19, 2007. AMISOM was mandated to provide security security for the transitional Somali government, assist with disarmament efforts, and facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance. General Levi Karuhanga of Uganda was appointed as the first commander of AMISOM on February 14, 2007. Some 22,000 AMISOM military personnel were contributed by Uganda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, and Sierra Leone. More than 560 AMISOM civilian police personnel were contributed by Burundi, Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Sierra Leone, and Uganda. AMISOM included more than 80 international civilian staff personnel in Nairobi, Kenya. Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on February 19-20, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least ten civilians. The AMISOM was authorized by the UN Security Council on February 21, 2007. Somali and Ethiopian government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu in March and April 2007, resulting in the deaths of some 1,500 individuals and displacement of some 400,000 individuals. Four African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldiers were killed in a roadside bombing near Mogadishu on May 16, 2007. The U.S. government appointed John Yates as U.S. Special Envoy for Somalia on May 18, 2007. Following an attack on their convoy on May 30, 2007, Ethiopian troops killed five civilians in the town of Beledweyne. At least six individuals were killed in a suicide bomb attack on the prime minister’s residence in Mogadishu on June 3, 2007. At least three individuals were killed following a grenade attack against a military convoy in Mogadishu on June 4, 2007. Islamic militants attacked a Ethiopian military base near Mogadishu on July 30-31, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least four individuals. Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on August 1-2, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least eight individuals. The ICU and other Somali opposition groups united to form the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) in Eritrea in September 2007. On September 12, 2007, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah of Mauritania as UN Special Representative for Somalia. Islamic militants attacked a government police base in Mogadishu on September 14, 2007, resulting in the deaths of six individuals. Islamic militants attacked a government military base in Mogadishu on September 19, 2007, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on October 21, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least eight civilians. Somali and Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on October 27-28, 2007, resulting in the deaths of some 13 individuals. Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi resigned on October 29, 2007. Somali and Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on November 2, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least five Ethiopian soldiers and seven civilians. Ethiopian troops killed more than 70 individuals, mostly civilians, in Mogadishu on November 8-9, 2007. President Abdulahi Yusuf appointed Nur Hassan Hussein as prime minister on November 22, 2007. At least 17 individuals were killed in a mortar attack in Mogadishu on December 13, 2007. Government police clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on February 19, 2008, resulting in the deaths of six individuals. Major General Francis Okello of Uganda took over as commander of AMISOM on March 3, 2008. Islamic militants killed four government soldiers and one civilian at a check-point near Mogadishu on March 6, 2008. Islamic militants killed five government soldiers in the town of Beledweyne on March 7, 2008. Somali and Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on April 19-20, 2008, resulting in the deaths of at least 33 individuals. After two Ethiopian soldiers were killed by a roadside bomb, Ethiopian troops killed at least 12 civilians in the town of Baidoa on April 30, 2008. Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants near the village of Garsani in central Somalia on May 7, 2008, resulting in the deaths of eight Ethiopian soldiers and ten civilians. Islamic militants attacked a government police station in Mogadishu on May 9, 2008, resulting in the deaths of two government policemen, two government soldiers, and one civilian. The UN mediated negotiations between representatives of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) in Djibouti beginning on May 31, 2008. Somali and Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on June 6-8, 2008, resulting in the deaths of some 28 individuals. The TFG and ARS agreed to a UN-mediated three-month cessation of military hostilities on June 9, 2008. Some factions of Islamic militants rejected the ceasefire agreement. Islamic militants killed nine government policemen in Mogadishu on June 27, 2008. Somali and Ethiopian troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu and Mataban on July 2, 2008, resulting in the deaths of at least 21 individuals. Al-Shabaab militants attacked a government military base in Baidoa on July 8, 2008, resulting in the death of one government soldier. Somali and Ethiopia troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on July 17, 2008, resulting in the deaths of as many as 35 individuals. One African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldier from Uganda was killed by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu on August 1, 2008. At least 20 individuals, mostly women, were killed by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu on August 3, 2008. Representatives of the TFG and ARS formally signed the UN-mediated “Djibouti Agreement on Justice and Reconciliation” on August 19, 2008. Islamic militants took control of the port of Kismayo on August 20-22, 2008, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals. Some 25,000 individuals were displaced as a result of the fighting in Kismayo. Two African Union (AU) peacekeeping soldiers from Uganda were killed in attacks in Mogadishu on September 14-15, 2008. Islamic militants shelled the main market in Mogadishu on October 7, 2008, resulting in the deaths of at least 20 individuals. The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) signed a “ceasefire-observance agreement” on October 26, 2008.

Post-Conflict Phase (October 27, 2008-February 7, 2009): On November 20, 2008, the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) against individuals engaged in activities that threatened the peace and political process in Somalia. Government security forces clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on November 21, 2008, resulting in the deaths of 15 militants. President Abdullah Yusuf Ahmed dismissed Prime Minister Nur Hassan Hussein on December 14, 2008, but the Somali parliament supported Prime Minister Hussein in a vote of confidence on December 15, 2008. On December 21, 2008, the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) meeting of foreign ministers expressed support for Prime Minister Nur Hassan Hussein and imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) against President Abdullah Yusuf Ahmed and his associates. President Abdullah Yusuf Ahmed announced his resignation on December 29, 2008. Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe was appointed as interim president on December 29, 2008. Rival Islamic militant groups competed for control of Somalia during the withdrawal of Ethiopia troops from the country beginning on December 29, 2008, resulting in the deaths of dozens of individuals. Fifteen civilians and one government policeman were killed in a suicide car bombing in Mogadishu on January 24, 2009. Ethiopian troops completed their withdrawal from Somalia on January 25, 2009. Sheikh Sharif Ahmed, the former commander-in-chief of the ICU, was elected president by the transitional parliament by 70 percent of the vote on January 30, 2009. Eighteen civilians were killed in a bombing against an AU peacekeeping convoy in Mogadishu on February 2, 2009. AU peacekeeping troops killed more than 20 Al-Shabaab militants following the bombing.

Conflict Phase (February 8, 2009-present): Al-Shabaab militants launched an insurgency against the government of President Sheikh Sharif Ahmed on February 8, 2009. President Sheikh Sharif Ahmed appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, son of former President Abdi Rashid Ali Sharmarke, as prime minister on February 13, 2009. Islamic militants suicide bombed an African Union (AU) peacekeeping convoy in Mogadishu on February 22, 2009, resulting in the deaths of eleven AU peacekeeping soldiers from Burundi. Government and AU troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on February 24-25, 2009, resulting in the deaths of 48 civilians, 15 militants, and six Somali government policemen. Al-Shabaab militants captured the town of Hudur on February 25, 2009, resulting in the deaths of ten Somali government soldiers, six militants, and four civilians. Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam militants launched a military offensive against Somali government troops in Mogadishu on May 8, 2009. At least 14 individuals were killed in a mortar attack on a mosque in Mogadishu on May 10, 2009. Al-Shabaab militants captured the town of Jowhar on May 17 2009, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals. Pro-government troops launched successive military offensives against militants in Mogadishu beginning on May 22, 2009. Six government soldiers and one civilian were killed in a suicide bombing at a government military base in Mogadishu on May 24, 2009. Five government policemen were killed in a roadside bombing in Mogadishu on June 1, 2009. Pro-government militiamen clashed with Islamic militants in the town of Webho on June 5, 2009, resulting in the deaths of at least 36 individuals. Al-Shabaab militants bombed the Medina Hotel in Beledweyne on June 18, 2009, resulting in the deaths of some 35 individuals (including the Somali Security Minister Omar Hashi Aden). The hotel bombing in Beledweyne was condemned by the AU, European Union (EU), UN, League of Arab States (LAS), and Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) on June 18, 2009. President Sheikh Sharif Ahmed declared a nationwide state of emergency on June 22, 2009. The U.S. government provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to the Somali government in June 2009. More than 250 individuals were killed, and some 160,000 individuals were displaced during fighting in Mogadishu in May and June 2009. Twelve civilians were killed by government forces in Mogadishu on July 5, 2009. Major General Nathan Mugisha of Uganda took over as commander of AMISOM on July 7, 2009. Government troops attacked Islamic militants near the presidential palace in Mogadishu on July 13, 2009, resulting in the deaths of more than 40 Islamic militants and three government soldiers. Islamic militants attacked a UN facility in Wajid on August 17, 2009, resulting in the deaths of three militants. Government troops clashed with al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu on August 21, 2009, resulting in the deaths of more than 20 individuals. U.S. military forces killed six Islamic militants, including Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan, on September 15, 2009. Al-Shabaab militants bombed the headquarters of AMISOM in Mogadishu on September 17, 2009, resulting in the deaths of 17 AU peacekeeping soldiers (12 Burundian and five Ugandan soldiers) and four Somali civilians. Major General Juvenal Niyonguruza, Deputy Commander of the AU peacekeeping mission, was killed in the suicide bombing. Another 19 Somali civilians were killed in clashes between Al-Shabaab militants and AU troops following the AMISOM headquarters bombings. The bombing of the AMISOM headquarters was condemned by the U.S. government, Norwegian government, AU, EU, LAS, IGAD, and UN on September 17, 2009. Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on October 22, 2009, resulting in the deaths of some 20 individuals. Twenty-three individuals, including three government ministers, were killed in a suicide bombing at a graduation ceremony in Mogadishu on December 3, 2009. The suicide bombing was condemned by the AU. Three government policemen were killed in a roadside bombing in Bossaso on December 15, 2009. Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on December 21, 2009, resulting in the deaths of three civilians. Sheikh Daud Ali Hasan, a senior commander of al-Shabaab, was killed in Kismayo on March 20, 2010. Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on April 13, 2010, resulting in the deaths of some 13 individuals. At least 30 individuals were killed in the bombing of a mosque in Mogadishu on May 1, 2010. Al-Shabaab militants fired mortars at the presidential palace in Mogadishu on May 23, 2010, resulting in the deaths of 14 individuals. Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Mogadishu on June 4, 2010, resulting in the deaths of at least 28 individuals. On June 9, 2010, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Augustine P. Mahigaof of Tanzania as UN Special Representative for Somalia and Head of UNPOS. Al-Shabaab militants attacked an AU base in Mogadishu on July 23, 2010, resulting in the deaths of two AU peacekeeping soldiers from Uganda. Some ten Islamic militants were killed while preparing a car bomb in Mogadishu on August 21, 2010. Islamic militants attacked a hotel in Mogadishu on August 24, 2010, resulting in the deaths of at least 32 individuals (including six members of parliament). Islamic militants fired a mortar at the presidential palace in Mogadishu on August 30, 2010, resulting in the deaths of four AU peacekeeping soldiers. In September 2010, AMISOM consisted of some 7,200 troops. Islamic suicide bombers attacked the main airport in Mogadishu on September 9, 2010, resulting in the deaths of several individuals (including two AU peacekeeping soldiers). Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke resigned on September 21, 2010. Abdiwahid Elmi Gonjeh served as Acting Prime Minister from September 24 to October 31, 2010. Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed was appointed as prime minister by President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed on October 14, 2010, and he was sworn in as prime minister on October 31, 2010. Government troops and pro-government (Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jama) militiamen captured the town of Bulo Hawo from al-Shabaab militants on October 18, 2010, resulting in the deaths of eleven militants and one government soldier. Government troops clashed with government policemen in Mogadishu on January 31, 2011, resulting in the deaths of at least 16 individuals. AU peacekeeping troops clashed with al-Shabaab clashed in Mogadishu on February 20, 2011, resulting in the deaths of six al-Shabaab militants and two AU peacekeeping soldiers. At least 20 individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing in Mogadishu on February 21, 2011. Twelve individuals were killed in artillery shelling in Mogadishu on February 21-22, 2011. Some 53 AU peacekeeping soldiers (43 Burundian and 10 Ugandan) and were killed in clashes with Al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu between February 23 and March 4, 2011. Six AU peacekeeping soldiers were killed in clashes with Al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu on March 17, 2011. Twelve AU peacekeeping soldiers were killed in clashes with Al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu between May 12 and June 11, 2011. Major General Fredrick Mugisha of Uganda took over as commander of AMISOM on June 15, 2011. Prime Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed resigned on June 19, 2011, and Abdiweli Mohamed Ali was appointed as prime minister on June 23, 2011. Four AU peacekeeping soldiers were killed during clashes with Al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu on July 29, 2011. Government troops and AU peacekeeping troops captured Mogadishu from al-Shabaab militants on August 6, 2011. Government troops clashed with al-Shabaab militants in the semi-autonomous region of Puntland on September 2-3, 2011, resulting in the deaths of some 60 individuals (including eight government soldiers and 40 al-Shabaab militants). Al-Shabaab militants attacked the town of Elwaq on September 10, 2011, resulting in the deaths of twelve individuals. More than 70 individuals were killed in a suicide truck bombing in Mogadishu on October 4, 2011. Government troops and AU peacekeeping troops defeated the last major al-Shabaab militant stronghold in Mogadishu on October 10, 2011, resulting in the deaths of one AU peacekeeping soldier and eight civilians. Some 6,000 Kenyan troops intervened in support of the transitional Somali government in southern Somalia beginning on October 16, 2011. Some 70 AU peacekeeping soldiers from Burundi were killed by Al-Shabaab militants in Mogadishu on October 20, 2011. Kenyan troops clashed with al-Shabaab militants near the town of Tabda on October 27, 2011, resulting in the deaths of nine militants. Ethiopia troops launched a military offensive against al-Shabaab militants in Somalia on November 19-20, 2011. Ethiopian troops captured the town of Beledweyne from al-Shabaab militants on December 31, 2011, resulting in the deaths of some 20 individuals. On February 22, 2012, the UN Security Council voted to increase the size of AMISOM from 12,000 to 17,731 peacekeeping personnel. Al-Shabaab militants bombed the newly re-opened national theater in Mogadishu on April 4, 2012, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals. Al-Shabaab militants bombed a market in Baidoa on April 9, 2012, resulting in the deaths of twelve individuals. Lt. General Andrew Gutti of Uganda took over as commander of AMISOM on May 2, 2012. AMISOM assumed command of some 4,664 Kenyan troops in Somalia on July 6, 2012. The mandate of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) expired on August 20, 2012. The National Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution on August 1, 2012. Two Somali politicians, Muse Hassan Sheikh Sayid Abdulle and Mohamed Osman Jawari, served as acting presidents of Somalia from August 20 to September 16, 2012. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud was elected president by the 275-member federal parliament with 71 percent of the vote in the second round on September 10, 2012, and he was inaugurated as president on September 16, 2012. Fourteen individuals were killed in a restaurant bombing in Mogadishu on September 20, 2012. On October 6, 2012, Abdi Farah Shirdon was appointed prime minister by President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, and he was sworn in as prime minister on October 17, 2012. Four AU peacekeeping personnel were killed in a bombing near Baidoa on October 24, 2012. One security guard was killed in a suicide bombing of a restaurant in Mogadishu on November 3, 2012. The U.S. provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Somali government on January 17, 2013. A suicide bomber attacked the offices of Somalia’s president and prime minister in Mogadishu on January 29, 2013, resulting in the deaths of two government security guards. The British government announced its decision to provide economic assistance to the Somali government on February 4, 2013. The UN Security Council suspended military sanctions (arms embargo) for the Somali government on March 6, 2013. At least ten individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing near the presidential palace in Mogadishu on March 18, 2013. On April 9, 2013, the U.S. government agreed to provide military assistance (including military advisers) to the Somali government. Nineteen individuals were killed in Islamic militants attacks in Mogadishu on April 14, 2013. On April 29, 2013, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Nicholas Kay of the United Kingdom as UN Special Representative for Somalia. Seven individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing in Mogadishu on May 4, 2013. The UN Security Council established the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) on June 3, 2013. UNSOM consisted of 570 troops, eight military observers, 16 civilian police, and 180 international civilian personnel. The mandate of UNSOM included providing policy advice to the Somali Federal Government and AMISOM regarding peacebuilding and state-building in the areas of governance, security sector reform, and rule of law (including the disengagement of combatants), development of a federal system (including state formation), constitutional review, democratization, and coordination of international donor support. Islamic militants attacked a United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) office in Mogadishu on June 19, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 15 individuals (including eight security guards). On June 20, 2013, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the attack on the UNDP office. Five civilians were killed in a suicide car bombing in Mogadishu on July 12, 2013. Fifteen individuals were killed when al-Shabaab militants attacked a restaurant near the presidential palace in Mogadishu on September 7, 2013. UN Special Representative Nicholas Kay condemned the attack on the restaurant. At least sixteen individuals were killed in a suicide bombing at a restaurant in the town of Beledweyne on October 19, 2013. Two senior al-Shabaab commanders were killed in a U.S. military airstrike near the towns of Jilib and Barawe on October 28, 2013. At least six individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing of a hotel in Mogadishu on November 8, 2013. At least nineteen individuals were killed in a suicide attack against a government police station in the town of Beledweyne on November 19, 2013. Lt. General Silas Ntigurirwa of Burundi took over as commander of AMISOM in December 2013. Prime Minister Abdi Farah Shirdon lost a vote of no-confidence in the Somali parliament on December 2, 2013. Seven individuals were killed in a car bomb attack in Bosasso in the semi-autonomous region of Puntland on December 5, 2013. President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud appointed Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed as prime minister on December 12, 2013, and Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed was sworn in as prime minister on December 21, 2013. At least eleven individuals were killed in suicide car bombings near a hotel in Mogadishu on January 1, 2014. Abdiweli Ali Gas was elected president of the semi-autonomous region of Puntland on January 8, 2014. Kenyan military forces carried out an airstrike against an Islamic militant camp in Garbarahey on January 9, 2014, resulting in the deaths of some 30 militants. More than 4,000 Ethiopian soldiers serving in Somalia were formally incorporated into the AU peacekeeping mission in Somalia on January 22, 2014. Sahal Iskudhuq, a senior al-Shabaab commander, and four other militants were killed by a U.S. military missile strike near the town of Barawe on January 27, 2014. At least seven individuals were killed in a car bombing at the main airport in Mogadishu on February 13, 2014. Al-Shabaab militants attacked the presidential palace in Mogadishu on February 21, 2014, resulting in the deaths of nine militants and several government security guards. At least 12 individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing in Mogadishu on February 27, 2014. Government troops and Ethiopian troops captured the town of Rabdhure on March 6, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least 12 individuals. Al-Shabaab militants attacked a hotel in the town of Bulo-burde on March 18, 2014, resulting in the deaths of six government soldiers, three AMISOM peacekeeping personnel, and several militants. Two UN employees were killed by Islamic militants in the town of Galkayo on April 7, 2014. Foreign Secretary William Hague of Britain condemned the killed of the two UN employees. A Somali member of parliament, Mohamed Rino, was killed in a car bombing in Mogadishu on April 21, 2014. At least six individuals were killed in a bombing in Mogadishu on May 3, 2014. On May 5, 2014, the UN Security Council condemned the bombing in Mogadishu. At least 12 individuals were killed in a car bombing in Baidoa on May 12, 2014. Al-Shabaab militants attacked the Somali parliament in Mogadishu on May 24, 2014, resulting in the deaths of three AMISOM peacekeeping personnel, four Somali government soldiers, one government police officer, and eleven militants. The U.S. government, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, UN Security Council, and the European Union (EU) condemned the attack on May 24, 2014. Al-Shabaab militants attacked the town of Bulo-burde on June 26, 2014, resulting in the deaths of two AMISOM peacekeeping troops, one civilian, and two militants. Lt. Gen. Jonathon Kipkemoi Rono of Kenya took over as Force Commander of AMISOM on December 15, 2014. The AMISOM contingent from Sierra Leone (850 troops) withdrew from Somalia on December 18, 2014. Al-Shabaab militants attacked an AMISOM base in Mogadishu on December 26, 2014, resulting in the deaths of eight militants, five AMISOM personnel, and one civilian. Five government soldiers and one AMISOM soldier were killed during clashes with Al-Shabaab militants in Baladweyne on March 21, 2015. Al-Shabaab militants attacked and killed 14 individuals at the Hotel Maka Al Mukaram in Mogadishu on March 27-29, 2015. Al-Shabaab militants attacked AMISOM troops in the Delbio area and near Leego on April 19, 2015, resulting in the deaths of six AMISOM soldiers. Al-Shabaab militants attacked AMISOM troops at a base in Leego on June 26, 2015, resulting in the deaths of at least 50 AMISOM soldiers. Al-Shabaab militants attacked and killed at least 20 AMISOM soldiers at the Janale base on September 1, 2015. Al-Shabaab militants attacked and killed some 150 AMISOM soldiers from Kenya in El Adde on January 15, 2016. U.S. military aircraft attacked and killed more than 150 Al-Shabaab militants at a training camp located 120 miles north of Mogadishu on March 5, 2016. AMISOM troops clashed with Al-Shabaab militants in the Lower Juba region on March 19, 2016, resulting in the deaths of two AMISOM soldiers from Kenya and 21 militants. On April 11-12, 2016, U.S. military aircraft attacked and killed some 12 Al-Shabaab militants in Kismayo. Lt. Gen. Osman Noor Soubagleh of Djibouti took over as Force Commander of AMISOM on July 18, 2016. Legislative elections were held between October 10 and November 10, 2016. Al-Shabaab militants attacked a hotel in Mogadishu on January 24, 2017, resulting in the deaths of 28 individuals. Al-Shabaab suicide bombers attacked the Somali parliament building in Mogadishu on January 25, 2017, resulting in the deaths of at least 25 individuals. Al-Shabaab militants attacked and killed at least nine AMISOM soldiers from Kenya in the Lower Juba region on January 27, 2017. Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed was elected president by the parliament on February 8, 2017. Al-Shabaab militants detonated a bomb in a market in Mogadishu on February 19, 2017, resulting in the deaths of at least 30 individuals. AMISOM troops clashed with Al-Shabaab militants northwest of Afmadow on March 1-2, 2017, resulting in the deaths of at least 57 Al-Shabaab militants. Al-Shabaab militants car bombed the Ministry of Youth and Sports in Mogadishu on April 5, 2017, resulting in the deaths of five individuals. An Al-Shabaab suicide bomber killed 15 government soldiers near a military base in Mogadishu on April 9, 2017. AMISOM troops from Kenya attacked and killed 15 Al-Shabaab militants near Catamaa on April 10, 2017. Al-Shabaab militants killed five individuals in a car bombing in Mogadishu on May 8, 2017. Al-Shabaab militants killed eleven individuals in a car bombing in Mogadishu on June 14, 2017. Al-Shabaab militants killed six individuals in a car bombing in Wadajir District in Mogadishu on June 20, 2017. Al-Shabaab militants killed five government soldiers near a security checkpoint in Mogadishu on July 30, 2017. Al-Shabaab militants ambushed and killed 12 AMISOM soldiers from Uganda in Lower Shabelle region on July 30, 2017. Al-Shabaab militants killed four individuals in a car bombing at The Ambassador Hotel in Mogadishu on August 4, 2017. Government troops clashed with Al-Shabaab militants in Barire on September 29, 2017, resulting in the deaths of 12 government soldiers and 18 militants. Al-Shabaab militants killed more than 500 individuals in a car bombing in Mogadishu on October 14, 2017. On October 16, 2017, the U.S. Department of State condemned the car bombing in Mogadishu. Also condemning the car bombing in Mogadishu was Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson of Britain, President Emmanuel Macron of France, the Turkish government, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada, and UN Secretary-General António Guterres. Al-Shabaab militants detonated a bomb near a hotel in Mogadishu on October 28, 2017, resulting in the deaths of some 25 individuals. U.S. military aircraft attacked and killed some 100 Al-Shabaab militants at a training camp on November 21, 2017. U.S. military aircraft attacked and killed 13 Al-Shabaab militants in southern Somalia on December 24, 2017. Lt. Gen. Jim Beesigye Owoyesigire of Uganda took over as Force Commander of AMISOM on January 31, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants detonated two bombs in Mogadishu on February 23, 2018, resulting in the deaths of at least 38 individuals. Al-Shabaab suicide bombers killed two government soldiers near Mogadishu on March 1, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants ambushed and killed five AMISOM soldiers near Balad on March 2, 2018. An Al-Shabaab suicide bomber killed five government soldiers in Afgoye on March 2, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants attacked AMISOM bases in Qoryoley and other locations on April 2, 2018, resulting in the deaths of six AMISOM soldiers from Uganda and 36 militants. Al-Shabaab militants detonated a bomb at a soccer stadium in Baraawe on April 12, 2018, resulting in the deaths of five individuals. Al-Shabaab militants killed at least five individuals in the town of Wanlaweyn on May 9, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants killed at least seven government soldiers in Wanlaweyn on May 10, 2018. Government soldiers killed 13 Al-Shabaab militants in the Hiran region on May 12, 2018. U.S. military aircraft attacked and killed 12 Al-Shabaab militants southwest of Mogadishu on May 31, 2018. U.S. military aircraft attacked and killed 27 Al-Shabaab militants near the town of Bosaso in Puntland on June 2, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants attacked a government military base near Sanguni on June 8-9, 2018, resulting in the deaths of one U.S. government soldier and two Somali government soldiers. Al-Shabaab militants attacked and killed at least five government soldiers near Teed in the Bakool region on June 11, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants killed five individuals in a mortar attack against an AMISOM base near Mogadishu on July 1, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants killed at least ten individuals in Mogadishu in two suicide bombings near the Somali Ministry of Interior on July 7, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants attacked and killed three government soldiers in Baidoa on July 13-14, 2018. Somali government troops clashed with Al-Shabaab militants in Lower Juba region on July 23, 2018, resulting in the deaths of several militants and government soldiers. U.S. military aircraft attacked and killed three Al-Shabaab militants southwest of Mogadishu on August 27, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants attacked and killed at least ten individuals near the Hodan District headquarters in Mogadishu on September 10, 2018. On September 11, 2018, the Turkish Foreign Ministry condemned the attack in Mogadishu. Al-Shabaab militants attacked and killed one government soldier west of Mogadishu on September 11, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants attacked civilians in the Hawlwadaag district in Mogadishu on September 2, 2018. U.S. military aircraft attacked Al-Shabaab militants southwest of Mogadishu on September 21, 2018, resulting in the deaths of 18 militants. U.S. military aircraft attacked Al-Shabaab militants northeast of Kismayo on October 1, 2018, resulting in the deaths of nine militants. U.S. military aircraft attacked and killed some 60 Al-Shabaab militants in the Harardhere region on October 12, 2018. Al-Shabaab suicide bombers killed 15 civilians in Baidoa on October 13, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants killed some 40 individuals in car bombings in Mogadishu on November 9, 2018. That same day, UN Secretary-General António Guterres condemned the bomb attacks in Mogadishu. On November 10, 2018, the U.S. Department of State condemned the car bombings in Mogadishu. U.S. military aircraft attacked and killed eight Al-Shabaab militants near Gandarhse on December 15, 2018. Al-Shabaab militants killed at least 20 individuals in car bombings near the presidential palace in Mogadishu on December 22, 2018. U.S. military aircraft attacked and killed at least 24 Al-Shabaab militants near Shebeeley in Hiran region on January 30, 2019. Lt. Gen. Tigabu Yilma Wondimhunegn from Ethiopia took over as Force Commander of AMISOM on January 31, 2019. U.S. military aircraft attacked and killed 13 Al-Shabaab militants near Gandarshe in Lower Shabelle region on February 1, 2019.

[Sources: Addis Tribune (Addis Ababa), September 1, 2000 Africa Contemporary Record (ACR), 1981-1982 Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), April 1-30, 1969, May 1-31, 1969, June 1-30, 1976, April 1-30, 1978, October 1-31, 1978, August 1-31, 1979, October 1-31, 1980, January 15, 1987, August 15, 1989 African Union (AU) press release, November 21, 2002, July 6, 2012 Agence France-Presse (AFP), May 14, 2000, July 16, 2001, October 16, 2018 Al Jazeera, October 16, 2017, April 2, 2018, November 9, 2018, December 23, 2018, January 31, 2019 Associated Press (AP), December 23, 1997, January 3, 2000, August 13, 2000, August 25, 2000, August 27, 2000, October 8, 2000, December 19, 2000, March 23, 2006, February 2, 2019 Banks and Muller, 1998, 833-838 Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 234-235 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), October 27, 1997, March 30, 1998, April 27, 1998, May 3, 1998, May 8, 1998, March 14, 1999, September 21, 1999, January 12, 2000, February 5, 2000, March 21, 2000, June 24, 2000, August 28, 2000, October 8, 2000, October 11, 2000, October 20, 2000, June 19, 2001, July 8, 2001, July 14, 2001, December 29, 2001, January 26, 2002, May 28, 2004, August 22, 2004, August 29, 2004, October 14, 2004, October 29, 2004, December 10, 2004, December 11, 2004, December 23, 2004, January 6, 2005, March 28, 2005, March 24, 2006, May 8, 2006, June 5, 2006, June 22, 2006, July 20, 2006, December 21, 2006, December 27, 2006, December 29, 2006, January 6, 2007, January 13, 2007, February 20, 2007, April 2, 2007, April 10, 2007, April 11, 2007, April 20, 2007, April 26, 2007, May 16, 2007, May 18, 2007, May 30, 2007, June 3, 2007, June 4, 2007, July 31, 2007, August 2, 2007, September 14, 2007, September 19, 2007, October 21, 2007, October 28, 2007, October 29, 2007, November 2, 2007, November 9, 2007, November 10, 2007, November 13, 2007, November 22, 2007, December 13, 2007, February 19, 2008, March 6, 2008, April 19, 2008, April 30, 2008, May 8, 2008, May 9, 2008, June 8, 2008, June 9, 2008, June 10, 2008, June 27, 2008, July 2, 2008, July 8, 2008, July 17, 2008, August 1, 2008, August 3, 2008, August 21, 2008, August 22, 2008, September 15, 2008, October 7, 2008, October 26, 2008, November 21, 2008, December 14, 2008, December 15, 2008, December 21, 2008, December 30, 2008, January 7, 2009, January 11, 2009, January 15, 2009, January 24, 2009, January 25, 2009, January 31, 2009, February 2, 2009, February 13, 2009, February 14, 2009, February 22, 2009, February 25, 2009, May 10, 2009, May 17, 2009, May 23, 2009, May 24, 2009, May 25, 2009, June 1, 2009, June 5, 2009, June 17, 2009, June 19, 2009, June 22, 2009, June 26, 2009, July 5, 2009, July 13, 2009, August 17, 2009, August 21, 2009, September 6, 2009, September 17, 2009, October 22, 2009, December 3, 2009, December 15, 2009, December 21, 2009, March 20, 2010, April 13, 2010, May 1, 2010, May 17, 2010, May 20, 2010, May 23, 2010, June 4, 2010, July 23, 2010, August 21, 2010, August 24, 2010, August 30, 2010, September 9, 2010, September 21, 2010, October 18, 2010, January 31, 2011, March 5, 2011,June 19, 2011, June 23, 2011, September 3, 2011, October 4, 2011, October 10, 2011, October 17, 2011, October 28, 2011, December 31, 2011, January 6, 2012, February 22, 2012, April 4, 2012, April 9, 2012, September 11, 2012, September 20, 2012, October 17, 2012, November 3, 2012, January 17, 2013, January 29, 2013, February 4, 2013, March 6, 2013, March 18, 2013, April 9, 2013, April 14, 2013, May 5, 2013, June 19, 2013, June 20, 2013, July 12, 2013, September 7, 2013, October 19, 2013, October 29, 2013, November 8, 2013, November 19, 2013, December 2, 2013, January 1, 2014, January 8, 2014, January 10, 2014, January 22, 2014, January 27, 2014, February 13, 2014, February 21, 2014, February 27, 2014, March 6, 2014, March 18, 2014, April 8, 2014, April 21, 2014, May 3, 2014, May 24, 2014, November 25, 2016 Clodfelter, 1992, 1011-1012 Degenhardt, 1988, 323-325 Deutsche Presse Agentur (DPA), October 31, 2006 Facts on File, April 9-15, 1964, April 14, 1978, May 12, 1978, May 24, 2001, December 31, 2001 Islamic Online & News Agencies, October 27, 2002 Jessup, 1998, 677-680 Keesing’s Record of World Events, July 9-16, 1960, July 30-August 6, 1960, December 10-17, 1960, November 15-22, 1969, September 3, 1976, June 16, 1978, October 12, 1979, June 20, 1980, September 10, 1982, June 1986, July 1989, January 1991, August 1995, September 1995, November 1995, August 1996, October 1996 Langer, 1972, 1281 Los Angeles Times (LAT), December 27, 2016 New York Times (NYT), January 19, 2003, October 11, 2004, December 28, 2006, December 31, 2006, October 29, 2007, January 14, 2009, November 20, 2011, November 17, 2011, January 10, 2014 Reuters, June 22, 1999, August 13, 2000, August 28, 2000, September 23, 2000, October 8, 2000, December 20, 2000, December 29, 2001, October 13, 2002, October 15, 2002, February 26, 2006, April 4, 2012, April 8, 2013, July 22, 2013, October 19, 2013, November 19, 2013, December 2, 2013, December 5, 2013, December 12, 2013, January 1, 2014, January 2, 2014, January 10, 2014, January 27, 2014, February 13, 2014, February 21, 2014, February 22, 2014, February 27, 2014, May 3, 2014, May 12, 2014, May 24, 2014, March 28, 2015, April 12, 2016, November 10, 2018 The East African Standard (Nairobi), November 5, 2002 UN Chronicle, March 1993 United Nations (UN) press release, September 12, 2007, June 9, 2010, April 29, 2013 Voice of America (VOA), July 10, 2017, December 15, 2018 Washington Post, October 31, 2004, December 21, 2006, May 8, 2017, November 9, 2018.]

Selected Bibliography

Lewis, I. M. 1972. “The Politics of the 1969 Somali Coup,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 10 (3), pp. 383-408.

Payton, Gary D. 1980. “The Somali Coup of 1969: The Case for Soviet Complicity,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 18 (3), pp. 493-508.

Thakur, Ramesh. 1994. “From Peacekeeping to Peace Enforcement: the UN Operation in Somalia.” Journal of Modern African Studies 32 (no. 3): 387-410.


33. Nigeria (1960-present)

Pre-Crisis Phase (October 1, 1960-January 14, 1966): The Federation of Nigeria formally achieved its independence from Britain and joined the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) on October 1, 1960. On October 1, 1960, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, founder of the Northern People’s Congress (NPC), was appointed as prime minister (head of government) of the Federation of Nigeria. Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe, leader of the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC), was appointed as Governor-General (representative of Queen Elizabeth II, the Nigerian head of state) on November 16, 1960. The Federal Republic of Nigeria was established on October 1, 1963, with Abubakar Tafawa Balewa as prime minister (head of government) and Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe as president (head of state). President Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe dissolved the House of Representatives on December 8, 1964. Parliamentary elections were held on December 30, 1964 and March 18, 1965, and the NPC won 162 out of 312 seats in the House of Representatives. The National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC) won 84 seats in the House of Representatives. The United Progressive Grand Alliance (UPGA) boycotted the parliamentary elections. Regional elections were held on October 11, 1965. Chief Samuel Akintola of the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) was re-elected as prime minister of the Western Region on October 11, 1965. Some 160 civilians and seven government policemen were killed in political violence in the Western Region following the regional elections. Some 20 individuals were killed in political violence in Ilesha on January 12, 1966.

Crisis Phase (January 15, 1966-July 5, 1967): Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa was deposed and killed in a military coup led by Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu and Major Emmanuel Ifeajuna on January 15, 1966. Prime Minister Samuel Akintola of the Western Region and Prime Minister Ahmadu Bello of the Northern Region were also deposed and killed during the military coup on January 15, 1966. The Supreme Military Council (SMC) headed by General Johnson Aguyi-Ironsi, a member of the predominantly Christian Ibo ethnic group, took control of the government and suspended the constitution on January 16, 1966. Twenty-two individuals were killed during the military coup. Some 3,000 Nigerians fled as refugees to Dahomey (Benin). The government of Ghana provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on January 17, 1966. The Nigerian government abolished the four federal regions on May 24, 1966. Some 115 individuals, mostly ethnic Ibos, were killed in political violence on May 28-June 2, 1966. Major General Aguyi-Ironsi was deposed and killed in a military coup led by Lt. Colonel Murtala Muhammed on July 29, 1966. Some 30 individuals were killed in political violence in Lagos on July 29-August 1, 1966, and some 250,000 ethnic Ibos fled from the Northern Region to the Eastern Region following the military coup. Lt. Colonel Yakuba Gowon was sworn in as the head of the federal military government following the military coup, and he restored the four federal regions on August 31, 1966. Some 2,000 ethnic Ibos were killed in political violence in the Northern Region from September 29 to October 4, 1966. Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, military governor of the Eastern Region of Nigeria, declared that the region would no longer recognize Lt. Colonel Yakubu Gowon as head of the federal military government on March 2, 1967. Lt. Colonel Gowon assumed full powers as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and head of the military government on May 27, 1967. Lt. Colonel Gowon proclaimed a state-of-emergency on May 28, 1967. Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, military governor of the Eastern Region, declared the independence of the Republic of Biafra in southern Nigeria on May 30, 1967.

Conflict Phase (July 6, 1967-January 15, 1970): Government troops launched a military offensive against Biafran rebels on July 6, 1967. The Egyptian government provided military assistance (military aircraft and pilots) to the Nigerian government. The presidents of Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and the Emperor of Ethiopia jointly appealed for a ceasefire and peaceful negotiations on July 8, 1967. The East African Community (EAC) offered to send a four-member conciliation commission (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia) to Nigeria, but the mediation offer was rejected by the government. The Vatican City appealed for peaceful negotiations in July 1967. Foreign Minister Emile Zinsou of Dahomey offered to mediate negotiations in August 1967, but the mediation offer was rejected by the Nigerian government. The British government provided military assistance to the Nigerian government beginning on August 9, 1967. The government of the Soviet Union provided military assistance (military aircraft and 170 military technicians) to the Nigerian government beginning on August 19, 1967. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) heads-of-state condemned the rebellion, and established a six-member consultative commission (Cameroon, Congo-Kinshasa, Ethiopia, Ghana, Liberia, Niger) chaired by Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia on September 14, 1967. Commonwealth of Nations (CON) Secretary-General Arnold Smith attempted to facilitate negotiations between Biafran rebel and government representatives beginning in October 1967. Government troops captured Enugu, the Biafran capital, on October 4, 1967. Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin of the Soviet Union offered economic assistance to the government on October 16, 1967. Some 2,000 government soldiers were killed during an attack against Biafran rebels near Onitsha on October 18, 1967. The Switzerland-based NGO, World Council of Churches (WCC), established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict beginning on November 20, 1967. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict beginning in January 1968. The Society of Friends (Quakers) established a three-member committee to facilitate negotiations between the parties beginning on February 3, 1968. The Vatican and WCC jointly appealed for a ceasefire on March 20, 1968, but the ceasefire appeal was rejected by the parties. Government troops captured Onitsha on March 22, 1968. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) established a mission (“International Airlift West Africa”) to provide humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict beginning in April 1968. The Tanzanian government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to Biafra on April 13, 1968. The government of Czechoslovakia imposed military sanctions (suspension of arms shipments) against the government and Biafran rebels on April 24, 1968. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) Secretary-General Arnold Smith facilitated preliminary negotiations between the parties in London on May 2-15, 1968. The government of Gabon provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to Biafra on May 8, 1968. Government military aircraft attacked rebel targets in Port Harcourt and Aba on May 9, 1968, resulting in the deaths of 150 civilians. The government of Ivory Coast provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to Biafra on May 15, 1968. Government troops captured Port Harcourt on May 18, 1968. The government of Zambia provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to Biafra on May 20, 1968. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) Secretary-General Arnold Smith and President Milton Obote of Uganda facilitated formal negotiations between the parties in Kampala, Uganda on May 23-31, 1968. The Dutch government imposed military sanctions (suspension of arms shipments) against the Nigerian government and Biafran rebels on June 6, 1968. The Belgian government imposed military sanctions (suspension of arms shipments) against the Nigerian government and Biafran rebels on July 5, 1968. The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) established a commission of inquiry, which visited the region from July to September 1968. The ICRC appointed August Lindt of Switzerland as coordinator of the ICRC mission in Nigeria and Biafra on July 19, 1968. The OAU consultative committee, chaired by President of Hamani Diori of Niger, facilitated preliminary negotiations between the parties in Niamey, Niger on July 20-26, 1968. The French government expressed its support for the Biafran rebels on July 31, 1968, and provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to the Biafran rebels beginning in August 1968. The OAU consultative committee, chaired by Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, facilitated formal negotiations between the parties in Addis Ababa between August 5 and September 9, 1968. Government troops captured Aba on September 4, 1968. The governments of Britain, Canada, Poland, and Sweden established a four-member fact-finding mission to investigate allegations of genocide by government troops beginning on September 7, 1968. Government military aircraft bombed the Aguleri market near Onitsha on September 16, 1968, resulting in the deaths of 510 individuals. Government military aircraft attacked Umuahia township on September 28, 1968, resulting in the deaths of 31 individuals. Government troops killed two ICRC personnel, two WCC personnel, and 100 civilians in Okigwi on September 30, 1968. OAU heads-of-state appealed for a ceasefire in September 1968. The Joint Church Aid (JCA) mission – which consisted of the Catholic Relief Service (CRS), Caritas International (CI) – the Vatican City humanitarian assistance organization, and Church World Service (CWS) – was established in 1968. The AFSC and the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to Nigerians beginning in January 1969. The Common African, Malagasy, and Mauritanian Organization (Organisation Commune Africaine et Malgache – OCAM) established a conciliation commission on January 29, 1969. Prime Minister Harold Wilson of Britain attempted to mediate a ceasefire agreement between Biafran rebel and government representatives on March 27-31, 1969. The OAU consultative committee facilitated negotiations between the parties in Monrovia, Liberia on April 17-20, 1969. The OAU consultative committee appealed for a ceasefire on April 20, 1969. UN Secretary-General U Thant appointed Said-Uddin Khan as his representative for relief activities in Nigeria on April 28, 1969. Government military aircraft shot down an ICRC aircraft on June 5, 1969, and the ICRC suspended its airlift operation in Biafra on June 10, 1969. August Lindt resigned as coordinator of the ICRC mission on June 19, 1969. The ICRC terminated its humanitarian mission in Nigeria on October 2, 1969. The Quaker mission ended its efforts to facilitate negotiations between the parties in November 1969. The OAU consultative committee was dissolved on December 15, 1969. Biafran leader Colonel Ojukwu fled the country on January 11, 1970. The governments of Denmark, Ireland, and the US provided humanitarian assistance to refugees beginning on January 12, 1970. The governments of Australia, Ethiopia, Italy, Norway, and West Germany provided humanitarian assistance to refugees beginning on January 13, 1970. The Nigerian government banned the JCA on January 14, 1970. Biafra formally surrendered to government troops on January 15, 1970. Some 45,000 government troops, 45,000 Biafran rebels, and 30,000 civilians were killed, and some 500,000 individuals died as a result of starvation during the conflict. Some 3 million individuals were internally displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 16, 1970-October 1, 1979): Lt. Colonel Gowon was deposed in a military coup led by General Murtala Mohammed on July 29, 1975. The Libyan government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of General Murtala Mohammed on July 30, 1975, and the British government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Nigerian government on August 1, 1975. The SMC appointed the 25-member Federal Executive Council (FEC) on August 6, 1975. General Murtala Mohammed appointed a 50-member committee to draft a new constitution, and the committee convened on October 18, 1975. Government troops and civilians clashed in Ugep on December 25, 1975, resulting in the deaths of nineteen individuals. General Murtala Mohammed and 24 other military personnel were killed during a military rebellion headed by Lt. Colonel Bukur Suka Dimka on February 13, 1976, and Lt. General Olusegun Obasanjo was appointed as head of the SMC on February 14, 1976. On March 11, 1976, more than 30 government soldiers, including Major-General Illya Bisalla and Lt. Colonel Dimka, were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion. On May 16, 1976, Lt. Colonel Dimka and six other individuals were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion and assassination of General Murtala Mohammed. The 50-member committee appointed in October 1975 submitted a draft constitution to the SMC on September 14, 1976. The SMC formally established a 230-member (mostly elected by local councils in December 1976) Constituent Assembly on August 31, 1977, and the Constituent Assembly held its first meeting on October 6, 1977. Nine individuals were killed during demonstrations in Lagos on April 20-28, 1978. General Obasanjo ended the state-of-emergency and lifted the ban on political parties on September 21, 1978. One the same day, the Constituent Assembly submitted a draft constitution, which created a presidential system of government in Nigeria. Three political parties – the Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN), the Nigerian People’s Party (NPP), and the National Party of Nigeria (NPN) – were organized on September 22, 1978. Legislative elections were held on July 14, 1979, and the NPN won 168 out of 449 seats in the House of Representatives. The UPN won 111 seats in the House of Representatives. Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the NPN was elected president with 34 percent of the vote on August 11, 1979, and he was inaugurated as president on October 1, 1979. The new constitution went into effect on October 1, 1979.

Post-Crisis Phase (October 2, 1979-December 30, 1983): Government police and members of the Muslim fundamentalist (Yen Izala) sect headed by Malam Mohammadu Marwa clashed in Kano in northern Nigeria on December 18-31, 1980, resulting in the deaths of some 1,000 civilians and 50 government policemen. Some 5,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1980 and 1981. Government police clashed with members of the Yen Izala sect in Maiduguri in the state of Borno and Kaduna in northeastern Nigeria on October 26-31, 1982, resulting in the deaths of some 100 government policemen and 400 civilians. The government banned the Yen Izala sect on November 18, 1982. The government expelled some 2.2 million illegal immigrants from the country between January 17 and February 28, 1983. Eight individuals were killed in political violence in Ibadan in the state of Oyo on July 8, 1983. President Shagari was re-elected for a second term with 48 percent of the vote on August 6, 1983, and he was inaugurated on October 1, 1983. The NPN won 13 out of 19 state governorships in elections on August 13, 1983. Eighty-two individuals were killed in political violence in the state of Ondo on August 18-20, 1983. Legislative elections were held on August 20-27, 1983, and the NPN won 60 out of 96 seats in the Senate and 306 out of 450 seats in the House of Representatives. The UPN won 16 seats in the Senate and 51 seats in the House of Representatives.

Crisis Phase (December 31, 1983-May 29, 1999): President Alhaji Shagari was deposed in a military coup led by Major General Muhammadu Buhari on December 31, 1983, and the 19-member Supreme Military Council (SMC) headed by General Buhari took control of the government on January 3, 1984. Government troops clashed with members of a Muslim fundamentalist sect headed by Musa Makaniki in Yola in the state of Gongola on February 27, 1984, resulting in the deaths of some 1,000 individuals. Government police clashed with members of the Muslim Fundamentalist sect Yen Izala headed by Yusufu Adamu in Gombe on April 26, 1985, resulting in the deaths of 150 individuals. General Buhari was deposed in a military coup led by Major General Ibrahim Babangida on August 27, 1985, resulting in the deaths of one government policeman. The 28-member Armed Forces Ruling Council (AFRC) headed by General Babangida took control of the government on August 29, 1985. The government announced the discovery of a plot within the military to overthrow the government on December 20, 1985, and several hundred military personnel were arrested for their involvement in the plot. Thirteen military personnel were convicted and sentenced to death on February 25, 1986. Ten of the military personnel, including Major-General Mamman Vatsa, were executed in Lagos on March 5, 1986. A new constitution went into effect on May 3, 1989, and the ban on political parties was lifted. On October 7 1989, President Babangida dissolved thirteen political parties that had applied for registration since May 1989. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Major Gideon Orkar on April 22, 1990, resulting in the deaths of some 200 individuals. Forty-two military personnel were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion on July 27, 1990, and twenty-seven individuals were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion on September 13, 1990. Government police clashed with anti-government demonstrators in Lagos on May 4-13, 1992, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals. Some 300 individuals were killed in religious violence throughout the country on May 16-18, 1992. Legislative elections were held on July 4, 1992, and the Social Democratic Party (SDP) won 314 out of 593 seats in the House of Representatives. The National Republican Convention (NRC) won 275 seats in the House of Representatives. The Transitional Council (TC), a civilian government headed by Ernest Adegunle Shonekan, replaced the military government on January 4, 1993. Moshood Abiola of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) was elected president with 58 percent of the vote on June 12, 1993. President Babangida nullified the results of the presidential election on July 4, 1993, resulting in the deaths of eleven individuals during rioting in Lagos on July 5, 1993. The European Community (EC) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government on July 13, 1993. President Babangida resigned on August 26, 1993, and the Interim National Government (ING) headed by Ernest Adegunle Shonekan formed a civilian government. General Sani Abacha deposed the civilian government and dissolved the parliament on November 17-18, 1993. The Provisional Ruling Council (PRC) headed by General Abacha took control of the government on November 24, 1993. Moshood Abiola was arrested and charged with treason on June 23, 1994. General Abacha lifted the ban on political activity on June 27, 1995. The military government convicted and executed Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other members of the Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP) on November 10, 1995. The British-based NGO, Amnesty International (AI), condemned the Nigerian government for the executions on November 10, 1995. The European Union (EU) condemned the Nigerian government for the executions on November 10, 1995. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government on November 11, 1995. The CON established an eight-member Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG-Nigeria) on November 11, 1995, which consisted of the foreign ministers of Britain, Canada, Ghana, Jamaica, Malaysia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Zimbabwe, to monitor human rights and political conditions in the country. The European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance and travel ban) and military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Nigerian government on November 20, 1995. On December 22, 1995, the UN General Assembly approved a resolution condemning the Nigerian government for the executions of MOSOP members. UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali sent a four-member fact-finding mission headed by Atsu Koffi Amega of Togo to investigate human rights conditions in Nigeria from March 28 to April 12, 1996. The United Democratic Front of Nigeria (UDFN) was established on April 1, 1996. Commonwealth of Nations (CON) foreign ministers imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) and economic sanctions (travel embargo and freeze on foreign-held assets) against the government on April 24, 1996. The CMAG-Nigeria sent a 17-member fact-finding mission to the country on November 18-20, 1996. The government charged 15 individuals with treason on March 12, 1997. The Canadian government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the Nigerian government on March 13, 1997. Government troops clashed with demonstrators in Ibadan on April 15, 1998, resulting in the deaths of at least three individuals. At least three individuals were killed in an explosion in Lagos on April 23, 1998. Legislative elections were held on April 25, 1998, and the United Nigeria Congress Party (UNCP) won 229 out of 282 seats in the House of Representatives. The Democratic Party of Nigeria (DPN) won 39 seats in the House of Representatives. Opposition political parties were banned from participating in the legislative elections and called for a boycott of the legislative elections. General Sani Abacha died on June 8, 1998, and was replaced by General Abdulsalami Abubakar. Moshood Abiola died in prison on July 7, 1998. The European Union (EU) lifted economic sanctions (travel ban) against the Nigerian government on November 1, 1998. Nigeria’s National Electoral Commission (NEC) requested international monitoring of local, state, and national elections to be held between December 5, 1998 and February 27, 1999. Elections for local councils were held on December 5, 1998, and elections for state governors and assemblies were held on January 9, 1999. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 17 observers to monitor the election process from November 30, 1998 to January 11, 1999. The Association of African Elections Authorities (AAEA) and the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) sent 15 observers headed by K. Afari-Gyan of Ghana to jointly observe the local elections from November 15 to December 8, 1998. Nineteen individuals were killed in political violence in the Niger Delta region on February 1, 1999. Legislative elections were held on February 20, 1999, and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) won 206 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives. The All People’s Party (APP) won 74 seats in the House of Representatives, and the Alliance for Democracy (AFD) won 68 seats in the House of Representatives. Olusegun Obasanjo of the PDP defeated Olu Falae of the APP by a margin of 63 percent to 37 percent to win the presidential election on February 27, 1999. The AAEA/IFES sent 28 observers to jointly observed the elections from February 16 to March 2, 1999. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) sent 50 observers from 18 countries headed by Ali Hassan Mwinyi of Tanzania to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from February 18 to March 2, 1999. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 34 observers from 23 countries headed by Ketumile Masire of Botswana to monitor the elections from February 12 to March 2, 1999. The National Democratic Institute (NDI) and The Carter Center (TCC) sent 60 observers from 10 countries headed by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Mahamane Ousmane of Niger to jointly monitor the legislative and presidential elections from February 17 to March 1, 1999. The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent 43 observers headed by General Colin Powell of the U.S. to monitor the president election from February 22 to February 28, 1999. The European Union (EU) sent 100 observers to monitor the presidential election. The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the presidential election. General Abdulsalami Abubakar signed into law a new constitution on May 5, 1999. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) lifted diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the Nigerian government on May 29, 1999. Olusegun Obasanjo was inaugurated as president on May 29, 1999.

Post-Crisis Phase (May 30, 1999-January 23, 2006): The European Union (EU) lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Nigerian government on June 1, 1999. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) and economic sanctions (travel embargo and freeze on foreign-held assets) against the Nigerian government on November 1, 1999. Some 100 individuals were killed in ethnic violence in Lagos on November 28, 1999. Governor Alhaji Ahmed Sani announced the introduction of Islamic law Sharia in the state of Zamfra on January 27, 2000. The state of Kaduna introduced Sharia in February 2000. Some 400 individuals were killed, and some 100,000 individuals were displaced as a result of violence in the city of Kaduna in the state of Kaduna on February 21-23, 2000. More than 50 individuals were killed in religious violence in the town of Aba in southeastern Nigeria on February 28, 2000. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided humanitarian assistance to individuals adversely affected by the violence in the state of Kaduna beginning on February 28, 2000. President Olusegun Obasanjo met with the country’s 36 state governors on February 29, 2000, and the group agreed to suspend Sharia in the states of Niger, Sokoto, and Zamfara. Government police arrested 40 supporters of an independent state of Biafra on April 19, 2000. Some 200 individuals were killed as a result of religious violence in the state of Kaduna on May 22-25, 2000. Some 25 individuals were killed in violence in Bambam in the state of Gombe on September 7-9, 2000. Bariya Ibrahim Magazu was given a sentence of 180 lashes for fornication by a Sharia court in the state of Zamfara in September 2000. Some 100 individuals were killed and some 20,000 individuals were displaced as a result of violence in Lagos in October 2000. Some 1,500 individuals were killed as a result of violence in 2000. A reduced Sharia sentence of 100 lashes against 17-year old Bariya Ibrahim Magazu was carried out in the state of Zamfara on January 19, 2001. The government of Canada condemned the flogging on January 22, 2001. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and Human Rights Watch (HRW) condemned the flogging on January 23, 2001. Government police arrested the leader of a Biafran secessionist movement, Ralph Uwazuruike, on February 8, 2001. Some 200 individuals were killed, and some 50,000 individuals were displaced as a result of violence in the state of Nassarawa on June 12-26, 2001. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in violence in the state of Bauchi in July 2001. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in religious violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on September 7-17, 2001. President Olusegun Obasanjo deployed government troops to suppress the violence in Jos on September 8, 2001. Members of the Tiv ethnic group killed 19 government soldiers in the village of Zaki-Biam in the state of Benue on October 11-12, 2001. Some 100 individuals were killed as a result of violence in Kano on October 13-14, 2001. Government troops killed some 200 civilians, and some 300,000 were displaced as a result of the violence in the state of Benue on October 22-24, 2001. Eleven individuals were killed as a result of violence in the state of Kaduna state in northern Nigeria on November 2-4, 2001. Some 20 individuals were killed as a result of violence in the village of Dagwom Turu in the state of Plateau on December 30, 2001. Some 400,000 individuals were displaced as a result of violence in 2001. Sani Yakubu Rodi was executed under Sharia in a prison in Kaduna on January 3, 2002. The U.S.-based NGO, Human Rights Watch (HRW), condemned the execution on January 8, 2002. Government police clashed with members of the Oodua People’s Congress (OPC) in southwest Nigeria on January 12, 2002, resulting in the deaths of 36 individuals. Some 100 individuals were killed as a result of violence in Lagos on February 2-5, 2002. Government troops were deployed to suppress the violence in Lagos on February 5, 2002. The Nigerian government declared that certain aspects of Sharia were unconstitutional on March 22, 2002. The death sentence against Safiya Husaini for adultery was overturned by a Sharia appeals court on March 25, 2002. On April 20, 2002, the U.S. government agreed to provide $4 million in military assistance to the government. Muslim clerics in the state of Oyo introduced Sharia on May 1, 2002, but the state government declared that it would not enforce Islamic law in the state. Some 15 individuals were killed as a result of violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on May 2, 2002. Some 100 individuals were killed as a result of violence in the town of Nembe in the state of Bayelsa on July 20-22, 2002. On August 3, 2002, President Olusegun Obasanjo announced a postponement of local elections, which were scheduled for August 10, 2002. The Nigerian House of Representatives demanded the resignation of President Olusegun Obasanjo on August 13, 2002, but the demand was rejected on August 14, 2002. Six individuals were killed as a result of violence in the village of Kassa on October 14, 2002. Eight individuals were killed as a result of violence in Jos on October 22-23, 2002. On November 13, 2002, President Olusegun Obasanjo granted amnesty to 80 government soldiers who fought in the Biafran conflict on the side of the rebels between 1967 and 1970. Some 215 individuals were killed in violence in Kaduna and Abuja on November 20-23, 2002. Some 4,500 individuals were displaced in Kaduna. Some 25,000 Nigerians were refugees (externally displaced) in 2002. Six individuals were killed in political violence in the state of Benue on February 19, 2003. Some 64 individuals were killed in northeastern Nigeria on February 24-28, 2003. Fulani tribesmen attacked the village of Dumne on February 27, 2003, resulting in the deaths of 50 individuals. The U.S.-based NGOs, National Democratic Institute (NDI) and The Carter Center (TCC), sent a pre-election assessment mission to Nigeria on March 16-21, 2003. Government police clashed with supporters of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) near the town of Owerri on March 29, 2003, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals. Legislative elections were held on April 12, 2003, and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) won 76 out of 109 seats in the House of Representatives, and the All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP) won 27 seats in the House of Representatives. President Olusegun Obasanjo was re-elected with 62 percent of the vote on April 19, 2003. The African Union (AU) sent 21 observers headed by Abdoulaye Bathily of Senegal to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from April 3 to April 22, 2003. The European Union (EU) sent seven election experts, 38 long-term observers, and 62 short-term observers headed by Max van den Berg of the Netherlands to monitor the elections from March 11 to May 20, 2003. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections, and issued its final report on the elections on April 29, 2003. The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent 50 observers from 12 countries to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from April 7 to April 21, 2003. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent fourteen observers and eight staff headed by Salim Ahmed Salim of Tanzania to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from April 8 to April 25, 2003. The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent 55 observers to monitor the legislative and presidential elections. Some 12,000 individuals fled as refugees as a result of ethnic/political violence in the Nigerian Delta region, including the town of Warri, in May 2003. Some 100 individuals were killed in ethnic violence in the town of Warri on August 15-19, 2003. Some 78 individuals were killed in religious violence in Yelwa on February 4, 2004. Some 630 individuals were killed in religious violence in Yelwa on May 2-4, 2004. President Olusegun Obasanjo declared a state-of-emergency in the state of Plateau on May 18, 2004. On May 9, 2005, government authorities charged some 80 members of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) with holding an illegal “secessionist rally” in southeastern Nigeria. On July 6, 2005, government authorities dropped charged against 53 Nigerian “footballers” (soccer players) who were arrested for playing in a soccer tournament organized by the banned Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB). Ralph Uwazuruike, leader of MASSOB, was arrested by government police on October 27, 2005. Ralph Uwazuruike, leader of MASSOB, and six supporters were charged with treason by government authorities in Abuja on November 8, 2005. Government police and ethnic-Ibo supporters of MASSOB clashed in Onitsha in southeast Nigeria on December 5-6, 2005, resulting in the deaths of at least three individuals.

Crisis Phase (January 24, 2006-present): Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) militants attacked the offices of an oil company in Port Harcourt on January 24, 2006, resulting in the deaths of seven government policemen and two civilians. More than 30 Christians were killed during protests by Muslims in the state of Borno on February 18, 2006. At least 80 individuals, mostly Muslims, were killed in anti-Muslim riots in the town of Onitsha on February 21-22, 2006. MEND militants exploded a car bomb near a military barracks in Port Harcourt on April 19, 2006, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. MEND militants killed one individual, a U.S.-based oil company executive, in Port Harcourt on May 10, 2006. MEND militants killed six government policemen in Port Harcourt on May 14, 2006. Government troops clashed with MEND militants in the Niger Delta region on June 6, 2006, resulting in the deaths of at least five government soldiers and one militant. Government troops killed ten MEND militants in the Niger Delta region on August 20, 2006. MEND militants killed ten government soldiers in the Niger Delta region on October 2, 2006. Government troops clashed with MEND militants in the Niger Delta region on October 4, 2006, resulting in the deaths of nine government soldiers. Government police killed two protesters in Jos on October 13, 2006. Governor Ayo Fayose of the state of Ekiti was impeached on corruption charges by the state assembly on October 16, 2006. On October 19, 2006, President Olusegun Obasanjo declared a state-of-emergency in the state of Ekiti after suggesting that the impeachment of Governor Ayo Fayose was “a clear case of usurpation of power” by the state assembly. One government soldiers was killed by MEND militants in the Niger Delta region on November 22, 2006. MEND militants killed three security guards in Obagi in the Niger Delta region on December 21, 2006. Some 13,000 Nigerians were refugees (externally displaced) in 2006. Gunmen killed 12 individuals, including four local chiefs, on a boat traveling to the village of Kula in the Niger Delta region on January 16, 2007. Gunmen killed two oil workers on a vessel near Bonny Island in the Niger Delta region on January 16, 2007. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent a six member (pre-election) fact-finding mission led by Sir Dawda Jawara of Gambia to Nigeria on February 10-27, 2007. MEND militants killed one government soldier in the Niger Delta region on March 4, 2007. Elections for state governors and assemblies were held on April 14, 2007. Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Kano on April 17-18, 2007, resulting in the deaths of some 25 militants. Legislative elections were held on April 21, 2007, and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) won 260 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives. The All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP) won 62 seats in the House of Representatives. Umaru Yar’Adua of the PDP was elected president with 70 percent of the vote on April 21, 2007, and he was inaugurated as president on May 29, 2007. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 200 observers from 29 countries led by Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara of Gambia to monitor the governorship, state assembly, legislative, and presidential elections from April 8 to April 23, 2007. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent eleven observers led by Joseph Warioba on Tanzania to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from April 10 to April 27, 2007. The European Union (EU) sent eleven election experts, 66 long-term observers, and 60 short-term observers from 23 countries led by Max van den Berg of the Netherlands to monitor the legislative and presidential elections. The U.S.-based NGO, National Democratic Institute (NDI), sent 61 observers (long-term and short-term) from 16 countries to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from March 15 to April 23, 2007. The U.S.-based NGO, International Republican Institute (IRI), sent 59 observers to monitor the legislative and presidential elections. At least 200 individuals were killed in election-related violence. MEND militants killed two government policemen in Port Harcourt on April 27, 2007. MEND militants attacked Chevron facilities in the state of Bayelsa on May 1, 2007, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals. Umaru Yar’Adua was inaugurated as president on May 29, 2007. MEND militants declared a unilateral ceasefire on June 2, 2007. Government troops killed eight MEND militants in the state of Bayelsa on June 13, 2007. Government troops clashed with MEND militants on the Ogboinbiri oil platform in the Niger Delta region on June 21, 2007, resulting in the deaths of 12 militants, two civilians, and one government soldier. MEND militants attacked two boats in the Niger Delta region near Port Harcourt on August 3, 2007, resulting in the deaths of three individuals. MEND militants ended their unilateral cessation of military hostilities on September 24, 2007. Government naval personnel clashed with MEND militants in the Niger Delta region on October 31, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least two individuals. Six individuals were killed in local election-related violence in the state of Kano on November 19, 2007. Some 14,000 Nigerians were refugees (externally displaced) in 2007. Government police clashed with Niger Delta militants in Port Harcourt on January 1, 2008, resulting in the deaths of four government policemen, six militants, and three civilians. MEND militants declared a unilateral ceasefire on June 24, 2008. MEND militants ended their unilateral ceasefire on July 12, 2008. MEND militants declared a unilateral ceasefire on September 21, 2008. Some 381 individuals were killed and some 10,000 individuals were displaced as a result of religious violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on November 28-29, 2008. Some 14,000 Nigerians were refugees (externally displaced) in 2008. MEND militants ended their unilateral ceasefire on January 30, 2009. Four individuals were killed in religious violence in Bauchi in the state of Plateau on February 21, 2009. Government troops launched a military offensive against MEND militants in the Niger Delta on May 15, 2009. On June 26, 2009, President Umaru Yar ‘Adua announced an amnesty plan for militants fighting against the government in the Niger Delta region. MEND militants killed five oil industry workers in Lagos on July 11-12, 2009. MEND militants declared a 60-day ceasefire on July 15, 2009. Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in northeastern Nigeria on July 26-30, 2009, resulting in the deaths of more than 1,000 individuals. Boko Haram, a Sunni Muslim group established by Mohammed Yusuf in Maiduguri in the state of Borno in 2002, supported the establishment of Sharia in Nigeria. Government troops captured and killed Mohammed Yusuf, founder and leader of Boko Haram, in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on July 30, 2009. The Nigerian Government granted amnesty to Niger Delta militants who agreed to lay down their arms between August 6 and October 4, 2009. MEND militants ended their 90-day ceasefire with the government on October 16, 2009, but announced a unilateral ceasefire with the government on October 25, 2009. MEND militants killed two government sailors on an oil tanker in the Niger Delta on November 24, 2009. Government troops clashed with members of the Islamic sect Kala Kato in the state of Bauchi on December 27-28, 2009, resulting in the deaths of at least 38 individuals. Some 200 individuals were killed and more than 20,000 individuals were displaced as a result of religious violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on January 17-20, 2010. MEND militants ended their unilateral ceasefire with the government on January 30, 2010. Vice-President Goodluck Jonathan was approved as Acting-President by the National Assembly on February 10, 2010. President Umaru Yar’Adua died of an illness on May 5, 2010, and Vice-President Goodluck Johnson was sworn in as Interim President on May 6, 2010. MEND militants bombed a Nigerian independence day parade in Abuja on October 1, 2010, resulting in the deaths of twelve individuals. Henry Okah, leader of the MEND militant group that claimed responsibility for the Abuja bombings, was arrested by South African police in Johannesburg on October 2, 2010. Boko Haram militants attacked a government police station in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on October 11, 2010. Boko Haram militants killed some 80 individuals in bombings in Jos in the state of Plateau on December 24, 2010. Six individuals were killed in attacks on churches in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on December 24, 2010. On December 27, 2010, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the “deplorable acts of violence” in Nigeria. Boko Haram militants killed three government police officers and two civilians in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on December 29, 2010. At least four individuals were killed in a bombing in Abuja on December 31, 2010. Some 18 individuals were killed in religious violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on January 7-10, 2011. Another 13 individuals were killed in religious violence near Jos on January 11, 2011. Eleven individuals were killed in a stampede at a political rally in Port Harcourt on February 12, 2011. Three individuals were killed in a bombing at a political rally near Abuja on March 3, 2011. Six individuals were killed in a bombing of an office of Nigeria’s election commission in Suleja on April 8, 2011. Legislative elections were held on April 9, 2011, and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) won 199 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives. The Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN) won 69 seats in the House of Representatives. Goodluck Jonathan of the PDP was elected president with 59 percent of the vote on April 16, 2011. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 13 observers and ten staff members led by Festus Gontebanye Mogae of Botswana to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from March 25 to April 18, 2011. The African Union (AU) sent 40 observers led by Ahmed Issack Hassan from Kenya and former President John Agyekum Kufor of Ghana to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from March 27 to April 18, 2011. The European Union (EU) sent nine election experts, 52 long-term observers, and 60 short-term observers from 29 countries led by Alojz Peterle of Slovenia to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from March 1 to May 21, 2011. The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent 12 long-term observers and 52 short-term observers from 23 countries led by Joseph Clark from Canada to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from January to May 22, 2011. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 300 observers led by Amos Claudius Sawyer of Liberia to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from April 12 to April 17, 2011. The Congress for Progressive Change (CPC) claimed fraud in the presidential election. At least three individuals were killed in bombings in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on April 25, 2011. At least 16 individuals were killed in an attack on a predominantly Christian village in the state of Bauchi on May 7, 2011. Some 800 individuals were killed, and some 65,000 individuals were displaced following the April 2011 elections. Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as president on May 29, 2011. At least 14 individuals were killed in Boko Haram bombings near the Shadawanka military barracks in the state of Bauchi on May 29, 2011. Eight individuals were killed in a Boko Haram suicide bombing at the police headquarters in Abuja on June 16, 2011. Boko Haram militants attacked a police station and bank in the town of Kankara in the state of Katsina on June 20, 2011, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals. Boko Haram militants killed at least ten individuals in a series of attacks in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on July 3, 2011. Government troops killed eleven Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on July 9, 2011. Boko Haram militants killed three government policemen and one civilian in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on August 19, 2011. Boko Haram militants attacked several police stations and banks in the town of Gombi in the state of Adamawa on August 25, 2011, resulting in the deaths of at least 12 individuals. The UN compound in Abuja was damaged by a suicide car bombing by Boko Haram militants on August 26, 2011, resulting in the deaths of 23 individuals. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the suicide car bombing. More than 40 individuals were killed in religious violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on September 1, 2011. At least 27 individuals were killed in religious violence in the villages of Babale, Dabwak, and Tatu in the state of Plateau on September 3-4, 2011. At least 19 individuals were killed during an attack on the village of Lingyado in the state of Zamfara on October 2, 2011. As of October 2011, there were some 370,000 internally-displaced persons (IDPs) in Nigeria, including some 74,000 IDPs in camps. Boko Haram militants attacked the police headquarter, several government buildings, two banks, and several churches in Damaturu in northern Nigeria on November 4, 2011, resulting in the deaths of more than 100 individuals. Boko Haram militants attacked a military school near Kano on December 15, 2011, resulting in the deaths of four military officers. Government policemen clashed with Boko Haram militants in Kano on December 17, 2011, resulting in the deaths of three policemen and four militants. Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Damaturu, Maiduguri, and other towns in northern Nigeria on December 22-23, 2011, resulting in the deaths of at least 68 individuals. At least 42 individuals were killed in church bombings by Boko Haram militants in Madalla, Jos, Gadaka, and Damaturu on December 25, 2011. Representatives of the African Union (AU), European Union (EU), and Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) condemned the church bombings. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and the UN Security Council condemned the church bombings. Representatives of the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Qatar, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, U.S, and Zambia condemned the church bombings. At least 50 individuals were killed in ethnic violence in the state of Ebonyi on December 31, 2011. President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in the states of Yobe, Borno, Plateau, and Niger on December 31, 2011. Some 90,000 Nigerians were displaced in Damaturu in December 2011. Boko Haram militants attacked the town hall in Mubi in the state of Adamawa on January 5, 2012, resulting in the deaths of at least 18, mostly ethnic Ibo, individuals. Eight individuals were killed in Yola in the state of Adamawa on January 5, 2012. At least five individuals were killed at a mosque and Islamic school in the city of Benin on January 9, 2012. Boko Haram militants killed eight individuals, including four policemen, in the town of Potiskum in the state of Yobe on January 9, 2012. Boko Haram militants attacked police stations and government buildings in Kano on January 20, 2012, resulting in the deaths of some 150 civilians and 32 government policemen. The U.S. government condemned Boko Haram on January 24, 2012. Government troops killed eleven Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on January 28, 2012. The military headquarters in Kaduna was damaged by a suicide bombing by Boko Haram on February 8, 2012. Government troops killed eight Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on February 20, 2012. Boko Haram militants attacked a government police station and bank in the town of Jama’are on February 27, 2012, resulting in the deaths of three policemen. Boko Haram militants killed at least 20 individuals at churches in northern Nigeria on April 29, 2012. Boko Haram militants attacked a police convoy in the town of Jalingo in the state of Taraba on April 30, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 11 individuals. Boko Haram militants killed at least nine individuals in a suicide attack on a church in the state of Bauchi on June 3, 2012. Government troops killed 16 suspected Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on June 5-6, 2012. Boko Haram militants killed at least five individuals in a suicide bombing of the police headquarters in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on June 8, 2012. Some 50 individuals were killed by Boko Haram militants in suicide bombings of churches in the state of Kaduna on June 17, 2012. Boko Haram militants killed some 130 individuals in the state of Plateau on June 17, 2012. At least five individuals were killed in a suicide bombing of a mosque in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on July 13, 2012. MEND militants killed two government soldiers in a clash in the Niger Delta region on August 4, 2012. Boko Haram militants killed at least six government soldiers and two civilians in a suicide bombing of a military convoy in Damaturu in the state of Yobe on August 5, 2012. Boko Haram militants killed 19 individuals at a church in Okene in the state of Kogi on August 6, 2012. Boko Haram militants killed two government soldiers near a mosque in Okene in the state of Kogi on August 7, 2012. Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on August 12, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 20 militants and one government soldier. Government troops killed seven suspected Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on September 7, 2012. Government troops killed at least 35 suspected Boko Haram militants in the states of Adamawa and Yobe on September 24, 2012. Boko Haram militants killed more than 25 individuals in the town of Mubi on October 3, 2012. Government troops killed some 30 suspected Boko Haram militants in Damaturu on October 7, 2012. Boko Haram militants killed three policemen during an attack on a government police station near Damaturu on November 9, 2012. Eleven individuals were killed in a suicide bombing of a military barracks by Boko Haram militants in Jaji in the state of Kaduna on November 25, 2012. Boko Haram militants attacked a government police station in Abuja on November 26, 2012, resulting in the deaths of two policemen. Boko Haram militants killed ten individuals in the village of Chibok and five government policemen in Gamboru Ngala in the state of Borno on December 1-2, 2012. Boko Haram militants killed six individuals at a church in the village of Peri in the state of Yobe on December 24, 2012. Boko Haram militants killed 15 individuals near Maiduguri in the state of Borno on December 28, 2012. Some 600 individuals were killed by Boko Haram militants in 2012. Boko Haram militants attacked a government police station and government office in the town of Song in the state of Adamawa on January 2, 2013. Government troops clashed with MEND militants in the state of Ogun on January 9, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 40 civilians, seven militants, and three government soldiers. Boko Haram militants killed 23 individuals in Damboa in the state of Borno and Kano on January 21-22, 2013. Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in the state of Borno on February 1, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 17 militants and one government soldier. MEND militants attacked an oil vessel near Bonny Island in the Niger Delta region on February 4, 2013, resulting in the death of one government sailor. MEND militants attacked an oil barge in the Niger Delta on February 5, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four foreign oil workers. Four opposition political parties merged to form the All Progressive Congress (APC) on February 6, 2013. Government troops killed 20 Boko Haram militants in the village of Monguno in the state of Borno on March 3, 2013. Boko Haram militants killed at least 22 individuals in a suicide car bombing of a bus station in Kano on March 18, 2013. Henry Okah, former leader of the MEND militant group, was sentenced to 24 years in prison by a South African court on March 26, 2013. Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Kano on March 31, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 14 militants and one government soldier. MEND militants killed twelve government policemen in the state of Bayelsa on April 6, 2013. Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in the town of Baga on April 19-20, 2013, resulting in the deaths of dozens of individuals. Boko Haram militants attacked military barracks, a prison, and a police station in the town of Bama in the state of Borno on May 7, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 22 policemen, 14 prison guards, two government soldiers, four civilians, and 13 militants. Boko Haram militants killed 53 individuals in the state of Benue on May 14, 2013. President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency and government troops launched a military offensive against Boko Haram militant camps in the states of Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa on May 14, 2013. Some 42 individuals, including at least 27 students, were killed by Boko Haram militants during an attack against a boarding school in the town of Potiskum in the state of Yobe on July 6, 2013. Boko Haram militants attacked a government police station and bank in the town of Karim Lamido in the state of Taraba on July 6, 2013, resulting in the deaths of three policemen. Boko Haram militants killed 20 individuals in the town of Baga in the state of Borno on July 27, 2013. Boko Haram militants killed at least 12 individuals in Kano on July 29, 2013. Boko Haram militants attacked a military base in the town of Malam Fatori and a police station in the town of Bama in the state of Borno on August 4-5, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 32 militants, two government soldiers, and one government policeman. Boko Haram militants killed 44 individuals at a mosque in the town of Konduga and 12 individuals in the village of Ngom in the state of Borno on August 11, 2013. Boko Haram militants killed 11 individuals in the town of Damboa in the state of Borno on August 15, 2013. Boko Haram militants killed 44 individuals in the village of Demba in the state of Borno on August 19, 2013. Boko Haram militants killed at least 20 pro-government militiamen in the town of Bama and the village of Damasak in the state of Borno on August 25-26, 2013. Boko Haram militants killed at least 24 pro-government militiamen near the town of Monguno in the state of Borno on August 30, 2013. Boko Haram militants killed 15 individuals in the town of Gajiram and five individuals in the village of Bulabilin Ngaura in the state of Borno on September 4-5, 2013. Government troops killed some 50 Boko Haram militants in the state of Borno on September 6, 2013. Boko Haram militants clashed with members of a pro-government militia in the town of Benisheik in the state of Borno on September 8, 2013. Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants near Maiduguri in the state of Borno on September 10-12, 2013, resulting in the deaths of several dozen militants and at least 16 government soldiers. Boko Haram militants killed at least 143 individuals on the road between Maiduguri and Damaturu in the state of Borno on September 17, 2013. Boko Haram militants killed at least 16 individuals on the road between Maiduguri and Damboa in the state of Borno on September 19, 2013. Government security forces clashed with suspected Boko Haram militants in Abuja on September 20, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least seven individuals. Boko Haram militants killed at least 41 students at an agriculture college in Gujba in the state of Yobe on September 28, 2013. Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Damboa in the state of Borno on October 5, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 20 individuals. Boko Haram militants killed 19 individuals near the town of Logumani in the state of Borno on October 20, 2013. Government troops killed 74 suspected Boko Haram militants in the villages of Galangi and Lawanti in the state of Borno on October 24, 2013. Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Damaturu in the state of Yobe on October 24-25, 2013, resulting in the deaths of dozens of individuals. Boko Haram militants killed 27 individuals in the village of Gulumba in the state of Borno on October 31, 2013. Boko Haram militants killed 13 individuals in the village of T-Junction on the state of Borno on November 2, 2013. Boko Haram militants attacked a wedding convoy near the town of Bama in the state of Borno on November 2, 2013, resulting in the deaths of more than 30 individuals. Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Kano on November 9, 2013, resulting in the deaths of five militants and two government soldiers. On November 13, 2013, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) stated that some 40,000 Nigerians had been displaced to Niger during the recent Nigerian military offensive against Boko Haram militants. On November 13, 2013, the U.S. government designated Nigeria’s Boko Haram and Ansaru militant groups as “foreign terrorist organizations.” Boko Haram militants killed 12 individuals in the village of Sandiya in the state of Borno on November 23, 2013. Government troops killed more than 50 Boko Haram militants in the Gwoza hills in the state of Borno on November 28, 2013. Boko Haram militants attacked several military bases in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on December 2, 2013, resulting in the deaths of several individuals. Boko Haram militants attacked a military barracks in the town of Bama in the state of Borno on December 20, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 20 government soldiers. Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants near the border with Cameroon in the state of Borno on December 23, 2013, resulting in the deaths of some 50 militants, 15 government soldiers, and five civilians. Government troops killed some 56 Boko Haram militants in Alafa forest in the state of Borno on December 28, 2013. Boko Haram militants killed eight individuals in the village of Tashan Alade in the state of Borno on December 29, 2013. Some 470,000 Nigerians were displaced, mostly as a result of the Boko Haram insurgency, in 2013 (more than three million Nigerians overall were internally-displaced at the end of 2013). At least 17 individuals were killed in a Boko Haram car bombing in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on January 14, 2014. Boko Haram militants killed 52 individuals in the village of Kawuri in the state of Borno and 22 individuals in the village of Waga Chakawa in the state of Adamawa on January 26, 2014. Boko Haram militants killed at least 39 individuals in the town of Konduga in the state of Borno on February 11, 2014. Boko Haram militants killed some 106 individuals in the village of Izghe in the state of Borno on February 15, 2014. Boko Haram militants killed at least 29 students at a boarding school in Buni Yadi in the state of Yobe on February 24-25, 2014. Boko Haram militants attacked the town of Michika and the villages of Shuwa and Kirchinga in the state of Adamawa on February 26, 2014, resulting in the deaths of 37 civilians and six militants. A coalition of west African troops from Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, and Chad, known as the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF), launched a joint military offensive against Boko Haram militants in northeastern Nigeria and neighboring countries from January 23 to December 24, 2015, resulting in the deaths of more than 1,000 militants, civilians, and west African soldiers. Chadian troops attacked Boko Haram militants in Gamboru on February 4, 2015, resulting in the deaths of some 200 militants and nine Chadian soldiers. Boko Haram militants pledged allegiance to the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) on March 7, 2015. Government troops recaptured the towns of Bama and Gwoza from Boko Haram militants on March 16 and March 27, 2015. Boko Haram militants attacked an island in Lake Chad on April 25, 2015, resulting in the deaths of 46 Nigerian soldiers and 28 civilians. Muhammadu Buhari of the All Progressives Congress (APC) was elected president with 54 percent of the vote on March 28-29, 2015, and he was sworn in as president of Nigeria on May 29, 2015. The APC won 225 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives. The People’s Democratic Party (PDP) won 125 seats in the House of Representatives. Boko Haram militants killed 41 individuals in elected-related violence. The African Union (AU) sent 84 long-term and short-term observers led by former President Amos Sawyer of Liberia to monitor the presidential and legislative elections. The Commonwealth of Nations sent ten short-term observers led by former President Bakili Muluzi of Malawi to monitor the presidential and legislative elections on March 21-30, 2015. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 12 long-term and more than 225 short-term observers led by former President John Kufuor of Ghana to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from January 23 to March 29, 2015. The European Union (EU) sent 30 long-term observers and more than 60 short-term observers from 27 countries led by Santiago Fisas Ayxela from Spain to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from January 12 to March 30, 2015. On January 29, 2015, the African Union (AU) Peace and Security Council (PSC) authorized the deployment of the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) consisting of between 8,500 and 10,000 troops from the Benin (150 soldiers), Cameroon (2,250), Chad (3,000 soldiers), Niger (1,000 soldiers), and Nigeria (3,000 soldiers) to combat Boko Haram militants in the Lake Chad Basin. The mandate of the MNJTF, which was originally established by the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) on March 21, 1994, was to provide security for areas affected by the activities of the Boko Haram and other terrorist groups, facilitate the implementation of stabilization programs such as the return of internally-displaced persons and refugees, and facilitate humanitarian assistance to affected populations. Major-General Tukur Yusuf Buratai of Nigeria was appointed as the first commander of the MNJTF in May 2015. Nigerian governor elections were held on April 11, 2015. The EU sent 58 observers from 26 countries to monitor the governor elections. At least 30 individuals were killed in election-related violence on April 11, 2015. Government troops and Boko Haram militants clashed near Buni Yadi in the state of Yobe on January 7-8, 2017, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers and more than 15 militants. Nigerian government aircraft accidentally bombed a refugee camp in the state of Borno on January 17, 2017, resulting in the deaths of 115 individuals. Six individuals were killed in suicide bombings in Maiduguri on March 18, 2017. Government troops launched a military offensive against Boko Haram militants on April 2, 2017. Boko Haram militants killed four civilians near Maiduguri on December 25, 2017. Boko Haram militants killed four individuals near Maiduguri in the state of Borno on April 26, 2018. Boko Haram militants ambushed and killed five government soldiers near the town of Gwoza in the state of Borno on May 31, 2018. Boko Haram militants killed nine government soldiers in the town of Gajiram in the state of Borno on June 18, 2018. Boko Haram militants attacked government soldiers near the town of Geidam in the state of Yobe on Jul 20, 2018, resulting in the deaths of 31 soldiers. Boko Haram militants attacked government troops in the village of Metele in the state of Borno on November 22, 2018, resulting in the deaths of some 70 soldiers. Government troops clashed with Islamic State’s West Africa Province (ISWAP) militants led by Abu Musab al-Barnawi in northeastern Nigeria on July 15, 2018. ISWAP militants captured the town of Gudumbali in the state of Borno on September 8, 2018. On October 31, 2018, Boko Haram militants killed at least 15 individuals in several villages in the state of Borno, including Kofa, Dalori, and Bulabrin. On November 18, 2018, ISWAP militants attacked a government militant base in the town of Metele, resulting in the deaths of more than 100 soldiers. President Muhammadu Buhari and the main opposition political party presidential candidates signed a National Peace Accord in Abuja on February 13, 2019, promising to call on their supporters “to refrain from violence or any acts that may in any way jeopardize our collective vision of a free, fair and credible election”. President Muhammadu Buhari was re-elected with 56 percent of the vote on February 23, 2019. The All Progressives Congress (APC) won 217 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives, and the People’s Democratic Party won 115 seats in the House of Representatives. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 30 long-term observers and 170 short-term observers led by former President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf of Liberia to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from January 13 to February 24, 2019. The African Union (AU) sent 50 short-term observers led by former Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn Boshe of Ethiopia to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from February 9 to February 28, 2019. The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) deploy observers led by former President Jakaya Kikwete to monitor presidential and legislative elections from February 8 to February 23, 2019. The European Union (EU) sent 40 long-term and 91 long-term observers from 29 countries to monitor the presidential, legislative, and governor elections from January 21 to March 25, 2019. The Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent 16 short-term observers led by former President Rupiah Banda of Zambia to monitor presidential and legislative elections from February 6 to February 26, 2019. The International Republican Institute (IRI) and the National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent 40 short-term observers from 19 countries to jointly monitor the presidential and legislative elections from February 11 to February 25, 2019. Thirty individuals were killed in Boko Haram suicide bombings in Konduga in the state of Borno on June 16, 2019. On July 4, 2019, Boko Haram militants ambushed and killed at least five government soldiers in Damboa in the state of Borno. Boko Haram militants killed at least 65 individuals in the town of Nganzai in the state of Borno on July 27, 2019. Government troops clashes with Boko Haram militants near Maiduguri in the state of Borno on August 15, 2019, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers. Boko Haram militants killed eight individuals in the village of Balumri in the state of Borno on August 31, 2019. Boko Haram militants killed 19 Fulani cattle herders near Ngala on December 14, 2019. Boko Haram militants killed seven individuals during an attack near Chibok in state of Borno on December 24, 2019. As of December 31, 2019, more than 50,000 individuals have been killed and 2.4 million individuals have been displaced as a result of the Boko Haram insurgency since July 2009. Boko Haram militants bombed a market in Gamboru in the state of Borno on January 6, 2020, resulting in the deaths of at least 38 individuals. Boko Haram militants killed at least 30 individuals in the town of Auno in the state of Borno on February 9, 2020. On April 6, 2020, MNJTF troops attacked Boko Haram militants in the Lake Chad region, resulting in the deaths of 19 militants. Boko Haram militants killed at least 69 individuals in the village of Faduma Koloram in the state of Borno on June 9, 2020. Boko Haram militants killed at least 20 government soldiers and 40 civilians in Monguno and Nganzai on June 13, 2020. On June 29, 2020, Boko Haram militants ambushed and killed at least nine government soldiers near Damboa in the state of Borno. On July 7, 2020, ISWAP militants ambushed and killed more than 30 government soldiers in the village of Bulabulin in the state of Borno. Three individuals were killed in explosions in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on July 30, 2020. ISWAP militants claimed to have killed 20 government soldiers in the town of Magumeri and Baga on September 1-3, 2020. On September 15, 2020, the U.S. Department of State imposed diplomatic sanctions (visa restrictions) against Nigerians accused of undermining democratic principles in the states of Edo and Ondo. On September 20, 2020, Boko Haram militants ambushed a convoy of government troops near Damboa in the state of Borno, resulting in the death of seven government soldiers.

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Selected Bibliography

Akuchu, Gemuh E. 1977. “Peace Settlement of Disputes: Unsolved Problem for the OAU.” Africa Today 24 (October-December): 39-58.

Anber, Paul. 1967. “Modernisation and Political Disintegration: Nigeria and the Obos,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 5 (2): pp. 163-179.

Amate, C. O. C. 1986. “Intervening in Africa’s Civil Wars.” Inside the OAU: Pan-Africanism in Practice. London: Macmillan Press, 431-458.

Edgell, Alvin G. 1975. “Nigeria/Biafra.” In Morris Davis, editor. Civil Wars and the Politics of International Relief. New York: Praeger Publishers, 50-73.

Phillips, Claude S. 1980. “Nigeria’s New Political Institutions, 1975-1979,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 18 (1), pp. 1-22.

Wiseberg, Laurie S. 1972. “Christian Churches and the Nigerian Civil War.” Journal of African Studies 2 (Fall): 297-331.

Woronoff, Jon. 1970. “The Nigerian Civil War.” In Organizing African Unity. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, Inc, 395-434.

Zukerman, Morris E. 1970. “Nigerian Crisis: Economic Impact on the North,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 8 (1), pp. 37-54.


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